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Cresterea zmeurei

http://www.focusimm.ro/documente/documente/documentatii/Cresterea%20zmeurei/Cresterea%20zmeurei.pdf

Rubus idaeus L.
American red raspberry
RUID

Summary

Duration

Perennial

Growth Habit

Subshrub

Native Status

L48 (NI), AK (NI), CAN (NI), SPM (N)

Federal T/E Status

National Wetland Indicator

UPL, FAC

 

Morphology/Physiology

Active Growth Period

Spring

After Harvest Regrowth Rate

None

Bloat

None

C:N Ratio

Medium

Coppice Potential

No

Fall Conspicuous

No

Fire Resistant

Yes

Flower Color

White

Flower Conspicuous

No

Foliage Color

Green

Foliage Porosity Summer

Moderate

Foliage Porosity Winter

Porous

Foliage Texture

Coarse

Fruit/Seed Color

Red

Fruit/Seed Conspicuous

Yes

Growth Form

Thicket Forming

Growth Rate

Moderate

Height at 20 Years, Maximum (feet)

9

Height, Mature (feet)

6.00

Known Allelopath

No

Leaf Retention

No

Lifespan

Short

Low Growing Grass

No

Nitrogen Fixation

Resprout Ability

Yes

Shape and Orientation

Erect

Toxicity

Slight

 

Growth Requirements

Adapted to Coarse Textured Soils

No

Adapted to Fine Textured Soils

No

Adapted to Medium Textured Soils

No

Anaerobic Tolerance

CaCO3 Tolerance

Cold Stratification Required

Yes

Drought Tolerance

High

Fertility Requirement

Medium

Fire Tolerance

Medium

Frost Free Days, Minimum

Hedge Tolerance

Low

Moisture Use

pH, Minimum

6.00

pH, Maximum

6.50

Planting Density per Acre, Minimum

320

Planting Density per Acre, Maximum

1280

Precipitation, Minimum

12

Precipitation, Maximum

24

Root Depth, Minimum (inches)

12

Salinity Tolerance

None

Shade Tolerance

Tolerant

Temperature, Minimum (°F)

-10

 

Reproduction

Bloom Period

Spring

Commercial Availability

Routinely Available

Fruit/Seed Abundance

Fruit/Seed Period Begin

Summer

Fruit/Seed Period End

Summer

Fruit/Seed Persistence

Yes

Propagated by Bare Root

Yes

Propagated by Bulb

No

Propagated by Container

Yes

Propagated by Corm

No

Propagated by Cuttings

Yes

Propagated by Seed

Yes

Propagated by Sod

No

Propagated by Sprigs

Yes

Propagated by Tubers

No

Seed per Pound

270000

Seed Spread Rate

Seedling Vigor

High

Small Grain

No

Vegetative Spread Rate

 

Suitability/Use

Berry/Nut/Seed Product

Yes

Christmas Tree Product

No

Fodder Product

No

Fuelwood Product

None

Lumber Product

No

Naval Store Product

No

Nursery Stock Product

Yes

Palatable Browse Animal

Low

Palatable Graze Animal

Low

Palatable Human

Yes

Post Product

No

Protein Potential

Pulpwood Product

No

Veneer Product

No

Ever-bearing and Summer-bearing Raspberries

Raspberry plants can be divided into two categories based the season in which they produce fruit. Ever-bearing varieties produce fruit in the summer as well as the fall, while summer-bearing varieties only produce fruit in the summer. Raspberry plants can also be divided into categories by color; varieties may produce reddish fruit or fruit in shades of yellow/gold, purple, and black.

Popular Raspberry Varieties

Popular varieties include Amity, Latham, Meeker, Willamette, Fall Gold, Brandywine, and Black Hawk, as well as many others. Amity raspberries are ever-bearing with medium to large dark red berries which are very firm. They feature a distinctive raspberry flavor which is excellent for pies and jams. Developed in Minnesota, Latham raspberries are summer-bearing, with round, deep-red berries ranging in size from small to large. Meeker raspberries are also summer-bearing, producing a large deep-red thimble-shaped berry with high sugar content. Summer-bearing Willamette raspberries produce a firm, conical, medium to large, dark-red berry and have a slightly tart taste due to lower sugar content. Fall Gold raspberry plants are ever-bearing, producing golden-colored medium to large conical berries that are extremely sweet. Originating in New York, Brandywine raspberries are summer-bearing, with large purple fruit. Black Hawk is a black medium-large raspberry originating in Iowa and peaking in mid-summer.

Commercial availability of raspberries depends largely on location and growing season, but most varieties freeze well and are a treat to be enjoyed no matter what the season!

Some knowledge of the different raspberry varieties and cultivars can aid gardeners and farmers in growing raspberries successfully.  The tables below highlight the characteristics of many commonly-grown raspberries, and can help you determine which varieties are suited to your local climate and soil conditions.

Red Raspberries

Variety

Season

Fruit Size

Origin

USDA Zone

Algonquin

Mid to Late Summer

Small-Medium

British Columbia

5 - 8

Amity

Ever-bearing

Medium

Oregon

3 - 8

August Red

Ever-bearing

Medium

New Hampshire

3 - ?

Autumn Bliss

Ever-bearing

Large

England

3 - ?

Autumn Britten

Ever-bearing

Large

England

4 - ?

Boyne

Early Summer

Small-Medium

Manitoba

3 - 7

Canby

Mid-Summer

Large

Oregon

5 - 8

Caroline

Ever-bearing

Large

Maryland

4 - 8

Chilcotin

Mid to Late Summer

Large

 

 

Citadel

Mid Summer

Large

Maryland

3 - 8

Comet

Early to Mid Summer

Medium

Canada

 

Dinkum

Ever-bearing

Large

Australia

3 - 11

Dorman Red

Mid June

Large

 

6 - 10

Double Delight

Early Fall

 

 

3 - ?

Durham

Fall

Medium

 

4 - 7

Encore

Late Summer

Large

New York

4 - ?

Fallred

Ever-bearing

Medium

New Hampshire

4 - 7

Festival

Mid-Summer

Medium

Ontario

3 - ?

Gatineau

Very Early Summer

Medium

Ontario

 

Haida

Late Summer

Medium

 

 

Heritage

Ever-bearing

Medium-Large

New York

4 - 8

Hilton

Mid-Summer

Large

New York

 

Indian Summer

Fall

Large

 

4 - 7

K81-6

Late Summer

Large

Nova Scotia

 

Killarney

Early to Mid Summer

Medium

Manitoba

4 - 6

Latham

?

Small

Minnesota

3 - 8

Lauren

Mid Summer

Large

Maryland

4 - ?

Meeker

Mid Summer

Medium-Large

Washington State

4 - 8

Newburgh

Mid Summer

Medium

New York

 

Nova

Ever-bearing

Medium-Large

Nova Scotia

3 - 8

Polana

Mid-Fall

Large

Poland

4 - ?

Prelude

Very Early Summer

Medium

New York

4 - ?

Puyallup

Mid-Summer

Large

 

4 - 8

Qualicum

Mid-Summer

Large

 

 

Red River

Early Fall

Medium

 

3 - ?

Redwing

Ever-bearing

Large

Minnesota

4 - 8

Regency

Mid-Summer

Medium

 

 

Reveille

Early Summer

Medium-Large

Maryland

4 - 8

Taylor

Late Summer

Medium-Large

New York

4 - 8

Titan

Mid to Late Summer

Very Large

New York

 

Tulameen

Very Late Summer

Large

 

6 - 9

Willamette

Mid-Summer

Medium

Oregon

5 - 8

Yellow/Gold Raspberries

Variety

Season

Fruit Size

Origin

USDA Zone

Fallgold

Ever-bearing

Medium

 

5 - 9

Golden Harvest

Ever-bearing

Large

New York

 

Goldie

Ever-Bearing

Large

New York

5 - 7

Kiwi Gold

Ever-Bearing

 

New Zealand

4 - 8

Purple Raspberries

Variety

Season

Fruit Size

Origin

USDA Zone

Brandywine

Late Summer

Large

New York

3 - ?

Royalty

Late

Large

New York

4 - 7

Success

Mid to Late Summer

Small

New Hampshire

 

Black Raspberries

Variety

Season

Fruit Size

Origin

USDA Zone

Allen

Early to Mid Summer

Large

New York

5 - 8

Black Hawk

Mid Summer

Medium-Large

Iowa

5 - 9

Bristol

 

Medium-Large

New York

5 - 8

Cumberland

Mid to Late Summer

Large

Pennsylvania

5 - 9

Haut

Early

 

Maryland

5 - 8

Jewel

Early to Mid Summer

Medium-Large

New York

5 - 8

Munger

Mid Summer

Large

Ohio

 

black raspberriesblack raspberry plant stemblack raspberry cluster

–1–

Crop Profile for

Red Raspberries

in Washington

Production Facts

v Washington produces 59% of the raspberries grown in the United

States and over 10% of the raspberries grown worldwide (1).

v Washington is ranked first in the nation for raspberry production (2).

v From 1995 to 1997, Washington produced on average 53.2 million

pounds of red raspberries per year valued at $31.2 million per year (2).

v On average, from 1995 to 1997, raspberries were grown on 6900 acres

of farmland in Washington (2).

v Over this same period, average yield ranged from 6500 to 8900 pounds

per acre and average price ranged from 47 to 75 cents per pound (2).

v The total average cost to produce an acre of raspberries is $3500 (1).

v Fresh market sales account for less than 2% of total production (1).

Production Regions

The entire area of Washington State west of the Cascade mountains

is considered raspberry production area. However, Whatcom County produces

77% of the state total, followed by Skagit County (10%) and Clark and

Cowlitz counties combined (11%) (2). Whatcom County, 77%

Skagit County, 10%

Clark and

Cowlitz

Counties, 11%

–2–

Cultural Practices

Red raspberries are a biennial, summer bearing

crop. The root system is perennial and plants

are capable of living for

several years. Their growth

habit is to produce vegetative

primocanes the first year,

that then become flowering

and fruiting floricanes the

second year, which then die.

Each established field will

contain both primocanes and

floricanes at the time. Under

ideal soil conditions and

good cultural maintenance, a

planting may remain productive

for 10 years or more in

this region. The maritime

climate of western Washington,

combined with welldrained,

deep sandy loam

soils scattered throughout

the above regions makes

these areas ideal for longterm

commercial production

(3).

Although over 10 different

cultivars are grown

commercially, the Meeker variety now dominates

(80% of planted acres) due to several characteristics

which make it suitable for both the fresh and

processed markets. These include superior yield,

good color and fruit firmness, compatibility with

machine harvesting, vigorous

growth, and relatively

low susceptibility to

Phytophthora root rot compared

to other varieties.

The Willamette variety accounts

for 19% of total

acreage, with the balancing

acreage, 1% spread over

several varieties picked

mostly for fresh market

sales (1).

A raspberry field is

established by planting certified,

nursery grown rootstock. Plants are set 2 to

3 ft. apart in rows about 10 ft. apart. The first year

planting produces vegetative canes only

(primocanes). In the fall, these primocanes are

trained to a single trellis wire

about 5 ft. from the ground.

In mid-summer of the following

season, these overwintering

canes (now called

floricanes) will flower and

produce fruit. It is necessary

to bring in honeybees for the

6 week bloom period (mid-

May through late June) for

adequate pollination to occur.

A new flush of

primocanes begins to emerge

from the root crown area

every spring beginning in late

March. In order to maximize

yield, control cane growth,

and reduce fungal disease,

growers practice chemical

cane burning to suppress this

first flush of primocanes. A

second flush of primocanes

emerges in mid-April, growing

8 to 12 feet tall by

summer's end. Floricanes

are cut out each fall after harvest, and the remaining

primocanes are tied in bundles and secured to

the top trellis wire. This combination of

primocanes and floricanes are maintained in a

hedge type row, which allows for the machine har-

Above: A row of raspberries in early

June bloom period. Below: Primocane

bundles tied to trellis.

–3–

vesting operation. Only fruit

grown for the fresh market (<2%)

is harvested by hand. The harvest

period is intense and confined to a

six week period from late June

through early to mid-August. During

this period, fields are picked

on average, once every 2 to 3 days.

In some cases, where fruit is destined

for the high quality IQF

(Individually Quick Frozen) market,

fields are picked daily to maximize

quality and minimize the

potential for Botrytis fruit rot development.

Growers have several marketing options for

their fruit. The highest value markets are the fresh

and IQF markets. Intermediate in value is the processing

market, and at the low end is the juice market.

Prices paid to growers typically range from 30

to 40 cents per pound for juice grade up to well

over a dollar per pound for the IQF and fresh

markets. Superior fruit quality, in terms of fruit

shape, size, and freedom from disease or insect

contaminants, is a necessity, particularly in the mid

and higher end markets. Growers and processors

who deliver an inferior crop are likely to have the

crop rejected at the point of delivery and/or may

have difficulty contracting their fruit for the following

season. Raspberry products which are contaminated

with insects can usually be traced back

through the broker, processor and to the farm.

This places extreme pressure on raspberry growers

to deliver a disease and insect-free, quality product,

or else their livelihood

is at stake. In order to

meet these quality

requirements, a preharvest

"clean-up"

insecticide spray must

be applied to control

insect contaminants.

Without this application,

fruit on the harvesting

machine belts

would literally be crawling

with various worms,

weevils, spiders and aphids in numbers far greater

than could be hand-picked from the passing fruit.

Current machine technology and structure of the

fruit (hollow), require a rigorous removal of any

potential insect contaminant before harvest.

Raspberries require irrigation during the

bloom, harvest, and post-harvest periods in most

years depending on rainfall amounts and timing.

Most fields are irrigated with either drip tape,

which is buried in the soil along one edge of each

row, or overhead sprinkler irrigation. The recent

switch to drip irrigation is an added practice to

minimize the risk of foliar, fruit, and cane diseases

because these aerial plant parts are not wet as often

as with overhead sprinkler irrigation. Drip

irrigation

also reduces

the dispersal

of pathogens

with

watersplashed

spores.

Weed control

between

the

rows is

accomplished

largely by

routine

cultivation

during the

growing

season.

Fruit on harvest machine belt.

Top side view from the harvest machine, looking down

on picking rods, which shake the fruit from the row.

Back view of mechanical harvester.

–4–

Weed control within the rows is accomplished

using pre-emergent herbicides usually applied in

the spring and contact herbicides as needed.

Floricanes, cut from the trellis after harvest, are

chopped and disced back into the soil. This practice

adds organic matter and helps reduce cane

disease inoculum, by subjecting the overwintering

stages of cane diseases to microbial breakdown in

the soil. Planting into elevated ridges is becoming

quite widely practiced as a cultural method to reduce

infection from Phytophthora and other root

rotting organisms. Insect control prior to harvest

is critical in order to avoid contamination of fruit

by a myriad of pest and non-pest arthropods

which inhabit the raspberry canopy. Fungicides are

applied during the bloom period to control cane

and foliar diseases and help prevent Botrytis fruit

infection and subsequent fruit rot during harvest.

There has been a significant effort to develop

IPM strategies for raspberries. A manual

titled: "Integrated Pest Management for Raspberries Đ A

Guide for Sampling and Decision-Making for Key Raspberry

Pests in Northwest Washington" was recently

completed (June 1998) by Washington State University

(WSU) Cooperative Extension, Whatcom

County under an EPA 319 Grant (Nooksack Watershed

IPM Project). This manual was the culmination

of 3 years of work with cooperation from

raspberry growers, fieldmen, local community

leaders, and research and extension specialists. The

manual is designed to assist growers with pest

identification, scouting methods, record keeping,

and more knowledge-based decision-making. It is

being distributed during the fall and winter of

1998 to growers, private consultants, and research

and extension personnel throughout the raspberry

production area. This IPM project also spawned a

new cooperative effort between raspberry growers

and the WSU Vancouver Research and Extension

Center in the form of an on-farm research station

situated in the heart of the raspberry region

(Lynden, WA). This "Satellite Station" is managed

by WSU research personnel and has been invaluable

in facilitating on-farm research directed towards

investigations of basic pest biology, pesticide

performance trials, and efficacy of biorational

alternatives to traditional agrichemicals.

IPM development is driven and partially limited

by the requirement that fields be sprayed prior

to harvest with a broad spectrum insecticide to

control fruit-contaminating insects. The current

material of choice (bifenthrin) provides superior

insect pest control, and although it kills most beneficial

insects as well as target pests, it does not

seem to aggravate spider mites in a widespread or

consistent fashion. One of the key, naturally occurring

spider mite predators, Amblyseius fallacis is tolerant

of this pesticide. Unfortunately, it does kill the

spider mite destroyer, Stethorus punctum picipes, which

is a very effective spider mite predator (26). A single

pre-harvest application of bifenthrin usually provides

adequate insect control during the entire harvest

period (late June through early August).

Insect Pests

Insect pests are grouped into two major

categories:

v Those which are mostly a concern due to

their potential to contaminate fruit during the

harvest period. These are discussed in this profile

under the heading Harvest Contaminants and

v Those which directly damage raspberry

plants by feeding on roots, canes, primocane or

floricane buds and thus affect plant health, vigor

and/or yield. These insects and mites are discussed

under the heading Direct Pests.

Harvest Contaminants

Many insects occur on raspberry plant foliage.

Most of the insects and spiders are either

innocuous or are beneficial because they eat other

insects. However, when shaken off with the raspberries

during machine harvesting, they become

contaminants of the harvested product. The US

Food and Drug Administration defect action level

is "an average of four or more larvae per 500g or

average of ten or more whole insects or equivalent

per 500g (excluding thrips, aphids, and mites)".

Food processors' standards are often more strict

because of consumer pressure (23). Some insects

–5–

can be removed by hand on

the machine belt and the

sorting belt in the processing

plant, but this method is

inefficient, costly, and prone

to error. Harvesters are

equipped with air suction

fans, which help remove

some plant and insect debris,

but not all. Experiments

with other air blasting equipment

has helped but not

solved this problem. Use of

a "clean-up" insecticide

spray just prior to harvest is

a necessary supplement to

these procedures (4). If uncontrolled, contamination

of fruit can result in crop rejection. The key

fruit contaminating insects are listed below beginning

with the most commonly encountered and

important pests.

ROOT WEEVILS

Black Vine Weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus

Rough Strawberry Root Weevil, Otiorhynchus

rugosostriatus

Strawberry Root Weevil, Otiorhynchus ovatus

These three species of root weevils are the

more commonly observed weevils prior to and

during the raspberry harvest season. The life

cycles are similar in that most of the population

overwinter as grubs, feeding on roots in the top 2-

8" of soil. Most pupate in April and emerge from

the soil as adults during May and early June. These

adults are active on foliage at night during June

and July, feeding on aboveground plant parts.

Newly emerged adults begin laying eggs in late

June prior to the onset of harvest. It is the adult

stage which coincides with harvest and is the most

consistent and problematic fruit-contaminating

insect on raspberries. These insects will crawl into

the hollow center of the fruit and are not distinguishable

to visual inspection. Species distribution

varies from farm to farm, but the black vine weevil

(BVW) tends to dominate. An insecticide (usually

bifenthrin) is usually applied in late June prior to

harvest and before egg laying begins in even lightly

infested fields to prevent egg laying, buildup of

weevils, and adult weevil contamination of the

fruit (4). Routine monitoring using a beating tray1

from mid-May through late June is a useful

method to identify the species which are present

and provide a rough estimate of population density

before and after treatment. If left uncontrolled,

losses include reduced vigor and yield from

larval damage to roots, and crop rejection due to

adult weevil contamination of fruit.

Control

Numerous biopesticides alone and in combination

were field-tested in Whatcom County for

controlling BVW larvae, but unfortunately none

offered any significant level of control (15). Biopesticides

which were tested in 1996 by WSU researchers

included commercially available

entomopathogenic nematodes, Steinernema

carpocapsae (Biosafe) and 2 strains of Heterorhabdites

bacteriophora (Bioxcel and Cruiser), and a new species

isolated by Oregon State University (OSU), H.

marelatus. The entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria

bassiana (Mycotrol) was also tested. Several species

Sprayer setup in raspberries.

1 Scouting tool that is used to collect, identify, and count insects which are dislodged from the canopy.

–6–

of ground beetles (Family: Carabidae) are found in

association with root weevil larvae in the soil and

detected in the raspberry canopy but they do not

provide economic control (8).

Bifenthrin (Brigade WSB, 0.1 lb. ai/acre). 3

day PHI. Brigade (Section 18) is the most effective

and commonly used insecticide for root weevil

control prior to harvest. Under this Emergency

Exemption, a maximum of 0.1 lb. ai/acre per

application is recommended and no more than

two applications are allowed per season. It is

usually applied after bees are removed, to avoid

bee toxicity, and 3 to 4 days before harvest begins.

Recent research has shown adequate root weevil

control when the spray is directed to the lower 3

feet of the canopy compared to an entire canopy

spray. This enables growers to achieve good

weevil control with reduced amount of pesticide

per acre. However, this basal spray technique has

not replaced full canopy Brigade sprays which

provide improved control of other insects and

spiders which reside in the canopy and can

contaminate fruit when machine-harvested. This

annually updated Section 18 is usually not granted

until May and typically expires in mid-August.

There are efforts underway to pursue a full registration

for Brigade on raspberries. This material

applied as a pre-harvest "clean-up" spray provides

the mainstay for raspberry growers, enabling them

to produce and deliver acceptable, largely insectfree

raspberry fruit. It has the added advantage of

providing suppression of spider mites with minimal

disruption of the naturally occurring

predatory mite, Amblyseius fallacis. It is the most

valuable insecticide used by raspberry growers and

compliments existing IPM programs. If unavailable,

quality of fruit would deteriorate and growers

would be forced to make multiple applications of

other less effective materials, which are more

disruptive of spider mites, necessitating additional

miticide applications as well. Yield would also

decline, because alternative, effective insecticides,

such as esfenvalerate require earlier bee removal

and therefore reduced pollination and fruit set.

Malathion(1.5 to 2 lb. ai/acre). 1 day PHI.

Occasionally used prior to harvest as a full canopy

"clean up" spray, but does not provide satisfactory

weevil control in most situations nor broad

spectrum control of insect fruit contaminants,

particularly worms. It is undesirable for use during

bloom due to bee toxicity. Recent experience

indicates potential for spider mite flare-ups

following malathion use (13). Its short PHI makes

it a preferred material for controlling aphids, when

necessary, during the harvest period. For this

reason, particularly, it is an important supplement

to bifenthrin.

Azinphos Methyl (Guthion 50WP, 0.5 lb.

ai/acre). 3 day PHI. Occasionally used as a prebloom

hill drench in the row to control earlyemerging

adult root weevils, but timing is critical

for effective control. Due to the extended period

of weevil emergence from the soil, this application

will only control a portion of the population. It is

not recommended during bloom or before harvest

due to bee toxicity (5). An important supplement

to bifenthrin as a resistance management tool,

targeting newly emerged soft-shelled adults as they

emerge from the soil.

Cryolite (Gowan cryolite bait (20%), 8 lb.

ai/acre). (24c-WA950018). 3 day PHI. This

stomach insecticide is applied as a broadcast bait

in an approximate 3-foot-wide band in the row.

There has been limited grower experience with

this product, but it has performed well (80% adult

black vine weevil control compared to untreated

check) in research conducted by WSU. Grower

use patterns are therefore not established, but this

material should prove useful for spring

applications to partially control overwintering and

summer emerging adult root weevils prior to the

onset of egg laying. Effectiveness is limited in wet

weather due to molding and destruction of the

bait, which results in leaching and loss of the

active ingredient (22). It will not provide enough

control to insure weevil-free fruit during harvest,

but is potentially a good supplement to contact

insecticides and should fit well with the IPM

program. The potential degree of control that may

be realized with this material (80%) is inferior to

the performance of the currently preferred

material (bifenthrin), and is not acceptable as a

–7–

sole strategy to control harvest contaminating

weevils.

Esfenvalerate (Asana XL 0.025- 0.05 lb. ai/

acre). (24c-WA950001). 7 day PHI. Registered but

not recommended for use on raspberries due to its

tendency to aggravate spider mite problems, bee

toxicity, and impractical due to its small window

for use (not earlier than 12 days before harvest and

no later than 7 day before harvest). At least a week

of pollination would be lost due to the need to

remove bees before application (12).

MISCELLANEOUS CATERPILLARS

Speckled Green Fruitworm, Orthosia hibisci

Raspberry Looper, Autographa ampla

Zebra Caterpillar, Melanchra picta

Bertha Armyworm, Mamestra configurata

These are the most commonly seen lepidopteran

(butterfly and moth) pests on raspberries.

They have either one or two broods of caterpillars

per year (depending on the species) but the

larval stage of each of these pests can coincide

with harvest. For this reason, they pose a serious

threat as fruit contaminants, being knocked from

the foliage during the harvesting operation. Direct

feeding on plant leaves in and of itself rarely justifies

chemical control. Scouting, using a beating

tray or by examination of foliar feeding has not

proven to be effective in predicting the likelihood

of significant caterpillar hatches and fruit contamination

problems in most cases. However, preharvest

leafroller evaluations can be useful in detecting

hatch of bertha armyworms and need for

treatment(8). If uncontrolled, contamination of

fruit can result in crop rejection.

Control

Bacillus thuringiensis (Dipel, MVP, Javelin,

Agree). 0 day PHI. Some control of these

pests is incidentally achieved with 2-3 pre-bloom

and bloom period sprays targeting various worms

and leafrollers. Because timing is critical with this

material and life stages of these pests are not synchronized,

only partial worm control is typically

achieved with this product. Bifenthrin, when applied

before harvest, usually controls these pests

adequately during the harvest period. However, Bt

when used properly in combination with extensive

scouting is an important biorational supplement

for worm suppression, particularly in fields which

are hand-picked for fresh market sales.

WESTERN RASPBERRY FRUITWORM

Byturus bakeri

Overwintering fruitworm beetles emerge

from the soil during April and May. These small

brown beetles feed on fruit buds and unfolding

leaves during the early season, mate and then lay

their eggs attaching them to flower buds and

within opening flowers. The emergent young larvae

work into the center of the developing young

fruits where they feed for 30 days or more. Larvae

can contaminate and downgrade machine harvested

fruit (4). Adult populations are monitored

by direct examination of the earliest open flowers

and/or with a beating tray from mid-April through

early bloom. A specific pattern of damage to foliage

is also used to confirm presence of adult fruitworm

beetles. The economic threshold for this

insect is very low due to its direct damage to

flower buds, resultant misshapen fruit, and potential

for fruit contamination(7). Where scouting

indicates presence of the insect in a field, an insecticide

is applied to control adults prior to egg laying

and before bees are introduced for pollination.

Control

Diazinon (Diazinon 4, 1 lb. ai/acre). 7 day

PHI. Diazinon is the material of choice for fruitworm

control. One application in mid-May, prior

to the introduction of bees at the onset of bloom

appears to provide adequate fruitworm control (8).

It is applied as a foliar spray to the raspberry

canopy. Most of the acreage destined for the processing

markets (70%) vs juice markets (30%) is

treated to control fruitworm (25). Provides some

control of leafrollers and cutworms. Without

–8–

treatment, an estimated half of the acreage would

have fruitworm-contaminated fruit leading to crop

rejection or shift to lower grade markets.

LEAFROLLERS

Obliquebanded Leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana

Orange Tortrix, Argyrotaenia citrana

Various species of leafroller larvae web and

feed on raspberry foliage. This damage in itself is

rarely economic, but larvae, if not controlled prior

to harvest, can contaminate hand-picked and machine

harvested fruit. The insect overwinters as a

larva usually within protected old foliage or cane

bundles in the field. In the spring the larvae move

out to feed on developing foliage, pupate and

emerge as adult moths. There are usually 2-3 generations

per season. Obliquebanded leafroller

(OBLR) is the dominant species in Whatcom

County, whereas Orange Tortrix (OT) dominates

in Skagit and the other southern counties. Life

cycles of these two key species are quite similar,

although OT poses a greater threat because hatch

of the first summer brood of larvae is more likely

to coincide with harvest and therefore contaminate

fruit. Pheromone traps are used to monitor

adult leafroller flight, but there is weak correlation

between trap catch and larval infestation. Traps are

used to identify peak flight. Fields are then scouted

10 days after peak flight (usually 2 weeks before

harvest) to evaluate the degree of foliar infestation

in order to determine if chemical treatment is

necessary. If scouting shows 10% or more infested

hills, treatment is usually warranted (7,10).

Control

Parasitoids contribute to the biological control

of both species of leafrollers. In a 1993 study

conducted in the lower Fraser Valley (British Columbia,

Canada), parasitoids accounted for the

natural mortality of 8% of caterpillars collected

from the field (9). Other estimates in southern

Washington and Oregon indicate field parasitism

rates of OT ranging from 20 to 66% (14). Parasitism

levels of overwintering OT larvae have been

estimated as high as 60% (11). Recent field releases

of Trichogramma spp. to control OT in Oregon and

southern Washington have proven ineffective.

Work is currently planned to evaluate other biological

agents for leafroller control (14).

Bacillus thuringiensis (Dipel, MVP, Javelin,

Agree). 0 day PHI. Several formulations of Bt

are registered for and effective against leafrollers.

Two applications approximately 10 days apart are

necessary to provide adequate control. Proper

timing and favorable weather conditions are critical

for effective control due to variations in the

susceptibility of different larval stages to this toxin

and rapid photo-degradation of the material (9). It

is an important biorational supplement for leafroller

control, particularly in hand-picked, fresh

market acreage.

Malathion (1.5 to 2 lb. ai/acre). 1 day PHI.

This material is registered but poses a hazard to

bees and is only compatible if larvae are in a susceptible

stage after bees are removed and just prior

to harvest. In this situation, bifenthrin (Section

18), which is the preferred material for controlling

root weevils provides superior leafroller control as

well.

Azinphos Methyl (Guthion, 0.25 lb. ai/

acre). 14 day PHI. Should be applied no later than

2 weeks prior to anticipated bloom. High toxicity

to bees and potential for spider mite disruption

limit its use for leafroller control.

Carbaryl (Sevin, 2lb. ai/acre). 7 day PHI.

Should be applied no later than 2 weeks prior to

anticipated bloom. High toxicity to bees and potential

for spider mite disruption limit its use for

leafroller control.

Esfenvalerate (Asana XL, 0.025- 0.05 lb.

ai/acre). (24c-WA950001). 7 day PHI. Registered

but not recommended for use on raspberries due

to its tendency to aggravate spider mite problems,

bee toxicity, and impractical due to its small window

for use (not earlier than 12 days before har

9–

vest and no later than 7 day before harvest). At

least a week of pollination would be lost due to

the need to remove bees before application (12).

OTHER MOST COMMON INSECT

CONTAMINANTS IN MACHINE-HARVESTED

RASPBERRIES

Raspberry Aphid, Amphorophora agathonica

European Earwig, Forficula auricularia

Various Stink Bugs (Family:Penatomidae)

Lygus Bugs (Family: Miridae)

Spiders

Control

Bifenthrin (Brigade WSB, 0.1 lb. ai/acre). 3

day PHI. Brigade (Section 18) is the most effective

and commonly used insecticide for controlling

insect and spider contaminants prior to harvest.

Used primarily as a full canopy foliar spray delivered

in a minimum of 100 gallons of water per

acre. Applications are often made in the evening to

maximize control of the key target pest; adult

root weevils.

Malathion (1.5 to 2 lb. ai/acre). 1 day PHI.

Effective against most harvest contaminants with

the exception of adult root weevils and many species

of cutworms and armyworms. Its short PHI

makes it a suitable material once harvest is underway

for controlling most other insect contaminants.

Recent field studies indicate that it may aggravate

spider mite populations (13).

SLUGS

Slugs can be a fruit contamination problem.

Usually associated with wet weather, slugs can

climb up into the lower raspberry canopy where

they are knocked from the plant during machine

harvesting.

Control

Metaldehyde, (various bait formulations, 3-

4% ai). This bait is scattered around the base of

plants, applied as a band treatment to the row

prior to harvest. It is used only on an as-needed

basis when weather conditions are favorable and

slugs are present. Usually one application is satisfactory.

This is the only material available for slug

control.

Direct Pests

CLAY COLORED WEEVIL

Otiorhynchus singularis

Adult clay weevils begin emerging from the

soil in mid-March. They feed on developing buds,

and new shoots with peak damage occurring in

late March and April. Damage is similar to that

caused by climbing cutworms. When numerous,

this insect causes significant yield loss. 17% theoretical

yield loss was estimated in 1998 field trials

(6), but actual yield impacts are probably higher in

heavily infested fields. This insect is becoming

more widespread, and requires timely control

when found to avoid yield loss and to deter population

increase. Early season examination of damage

to buds and new growth, combined with

evening field monitoring using a beating tray are

appropriate methods to monitor this insect (7). At

the present time, there are no fully registered materials

which provide adequate clay weevil control.

Control

Bifenthrin, (Brigade WSB, 0.05 to 0.1 lb. ai/

acre) 3 day PHI. In April, 1998, the state of Washington

granted a Crisis Exemption for Brigade to

control excessive populations and reduce damage

that was underway by this insect in some fields.

This temporary registration provided a timely solution

during the 1998 season. WSU trials (1998)

showed that Brigade provided superior clay weevil

control compared to other insecticides, when used

either as a full canopy or basal spray (directed to

the lower 3 feet of the plant) (6). Bifenthrin (Section

18) has become the standard broad-spectrum

insecticide used before harvest (usually in late

–10–

June) to control other root weevil species and numerous

fruit contaminating insects. Under the

typical Section 18 registration schedule, it is not

available when the clay weevil damage is occurring.

A full registration for Brigade is being pursued.

Cryolite (Gowan cryolite bait (20%), 8 lb.

ai/acre). (24c-WA980018). 3 day PHI. This stomach

insecticide is available as a broadcast bait in an

approximate 3 ft. wide band in the row. There has

been limited grower experience with this product,

(1998 24c) but it has performed well (80% adult

black vine weevil control compared to untreated

check) in research conducted by WSU. Grower use

patterns are therefore not established, but this

material may prove useful for early spring (late

March, early April) applications to control emerging

adult weevils. If effective, it would compliment

an IPM approach. Effectiveness is limited in wet

weather due to molding and destruction of the

bait, which results in leaching and loss of the active

ingredient. (22).

Malathion (1.5 to 2 lb. ai/acre). 1 day PHI.

Available as a foliar spray for early season adult

root weevil control, but is ineffective, particularly

for clay weevil (19). Has potential to aggravate

spider mite problems as well.

Azinphos Methyl (Guthion 50WP, 0.5 lb.

ai/acre). 3 day PHI. Available as a pre-bloom soil

drench in the row, to control emerging adult root

weevils. It performed poorly in WSU trials during

the 1998 season when used as a foliar spray targeting

adult clay weevils in the canopy (6). Growers

who have experimented with this material as either

a soil drench or foliar spray report poor control

(19). It would be used by growers as a last resort

when necessary, in the absence of other registered

and more effective materials.

RASPBERRY CROWN BORER

Pennisetia marginata

This sporadic pest has a two-year life cycle.

Adult clear-winged moths are present from late

July through early October. Eggs laid by these

moths, hatch into small caterpillars which crawl

down to the base of the canes where they form an

overwintering cell in the side of the cane. They

begin to feed in early March on cane buds around

the plant crown. Feeding damage in canes and

crowns can weaken plants and kill infested canes

(7,12). Weak areas within a field can be checked

for evidence of this insect. Infested areas often

have uneven bud break in the spring, and spindly

canes, which break off at ground level. This symptom

is most likely noticed during winter cane

pruning and tying (7). Populations can increase

rapidly, requiring control if this pest is present.

Due to its two-year life cycle, this pest must be

treated for two consecutive seasons in order to

achieve control.

Control

Diazinon (2 lb. ai/acre). 7 day PHI. Applied

as a soil drench to the crown area banded in

the row, between October and March. It usually

requires one application for 2 consecutive years to

control this insect when present (3,12). One half

to 2/3 of the total acreage is treated annually (25).

SPOTTED CUTWORM

Amathes c-nigrum

This is the most commonly detected, early

season climbing cutworm. It overwinters as a

partly grown larva, which begins to feed on developing

primocane and floricane buds in late March

and early April. Feeding on primary buds can

reduce production by 50% in infested areas (4).

There are two overlapping generations per season.

The second-generation larva can be a harvest contaminant.

This insect is an occasional pest, spotty

in distribution and damage, but when found can

seriously impact yield. Early season examination

of buds for damage and evening inspection of

fields to confirm pest identity are appropriate

monitoring techniques.

Control

None of the currently registered insecti

11–

cides are particularly effective for controlling

overwintering spotted cutworm larvae. Fortunately,

it rarely is numerous enough to warrant

control in the early season.

Bacillus thuringiensis (Dipel and others).

0 day PHI. Not very effective for controlling overwintering

larvae which feed on new developing

buds, because these larger worms are not as susceptible,

and there is a low tolerance for bud damage.

The insect must consume treated leaves or

buds in order to be killed by this biological pesticide.

It is more appropriate for controlling small,

second generation worms later in the season.

Azinphos Methyl (Guthion 50WP, 0.5 lb.

ai/acre). 3 day PHI. Provides partial control of

overwintering worms. May provide some leafroller

control if present. The preferred insecticide for

early season, pre-bloom, cutworm control.

Diazinon (1 lb. ai/acre). 7 day PHI. Provides

partial control of overwintering worms. May

provide some leafroller control if present. This is

an option, but not the preferred material for early

season cutworm control.

Carbaryl (Sevin, 2 lb. ai/acre). 7 day PHI.

Provides partial control of overwintering worms.

Potential to aggravate spider mites. May provide

some leafroller control if present. This is registered

but rarely used.

SPIDER MITES

Twospotted Spider Mite, Tetranychus urticae

Yellow Spider Mite, Eotetranychus carpini borealis

These are the two most prevalent species of

plant-feeding spider mites which inhabit raspberry

foliage. Both species feed on chlorophyll on the

underside of leaves. Feeding damage reduces plant

vigor and may cause leaves to drop prematurely

contributing to potential for winter injury and

subsequent yield loss. They overwinter as adult

females within protected micro-habitats in raspberry

fields. They begin to colonize the plants in

the early summer, moving upward on the canes as

the season advances. Populations usually increase

through June, and July, with potential for rapid

increase after harvest in mid to late August. In

September, populations decline as a result of predation

by natural enemies and migration of overwintering

females from the raspberry plants to

overwintering sites (4). Raspberries appear to tolerate

significantly greater densities of yellow mite

compared to twospotted mites. Rough treatment

thresholds are 75 vs 25 mites/leaflet prior to September

1 for these species. Foliar symptoms associated

with feeding are different with the two species,

which helps in determining which is present.

Most growers rely on intuitive evaluations based

on the degree of foliar damage, vigor of the field,

and time of the year when determining spray

needs. Direct counts of spider mites and predators

can also be taken in the field to establish population

trends. If uncontrolled, excessive defoliation

during and after harvest from heavy twospotted

mite feeding can reduce yield 25% the following

season (20).

Control

Good farming practices (timely irrigation,

proper fertilization) which help maintain a vigorous

planting can help to reduce the impacts of

spider mite feeding, but in some cases must be

supplemented with chemical control. Predators

play a major role in suppressing spider mites. The

most dependable, naturally occurring spider mite

predator is a Phytoseiid mite, Amblyseius fallacis.

Studies over the past few years in Whatcom

County indicate that this predator increases in

density in response to both yellow and twospotted

populations, and in many situations is able to provide

acceptable biological control during and after

harvest. This is the period when spider mites are

most likely to increase rapidly and damage raspberry

foliage (8). Field releases of this predator

(augmentation) have been attempted with little

success (13). Factors which influence biological

control of spider mites by this predatory mite are

not well understood. Other spider mite predators

include minute pirate bug (Family: Anthocoridae)

and a small beetle called the spider mite destroyer,

Stethorus punctillum picipes. Unfortunately, the latter

–12–

which is a very effective mite predator, is very

sensitive to bifenthrin, the most commonly used

"clean-up" insecticide spray.

Fenbutatin oxide (Vendex 50WP, 1 lb. ai/

acre). 3 day PHI. Applied anytime during the season

when spider mites increase to intolerable levels.

It is most likely to be used if spider mites increase

well before harvest, which is atypical, or

after harvest when populations can increase rapidly

and temperatures are high enough (> 70F) for

optimum control. Two applications, 7 to 10 days

apart are usually needed to suppress a rapidly increasing

population. It is impractical for use during

harvest due to its 3 day PHI. Recent testing has

shown that twospotted mite populations are

partially resistant to Vendex (8).

Dicofol (Kelthane 35, 0.6 to 1.2 lb. ai/acre).

7 day PHI. (24c-WA900022). Although registered

for use, this material is rarely used due to its

ineffectiveness, presumably due to resistance,

and extended pre harvest interval.

Diseases

BOTRYTIS CANE AND FRUIT ROT

Botrytis cinerea

Very common fungus which causes fruit rot

and primocane lesions. It overwinters as sclerotia

on primocanes and as mycelia on dead leaves and

mummified fruit. These overwintering structures

produce spores beginning in the spring which

infect blossoms. These early blossom infections

remain inactive (latent) until fruit is nearly ripe.

When conditions are favorable for fungal growth

within the berry, the fungus sporulates on the

berry surface (gray mold). These spores contribute

to secondary infection of fruit, primocanes, and

other above ground, green plant parts. The infection

and spread of the disease is favored by high

moisture (excessive rain) and poor drying conditions

(humid, stagnant air) during the bloom and

harvest periods. Infections on the primocanes

allow the fungus to overwinter within the field.

Due to the microscopic nature of the latent blossom

infections, monitoring for this disease is impractical

(7). Preventative fungicide sprays during

the bloom period and various cultural practices are

used to help suppress the disease. This disease can

drastically reduce both fruit quality and yield and

has led to major crop failure and lost revenue for

numerous growers over the past two seasons (1997

& 1998). If uncontrolled, estimated yield losses

can reach 30% (8).

Control

Until the past two years (1997 & 1998), fungicides

have protected the crop from disease. With

the very recent discovery of widespread Botrytis

resistance to most of the commonly used fungicides

(iprodione, vinclozolin, and benomyl) a

greater focus will be placed on cultural practices to

help reduce disease incidence. These will likely

include alternative training techniques, reduced

interval between picking, and possibly alterations

in the nutritional program as supplements to

chemical control. Resistance to fungicides in the

Willamette Valley in Oregon was documented

some years ago (28).

Captan (Captan 50WP, 1 to 2 lb. ai/acre). 3

day PHI. (24c-WA980002)) Applied 3 to 6 times

either alone or as a tank mix with other fungicides

during the pre-bloom and bloom periods for

Botrytis and spur blight control (8). Considering

recently confirmed resistance to other fungicides,

this material is very important.

Iprodione (Rovral 4F, 0.5 to 1 lb. ai/acre). 0

day PHI. Applied 2 to 4 times during the bloom

and early harvest period (8). Has activity against

spur blight. Not typically used during harvest except

when disease incidence and favorable weather

conditions persist. It is a preferred material when

necessary during harvest because of the 0 day

PHI. Widespread Botrytis resistance to iprodione

documented in 1998 (16).

Vinclozolin (Ronilan 4F, 0.5 to 1 lb. ai/

acre). 9 day PHI. Applied occasionally as a substi

13–

tute for Rovral during the bloom period. Does not

control spur blight. Botrytis is also resistant to this

material (16).

Benomyl (Benlate 50WP, 0.375 lb. ai/acre).

3 day PHI. Applied occasionally as a tank mix with

either Captan, Rovral or Ronilan. Does not control

spur blight but does have activity against cane

blight. Recently confirmed (1998) Botrytis resistance

to this material (16).

SPUR BLIGHT

Didymella applanata

This common fungal disease infects

floricane leaves, primocane leaves, and causes

primocane lesions which can damage buds. Damaged

buds are predisposed to winter injury, potentially

reducing yield the next season. The disease

overwinters on infected primocanes. In the spring

it produces both windblown and rain-splashed

spores (7). Recent research has identified key infection

periods and optimum timing of fungicide

applications to control spur blight. Field rating

systems have been developed to help growers

roughly categorize disease incidence (8).

Control

Lime-sulfur (Sulforix). Single application (2

to 3 gals product/acre) applied during the delayed

dormant stage (March) (5). Widely used for activity

against overwintering stage of fungal pathogens.

Recent on-farm research efforts (1997 and 1998)

indicate that a delayed timing and reduced rate of

application may provide improved suppression of

both spur blight and yellow rust (8, 13).

Captan (Captan 50WP, 1 to 2 lb. ai/acre). 3

day PHI. (24c-WA980002). Applied 2 to 3 times

for spur blight control, usually in combination

with another fungicide prior to bloom and during

bloom. Also helps prevent Botrytis fruit rot infection.

Widely used as a protectant fungicide to control

germinating spores.

Iprodione (Rovral 4F, 0.5 to 1 lb. ai/acre). 0

day PHI. Usually applied 2 times alone or with

Captan for spur blight control. This same treatment

helps prevent Botrytis fruit rot infection,

which is the primary target. In spite of recently

detected Botrytis resistance to this material, it may

be an important supplement or alternative for spur

blight control.

YELLOW RUST

Phragmidium rubi-idaei

This fungus infects floricane and primocane

foliage. In some years, it causes significant premature

leaf death, reducing plant vigor and increasing

the likelihood of winter cold injury. It overwinters

in old primocane leaf debris trapped in bundles of

canes where they are tied to the trellis wire. Spores

from this debris cause the initial spring infection

of floricane leaves, the first visible symptom of

disease. Spores from these lesions allow the disease

to spread further, ultimately giving rise to a

repeating spore type which allows for continuous

spread and development of the overwintering

stage. Scouting early in the season and after harvest

is recommended to assist with decision-making

on sprays and need for cultural practices to

reduce winter carryover (7).

Control

It is recommended that in infected fields,

leaves be removed from primocanes before they

are tied up in the fall, or that cane tying be delayed

until after leaves have dropped. Then they are

tilled into the soil. This sanitation practice is not

always practical, but when used, it is the cornerstone

of control (5). Delaying cane tying can be

impractical for some growers for two reasons.

Firstly, there is a ready supply of labor immediately

after harvest and secondly, prompt training

clears primocanes from between the rows which

opens a clear path for tractor-drawn equipment

(ripping soil, post-harvest sprays, cultivation, etc.).

Premature leaf removal may reduce the amount of

carbohydrates translocated from leaves to roots,

–14–

which can weaken plants and may influence winter

hardiness.

Lime-sulfur (Sulforix). Single application (2

to 3 gals product/acre) applied during the delayed

dormant stage (March). This application also suppresses

spur blight (5). Widely used for activity

against overwintering stage of the disease. It is

only partially effective because it can only be applied

as a delayed dormant spray.

Carbamate (Ferbam, 1.14 lb. ai/acre). 40

day PHI. (24c-WA940029a). 1 to 2 applications, 14

days apart beginning usually in mid-April are applied

by some growers. In 1998 WSU trials, 3 applications

of this material provided only limited

control of yellow rust (16).

Propiconazole (Orbit 3.6L, 0.1 to 0.17 lb.

ai/acre). 30 day PHI. Section 18 Crisis exemption

in 1998 expired 11/1/98. Minimal grower experience

with material, but has activity against different

stages of the pathogen, and 3 applications

provided excellent control in 1998 WSU field trials

(16). Use patterns not established, but label permits

up to 5 applications season. The manufacturer

will support another Section 18 request. This material

looks very promising, performing better than

those currently registered and used by growers.

Copper (Kocide 2000). Used occasionally

by some growers as a supplement to Ferbam, particularly

in diseased fields and within 40 days of

harvest, when Ferbam can no longer be applied. In

1998 WSU trials, 3 applications of this material

were ineffective for yellow rust control (16).

Bordeaux (hydrated lime plus copper sulfate)

Applied by some growers after harvest and

once pruning and tying are complete.

CANE BLIGHT

Leptosphaeria coniothyrium

This fungus is a wound parasite and can

only enter the plant through wounds. Physical

damage to the surface of the primocanes (usually

from machine-harvesting) allows the fungus to

enter the vascular tissue. The fungus remains in

the vicinity of the wound, but toxins produced by

the fungus move up the cane, killing vascular tissue

and buds. In infected canes, a reddish streaking

lesion can be seen in the fall by scraping away the

epidermis above primocane wounds. The disease

overwinters on old cane stubble and infection is

favored by wet conditions during the harvest period.

Examination of suspect primocanes in the

fall and early spring is recommended to confirm

presence of this disease (7).

Control

Adjustment of catcher plates on harvesting

machines can help to minimize primocane damage

and reduce the likelihood for infection. Most

growers make all possible adjustments to harvesting

machines to minimize physical injury to the

primocanes.

Benomyl (Benlate 50WP, 0.375 lb. ai/acre).

3 day PHI. 1 to 2 applications in infected fields

usually directed at the lower portions of canes

during and/or immediately after harvest is completed

(5). Cane blight is not listed on the label but

this use is consistent with that for Botrytis fruit rot.

It is the only fungicide registered on raspberries

with activity against this fungus.

PHYTOPHTHORA ROOT ROT

Phytophthora fragariae var rubi

This soilborne fungus, favored by wet soil

conditions, can directly invade and kill root and

crown tissue. Aboveground symptoms include

collapse of fruiting canes and wilting of

primocanes. Diseased plants have fewer feeder

roots and brown or black discolored root tissue.

Infection and plant destruction is usually more

common in low, wet areas within a field. Fields

should be scouted during harvest for these symptoms,

and where found, laboratory analysis of root

tissue is recommended (7). If uncontrolled, with

disease present and favorable conditions for infection,

yield losses can reach 75% (21).

–15–

Control

Cultural practices to prevent infection include:

avoidance of fields with history of the disease,

planting only in well drained soils, ripping

soil to improve soil drainage, ridging or planting

into raised beds, cleaning cultivation equipment to

avoid spread from infected to healthy fields, and

use of certified root stock (7). With the exception

of "cleaning cultivation equipment", these cultural

practices are standard industry practices. No cultivars

have acceptable levels of resistance.

Established Fields

Metalaxyl (Ridomil 0.50 lb. ai/acre). 45 day

PHI. Usually applied once in the fall or early

spring as a band soil treatment in the row. Some

growers use split (half rate) applications at both

times of the year. This is the preferred material for

Phytophthora suppression and is standard practice in

fields where the disease-causing organism has been

detected. It is often applied at planting time in

fields with a raspberry history, in order to protect

young plants, which are particularly susceptible

given their small root mass. In order to prevent the

development of metalaxyl-resistant strains of

Phytophthora over time, it is recommended that this

material be used exclusively on an as-needed,

rather than simply protectant basis.

Fosetyl-Al (Aliette). 60 day PHI. Applied as

a foliar spray in the spring and after harvest. Four

applications per season are needed, but WSU trials

have shown it to be about 30% less effective than

Ridomil for root rot control (5, 16). Not very regularly

used.

Prior to Planting

Chloropicrin. Added to either 1,3

dichloropropene (Telone II) or to methyl bromide

at average rate of 100 pounds per acre. It is applied

as a pre-plant treatment to improve control

of Phytophthora. Helps to delay onset of the disease

for 1-4 years (5). This is a very important material,

used in 95% of replanted fields and about 50% of

first time plantings (24).

Metam Sodium (Metam, Vapam). Applied

as a pre-plant treatment for suppressing soil disease

organisms, including Phytophthora and plant

parasitic nematodes. Use rates range from 50 to

100 lb. per acre. Helps to delay onset of disease

(5). Limitation of this material is that it is difficult

to adequately treat nematodes and disease organisms

at soil depths much greater than 6 inches

(24). Sometimes combined with Telone II to improve

weed and soil disease control.

Nematodes

ROOT LESION

Pratylenchus penetrans

DAGGER

Xiphinema bakeri

Root lesion nematodes inhabit the soil and

are capable of feeding on and migrating within

raspberry roots. Damage associated with root lesion

nematode feeding includes root destruction

and a general reduction in field vigor over time.

Dagger nematodes feed on root tips and in addition

to directly damaging root tissue, are capable

of transmitting the tomato ringspot virus, which

can stunt raspberry plants and cause crumbly fruit,

thus impacting both yield and fruit quality. Soil

samples are collected before planting a field to aid

in site selection and/or need for pre-plant fumigation.

Soil and root samples collected in the fall

from good and poor areas within established fields

will help evaluate nematode density, species distribution,

and need for treatment. Treatment threshold

levels based on laboratory analysis are established

for root lesion nematodes. Populations that

exceed 250 nematodes/250 cu. cm. at planting will

affect stand establishment, and populations exceeding

500 nematodes/250 cu. cm. will weaken

established fields. As with most pests, the impact

of nematodes on a vigorous field is less pronounced

than on a weak field. Nematode damage

may occur at lower nematode densities if plants

also are stressed by root rotting diseases, insects,

or other factors (27). Due to its capability to transmit

virus, the threshold for dagger nematodes is

–16–

very low and there are no materials registered for

use in established fields to control this pest (7). If

left uncontrolled, root lesion nematodes will

shorten the productive life span of an established

field by 2 to 3 years (25), and dagger nematodes if

not treated prior to establishment in replant situations

will weaken fields and reduce fruit quality

and yield (3). Both species are widespread

throughout the region.

Control

Keeping fields fallow and weed-free for a

year prior to planting raspberries will reduce, but

not eliminate nematode populations (5). Planting

stock certified to be free from tomato ringspot

virus on land which is free from dagger nematodes

is advised but may be difficult to accomplish (3).

Crop rotation is not an option since tomato

ringspot has such a wide host range and dagger

nematodes feed on so many hosts as well. A planting

site need not have ever been in red raspberries

before for Tomato ringspot virus to cause serious

damage to a new (young) field.

Established Plantings

Fenamiphos (Nemacur 3, 3 to 6 lb. ai/

acre). Root lesion-infested fields are usually treated

every other year with a single soil application

banded in the row between October 1 and December

31 (5). It is applied as a liquid in the fall

when rain will carry it into the soil. This is the only

currently registered nematicide for suppressing

root lesion nematodes in established plantings.

Unfortunately, it has no activity against dagger

nematodes. Treatment is usually based on the results

of soil samples taken in late summer. There

are no viable alternatives for suppressing root lesion

nematodes in established fields.

Prior to Planting

Methyl Bromide (Brom-O-Gas). Injected

into the soil as a pre-plant fumigant for nematode

control usually in the late summer or early fall in

anticipation of spring planting. The usual rate is

200 lb. per acre. Combination with chloropicrin

(100 lb. per acre) is the preferred pre-plant treatment

for controlling nematodes and soil disease

organisms in replant situations, where root rot

diseases are more likely to pose a threat. Ninetyfive

percent of raspberry fields which are replanted

are fumigated prior to planting. About

half of new plantings with no history of raspberry

production are fumigated before planting (17, 24).

In some cases, usually when nematode or soil disease

pressure is greater, treated fields are immediately

covered with a plastic tarp, which seals in the

fumigant.

OR:

1,3 dichloropropene (Telone II). Shanked

into the soil at a rate of 18 to 25 lb. per acre, it is

usually applied in the fall several months before

planting. If soil disease requires treatment, and in

replant situations, chloropicrin (100 lbs. per acre)

is added to improve control. Either this combination

or methyl bromide plus chloropicrin is used

prior to planting in 95% of replant situations, and

in about 50% of first-time raspberry plantings

(24). Few new plantings are made on ground that

has never been planted to raspberries.

(continued)

–17–

Weeds

Various species of weeds compete with

raspberry plants for water and nutrients. In addition

weeds can interfere with harvesting efficiency

and reduce air movement, thus increasing the likelihood

of cane, fruit and foliar diseases. Growers

rely on a combination of chemical and cultural

practices to manage weeds in their raspberry fields.

Weeds within the rows are usually managed with

banded herbicide applications, either pre- or postemergent,

and weeds between the rows are managed

primarily by regular, frequent, shallow cultivation

during the growing season. Raspberries respond

to a non-disturbed, competition-free strip

in the planted row. This is achieved through the

application of directed, banded herbicides as well

as primocane suppression materials (cane burning)

usually applied once in the early spring (18). It is

recommended that growers make it a practice to

take note of shifts in predominant weed species

which indicates development of resistance and the

need to select alternative weed management strategies

or materials (5).

Control

Shallow tillage between the rows using a

rotary-type cultivator is the standard method for

summer weed control. Although this operation is

performed routinely during the growing season,

care is taken to avoid excessive frequency since it

can destroy soil structure, lead to soil compaction

and increase root stress. Some growers plant winter

cover crops between the rows in the late summer

to compete with weeds, reduce erosion, and

improve soil condition (5).

Weeds are controlled in areas immediately

around fields primarily by maintaining year-round

sod, which is mowed regularly during the growing

season.

Pre-emergent herbicides

Diuron (Karmex DF, Direx 80DF, 1.6 to

2.4 lb. ai/acre). This pre-emergent herbicide can

be applied to the row with either a single winter

application or split applications in October and

March. Usually it is applied in the spring. It is not

recommended on soils which are very sandy or

gravelly, or soils with less than 1% organic matter.

Diuron is particularly effective against chickweed

and redroot pigweed as well as most problem grass

species with the exception of quackgrass. It is one

of the three most commonly used pre-emergent

herbicides.

Simazine (Princep, 1.6 to 4.0 lb. ai/acre).

This pre-emergent herbicide can be applied to the

row as a single winter application or split applications

in October and March. It is often rotated

with diuron to avoid weed shifts. Usually applied

in the spring, it is one of the three most commonly

used pre-emergent herbicides.

Oryzalin, (Surflan, 2.0 to 6.0 lb. ai/acre).

This pre-emergent herbicide can be applied to the

row in late fall or early spring. Usually applied in

the spring, it is one of the three most commonly

used pre-emergent herbicides.

Norflurazon, (Solicam, 1.97 to 3.93 lb. ai/

acre). This pre-emergent herbicide can be applied

to the row once per year from fall to early spring.

It is primarily used where annual grass control is a

problem but also has activity against several common

broadleaved weeds.

Napropamide, (Devrinol, 4.0 lb. ai/acre).

Occasionally used as a spring applied herbicide,

but effectiveness is limited if not incorporated by

rainfall within 2-3 days of application due to rapid

photo-degradation. Performance is also reduced

by excessive plant residue on soil surface.

Dichlobenil, (Casoron, 4.0 lb. ai/acre).

Especially useful as a spot application in mid-winter

to control perennial weeds (field horsetail,

quackgrass, yellow nutsedge and canada thistle)

which escape control from the other more commonly

used pre-emergent herbicides.

Terbacil, (Sinbar, 0.8 to 1.6 lb. ai/acre). 70

day PHI. Occasionally used as a spring applied

herbicide. Not recommended on gravelly soils or

–18–

soils with less than 1% organic matter or within 2

years of a replant situation. It needs to be washed

into the soil by rain or irrigation.

Post-emergent contact herbicides

Paraquat, (Gramoxone Extra, 0.625 to 0.94

lb. ai/acre). A contact herbicide applied to the row

either in the late winter or the early spring before

new primocanes emerge, or in late summer. May

be mixed with some soil applied pre-emergent

herbicides.

Sethoxydim, (Poast, 0.28 to 0.47 lb. ai/

acre). 45 day PHI. Used to control established

grasses. Major benefit of this material is

quackgrass suppression.

Pronamide, (Kerb, 1.0 to 3.0 lb. ai/acre). A

fall-applied herbicide to control grasses, including

quackgrass.

Glyphosate, (Roundup, Honcho). A contact/

systemic herbicide applied as a broadcast or

spot treatment prior to planting raspberries. It is

not registered for use on established plantings.

Nonbearing only, contact grass herbicides

Fluazifop-p-butyl, (Fusilade DX, 0.125 to

0.375lb. ai/acre). Can be used in the early summer

up to 1 year prior to first harvest (until late June of

planting year) for grass control. Provides good

suppression of most common grasses including

quackgrass.

Clethodim, (Prism, 0.095 to 0.176 lb. ai/

acre). Provides good control of a broad spectrum

of annual and perennial grasses including

quackgrass.

Primocane suppression

It is standard practice for raspberry growers

to burn back or suppress new shoots or

primocanes in the spring. The primary benefits of

cane burning are a reduction in cane size to a size

which is more favorable for machine harvesting,

and the overall suppression of numerous fungi

which cause diseases of leaves, fruit and canes.

One spray is usually applied to the row when the

first flush of primocanes is about 6" tall. Cane

burning may not be practiced in older, weaker

fields because they are less likely to produce a second

vigorous flush of primocanes which are necessary

for sustaining production (3).

Control

Oxyfluorfen, (Goal 2XL, 0.05 to 0.1 lb. ai/

acre). (24c -WA960005). This material is applied to

the rows for early season suppression of

primocanes when they are 4-6" tall. It also provides

some contact weed control. This is currently

(1998) the material of choice and is standard practice

in the industry. If not available, a percentage

of growers would switch to propane flaming

which is dangerous to the applicator and a much

less selective method, likely resulting in excessive

damage to both primocanes and floricanes, reduced

yield, and increased labor expenses.

Monocarbamide dihydrogensulfate,

(Enquik, 10 to 15 gals of product). (24c-

WA890009). This material was registered to provide

an alternative to oxyfluorfen, but is rarely

used because it is very corrosive and can damage

sprayer fittings. In addition, cane burn is not as

quick nor as complete. It tends to produce

"cripples", or canes that have multiple leaders with

distorted growth. The second flush of primocanes

often develops too early after treatment and the

material adds nitrogen to a field which often is not

needed nor desirable (25).

–19–

Estimates of Pesticide Usage and Representative Spray Program

The following two tables are included in order to provide a more complete understanding of key

chemicals and usage patterns (Table 1), as well as a typical pesticide program for the year in an established

raspberry field on a farm which is targeting higher-end/higher-value markets (Table 2). Farms

targeting the lower-end juice market would apply about half of the fungicide applications shown in this

table. As the text spells out, some of these treatments are not needed nor used every year.

Pesticide % Area

treated

#

Applications

per year

Lb. AI/acre

per

application

Lb. AI/

treated acre

per season

Insecticides

»Bifenthrin** 81 1.0 0.10 0.10

Bt 46 2.1

»Diazinon 77 1.4 1.10 1.54

Esfenvalerate 36 1.0 0.06 0.06

»Malathion 44 1.0 1.07 1.07

Fungicides

»Benomyl 76 1.7 0.49 0.83

»Captan 94 5.0 1.17 5.85

Ferbam 61 1.3 1.23 1.60

Iprodione 71 1.3 0.60 0.78

»Lime Sulfur 70 1.0 9.16 9.16

»Metalaxyl 49 1.2 0.49 0.59

Vinclozolin 58 2.6 0.54 1.40

Herbicides ***

»Diuron 31 1.0 0.97 0.97

Norflurazon 4 1.0 1.20 1.20

»Oryzalin 62 1.0 1.20 1.20

»Oxyfluorfen 74 1.0 0.10 0.10

»Paraquat 85 1.1 0.32 0.35

Sethoxydim 5 1.0 0.19 0.19

»Simazine 56 1.1 0.62 0.68

TABLE 1

Estimate of Usage of the Most Common Pesticides* in Raspberries

in Washington State During the 1997 crop year

Source: Adapted from the National Agriculture Statistics Service, USDA Pesticide Data Program, Fruit summary

for the 1997 Crop Year. URL: http://www.usda.gov/nass/pubs/estindx1.htm#agchem

* Limited to pesticides used to control insects, diseases, and weeds only.

** Materials shown in red or marked with this symbol (») are heavily relied upon and have few or no currently

registered and effective substitutes.

*** Discrepancies in rates between this table and text in the weed control section are due to different methods of

reporting. The text shows labelled rates per acre. Because these materials are typically applied in 3-4 ft. wide bands

in the row, actual use per acre is 30-40% of the labelled/broadcast rate as shown here.

–20–

Source: WSU Vancouver, Lynden Satellite Station IPM Project (1998) and personal communication with

raspberry growers.

* Target pest codes where abbreviated:

Crown borer: Raspberry Crown Borer, Pennisetia marginata

Root rot: primary target is Phytophthora fragariae var rubi

Cane burn: Primocane suppression

SB: Spur Blight, Didymella applanata

Botrytis: Gray mold fruit rot; Botrytis cinerea

Insects: Adult root weevils and miscellaneous harvest- contaminating insects and spiders

Nematodes: Root Lesion Nematodes, Pratylenchus spp.

TABLE 2

Typical Pesticide Spray Program for the Year On an Average Farm2

Date Pesticide Lbs AI/acre Method Target

Pest*

Crop

Stage

Diazinon 2.0 Banded Crown borer Dormant

Diuron 1.6-2.4 Banded Weeds Dormant

March

Metalaxyl 0.5 Banded Root rot Dormant

Late March Lime Sulfur 9 Foliar Cane

diseases

Delayed

dorm.

Early April Oxyfluorfen 0.1 Directed

base

Cane burn Pre-bloom

Early May Captan 2.0 Foliar SB Pre-bloom

Captan 2.0 Foliar SB Early

Bloom

Iprodione 0.5 Foliar Botrytis, SB Early

Bloom

Mid May

Diazinon 1.0 Foliar Fruitworm Early

Bloom

Late May Captan 2.0 Foliar Botrytis, SB Bloom

Captan Early June 2.0 Foliar Botrytis, SB Bloom

Vinclozolin 0.5 Foliar Botrytis Bloom

Mid June Captan 2.0 Foliar Botrytis, SB Bloom

Captan 2.0 Foliar Botrytis, SB Pre-

Harvest

Iprodione 0.5 Foliar Botrytis, SB Pre-

Harvest

Late June

Bifenthrin 0.1 Foliar Insects Pre-

Harvest

Benomyl 0.375 Foliar Cane blight Post-

Harvest

August

Fenbut.

Oxide

1.0 Foliar Spider Mites Post-

Harvest

October/Nov Fenamiphos 6.0 Banded Nematodes Post-

Harvest

2 Spray programs vary between farms and between years in frequency, selection, and timing of applications. This program

does not show all pesticides options in this crop.

–21–

Author

Geoffrey W. Menzies

Washington State University

Cooperative Extension, Whatcom County

1000 N. Forest Street.

Bellingham, WA 98225-5594

Phone (360) 676-6736

Fax (360) 738-2458

Internet: gmenz@coopext.cahe.wsu.edu

Technical Contacts

Plant Pathology Entomology

Peter R. Bristow Lynell K. Tanigoshi

Washington State University Washington State University

Puyallup Research and Extension Center Vancouver Research and Extension Center

7612 Pioneer Way E. 1919 NE 78th Street

Puyallup, WA 98371-4998 Vancouver, WA 98665-9752

Phone (253) 445-4529 Phone (360) 576-6030

Fax (253) 445-4569 Fax (360) 576-6032

Internet: bristowp@wsu.edu Internet: tanigosh@wsu.edu

Weed Science Horticulture

Timothy W. Miller Craig B. MacConnell

Washington State University Washington State University

Mt. Vernon Research Station Cooperative Extension, Whatcom County

1468 Memorial Highway 1000 N. Forest Street.

Mt. Vernon, WA 98273-9788 Bellingham, WA 98225-5594

Phone (360) 848-6138 Phone (360) 676-6736

Fax (360) 848-6159 Fax (360) 738-2458

Internet: twmiller@wsu.edu Internet: cbmac@wsu.edu

Other Internet Links

Washington Red Raspberry Commission

(http://www.red-raspberry.com)

Oregon Raspberry and Blackberry Commission

(http://www.oregon-berries.com)

–22–

References

(1) Anne Seeger, Washington State Red Raspberry Commission. Personal Communication. October,

1998.

(2) Washington Agricultural Statistics Service, 1998 Report.

(3) Commercial Red Raspberry Production, Pacific Northwest Cooperative Extension Bulletin 176. 1987.

(4) Antonelli, A.L., Shanks, C.H., Fisher, G.C. Small Fruit Pests, Biology, Diagnosis and Management.

Washington State University Cooperative Extension Bulletin 1388. 1988.

(5) Pest Management Guide for Commercial Small Fruits. Washington State University Cooperative Extension

Bulletin 1491. 1998.

(6) Studies of the Clay Colored Weevil on Meeker Raspberries. Washington State University Vancouver/

Lynden Research Station, summary report, unpublished. September, 1998.

(7) Menzies, G.W. and MacConnell, C.B. Integrated Pest Management for Raspberries, a Guide for Sampling

and Decision-Making for Key Raspberry Pests in Northwest Washington. Washington State University

Cooperative Extension publication. June, 1998.

(8) Comparison of Traditional to IPM Strategy for Managing Key Insect and Diseases Pests of Raspberry; Meeker

Variety. Washington State University Vancouver/Lynden Research Station, summary report,

unpublished. September, 1998.

(9) Evangelista, Li, Fitzpatrick, Isman, and Troubridge. Identification and Control of Caterpillars on Raspberries

in the Lower Fraser Valley, B.C. Agriculture Canada and University of British Columbia special

report. 1993.

(10) Sheila Fitzpatrick, Research Entomologist, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Agasiz, B.C.,

Canada. Personal Communication. May, 1997.

(11) Knight, A.L., LaLone, R., Fisher, G.C., and Coop, L.B. Managing Leafrollers on Caneberries in Oregon.

Oregon State University Extension Circular 1263. January 1988

(12) Pacific Northwest Insect Control Handbook. Pacific Northwest Cooperative Extension Bulletin. 1998

(13) Raspberry On-Farm Research Activities. Washington State University Nooksack IPM Project, summary

report, unpublished. October 1997.

(14) Tom Peerbolt, Peerbolt Crop Management, Portland Oregon. Personal Communication. October

22, 1998.

(15) Booth, S.R., Tanigoshi, L.K., and Murray, T. The Potential of Microbial Agents to Suppress Root Weevils

in Red Raspberry and Strawberry: Preliminary Results. Washington State University Vancouver

Research and Extension Center, Research Summary. July, 1996.

–23–

(16) Peter Bristow, Plant Pathologist, Washington State University, Puyallup Research and Extension

Center. Personal Communication. September 29 and October 28, 1998.

(17) Steve Midboe, Whatcom Farmers Cooperative, Lynden, WA. Personal Communication. October

22, 1998.

(18) Pacific Northwest Weed Control Handbook. Pacific Northwest Cooperative Extension Bulletin. 1998.

(19) Rolf Haugen, Riverberry, Inc. Personal Communication. October 28, 1998.

(20) Raworth, D.A., and Clements, S.J. Plant Growth and Yield of Red Raspberry following Primocane Defoliation.

Hort Science, Vol 31(6), 920-921, October 1996.

(21) Bristow, P.R. and Windom, G.E. Red Raspberry Root Rot. In the 1992 Red Raspberry Research

Proposals, 1991 Progress Reports to the Washington State Red Raspberry Commission.

(22) Tanigoshi, L. T., Research Entomologist, Washington State University, Vancouver Research and

Extension Center. Personal Communication. November 5, 1998.

(23) Shanks,C.H., Antonelli, A.L., and Congdon, B.D. Effect of pesticides on twospotted spider mite (Acari:

Tetranychidae) populations on red raspberries in western Washington, Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Environment,

38, 159-165, 1992.

(24) Mike Conway, Trident Ag Products, Vancouver, WA. Personal Communication. November 6,

1998.

(25) Brian Cieslar, Agronomist, Tri-Fruit, Lynden, WA. Personal Communication. November 19,

1998.

(26) Shanks,C.H., Antonelli, A.L., and Congdon, B.D. Impact of Insecticides on the Spider Mite Destroyer

and Twospotted Spider Mite on Red Raspberries in Washington. WSU Research Bulletin XB 1034, 1996.

(27) Pacific Northwest Plant Disease Control Handbook. Pacific Northwest Cooperative Extension Bulletin.

1998.

(28) Johnson, K.B., Sawyer, T.L., and Powelson, M.L. 1994. Frequency of benzimidazole- and

dicarboximide-resistant strains of Botrytis cinerea, in western Oregon small fruit and snap bean plantings. Plant

Disease 78: 572-577.

January 1999

–24–

College of Agriculture and Home Economics

Use pesticides with care. Apply them only to plants, animals, or sites listed on the label. When mixing

and applying pesticides, follow all label precautions to protect yourself and others around you. It is a

violation of the law to disregard label directions. If pesticides are spilled on skin or clothing, remove

clothing and wash skin thoroughly. Store pesticides in their original containers and keep them out of the

reach of children, pets, and livestock.

Copyright 1999 Washington State University

WSU Cooperative Extension bulletins contain material written and produced for public distribution.

You may reprint written material, provided you do not use it to endorse a commercial product. Alternate

formats of our educational materials are available upon request for persons with disabilities. Please contact

the Information Department, College of Agriculture and Home Economics, Washington State University

for more information.

You may order publications from the WSU Bulletin office, 1-800-723-1763, or http://caheinfo.wsu.edu.

Issued by Washington State University Cooperative Extension and the U.S. Department of Agriculture

in furtherance of the Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914. Cooperative Extension programs and policies

are consistent with federal and state laws and regulations on nondiscrimination regarding race, color,

gender, national origin, religion, age, disability, and sexual orientation. Evidence of noncompliance may

be reported through your local Cooperative Extension office. Trade names have been used to simplify

information; no endorsement is intended. Published March 1999. (Publication number MISC0351E.)

Raspberry

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search

For other uses, see Raspberry (disambiguation).

Cultivated raspberries

Cultivated raspberries

Raspberries

Raspberries

The raspberry (plural, raspberries) is the edible fruit of a multitude of plant species in the subgenus Idaeobatus of the genus Rubus; the name also applies to these plants themselves. The name originally referred to the European species Rubus idaeus, with red fruit, and is still used for that species as its standard English name in its native area.[1] Several other species, mostly closely related in the same subgenus Idaeobatus, are now also called raspberries. Raspberry species include:

  • Rubus arcticus (Arctic Raspberry)
  • Rubus crataegifolius (Korean Raspberry)
  • Rubus idaeus (European Red Raspberry)
  • Rubus leucodermis (Whitebark or Western Raspberry, native: Blue Raspberry)
  • Rubus occidentalis (Black Raspberry)
  • Rubus odoratus (Flowering Raspberry)
  • Rubus phoenicolasius (Wine Raspberry or Wineberry)
  • Rubus strigosus (American Red Raspberry) (syn. R. idaeus var. strigosus)

Raspberries are an important commercial fruit crop, widely grown in all temperate regions of the world. Many of the most important modern commercial red raspberry cultivars derive from hybrids between R. idaeus and R. strigosus.[2] Some botanists consider the Eurasian and American red raspberries to all belong to a single, circumboreal species, Rubus idaeus, with the European plants then classified as either R. idaeus subsp. idaeus or R. idaeus var. idaeus, and the native North American red raspberries classified as either R. idaeus subsp. strigosus, or R. idaeus var. strigosus.

The black raspberry, Rubus occidentalis, is also occasionally cultivated in the United States, providing both fresh and frozen fruit as well as jams, preserves, and other products, all with that species' distinctive, richer flavor.

Purple-fruited raspberries have been produced by horticultural hybridization of red and black raspberries, and have also been found in the wild in a few places (for example, in Vermont) where the American red and the black raspberries both grow naturally. The name Rubus × neglectus has been applied to these native American plants. Commercial production of purple raspberries is rare.

The commercially grown red and black raspberry species each have albino-like pale-fruited variants, most generally due to expression of recessive genes affecting production of anthocyanin pigments. Variously called golden raspberries, yellow raspberries, or (rarely) orange raspberries, these fruits retain the distinctive flavor of their respective species, despite their similarity of appearance. In the eastern United States, at least, most commercially sold pale-fruited raspberries are derivatives of red raspberries. Yellow-fruited variants of the black raspberry occur occasionally as wild plants (for example, in Ohio), and are sometimes grown in home gardens.

Contents

[hide]

  • 1 Cultivation
    • 1.1 Cultivars
    • 1.2 Selected important cultivars
  • 2 Nutrients and potential health benefits
  • 3 Diseases and pests
  • 4 References
  • 5 See also

[edit] Cultivation

Raspberry in flower in a garden

Raspberry in flower in a garden

Raspberries are grown for the fresh fruit market and for commercial processing into individually quick frozen (IQF) fruit, purée, juice, or as dried fruit used in a variety of grocery products. Traditionally, raspberries were a mid-summer crop, but with new technology, cultivars, and transportation, they can now be obtained year-round. Raspberries need ample sun and water for optimal development. While moisture is essential, wet and heavy soils or excess irrigation can bring on Phytophthora root rot which is one of the most serious pest problems facing red raspberry. As a cultivated plant in moist temperate regions, it is easy to grow and has a tendency to spread unless pruned. Escaped raspberries frequently appear as garden weeds, spread by seeds found in bird droppings.

Two types of most commercially grown kinds of raspberry are available, the summer-bearing wild type that produces an abundance of fruit on second-year canes (floricanes) within a relatively short period in mid-summer, and double- or "ever"-bearing plants, which also bear some fruit on first-year canes (primocanes) in the late summer and fall, as well as the summer crop on second-year canes. Raspberries can be cultivated from hardiness zones 3 to 9.

Raspberries are traditionally planted in the winter as dormant canes, although planting of tender,plug plants produced by tissue culture has become much more common. A specialized production system called "long cane production" involves growing canes for 1 year in a northern climate such as Scotland (UK) or Washington State (US) where the chilling requirement for proper budbreak is met early. These canes are then dug, roots and all, to be replanted in warmer climates such as Spain where they quickly flower and produce a very early season crop. Plants should be spaced 1 m apart in fertile, well drained soil; raspberries are usually planted in raised beds/ridges if there is any question about root rot problems.

The flowers can be a major nectar source for honeybees and other pollinators.

Raspberries are very vigorous and can be locally invasive. They propagate using basal shoots (also known as suckers); extended underground shoots that develop roots and individual plants. They can sucker new canes some distance from the main plant. For this reason, raspberries spread well, and can take over gardens if left unchecked.

The fruit is harvested when it comes off the torus/receptacle easily and has turned a deep color (red, black, purple, or golden yellow, depending on the species and cultivar). This is when the fruits are most ripe and sweetest. Excess fruit can be made into raspberry jam or frozen.

The leaves can be used fresh or dried in herbal and medicinal teas. They have an astringent flavour, and in herbal medicine are reputed to be effective in regulating menses.

An individual raspberry weighs about 4 g, on average[3] and is made up of around 100 drupelets,[4] each of which consists of a juicy pulp and a single central seed. Raspberry bushes can yield several pounds of fruit (or several hundred berries) a year. Unlike blackberries and dewberries, a raspberry has a hollow core once it is removed from the receptacle.

[edit] Cultivars

Numerous raspberry cultivars have been selected. Recent breeding has resulted in cultivars that are thornless and more strongly upright, not needing staking.

Red raspberries (Rubus idaeus and/or Rubus strigosus) have been crossed with the black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis) to produce purple raspberies, and with various species in other subgenera of the genus Rubus, resulting in a number of hybrids, such as boysenberry and loganberry. Hybridization between the familiar cultivated raspberries and a few Asiatic species of Rubus is also being explored.

[edit] Selected important cultivars

Source: New RHS Dictionary of Gardening.[2]

Red, early summer fruiting        

  • 'Boyne'
  • 'Fertődi Venus'
  • 'Rubin Bulgarski'
  • 'Cascade Dawn'
  • 'Glen Clova'
  • 'Glen Moy'
  • 'Killarney'
  • 'Malahat'
  • 'Malling Exploit'
  • 'Titan'
  • 'Willamette'

Red, mid summer

  • 'Cuthbert'
  • 'Lloyd George'
  • 'Meeker'
  • 'Newburgh'
  • 'Ripley'
  • 'Skeena'

Red, late summer

  • 'Cascade Delight'
  • 'Coho'
  • 'Fertődi Rubina'
  • 'Glen Prosen'
  • 'Malling Leo'
  • 'Octavia'
  • 'Schoenemann'
  • 'Tulameen'

Red, primocane, fall, autumn fruiting

  • 'Amity'
  • 'Augusta'
  • 'Autumn Bliss'
  • 'Caroline'
  • 'Fertődi Kétszertermő'
  • 'Heritage'
  • 'Josephine'
  • 'Ripley'
  • 'Summit'
  • 'Zeva Herbsternte'

Gold/Yellow, primocane, fall, autumn fruiting

  • 'Anne'
  • 'Fallgold'
  • 'Fertődi Aranyfürt'
  • 'Goldenwest'
  • 'Golden Queen'
  • 'Honey Queen'

Purple

  • 'Brandywine'
  • 'Royalty'

Black

  • 'Black Hawk'
  • 'Bristol'
  • 'Cumberland'
  • 'Glencoe'
  • 'Jewel'
  • 'Munger'
  • 'Ohio Everbearer'
  • 'Scepter'

In Scotland, raspberries have been crossed with other berries to produce fruit with unique flavors. The raspberry and the blackberry were crossed at the Scottish Crops Research Institute to produce the Tayberry.

[edit] Nutrients and potential health benefits

Nutrients in raw raspberries[5]

Nutrient

Value per 123 grams

 % Daily Value

Energy

64 kcal

Fiber, total dietary

8 g

32%

Sugars, total

5.4 g

Calcium, Ca

30.7 mg

3%

Magnesium, Mg

27.1 mg

7%

Iron, Fe

0.8 mg

5%

Manganese, Mn

0.8 mg

41%

Potassium, K

186 mg

5%

Sodium, Na

1.2 mg

0%

Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid

32.2 mg

54%

Vitamin A, IU

40.6 IU

1%

Vitamin K, mcg

9.6 mcg

12%

Folate, mcg

25.8 mcg

6%

Lutein + zeaxanthin

167 mcg

ne

ne: Daily Value not established

Raspberries contain significant amounts of polyphenol antioxidants such as anthocyanin pigments linked to potential health protection against several human diseases[6]. The aggregate fruit structure contributes to its nutritional value, as it increases the proportion of dietary fiber, placing it among plant foods with the highest fiber contents known, up to 20% fiber per total weight. Raspberries are a rich source of vitamin C, with 30 mg per serving of 1 cup (about 50% daily value), manganese (about 60% daily value) and dietary fiber (30% daily value). Contents of B vitamins 1-3, folic acid, magnesium, copper and iron are considerable in raspberries[7].

Raspberries rank near the top of all fruits for antioxidant strength, particularly due to their dense contents of ellagic acid (from ellagotannins), quercetin, gallic acid, anthocyanins, cyanidins, pelargonidins, catechins, kaempferol and salicylic acid. All these are polyphenolic antioxidants with promising health benefits under current research[8]. Yellow raspberries and others with pale-colored fruits are lower in anthocyanins.

Due to their rich contents of antioxidant vitamin C and the polyphenols mentioned above, raspberries have an ORAC value (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) of about 4900 per 100 grams, including them among the top-ranked ORAC fruits. Cranberries and wild blueberries have around 9000 ORAC units and apples average 2800[9].

The following anti-disease properties have been isolated in experimental models. Although there are no clinical studies to date proving these effects in humans, preliminary medical research shows likely benefit of regularly consuming raspberries against:[10][11][12][13]

  • inflammation
  • pain
  • cancer
  • cardiovascular disease
  • diabetes
  • allergies
  • age-related cognitive decline
  • degeneration of eyesight with aging

[edit] Diseases and pests

Wasps can be a nuisance on raspberries

Wasps can be a nuisance on raspberries

Please help improve this section by expanding it. Further information might be found on the talk page or at requests for expansion. (August 2007)

Raspberries are sometimes eaten by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species (butterflies and moths). See list of Lepidoptera that feed on Rubus.

[edit] References

  1. ^ Flora of NW Europe: Rubus idaeus
  2. ^ a b Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5.
  3. ^ Health and healing fact sheets, blackberries ~ Connecting Berry Health Benefit Researchers
  4. ^ Blackwell Synergy - Physiol Plant, Volume 110 Issue 4 Page 535-543, December 2000 (Article Abstract)
  5. ^ Nutritiondata.com, nutrient data for this listing provided by USDA SR20
  6. ^ Gross PM. Scientists zero in on health benefits of berry pigments, Natural Products Information Center, July 2007
  7. ^ World's Healthiest Foods, in-depth nutrient profile for raspberries
  8. ^ Science and nutrition summary for red raspberries, The Berry Doctor
  9. ^ Wu X, Beecher GR, Holden JM, Haytowitz DB, Gebhardt SE, Prior RL. Lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidant capacities of common foods in the United States. J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Jun 16;52(12):4026-37. Abstract.
  10. ^ Health and nutrition facts, Washington Red Raspberry Commission
  11. ^ Liu M, Li XQ, Weber C, Lee CY, Brown J, Liu RH. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of raspberries. J Agric Food Chem. 2002 May 8;50(10):2926-30.Abstract.
  12. ^ Heinonen M. Antioxidant activity and antimicrobial effect of berry phenolics--a Finnish perspective. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2007 Jun;51(6):684-91.Abstract.
  13. ^ Cerdá B, Tomás-Barberán FA, Espín JC. Metabolism of antioxidant and chemopreventive ellagitannins from strawberries, raspberries, walnuts, and oak-aged wine in humans: identification of biomarkers and individual variability. J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Jan 26;53(2):227-35.Abstract.

[edit] See also

  • Chambord Liqueur Royale de France
  • List of culinary fruits
  • Raspberry ketone
  • Xylitol, a low-calorie sugar substitute extractable from raspberries, corn, beets and numerous other natural sources

http://www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/horticulture/DG1108.html

Raspberries for the Home Garden

Emily E. Hoover
Professor
Department of Horticultural Science


-

Copyright ©  2008  Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved.

Raspberries belong to a large group of fruits known as brambles, all in the plant genus Rubus. Three main types which can be grown in the home garden are red, black, and purple. Raspberries can be grown successfully in most areas of Minnesota.

Raspberries have perennial roots and crowns but canes live for only two summers. Most raspberries are summer-bearing varieties. During the first year, the new cane (primocane, or first year cane) grows vegetatively. The cane overwinters and during the second growing season the floricane (or second year cane) produces fruit and then dies. Primocanes are produced each year so fruit production continues year after year.

Red and yellow raspberries produce numerous new canes from the base of the floricanes and from buds produced on the roots. Thus "raspberry patch" is an apt name if the canes are not controlled through pruning.

Black and most purple raspberries produce primocanes only from the buds at the base of the floricanes. These clumps or "hills" remain in the original planting location.

Ever-bearing raspberries, also called fall-bearing or primocane-fruiting raspberries are able to initiate flowers during the first year. These cultivars produce fruit at the tips of the primocanes. During the second year, they can produce a summer crop on the same canes. One problem with this type of raspberry in Minnesota is that in areas of the state where the growing season is short, many fruits may be lost to early freezes. Pruning may be adjusted to allow for both a fall and following summer crop.

Grow raspberries in a part of the garden that has good air circulation and water drainage and full sunlight. Good air movement helps foliage dry faster, thereby reducing disease problems. Standing water will increase the likelihood of disease problems and death of the plants due to a lack of oxygen to the roots. Protect plants from windy sites as wind can induce excessive drying and cane injury. Any well-drained soil is satisfactory for growing raspberries. Additional water will be needed on a sandy soil.

Cultivars

The list of cultivars below is based on research done through the Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station. Hardiness ratings are based on the survival of plants in Minnesota hardiness zones (see Figure 1).

Figure 1. Minnesota Fruit Zones.
Minnesota Fruit Zones.

Cultivar

Type

Hardiness Zone

Harvest Season

Productivity

Fruit Size

Attractiveness

Firmness

Flavor

Freezing Quality

Latham

red

1-4

mid

good

large

good

fair

good

good

Boyne

red

1-4

early

very good

medium

good

fair

good

good

Nordic

red

1-4

early

very good

medium

very good

good

very good

very good

Renveille

red

1-2

early

very good

medium

very good

fair

fair

fair

Sentinel

red

1-2

mid

very good

medium

very good

poor

fair

fair

Newburgh

red

1-2

mid

fair

medium

good

good

very good

fair

Hilton

red

1

mid

fair

large

good

good

fair

Festival

red

1-4

mid

very good

medium

very good

good

good

fair

Titan

red

1

mid-late

very good

very large

very good

superb

fair

Haida

red

1-3

mid-late

very good

medium

superb

very good

good

very good

Liberty

red

1-4

mid

good

medium

fair

poor

good

Sentry

red

1-2

mid

good

medium

good

very good

good

good

Skeena

red

1

mid-late

good

large

very good

very good

good

Killarney

red

1-4

early

good

medium

good

fair

good

very good

Canby

red

1

mid

good

large

very good

very good

good

Royalty

purple

1-2

late

very good

very large

fair

fair

good

Brandywine

purple

1-3

late

very good

very large

good

fair

fair

Blackhawk

black

1-3

late

fair

medium

good

very good

very good

Bristol

black

1-3

late

fair

medium

good

very good

very good

Heritage

fall, red

1-3

mid-late

very good

medium

very good

good

good

good

Fall Red

fall, red

1-4

early

good

medium

good

poor

good

fair

Amity

fall, red

1-3

early-mid

very good

medium

very good

good

good

Redwing

fall, red

1-4

early

very good

medium

very good

fair

good

fair

Summit

fall, red

1-4

early

good

medium

very good

good

good

Fallgold

fall, yellow

1-4

early

fair

medium

good

poor

superb

Autumn Bliss

fall, red

1-4

early

good

medium

very good

good

superb

Planting and Care

Early spring is the best time to plant raspberries. Purchase disease-free plants from a reputable nursery. Viruses can be readily transmitted into a planting through infected plants.

The favored planting system for red raspberries is the narrow hedgerow. Set red or yellow raspberries every 2 to 3 feet in rows at least 6 feet apart. Allow new primocanes to spread along the row but not wider than 12 inches. Wider rows invite fungal diseases because of slow drying conditions.

Set black and purple raspberries every 4 feet between plants and 8 feet between rows. Because these cultivars do not produce root suckers, they should be maintained in a "hill" system. The "hill" does not mean mounding the soil, it refers to the cluster of canes that develops from a single plant.

Raspberry plants need to be fertilized. When primocanes emerge in new plantings, scatter Ľ cup ammonium nitrate (33-0-0) around each plant. Once the planting is established, fertilize yearly by May 1. Evenly distribute fertilizer such as ammonium nitrate (1/5 cup) or 10-10-10 (˝ cup) per plant. Do not apply all fertilizer at the base of the plant, but spread it over the entire area.

Composted manure is a good source of nutrients and can be incorporated prior to planting at a rate of 3˝ cu. feet/100 sq. feet, to improve soil structure and provide nutrients. On established plantings, apply the same rate for plant nutrition.

Raspberries benefit from mulching. Good mulches for use in the home garden include leaves, lawn clippings, and wood chips or shavings because they are usually free of weed seeds. Add Ľ to ˝ cup of ammonium nitrate per bushel of wood shavings to speed decomposition and protect against nitrogen deficiency in the plants.

Plentiful water is important for raspberries from spring until after harvest. Because the root system is in the top 2 feet of soil, watering regularly is more beneficial than an occasional deep soaking. Raspberries need 1 to 1.5 inches of water per week from flowering until harvest.

Pruning and Training

All raspberries benefit from some type of support system because canes are susceptible to wind whipping, particularly when the fruit is present. Such a system can be as simple as posts with twine tied between them, or more elaborate with permanent posts and wire.

With the narrow hedgerow system, the simplest trellis system uses single or double wires or twine. Place posts about every 10 to 12 feet. Then place the canes between the wires and tie them loosely to the wire. The wires can be tied every 2 feet to prevent spreading. Remember, the rows need to be kept narrow.

Wire trellis-hedgerow system.

Figure 2. Wire trellis-hedgerow system.

Black and purple raspberries grown in the hill system need to have a support system as described above. The only difference is that there are no primocanes coming up between plants so canes need to be tied along the wire to fill the trellis.

Raspberries grow vigorously and need to be pruned yearly. Pruning practices depend on the type of raspberry grown.

Summer-bearing red and yellow raspberries: After the last harvest, cut all canes that have produced fruit to ground level and remove them. This eliminates a disease source and gives primocanes more room to grow. Thin primocanes to 4 to 5 sturdy canes per foot of row. In areas where winter injury is common, delay thinning primocanes until the following spring, however primocane growth will be less because of the competition among canes. Before growth starts in spring, cutting the canes to about 12 inches above the wire is desirable. Never cut more than 25% of the cane since this will begin to adversely effect yield.

Fall-bearing raspberries: If only a fall crop is desired, cut all canes off at the base before growth begins in spring. Fruit will be produced on primocanes in the fall of the year. If a fall and summer crop is desired, thin the canes as described for summer-bearing raspberries. The primocanes that produced the fall crop should not be removed as they will produce fruit the following summer. Prune them back in spring to about 12 inches above the wire, or to the last visible node that had fruit.

Black and purple raspberries: When primocanes are between 24 to 30 inches in height, pinch out the tip of each shoot to induce branching. This will make the fruit easier to pick and increase production. After harvest, cut down all canes that bore fruit to ground level. Before growth begins the following spring, cut back all side branches to 12 - 18 inches. Select 4 to 5 canes per hill and prune out the rest. Tie these canes to the support system.

Pest Problems

Good cultural practices will usually reduce insect and disease problems, as healthy canes recover rapidly. A number of insect pests induce wilting of the cane, either at the tip or the entire cane. Removal and disposal of infested canes is sufficient control in most instances. Picnic beetles, also called sap beetles, can become a severe nuisance soon after berries begin to ripen. They are attracted to all types of overripe fruit. Frequent picking will help reduce the amount of overripe fruit and decrease the area's attractiveness to the beetles.

A limited number of diseases affect raspberries. Cultural practices that limit the spread of diseases include planting certified disease-free plants, destroying wild or abandoned brambles near the garden, and removing weak and diseased plants in established plantings. After harvest, remove and destroy canes that have fruited or are weak; improve air circulation by proper thinning and pruning and by controlling weeds. For additional information refer to University of Minnesota Extension Service FS-1152, item Raspberry Diseases.


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Mur

distanta de plantare, descriere de iarna, magazine, la mare, toate, coroana, vara, umezeala

mure

rug de mure antrenat pe spalier

tufa de mure

Denumire stiintifica: Rubus fructicosus
Aspect: tufa perena
Expunere: plin soare
Soil: usor drenabil

Descriere
De multe ori, gradinarii scapa din vedere posibilitatile de cultivare a rugilor de mure. Murele se gasesc destul de rar in magazine, dar sunt usor de cultivat si de ingrijit.

Tipuri de mure:
a) Tufe de mure semi-cataratoare, fara spini - ramurile se intind pe pamant si nu se pot sustine singure vertical, asa ca trebuie antrenate pe spaliere sau araci. Fructul se coace cam la o luma dupa cel de la speciile drepte. Acest tip de mure nu trebuie cultivat in zonele unde temperaturile pe timp de iarna scad sub -17°C.
b) Tufe de mure cu ramuri drepte - tolereaza temperaturi putin sub -17°C fara ca tulpina sa fie afectata serios.

rug de mure in floare

tufa de mure cu spini

Testarea pamantului si plantarea tufelor de murelor
Este bine sa testati pH-ul solului cam cu sase luni inainte de data la care veti efectua plantarea, pentru a avea suficient timp sa ii imbunatatiti calitatea. Daca pH-ul este prea scazut, adaugati dolomita pentru a creste nivelul pana la cel indicat pe trusa de testare.

Radacinile tufei trebuie mentinute in umezeala pana se planteaza - fie le plantati temporar in alt loc potrivit, fie le tineti infasurate intr-un manson umed. Nu lasati radacinile tufei de mure intr-un mediu uscat sau la soare.

Sapati o gaura destul de mare incat radacinilor sa se intinda natural. Nu scurtati din radacinile; puteti numai sa le taiati pe cele stricate. Tufa se planteaza la adancimea la care a fost plantata si in sera din care ati cumparat-o. Coroana (care incepe din punctul din care pornesc tulpinile si radacinile) trebuie plasata la 3 cm sub nivelul solului.

Dupa plantare, batatoriti bine solul pentru a inlatura eventualele gauri de aer din jurul radacinilor. Imediat dupa plantare se uda bine.

Ingrijirea tufei de mure
Cel mai bine pentru mure este sa fie tratate cu amestecuri de fertilizatoare. Pentru cele mai bune rezultate, tratati tufa cu fertilizator primavara devreme, cand incepe procesul de dezvoltare si din nou vara, imediat dupa recoltarea fructelor.

Folositi 2 kg de amestec 10-10-10 la un rand lung de 30 m. Pentru ca tufa de mure sa fructifice tarziu, aplicati fertilizatorul pana cel tarziu in iulie, pentru a evita cresterea fortata a lastarilor tarzii care vor fi afectati de frigul iernii.

In primii doi ani, perioada in care radacinile se dezvolta complet, imprastiati in aproximativ 1 kg de fertilizator in jurul bazei tufei, pe o raza de 30 cm.

Tufa de mure are nevoie de umezeala abundenta pe perioada de dezvoltate si coacere a fructelor. Daca nu ploua suficient, trebuie sa irigati dvs. Cantitatea minima de apa necesara unei tufe mature de mure este de 7-8 litri de apa pe zi, in perioada de dezvoltare a fructelor.

Acoperirea bazei plantei cu paie, talas, resturi de lemne sau coceni de porumb ajuta la controlul buruienilor si la pastrarea umiditatii si a substantelor nutritive.

Tufele de mure trebuie sapate atent si des, sau acoperite foarte bine cu paie pentru ca sa nu fie napadite de buruieni. Odata ce au apucat sa creasca, buruienile sunt dificil de controlat. Saparea se incepe primavara, imediat ce pamantul poate fi lucrat si  face de cate ori e nevoie pentru a preveni aparitia buruienilor. Evitati saparea foarte adanca, pentru a nu rupe radacinile. Nu mai sapati pamantul din jurul bazei cam cu o luna inainte de sosirea sezonului rece (mai ales a inghetului). La plantele deja prinse se pot folosi si ierbicide.

tufa de mure

Rubus_fruticosus

Legarea, antrenarea si taierea
Tufele de mure semi-cataratoare trebuie antrenate si legate pe spaliere. Tufele cu ramuri drepte nu au nevoie sa fie legate daca sunt taiate vara astfel incat sa nu depaseasca 91-120 cm inaltime; ramurile lungi pot fi antrenate pe spaliere cu sarma.

Spalierul se construieste din doi araci, infipti in pamant cu 6 metri distanta intre ei, intre care se intinde sarma. Pentru tufele drepte e destul un singur fir de sarma, prins la 70 cm de la nivelul solului; pentru tufele semi-cataratoare se folosesc doua sarme prinse la 91 si respectiv 150 cm de la sol.

La unele soiuri de mure cu ramuri drepte, cum sunt Cherokee si Cheyenne trebuie taiati lastarii noi care dau de la butuc. In timpul perioadei de vegetatie este de dorit ca lastarii sa nu aiba mai mult de 30 cm. Cand lastarii noi cresc mai mult de atat, trebuie sa le taiati varfurile - asta va forta ramificarea inferioara pe ramuri, lucru care va intari lemnul si va face tufa sa suporte mai usor greutatea fructelor. Pe timpul iernii, ramurile laterale se scurteaza pana la 30-35 cm de la pamant, iar iarna tarziu se taie ramurile uscate.

Imediat ce a fost cules si ultimul fruct, vara, se taie toate ramurile batrane; tot atunci este un moment bun de a inlatura si lastarii tineri care par fragili.

Tufele de mure semi-cataratoare trebuie antrenate pe spaliere dupa cum am explicat mai sus si legate cu sfoara moale.

In general, in primul sezon recolta va fi mica. Daca tufa nu se dezvolta prea mult in aceasta prima perioada, taiati ramurile pana la 5-10 cm iarna tarziu pentru a forta aparitia unora mai viguroase. Din cel de-al doilea an si in cei care vor urma, lastarii vor creste mai vigurosi; ei trebuie legati pe spaliere cand au 1,2 - 1,6 metri. Unii cultivatori prefera sa astepte pana dupa ce au cules toate fructele si taiat ramurile batrane pentru a lega lastarii noi. Taiarea ramurilor batrane este o operatie foarte importanta pentru prevenirea bolilor. Dupa recoltare, inlaturati si ramurile fragile sau bolnave, lasand numai 4-8 lastari tineri; acestia se leaga pe spalier in forma de evantai, nu ca un buchet. Primavara se scurteaza orice lastar nou pana la 30 de cm.

Recoltarea
Recoltarea murelor cu ramuri drepte incepe cam la 1-2 saptamani dupa sezonul capsunilor; fructele tufelor semi-cataratoare nu incep sa se coaca decat de abia pe la mijlocul verii. Murele se culeg cand sunt negre.

Inmultirea
Este o operatie simpla, chiar si pentru gradinari incepatori. Cel mai bun moment este in septembrie; alegeti o ramura viguroasa, aplecati-o la pamant (fara sa o rupeti) si ingropati o portiune din ea in pamant, intr-o gaura de aproximativ 15 cm. Acoperiti cu pamant si nivelati. daca pare ca ramura va iesi la suprafata, asezati deasupra ei cateva pietre pe care sa le dati la o parte peste doua luni; udati bine daca mediul este foarte secetos.

Lastarul va prinde radacini in cateva luni si poate fi scos pentru a fi plantat in locul final in primavara anului urmator. Pentru asta, taiati lastarul-mama la aprox. 30 cm de noua planta si dezgropati tufa tanara fara sa-i deranjati prea mult radacinile.

ZMEURA

In tara noastra, zmeurul (Rubus idaeus L.) creste atat in stare salbatica (zmeurisurile de munte), cat si cultivata. In cultura este reprezentata prin soiuri neremontate (cu o singura recolta pe an, in iunie-iulie), si soiuri remontante (cu doua perioade de recoltare pe an: iunie-iulie si septembrie-octombrie). In functie de soi, culoarea fructelor poate fi rosie sau galbena.

 

Zmeura este sensibila la manipulari si transport; ea trebuie livrata in ziua culesului pentru a nu se deprecia. Perisabilitatea accentuata a ei se datoreaza continutului mare de apa.

 

Zmeura contine: apa (82-89 %), zaharuri (4-11 %), acizi, tanini, coloranti, pectina, substante minerale, vitamine. Ea este practic, la fel de bogata in vitamina C (19-32 mg la 100 g) ca si murele, dar contine mai multe vitamine din complexul B (B1, B2, acid pantotenic, vitamina PP), vitamina P, provitamina A. Dintre acizi predomina acidul citric, iar dintre zaharuri levuloza, glucoza si zaharoza.

 

Zmeura se foloseste pentru consum in stare proaspata, la fabricarea (sau prepararea culinara) de suc, sirop, dulceata, marmelada, compot, peltea, lichior etc. si la prepararea unor produse de cofetarie: serbet, inghetata, sufleu, crema, sos, spuma, etc.

 

In scopuri terapeutice, se folosesc fructele ajunse la maturitate si infuzia din frunze tinere.

 

Zmeura are efect tonic, depurativ, diuretic, laxativ, sudorific, febrifug si antianginos. Este recomandata in cazuri de astenii, anemii, afectiuni renale si hepatice (litiaza biliara), reumatism, guta, temperamente biloasa (iritabile), constipatie, dispepsii de putrefactie, gastrita hiperacida, ulcer gastro-duodenal, colita, ciroze, stari febrile, hipertensiune arteriala, ateroscleroza, amigdalita etc. pentru ca zaharurile din zmeura sunt reprezentate in principal prin levuloza, acest fruct este admis diabeticilor.

 

Gelatina din suc de zmeura se recomanda in gastrite, ulcere, hepatita cronica, ciroze, litiaza biliara, rectocolita hemoragica, afectiuni cardiace, hipertensiune, ateroscleroza, colita etc. Se poate folosi si de diabetici, dar indulcita cu zaharina. Se prepara din 250 g fructe proaspete, 20 g zahar, o foaie si jumatate de gelatina si 75 ml apa. Se extrage sucul din fructe, iar resturile se fierb cu 50 ml apa si se strecoara. In jumatate din lichidul fierbinte rezultat se dizolva gelatina muiata in apa rece. Se amesteca bine gelatina cu sucul de fructe, apoi se rastoarna intr-o forma umezita si se pune la rece.

 

Siropul de zmeura, diluat eventual cu apa, este foarte racoritor in stari febrile infectioase, in caz de rujeola (pojar), scarlatina, inflamatii urinare, febre biloase, nefrite etc.

 

Spuma de zmeura cu gris, se foloseste in aceleasi boli ca si gelatina din suc de zmeura. La prepararea ei se foloseste: 150 g fructe, 20 g gris, 15 g zahar si 250 ml apa. Se stoarce sucul din fructe, iar pulpa stoarsa se fierbe in apa si apoi se strecoara. In lichidul rezultat se adauga treptat grisul si zaharul, continuand fierberea circa 4 minute. Se sisteaza fierberea si se amesteca inca 5 minute la rece, apoi se adauga sucul de fructe.

 

Frunzele de zmeur se recolteaza inainte sau in perioada infloririi, care dureaza 30-60 de zile. Se detaseaza foliolele de pe axul principal al frunzei compuse si se usuca la umbra, in strat subtire, in locuri aerisite. Ele sunt foarte bogate in vitamina C (800 mg la 100 g) si tanin (cca 10 %); contin, de asemenea, vitamina P care contribuie la cresterea rezistentei capilarelor.

 

Infuzia din frunze de zmeur (o lingurita de frunze la 200 ml apa in clocot) continand tanin, are efect astringent (antidiareic) si dezinfectant; se foloseste in diaree si dizenterie. Intrucat scade aciditatea gastrica este indicata in gastrita hiperacida, piroze (arsuri la stomac) si ulcer duodenal. Se mai recomanda in nefrite, cardiopatie ischemica s.a. Se beau doua cani pe zi. Impreuna cu frunze de nuc si de afin, frunzele de zmeur dau un ceai alimentar placut.

I. Alexa

Tags: dietoterapie, fructe, preparate, zmeura

inapoi la prima pagina

Peste 90% din productia de fructe de padure realizata de Romsilva este destinata exportului, potrivit Agentiei NewsIn

Vesticii cumpara de la producatorul roman zmeura, afine, mure, macese, catina si paducel. Romsilva este cel mai mare producator de fructe de padure de pe piata romaneasca, deoarece in acest caz putem vorbi despre o productie organizata.
In schimb, micii proprietari care si-au primit padurile nu au reusit sa se asocieze pentru a putea vinde cantitati mari pe piata. Dezorganizarea de pe piata interna ii determina pe procesatorii de fructe de padure sa apeleze la importul de materie prima.
Pentru 2006, Romsilva estimeaza productia de fructe de padure la aproximativ 6.500 de tone, o cantitate relativ egala cu cea a anului 2005. Anul trecut, a fost realizata o productie de 6.750 de tone de fructe de padure si in proportie de 90% a fost exportata pe pietele din Germania, Austria, Italia si Franta.
In aceste tari se prefera produsele in stare refrigerata, dar se importa si pentru industria farmaceutica. Si in 2006, cea mai mare parte a productiei va fi destinata exportului, a declarat un oficial al Romsilva, citat de NewsIn. Asta se datoreaza si faptului ca pretul oferit de catre partenerii externi a crescut cu cateva sute de euro pe tona.
In acest an, cele mai solicitate fructe de padure la export sunt afinele, zmeura si murele, in timp ce oferta celorlalte tari este diminuata fata de anii trecuti. Sezonul de recoltare a fructelor de padure din tara noastra a inregistrat intarzieri din cauza conditiilor meteorologice nefavorabile. (S.N.)

Eficienta unei activitati de productie, in cazul produselor horticole, este determinata in final de modul si de formele de valorificare.
In prezent, problema cea mai dificila pe care o intampina micii producatori de fructe este valorificarea, mai ales in cazul fructelor perisabile.
O alternativa in acest sens o constituie semiindustrializarea fructelor folosind echipamente si instalatii proprii de capacitate mica/medie.



Prin folosirea acestei tehnologii de valorificare castigurile producatorilor pot fi duble sau chiar triple, fata de valorificarea ca materie prima a fructelor proaspete, deoarece tendinta actuala a fabricilor de conserve din Romania este procurarea materiei prime sub forma de produse semiindustrializate, care sunt mai usor de depozitat, nu inregistreaza pierderi la prelucrare, iar termenul de valabilitate este de pana la 12 luni.
Tehnologiile de semiindustrializare a fructelor sunt operative si relativ simple, asigurand o valorificare mai buna a fructelor care nu gasesc alta cale de utilizare datorita supraofertei, calitatii improprii pentru alte destinatii sau distantelor mari intre locul de recoltare si fabricile de conserve.
Produsele semiindustrializate, cunoscute si sub denumirea de semiconserve, semifabricate, semiprelucrate sau semitransformate reprezinta o cale de conservare abiotica, de natura chimica.
Substantele chimice antiseptice (conservantii alimentari) folosite in tehnologiile de semiindustrializare a fructelor sunt: SO2 (dioxid de sulf), urmat de acidul benzoic cu derivatii sai benzoatul de sodiu, potasiu sau calciu, derivatii acidului paraoxibenzoic, iar cu o utilizare limitata sunt folositi acidul sorbic, acidul formic si derivatii lor.
Cel mai utilizat antiseptic este dioxidul de sulf datorita proprietatilor sale de fungicid, bacteriocid, antioxidant si partial antioxidazic.
Concentratiile de 0,1 – 0,2% SO2 sunt letale pentru microflora de biodegradare existenta pe fructe. In timpul prelucrarii in instalatii de vacuum, SO2 din produsele semiindustrializate se elimina aproape total.
Produsele semiindustrializate din fructe sunt: pulpele, marcurile si sucurile suprasulfitate.
Pulpele de fructe sunt obtinute prin prelucrare mecanica, urmata de conservare chimica. Se prezinta ca fructe intregi sau divizate, permitand identificarea speciilor din care provin. In acelasi ambalaj, pulpele trebuie sa provina dintr-o singura specie de fructe.
Pulpele de fructe se prepara din: capsune, cirese, visine, caise, prune, mere, gutui, zmeura, coacaze, mure, afine, etc.
Materia prima trebuie sa corespunda scopului urmarit din punct de vedere al sanatatii, fermitatii, continutului in glucide (minim 14% la prune – 7% la capsune) sau gradului de poluare.
Nu se recomanda stocarea pe perioade mai lungi, mai ales in cazul ambalajelor improprii, care pot favoriza fermentarea sau mucegairea, limitele recomandate fiind intre 8 ore la capsune/zmeura si respectiv 98 ore la gutui.
Ambalajele de pastrare cele mai folosite sunt butoaiele sau bidoanele din material plastic, igienice si usor de intretinut.
Pentru pulpele de fructe cu textura sensibila se prepara si o solutie de bisulfit de calciu care se adauga dupa limpezire in proportie de 1:1 cu solutia conservanta de baza.
La fructele moi: zmeura, mure, capsune, se foloseste concentratia de minim 4% SO2, iar solutia ocupa in raport cu masa fructelor un volum de 5%.
La merele si gutuile divizate solutia de SO2 3% va ocupa un volum de 7%.
La cirese, visine, caise, prune, afine, coacaze negre, coarne si macese solutia de SO2 2% va ocupa un volum de 10% in raport cu masa fructelor.
Fructele pregatite se introduc in recipiente treptat pentru a nu le vatama. Cand nivelul de umplere cu fructe a recipientelor ajunge la jumatate se adauga doua treimi din cantitatea de solutie conservanta, apoi se completeaza cu fructe si cu diferenta de solutie. Nivelul maxim de umplere este de 90% din capacitate.
Recipientele umplute cu fructe se etanseizeaza perfect, apoi se recomanda rostogolirea lor pentru ca solutia conservanta sa cuprinda cat mai bine pulpele de fructe. Operatia se executa atent, repetandu-se timp de 5 - 7 zile. In caz contrar, in recipiente se formeaza focare de fermentatie, care pot cuprinde intregul continut.
Pentru o corecta identificare ambalajele se marcheaza, apoi se depoziteaza in spatii curate, aerisite, la temperatura de maxim 15°C. In aceste conditii, pulpele de fructe se pot conserva pana la 12 luni (6 luni la cele din flora spontana).
Pulpele de fructe se folosesc pentru obtinerea de marmelade, gemuri, dar si sucuri cu pulpa. Continutul in SO2 total raportat la masa produsului, inclusiv lichidul, trebuie sa fie de 0,1 – 0,2%.
In cazul pulpelor de fructe utilizate pentru confitare (confiere) cum este cazul cireselor se pune un accent deosebit pe marimea, fermitatea si uniformitatea fructelor, pe lipsa de defecte si prevenirea craparii. In acest caz, continutul redus in glucide nu constituie un criteriu de neacceptare, recomandandu-se chiar recoltarea in parga.
Marcurile de fructe sunt produse obtinute in urma trecerii prin sita a fructelor proaspete sau pulpelor de fructe, oparite in prealabil sau neoparite, apoi conservate in scopul prelucrarii lor ulterioare.
Marcurile se prepara din caise, piersici, mere, pere, prune, gutui, cirese, visine, capsune, zmeura, mure, afine, coarne, sau in amestec (35% prune, 50% mere si 15% alte fructe). Se considera ca fructele care nu corespund pentru conservarea sub forma de pulpe (fructe de calitatea II) se pot transforma in marcuri.
Materia prima trebuie sa fie sanatoasa, constand in fructe proaspete, la maturitatea tehnologica, cu un continut cat mai ridicat in glucide (minim 14% la prune, 12% la cirese, visine, 11% la gutui, mere, 10% la caise, pere, 9% la zmeura, mure, 8% la piersici, afine, 7% la capsune).
Sortarea, curatarea si spalarea temeinica asigura igiena si stabilitatea ulterioara, prin micsorarea incarcaturii microbiene si de substante poluante. In paralel se indeparteaza coditele, caliciul, uneori samburii.
Fructele cu pulpa tare, de dimensiuni mari (mere, pere, gutui) se divizeaza, iar fructele mai moi, coapte, se zdrobesc.
Tratarea termica a fructelor se poate realiza intr-un prefierbator in scopul inmuierii tesuturilor si hidrolizei pectinei, marind randamentul la strecurare. Aceasta inactiveaza enzimele si distruge microflora de biodegradare.
Fructele cu pulpa moale (capsune, afine, etc.) se incalzesc numai la temperatura de fierbere. Fructele samburoase (cirese, visine, caise, piersici, prune) se fierb 5-10 minute, iar fructele semintoase (mere, pere, gutui) 10-15 minute daca au fost divizate sau 15-30 minute daca au fost introduse intregi.
Strecurarea se poate face mecanic la o pasatrice avand site cu ochiuri de 1-2 mm. O pasatrice care functioneaza bine elimina reziduurile aproape uscate si samburii intregi (nesparti). Racirea se face pana la temperatura de 30-35°C.
In aceasta faza se verifica si continutul in substanta uscata solubila, pentru a fi corespunzator STAS.
Marcurile necorespunzatoare se vor amesteca cu altele mai bogate in substanta uscata solubila. Omogenizarea se realizeaza in bazine cu malaxor, adaugandu-se solutia de SO2 cat mai concentrata, in proportie variabila cu durata depozitarii.
Pentru 12 luni de conservare, cantitatea necesara este de 3 l solutie SO2 6%, iar pentru 6 luni de numai 2 l la 100 kg marc.
Umplerea ambalajelor de pastrare, care pot fi butoaie sau bidoane din material plastic, se realizeaza in proportie de 90% cu marc omogenizat. La capacitati mici tratarea cu solutia conservanta si omogenizarea se executa concomitent cu umplerea, Depozitarea se realizeaza la temperatura constanta de maxim 15 °C, timp de maxim 12 luni.
Din marcuri se fabrica magiunul, marmelada si unele gemuri. Marcurile neconservate de calitate buna (neoxidate, numite piureuri) se folosesc pentru prepararea sucurilor cu pulpa, piureurilor concentrate, spumelor, inghetatelor si a altor produse concentrate sau de cofetarie.
Sucurile suprasulfitate din fructe se obtin prin prelucrarea fructelor sub forma de suc prin tratare enzimatica, urmata de presare, adaugarea solutiei conservante si limpezire.
Pentru obtinerea unui suc suprasulfitat de calitate buna materia prima trebuie sa fie proaspata, sanatoasa, nefermentata, bine coapta, zemoasa, fara a conta marimea fructelor. Dupa sortare si spalare se realizeaza zdrobirea cu utilaje din material inoxidabil. Pulpa obtinuta este formata dintr-o faza lichida si vascoasa (sucul) si o faza solida semigelificata. Enzimele pectolitice care se comercializeaza maresc randamentul in suc si determina aroma, gustul, mirosul si culoarea acestuia. La mere/pere durata tratamentului este de 20 minute, la temperatura de 40 °C.
Dupa presare, sucurile in functie de materia prima, sunt vulnerabile la oxidare si la declansarea spontana a fermentatiei, care odata declansata nu mai poate fi stopata. Din acest motiv, operativitatea in preluare si prelucrare, igiena perfecta si sulfitarea fara intarziere constituie conditii obligatorii de lucru.
Suprasulfitarea se poate executa direct cu sulfitometrul sau cu dispozitive speciale de dozare, in functie de debitul pompei, administrand-se 0,125 – 0,15% SO2.
Limpezirea sucurilor se executa dupa sulfitare prin decantare naturala, prin bentonizare, centrifugare sau filtrare grosiera. Sucul limpezit se pastreaza in rezervoare de inox sau in butoaie cu capacitatea de 200-300 l, in spatii uscate, aerisite, la temperaturi mai mici de 20 °C.
Sucurile se folosesc la fabricarea concentratelor, siropurilor, lichiorurilor, nectarurilor si altor produse similare. In momentul comercializarii continutul in SO2 al sucurilor de fructe, nectaruri, etc., trebuie sa fie de maxim 10 mg/l.
Alte procedee de semiindustrializare a fructelor care inlocuiesc conservarea chimica, mai ales in cazul exporturilor, sunt: congelarea, supraconcentrarea cu zahar si termosterilizarea la capacitati mari. Aceste procedee insa sunt mult mai costisitoare pentru micii producatori.

Ing. Adriana Fianu
ICDIMPH – Horting Bucuresti

PROPUNERE DE INVESTITIE

Comuna Sotrile – Judetul Prahova

Infiintarea unui centru de colectare fructe de padure

1.1 PREZENTARE GENERALA

·        Numele: Comuna Sotrile,

·        Cod fiscal: 2843434

·        Adresa: Comuna Sotrile, Jud. Prahova

·        Tel/fax: 0721 375 359/ 0244 359 001/0244 359 234  

·        Localitati apartinatoare; Sotrile, Plaiul Campinei, Lunca Mare, Ceciuri, Vistieru, Plaiul Cornului

·        Reprezentata de : Primar Manescu Vasile

Dotarea comunei  Sotrile din punct de vedere al infrastructurii:

Radial Diagram

1.2. OBIECTIVELE GENERALE ALE PROIECTULUI

Principalele obiective generale in strategia de dezvoltarea comunei Sotrile pe termen lung si mediu sunt:

·        dezvoltarea infrastructurii de baza;

·        cresterea potentialului economic;

·        imbunatatirea calitatii vietii;

·        valorificarea fructelor de padure, a florei spontane si a plantelor medicinale;

·        crestera competitivitatii si performantelor activitatii in special in agricultura;

·        protejarea si conservarea biodiversifitatii si a habitatului natural;

·        modernizarea si dezvoltarea serviciilor publice de alimentare cu apa si canalizare (nu exista proiect; sursa la Paltinu); iar pentru canalizare (nu exista), energie electrica (modernizata cu stalpi de beton si iluminat stradal);

·        asigurarea unui sistem durabil de alimentare cu gaze naturale (nu exista );

·        reabilitarea drumurilor (este nevoie de asfaltare pe 7 km drum comunal);

·        telefonie (releu Cosmote).

 La elaborarea strategiei de dezvoltare a comunei s-au avut in vedere urmatoarele:

   - crearea de noi locuri de munca;

   - cresterea nivelului de trai prin formarea si extinderea agriculturii in primul rand;

   - adaptarea la inevitabilele schimbari ce vor avea loc pe parcurs;

   - prezentarea posibilitatilor de investitii directe sau prin parteneriat public-privat;

   - conservarea si protejarea biodiversitatii si habitatului natural.

Modalitati de realizare a strategiei de dezvoltare durabila:

·        facilitarea procesului de dezvoltare economica locala;

·        atragerea investitorilor autohtoni si straini in zona printr-un ansamblu de facilitati in acord cu legislatia in vigoare;

·        crearea si promovarea unei imagini favorabile a comunei atat in tara cat si in strainatate prin activitati de informare privind caracteristicile, comunitatea si oportunitatile locale, organizarea de evenimente in acest scop, crearea de relatii cu factori de interes in dezvoltarea economica locala, identificarea posibilelor parteneriate in scopul dezvoltarii locale;

·        sprijinirea implementarii strategiei prin realizarea planului de marketing al comunei si implicarea membrilor comunitatii in procesul de dezvoltare locala.

 

Planificarea strategica precum si realizarea proiectelor si programelor se vor face pe baza urmatoarelor principii:

• utilizarea tehnologiei informatiei si a comunicarii, deschide noi posibilitati atat pentru furnizorii de servicii cat si pentru cetateni;

• crearea unor mecanisme de consultare efectiva a cetatenilor, avand ca scop cresterea gamei de servicii oferite si primirea unor informatii privind calitatea serviciilor;

• cresterea calitatii, ceea ce  inseamna schimbarea modului de a gandi si de a aborda diverse probleme, trecerea la o gandire flexibila, orientata catre rezultat;

• includerea furnizarii serviciilor: pentru ca serviciile sa fie mai usor accesibile, acestea trebuie canalizate astfel incat sa se bazeze pe nevoile si asteptarile cetatenilor. Realizarea unui ghiseu unic necesita parcurgerea mai multor etape, fiind precedata de solutii de integrare mai simple (servicii de informare telefonica, portal de Internet).

• programarea si stabilirea resurselor trebuie sa se faca in mod transparent, pentru a permite participantilor sa contribuie cat mai mult la acest proces.

O importanta deosebita in cresterea capacitatii institutionale o reprezinta ridicarea nivelului de pregatire profesionala a resurselor umane din administratia publica, cu ajutorul cursurilor organizate de Ministerul Administratiei Publice prin Centrul National de Formare Continua pentru Administratia Publica.

1.1      PREZENTARE PROIECT

In comuna Sotrile  exista posibilitatea construirii unui centru de colectare a fructelor de padure. Primaria ofera spre inchiriere si concesionare camin cultural (500mp), brutarie (100 mp), han (550 mp), si teren extravilan (1-2 euro/mp)si intravilan (5-8 euro/mp. Primaria mai ofera scutiri de taxe si impozite pe perioada determinata.

Comuna Sotrile detine o suprafata totala de 4113  ha din care,  969 ha de padure unde gasim din abundenta fructe de padure.

            Conceptul de fructe de padure, trebuie inteles intr-un sens larg, reprezentand fructe sau parti din fructe folosite in medicina sau alimentatie, datorita valorii lor terapeutice si nutritive sau datorita particularitatilor lor dietetice deosebite. Numarul variat al speciilor de fructe de padure constituie materia prima pentru prepararea unei game foarte diverse de sortimente culinare cat si preparate medicale. Majoritatea fructelor de padure se caracterizeaza printr-un gust si aroma deosebita.

Sursa de finantare a acestui proiect sa va realiza prin parteneriat public-privat: Consiliul Local concesionand terenul si cladirea necesar realizarii investitiei, partenerul urmand sa realize investitia din surse proprii.

Directiile strategice ale proiectului:

·        Cresterea contributiei la dezvoltarea complexa, armonioasa si durabila a zonei rurale;

·        Construirea, dezvoltarea si modernizarea centrului de colectare si prelucrare in concordanta cu tendintele pe plan international;

·        Stimularea si sprijinirea producatorilor agricoli  pentru infiintarea de adevarate exploatatii agricole si de organizatii profesionale:

·        Dezvoltarea agriculturii, in concordanta cu regulile de protectie a mediului inconjurator;

·        Imbunatatirea legislatiei pentru atragere, in mai mare masura, a investitorilor straini;

·        Atingerea treptata, dar in ritm sustinut, a parametrilor minimali de performanta, in vederea integrarii in structurile Uniunii Europene.

Autoritatea locala va trebui sa se implice profund in realizarea acestor programe de lunga durata prin atragerea de resurse financiare si prin acordarea unor facilitati investitorilor.

            Tot autoritatea locala va trebui sa aiba un rol major prin popularizarea programelor de investitii acordate tarii noastre de la Uniunea Europeana, programe de finantare care vizeaza acest sector.

1.4 PIATA ACTUALA

            Romania este una dintre tarile cele mai bogate in biodiversitate din Europa. Este bogata in fructe de padure, plante medicinale si aromatice (PMA), cele mai multe gasindu-se in zonele agricole gospodarite in mod traditional.

           Acest proiect isi propune sa sporeasca motivatia pentru conservarea habitatelor bogate in biodiversitate, prin demonstrarea modului in care acestea pot fi utilizate pentru productia durabila de fructe de padure in beneficiul culegatorilor si detinatorilor de teren.

Proiectul se integreaza perfect in Strategia Nationala pentru Biodiversitate  pentru Romania, care identifica necesitatea conservarii speciilor cu mare valoare economica amenintate si precizeaza ca habitatele ce prezinta mare valoare, trebuie conservate si gospodarite in mod durabil.

Fructele de padure  sunt utilizate pe filiera de comercializare, pe de o parte, in industria alimentara sub forma naturala sau preparate, pe da alta parte in industria medicamentelor dar si produselor cosmetice. Trebuie ca activitatea de producere, prelucrare si procesare a fructelor de padure din Romania sa se dezvolte, in sensul de a ocupa un segment de piata cat mai mare. In Uniunea Europeana, politica de promovare si informare asupra produselor se realizeaza prin mai multe reglementari.



Gestionarea pietei fructelor de padure, atat a celor din cultura cat si a celor recoltate din flora spontana, trebuie sa se realizeze pe baza unor instrumente care sa asigure implementarea unei politici agricole coerente de piata.

Politica pietei se aplica partenerilor pietei fructelor de padure: producatorilor agricoli de fructe de padure, culegatorilor de fructe de padure din flora spontana, prelucratorilor, procesatorilor.

             Relatiile comerciale dintre acestia se bazeaza pe contracte, acreditare de functionare, declaratii de cultivare si livrare, certificare, ambalare, marcare. Calitatile speciale ale fructelor de padure sunt deja recunoscute de consumatori. Pentru aceasta se impune aplicarea unei politici de informare si promovare care sa permita deschiderea de noi debusee comerciale.

Dezvoltarea acestor activitati la nivelul asigurarii cerintelor pietei se poate realiza prin diverse programe, care in functie de importanta lor, pot fi cofinantate de operatorii interesati si de bugetul de stat.

 Politica comunitara in acest sens se realizeaza pe baza reglementarii (CE) nr.2702/1999 a Consiliului privind actiunile  de informare si promovare  a produselor agricole din tari terte si Reglementari (CE) nr.2826/2000 privind actiunile de informare si promovare a produselor agricole  din cadrul comunitatii.

             Resursele Romaniei in ceea ce priveste fructele de padure sunt foarte diversificate.        Fructele de padure pot fi cultivate si in sistem intensiv, iar situatia suprafetelor la nivel national se prezinta astfel: cea mai cultivata specie ramane zmeurul, apoi afinul.

Pericolul de a ramane fara materie prima a facut ca unitatile de procesare sa se orienteze din ce in ce mai mult catre productia proprie de fructe de padure cultivate.

Preturile variaza de la 800- 900 euro/tona la 2000- 2300 euro /tona, in functie de specie, starea produsului (proaspata sau uscata), modul de realizare al produsului (in cultura clasica sau in cultura Bio-organica), calitate si raportul dintre cerere si oferta.

Date  de productie ;

Exporturi estimate in 2004:
Proaspat Refrigerat Congelat
Tone Euro/tona Tone Euro/tona Tone euro/tona
Afine - - 200 1.250 600 1.350
Zmeura - - 600 1.100 300 1.200
Mure - - 350 500 350 550
Catina - - 250 700 350 550
Macese 800 250 800 300 800 350
Porumbe - - 900 400 100 450
Paducel 300 400 - - - -
Sursa: Regia Nationala a Padurilor

Pentru 2006, cele mai solicitate fructe de padure la export sunt afinele, zmeura si murele, in contextul in care oferta altor tari este diminuata fata de anii trecuti. Si in Romania, sezonul de recoltare a fructelor de padure a inregistrat intarzieri din cauza conditiilor meteorologice nefavorabile.

Valoarea exportului de fructe de padure din anul 2005, a reprezentat circa 22% din exportul total realizat de Romsilva.

            Peste 100 de tone de fructe de padure au plecat, din padurile din Bucovina pe pietele din Uniunea Europeana. Cele mai cautate sunt zmeura si afinele, care se vand pe pietele europene la preturi de 800-900 de euro/tona. In aceasta vara, Suceava a exportat 60.853 kg zmeura in Germania si 20.453 kg in Franta, iar in Italia si Belgia a vandut afine, 30 si respectiv 20 de tone. Directia Silvica Suceava, exportator de fructe de padure din judet, are si pentru productie 2.000 de hectare in zona de munte. Seful Directiei Silvice Suceava, Sorin Popescu, spune ca aproximativ 75% din productia de fructe din padurile Sucevei merge la export si, pentru a face fata cererii institutia angajeaza, vara de vara, culegatori carora le plateste circa 30.000 de lei vechi pentru un kilogram de zmeura si 50.000 de lei pentru un kilogram de afine. Surse din piata sustin ca pretul extern la fructele de padure a crescut, in acest an cu cateva sute de euro pe tona.

             Obiectivele prioritare urmarite prin prezentul proiect sunt cresterea productivitatii si a calitatii, implicand totodata si cresterea veniturilor producatorilor agricoli si dezvoltarea durabila a comunei, in concordanta cu cerintele protectiei mediului inconjurator, in scopul crearii unui sector competitiv, care sa raspunda cerintelor pietei comune.

1.5 STRATEGII DE IMPLEMENTARE, DATE PRIVIND PIATA POTENTIALA SI PROMOVAREA

            Fructele de padure cultivate si din flora spontana au si la aceasta data o importanta pondere din totalul  procesarii la nivel national.

            Programul SAPARD ofera sprijin financiar pentru asigurarea tuturor conditiilor tehnice necesare productiei de fructe de padure si relansarea acestei activitati cu mare potential de dezvoltare.

            Prin Masura 3.4, „Dezvoltarea si diversificarea activitatilor economice care sa genereze activitati multiple si venituri alternative", submasura „Alte activitati", cei care doresc sa investeasca intr-o astfel de activitate pot obtine fonduri nerambursabile SAPARD pentru colectarea, depozitarea si procesarea fructelor de padure. In cadrul unui proiect SAPARD se pot construi sau moderniza cladirile operationale si utilitatile conexe pentru depozitarea materiilor prime si produselor, pentru procesare si marketing.

De asemenea, sunt suportate cheltuielile legate de dotarea laboratoarelor pentru analiza si cercetare, constructii speciale si nu in ultimul rand pentru birourile administrative.

Totodata, pentru bunul mers al investitiei, pot fi achizitionate echipamente si dispozitive noi pentru recoltarea, depozitarea, procesarea si marketingul produselor.

            Suma alocata prin Programul SAPARD pentru submasura „Alte activitati", in care sunt cuprinse si fructele de padure, se ridica la aproximativ 23 de milioane de Euro. Totalul fondurilor disponibile pentru Masura 3.4 este de 150,32 de milioane de euro din care submasura mentionata mai sus are o pondere de 15%.

Beneficiarii, persoane fizice autorizate, asociatii familiale, societati agricole, societati comerciale cu capital integral privat, pot primi sprijin financiar de minim 2.500 de euro si de maxim 100.000 de Euro. Astfel, valoarea totala a investitiei, care include cofinantarea si finantarea SAPARD, trebuie sa se incadreze intre 5.000 si 200.000 de euro. Din valoarea totala eligibila a proiectului, 50% reprezinta contributia beneficiarului, iar 50% contributia publica. In Programul SAPARD, cofinantare publica reprezinta contributia Uniunii Europene, 75% si a Guvernului Romaniei 25%. (M.C).

            Aceasta industrie se va dezvolta si mai mult in cel mai scurt timp posibil, daca societatile producatoare vor reusi sa ofere un flux adecvat de materii prime, o tehnologie de prelucrare, performanta care sa asigure valorificarea eficienta a produselor, minimizarea costurilor de productie si a pierderilor, un mixt de marketing adecvat nevoilor proprii, standarde de ambalare si de calitate competitive pe pietele externe.

Producere si comercializarea fructelor de padure cultivate si din flora spontana a devenit o activitate economica de amploare, fiind  o sursa de venituri pentru producatori, comercianti, dar si pentru diversi procesatori. Resursele Romaniei in acest domeniu sunt foarte diversificate. De aceea, este important ca aceasta activitate sa se desfasoare  comform principiilor liberei concurente in conditiile respectarii normelor tehnice de producere si comercializare.

Culturile Bio-organice, cele mai apreciate si din punct de vedere al pretului de vanzare, se pot implementa cu succes in tara noastra, mai ales ca o recenta Reglementare a Comisiei Europene acorda o mare importanta produselor certificate ca fiind „Bio-organice”. Acest tip de cultura se distinge de cel clasic prin utilizarea ingrasamintelor naturale si prin faptul ca nu se folosesc pesticide.

Fructele de padure provenite din Romania sunt mai gustoase pentru ca provin din zone atestate ecologic, considera reprezentantii RNP. Cu toate acestea, fructele de cultura sunt mult mai usor de prelucrat, fiind mai mari, dar au si un pret de achizitie mult mai mic decat cele biologice, cum sunt produsele provenite din padurile Romaniei. (N.D.)

Exista o cerere permanenta de sute de tone de afine, zmeura, mure pentru export in Germania, Austria, Italia si Franta ceea ce reprezinta o mare oportunitate pe care producatorii romani nu ar trebui sa o piarda.

In contextul retrocedarii unor importante suprafete de padure fostilor proprietari, fapt ce presupune implicit diminuarea veniturilor din principala sursa - lemnul, R.N.P.- Romsilva realizeaza si in acest an, venituri semnificative, din valorificarea la export, in conditii ecologice, a fructelor si ciupercilor din fondul forestier pe care il administreaza.

Costurile de productie pentru unitatea de suprafata cultivata cu plante medicinale sunt foarte apropiate de cele necesare pentru infiintarea culturilor de legume.

Aceste costuri difera foarte mult de la specie la specie, in functie de modul de inmultire si costurile legate de materialul de inmultire.

Cultura fructelor de padure presupune posesia unui petec de pamant (suficient 1 ha pentru inceput) care trebuie pregatit, conform cerintelor specifice fiecarei culturi in parte. Aveti nevoie de cateva mijloace fixe a caror valoare de achizitie intra in suma prevazuta initial pentru startul afacerii. Tot aici mai intra si cheltuielile de aprovizionare cu seminte ecologice necesare primei culturi. Una peste alta, suma initiala pentru demararea afacerii se ridica la aproximativ 6.000 de euro si datoriile in mod regulat si sa genereze un profit net de minimum 5%.

Fructele de padure, o afacere de peste 130.000 de dolari anual, aceasta este cifra afacerilor facute de padurarii bacauani din exportul fructelor in Austria si Germania.

Catina, macesele si zmeura din padurile bacauane au mare cautare in strainatate. Directia Silvica Bacau exporta anual zeci de tone de fructe de padure in tarile Europei civilizate. Pentru ca in Occident firmele si consumatorii pun mare pret pe produsele ecologice, naturale, Directia Silvica Bacau deruleaza de mai multi ani contracte de desfacere cu firme specializate de peste hotare. Fructele recoltate din paduri, din care se prepara vitamine si sucuri naturale, ajung in Germania si Austria, unde padurarii bacauani au parteneri traditionali.

Pentru stabilirea masurilor de gestionare a pietei si de punere in valoare a resurselor nationale din sector se va infiinta un comitet tehnic interministerial al plantelor medicinale si aromatice format din experti ai institutiilor centrale, cercetatori si cadre didactice.

 Investitorul beneficiar poate sa primeasca de doua ori sprijin, in perioada de implementare a masurii, fara ca cele doua investitii sa fie derulate in acelasi timp, iar suma lor sa nu depaseasca valoarea maxima a ajutorului public. Pentru a solicita un ajutor nerambursabil sunt mai multe etape de urmat, respectiv, solicitantul trebuie sa se adreseze Agentiei SAPARD sau Birourilor Regionale pentru a obtine „Ghidul solicitantului” pentru Masura care cuprinde domeniul proiectul pe care vrea sa il dezvolte.

1.6 INFORMATII FINANCIARE SI TEHNICE

Societatea romaneasca se afla intr-un proces de schimbare in care toate elementele de ordin economic, social, civic, politic au cunoscut si cunosc o noua dinamica in incercarea de adaptare la conditiile europene.

Obiectivele principale in dezvoltarea economiei sunt:

·        Cresterea nivelului de trai, incluzand suplimentar venituri rididicate, mai multe locuri de munca, o mai mare atentie asupra valorilor culturale si umaniste;

·        Cresterea posibilitatilor de realizare si distributie pe scara larga a bunurilor care sustin nevoile de baza ale vietii;

·        Cresterea nivelului oportunitatilor economice si sociale care stau la dispozitia indivizilor si natiunilor.

O oportunitate economica pentru comuna Sotrile  este realizarea unui centru de colectare fructe de padure. Pentru aceasta prezentam in continuare cateva date tehnice si financiare.

      Avantajele si  cheltuielile eligibile intr-un centru de colectare fructe de padure

Avantaje
• dezvoltarea agriculturii (cultivarea unor suprafete cu fructe de padure);

• dezvoltarea  unui comert cu localitatile invecinate;
• crearea unor noi locuri de munca calificata ;
Cheltuieli eligibile

   a) Cheltuieli eligibile specifice:

   Constructia, modernizarea si extinderea cladirilor operationale si a utilitatilor conexe pentru:

·         Depozitarea materiilor prime si produselor, procesare si marketing;

·         Laboratoare pentru analiza si cercetare;

·         Constructii speciale pentru utilitati;

·         Birouri pentru utilizare in cadrul fermei.

   Echipamente si dispozitive noi pentru:

·         Recoltarea , depozitarea, procesarea si marketingul produselor;

·         Laboratoare pentru analiza si cercetare

·         Utilitati;

Recoltarea, uscarea si conservarea fructelor de padure

Este foarte importanta calitatea fructelor de padure.

·        In primul rand dorim sa subliniem faptul ca recoltarea fructelor de padure din flora spontana trebuie facuta din zone nepoluate, cat mai indepartate de unitatile industriale, de asezamintele omenesti si caile de acces dintre localitati (margini de drumuri, cai ferate, sosele etc.).

·        Al doilea element pentru obtinerea unui material de buna calitate il constituie cunoasterea organului de planta cu continutul cel mai ridicat in substante active (radacini, rizomi, parti aeriene, scoarte, frunze, flori, fructe, seminte).

·        Al treilea element important, legat tot de continutul in substante active, este momentul optim de recoltare. Alegerea momentului optim de recoltare este conditionata de stagiul de vegetatie al fructelor  si de anotimp. Tot in legatura cu momentul de recoltare sunt de retinut si perioada din zi si conditiile meteorologice cind se face recoltarea.

·        Al patrulea element, de ordin tehnic, este metoda cea mai corecta de recoltare. In special pentru protectia fructelor de padure si pentru asigurarea perpetuarii speciei la recoltare trebuie sa se tina seama de anumite reguli nelegiferate, dar de mare importanta pentru viitorii ani.

·        In cazul recoltarii fructelor se vor lasa suficiente fructe care sa asigure perpetuarea speciilor. O datorie cetateneasca este ca in zonele de unde s-au recoltat plantele sa se insamanteze terenurile cu material de inmultire din aceleasi specii care au fost valorificate. Fructele se recolteaza unele in parga (macese) cand contin maximum de vitamine, fie cand au ajuns la coacere (afinele, ienuperele, porumbele, mure , zmeura).

Pentru utilizarea fructelor de padure ca atare sau ca ceaiuri medicinale, tincturi, extracte, ele trebuie sa aiba o puritate cat mai ridicata. Nu se vor folosi fructe de padure provenind din zone industriale sau de pe terenuri unde s-au combatut daunatorii cu mijloace chimice.

Inainte de folosire sub forma de infuzii, decocturi, tincturi, extracte sau alte forme farmaceutice destinate in special uzului intern, fructele se vor spala cu apa rece la fel ca legumele.

·        Coacazul negru

Coacazul negru sau “Ribes nigrum” este cunsocut din cele mai vechi timpuri , fiind apreciat pentru multiplele sale calitati. A fost folosit sub diverse forme atat de catre vechii greci si romani, cat si de geto-daci.

Este un arbust inalt de 1,5 -2 m, avand scoarta cenusie-galbuie, fiind lipsit de spini. Infloreste primavara, facand cate 10-15 flori verzui pe fiecare planta , din care iau nastere apoi fructele, care atunci cand sunt coapte, se prezinta ca niste bobite negre dispuse in ciorchine. Cultivarea sa in gradini a inceput cam prin secolul al XVI-lea, pentru prima data in Franta , de unde, in scurta vreme, s-a extins in toata Europa, America de Nord, Asia si Australia. In decursul anilor s-a depus o munca de selectie riguroasa, obtinanadu-se, astfel, soiuri cat mai productive, mai bogate in principii nutritive.

Fructele coacazului negru sunt foarte bogate in vitamina C (200 mg.%), din acest punct de vedere fiind la fel de valoroase ca si frunzele de patrunjel. O calitate in plus a acestui fruct este aceea ca vitamina C pe care o contine isi pastreaza un timp mai indelungat proprietatile, datorita lipsei unei enzime specifice (ascobinoxidaza) care oxideaza vitamina C. Bobitele de coacaze contin cantitati insemnate de vitamina B1 si B2, rivalizand din acest punct de vedere cu ciresele, portocalele, merele, perele, piersicile, etc.

Tot atat de valoroase sunt si in privinta carotenului (250 mg %) si a vitaminei PP. Prin consumarea unei bobite de 40 g. zilnic un om adult isi asigura intreaga cantitate de vitamine necesara organismului. In schimb, valoarea calorica este printre cele mai scazute, respectiv 46 de calorii la suta, fiind recomandate in alimentatia diabeticilor si a celor care au nevoie de regim hipocaloric. Totusi, slaba valoare calorica este compensata din plin de continutul bogat in saruri minerale:potasiu, fosfor, calciu, magneziu, fier si clor. La acestea se adauga continutul destul de ridicat in microelemente, iod, cupru, mangan, zinc si cobalt, precum si insemnate cantitati de enzime deosebit de valoroase in asimilarea albuminelor, grasimilor si a hidratilor de carbon.

·        Murul

Murul (Rubus fructicosus), denumit popular rug, rug de mure sau murariu, este un arbust din familia rozaceelor. Creste in tufisuri, pe marginile raurilor si padurilor sau in culturi hibride dirijate.

Este una dintre cele mai vechi plante medicinale cu originea in Orient, cu peste 100 de specii si peste 1.000 de varietati hibride. Partile utilizate in scop medicinal sunt: fructele, frunzele, lastarii tineri, uneori radacinile si florile, foarte rar lemnul. Frunzele de mur contin acid malic, succinic, lactic, oxalic, taninuri, iar fructele contin in plus acid citric, salicilic, pectina, mucilagii, flavonide, inozitol, vitamina C

Inmultirea muruluise poate face prin: seminte, marcotaj, drajoni, butasi de radacina, butasi de tulpina, despartirea tufelor.

Cea mai simpla metoda la mur este imnultirea prin marcote.

Varfurile tulpinilor (lastarilor de 1 an), venind in contact cu solul, se inradacineaza si dau nastere la alte plante.

De aceea, varfurile tulpinilor de la plantele de mur pe care dorim sa le inmultim se lasa pe sol (chiar se acopera cu un strat de 10 cm de sol) la sfarsitul lunii august.

Acestea inradacineaza pana la sfarsitul vegetatiei si se pot detasa cu o portiune de tulpina de 30-40 cm, cu ajutorul sapei si cazmalei, toamna sau primavara.

Se pot obtine astfel plante cu sistemul radicular bogat, ce se pot folosi la plantare toamna, dupa caderea frunzelor, sau primavara devreme, inainte de pornirea in vegetatie.

Material saditor de arbusti fructiferi se poate, de asemenea, procura de la toate statiunile de cercetari pomicole zonale.

·        Fragul

Denumirea plantei: Frag (Fragaris vesca)

Fam. Rosaceae

Denumiri populare: agrange, buruiana de fragi, capsuni, fragi de padure, fraguta salbatica, fronza, varagute.

Ecologie si raspindire: o planta cu tulpina scurta, frunze in rozeta, flori mici si albe si fructe mici ,conice, rosii sau albicioase ce iubeste sa rasara in luminisurile si poienele padurilor.

Perioada de vegetatie: o planta perena

Periada de recoltare: Se utilizeaza frunzele, care se rup fara petiollul principal, recoltate din iunie pina la inceputul lunii octombrie, precun si fructele coapte.

Boli in care se utilizeaza:

Uz intern: diaree, enterite, cistite, guta, diabet zaharat, eruptii tegumentare, ateroscleroza, afectiuni renale, artritism, reumatism,afectiuni hepatice, colesterol crescut, tuberculoza, constipatie cronica, astenie, litiaza urinara, litiaza hepatica.

·        Zmeura

Zmeura produce fructe delicioase. Este foarte potrivita cu climatul Romaniei. Exista trei varietati de zmeura: rosie, galbena si neagra.

Unde cultivati zmeura?

Cea mai importanta cerinta a acestei plante se refera la tipul de sol. Are nevoie de un sol umed, dar accepta si solurile putin mai nisipoase, atata timp cat sunteti pregatit sa le udati saptamanal in lunile mai calde de vara. Pentru rezultate foarte bune, solul trebuie sa fie neutru din punct de vedere chimic.

Fructele de zmeura ies destul de tarziu, asa ca nu este nevoie de o ingrijire speciala impotriva inghetului. Zmeura creste in salbaticie in tinuturile impadurite, asa ca umbra nu constituie o problema pentru aceasta planta.

Luna octombrie este luna perfecta pentru plantarea zmeurei, dar ea poate fi sadita si in luna martie, daca vremea si solul permit acest lucru.

Pentru a planta zmeura, sapati un sant de 30 de cm adancime si un metru latime. Daca plantati mai mult de un singur rand, lasati aproximativ 1.7 m intre randuri, pentru a permite radacinilor sa se raspandeasca liber , si pentru a putea aduna fructele vara.

Zmeura are nevoie de suport. Instalati suportul dupa ce ati sapat santul, dar inainte de a planta. Planta nu trebuie legata strans de acest suport.

Puneti zmeura in santul sapat, cu plantele la 45 de cm una de alta, si acoperiti radacina cu pamant. Acest lucru va ajuta la formarea unor radacini mai viguroase.

In sfarsit, taiati planta pana ajunge la cam 15 cm de nivelul solului. Acest lucru poate parea putin drastic, dar daca retezarea nu se face corect, planta va fi serios slabita.

·        Afinul

Afinul poate fi intalnit in zonele de munte, pe păsunile alpine sau prin locuri stancoase. Se dezvoltă sub forma unui arbust mic, cu fructe de culoare negru-albăstrui si cu un gust duce-acrisor. De la afin se folosesc frunzele (Folium Myrtilli) si fructele (Fructus Myrtilli).

Afinul este un arbust inalt pana la 30-50 cm, cu tulpini taratoare si cu ramuri opuse, verzi, cu marginile costate. Frunzele cad toamna. Ele sunt alterne, de forma ovala, glabre, lungi de 1-3 cm, cu marginea dintata marunt, prezentand un petiol scurt. Florile sunt de forma globuloasa, de culoare alb-roz, corola terminandu-se in 5 dinti. Fructele sunt rotunde, zemoase, de culoare neagra-albastruie, cu aspect brumariu, continand numeroase seminte marunte. Sucul lor este violaceu-purpuriu, gustul dulce acrisor-aromat. Afinul infloreste in lunile mai-iunie. Creste in regiunea de munte prin taieturile de paduri, mai ales prin goluri alpine, in asociatie cu merisorul, unde formeaza tufarisuri compacte si intinse.

Recoltarea:
De la afin se recolteaza frunzele si fructele. Frunzele se culeg tot timpul verii pana toamna tarziu, rupandu-se ramurile fara flori. Fructele se aduna cu mana sau cu ajutorul pieptenilor, atunci cand sunt deplin coapte (iulie-august).
Dupa recoltare se inlatura resturile de frunze, ramuri sau alte impuritati.

Cost total estimativ al proiectului de constructie a unui centru de colectare fructe de padure este de 115000 € cost care ar cuprinde: achizitionarea de unitatii specifice depozitarii; utilaje si masini specifice depozitarii plantelor medicinale ; pregatire profesionala; consultanta.

La calcularea indicatorilor s-a luat in considerare cursul valutar:

1 €= 3.4

Prognoza vanzari

INDICATORI

2007

2008

2009

Total vanzari

64650

67883

71277

afine

18600

19530

20507

coacaze negre

12500

13125

13781

mure

9200

9660

10143

zmeura

15400

16170

16979

fragi

8950

9398

9867

Pret/kg

 

 

 

afine

2.3

2.3

2.3

coacaze negre

1.95

1.95

1.95

mure

1.8

1.8

1.8

zmeura

1.7

1.7

1.7

fragi

1.75

1.75

1.75

Vanzari

83715

87901

92296

afine

42780

44919

47165

coacaze negre

24375

25594

26873

mure

16560

17388

18257

zmeura

26180

27489

28863

fragi

15663

16446

17268

Cost direct/kg

 

 

 

afine

1

1

1

coacaze negre

0.9

0.9

0.9

mure

0.8

0.8

0.8

zmeura

0.7

0.7

0.7

fragi

0.75

0.75

0.75

Cost direct vanzari

36563

38391

40310

afine

18600

19530

20507

coacaze negre

11250

11813

12403

mure

7360

7728

8114

zmeura

10780

11319

11885

fragi

6713

7048

7401

Prognoza altor cheltuieli si venituri

Indicatori

2007

2008

2009

Cheltuieli salarii si taxe

27641

30405

33446

Cheltuieli marketing si publicitate

1000

1050

1103

Cheltuieli cu dobanzile bancare

341

358

376

Alte cheltuieli 10% din vanzari

8372

8790

9230

Alte venituri

243

1560

1850

Prognoza fluxului mijloacelor banesti 

 

INDICATORI

Total pe an,€

 

Sold initial

115000

 

Plata obligatiilor

 

 

-         dobanda spre plata

350

 

-         impozit spre plata

2800

 

-         dividende spre plata

0

 

Dobanda primita din investitii

250

 

Salarii si contributii sociale

27641

 

Incasari de la debitori

83715

 

Plati la creditori, din care :

115000

 

-   reabilitare constructie

70000

 

-   echipamente, materii prime

45000

 

Alte cheltuieli 10%

8372

 

Cheltuieli cu marketing si publicitate

1000

 

Dividende intermediare

1000

 

Prognoza balantei la sfarsit de perioada

42803

 

Prognoza profit si pierdere

Indicatori

2007

2008

2009

Total vanzari

83715

87901

92296

Alte venituri

243

1560

1850

Total venituri

83958

89461

94146

Cost direct vanzari

36563

38391

40310

Cheltuieli salarii si taxe

27641

29023

30474

Cheltuieli cu marketing si publicitate

1000

1050

1103

Cheltuieli cu dobanzile bancare

341

358

376

Dividende

1000

1200

1260

Alte cheltuieli 10 %

8371.5

8790

9230

Total cheltuieli

74917

78812

82752

Venit inainte de impozitare

9042

10649

11394

Impozit profit

1447

1704

1823

Profit net

7595

8945

9571

1.7 CONCLUZII

Comuna Sotrile prezinta un potential agricol ridicat, avand o suprafata de 4113  ha din care,  969 ha de padure unde gasim din abundenta fructe de padure.

Primaria ofera spre inchiriere si concesionare camin cultural (500mp), brutarie (100 mp), han (550 mp), si teren extravilan (1-2 euro/mp)si intravilan (5-8 euro/mp. Primaria mai ofera scutiri de taxe si impozite pe perioada determinata.

Investitia initiala pentru realizarea centrului de colectare fructe de padure este in suma de 115.000 euro, recuperarea investitie depinzand de politica de amortizare a viitorului centru.

Avantajele construirii unui centru de colectare plante medicinale in comuna Sotrile sunt:

·        cresterea economica a zonei;

·        dezvoltarea de activitati economice alternative si conexe;

·        cultivarea unor terenuri (oferite de primarie spre concesionare) cu fructe de padure;

·        creare de noi locuri de munca si cresterea ocuparii fortei de munca calificata;

·        atragerea de veniturilor la bugetul primarie ;

·        promovarea unei economii rurale viabile;

·        calitatea produselor raspunde exigentelor consumatorilor;

·        imbunatatirea conditiilor de viata;

·        avantaj competitiv si comparativ: pretul produselor ecologice (mai mari cu 20-60%), cererea pe piata mondiala in crestere;

·        valorificarea potentialului agricol al comunei.

-Directoratul General Intreprinderi..

.

Cuprins:

1.1

PREZENTARE GENERALA A COMUNEI

1.2

OBIECTIVELE GENERALE ALE PROIECTULUI

1.3

PREZENTARE PROIECT

1.4

PIATA ACTUALA

1.5

STRATEGII DE IMPLEMENTARE, DATE PRIVIND PIATA POTENTIALA SI PROMOVAREA

1.6

INFORMATII FINANCIARE

1.7

CONCLUZII

ANEXE

În 1990, Ilie Boboescu si-a vândut casa din Arad si masina pentru a investi în pamânt. Cu banii ramasi dupa ce a intrat în posesia a câteva hectare în satul Neudorf, aradeanul a cumparat mii de butasi de zmeura, pe care i-a cultivat, iar doi ani mai târziu banii au început sa curga. Profiturile uriase l-au transformat în "Regele zmeurei", având cea mai mare productie din România.

Experienta de familie

Ilie Boboescu a lucrat 36 de ani în industria alimentara, fiind inginer la Întreprinderea de Fermentare a Tutunului din Arad. Dupa Revolutie s-a gândit ca ar putea sa faca bani pe cont propriu din ceva la care se pricepea foarte bine: zmeura. Parintii lui au cultivat zmeura în gradina casei înca din 1960, fiind singura lor sursa de trai, în conditiile în care tatal lui avea o pensie de agricultor de numai 100 de lei. "Gradina ne-a asigurat traiul si se faceau bani suficienti cu ea. Când era sezonul zmeurei, banii primiti la piata ne asigurau traiul tot anul", spune aradeanul. Câstigând experienta din ajutorul dat familiei la cultivarea acestor fructe, omul s-a hotarât sa devina cultivator profesionist.

Pret fara concurenta

Plantatia de zmeura pe care si-a facut-o în localitatea Neudorf a devenit cea mai mare din România, având peste sase hectare. "O plantatie mare de zmeura exista si la Pitesti, dar are numai un hectar. În rest, aceste fructe sunt cultivate de români pe suprafete mici, de obicei în gradini", spune aradeanul, care nu are concurenta serioasa în acest moment.

Desi suprafata de sase hectare poate parea mica, comparativ cu terenurile cultivate cu cereale, zmeura aduce profituri înzecite. Un singur hectar cu zmeura poate da pe sezon de la 5.000 la 10.000 de kilograme de fructe. "Pretul de desfacere este foarte bun, în lipsa concurentei. Practic, pâna acum trei ani, când am început sa dau cantitati mari pe piata, zmeura se aducea în regiune din import si se vindea la kilogram cu peste 600.000 de lei. Acum, am dus acest pret la 200.000 de lei în perioada mai-iunie, când nu prea sunt pe piata alte fructe", spune aradeanul. El a socotit ca a scos, anul trecut, un pret mediu de 100.000 de lei la kilogram, în functie de perioada de vânzare si locul de desfacere. Aceasta cantitate I-a adus încasari de jumatate de miliard de lei vechi la hectar.

Investitie profitabila

Pentru o astfel de recolta este nevoie de minimum 5-6.000 de butasi la hectar. Cultivatorul spune însa ca investitia merita, pentru ca se recupereaza rapid, în cel mult doi ani, iar timp de alti 13 ani, cât cultura mai da roade, se obtine doar profit. "Investitia initiala este de circa 400 de milioane de lei la hectar. Pare mult, dar cine începe cu acest hectar, scoate profit la a doua productie. Zmeura da fructe înca din al doilea an, iar din al treilea profitul este asigurat", explica "Regele zmeurei".

Ilie Boboescu spune ca nici munca pe plantatie nu e grea, pentru ca în afara de cules roadele, nu e de lucru decât la plantarea butasilor, care se face toamna târziu sau primavara devreme. La cantitatile mari de zmeura pe care le are de recoltat, aradeanul are însa nevoie de mâna de lucru, astfel ca în fiecare sezon da de lucru la peste 40 de localnici, care vin sa culeaga fructele.

Piata asigurata

Întreprinzatorul a reinvestit cea mai mare parte a profitului, deschizând sI o pepiniera, unde înmulteste butasii de zmeura atât pentru exinderea culturilor sale, cât si pentru cei interesati sa-si faca plantatii. El spune ca niciodata nu o sa aiba suficienta zmeura, pentru ca pe piata cererea este foarte mare. Pe zmeura lui se bat atât fabricile de sucuri, cât si magazinele ori cumparatorii obisnuiti de la piata. De altfel, Ilie Boboescu prefera sa dea cât mai mult la piata, pentru ca acolo pretul este de 200.000 de lei, în timp ce fabricile de sucuri platesc jumatate din suma la kilogram: "Se vinde aproape tot în pietele din Arad, Timisoara si în alte zone apropiate, iar ce ramâne dam la fabrici". Nu pentru mult timp, însa, pentru ca aradeanul tocmai face planurile ridicarii unei fabrici de sucuri la Neudorf, unde are si plantatia, investitia fiind de circa 100.000 de euro.

Click pentru a mari

Avantajele plantatiei de zmeura

  • Cheltuieli si eforturi mici cu întretinerea plantatiei
  • Intrarea rapida în productie
  • Exploatare pe o durata de 15 ani
  • Recolta bogata prin fructificare regulata si din abundenta
  • Profit asigurat de cererea mare de pe piata.

Click pentru a mari

Sperietoare pentru pasari, care, ca si oamenii, sunt foarte atrase de gustul dulce al fructelor

NUCILE, URMĂTOAREA AFACERE. Ilie Boboescu nu se ocupa numai de zmeura. El mai detine si jumatate de hectar de afine sI mure, pe care le valorifica tot la piata. Cum afacerea cu fructele merge de la sine, a trecut si la alte culturi. Este vorba de o plantatie de nuci de 11 hectare, pe care tocmai a finalizat-o tot în satul Neudorf. Pomii vor da roade numai peste opt ani, dar aradeanul spune ca profitul este asigurat: "Nucile au un pret foarte bun pe piata, iar avantajul major este acela ca sunt un produs neperisabil. Ele pot fi tinute perioade lungi fara sa li se altereze calitatile si sunt tot mai cautate în industria alimentara".

Click pentru a mari

PLANTĂ MEDICINALĂ. Zmeura este un izvor de sanatate, sustin medicii. Ea contine minerale de baza pentru om, precum calciu, magneziu, zinc, mangan, potasiu sau fosfor. Fructul asigura sI vitaminele A, B1, B2, D si P, în timp ce frunzele sunt bogate în vitamina C. Zmeura reprezinta un remediu pentru tubul digestiv, pentru pancreas si sistemul respirator, în timp ce frunzele sale sunt un antihemoragic si reglator hormonal, mai ales la femei. O cura de zmeura dureaza 12 zile, ceea ce presupune ca fructele sa fie consumate înainte de mese, pe stomacul gol, în cantitate de 200-300 de grame pe zi. Ceaiul din vârfuri de zmeura (fie verzi, fie uscate) stabilizeaza glicemia si stimuleaza pancreasul.

Click pentru a mari

"În momentul de fata, profit mai mare decât la culturile de zmeura poti avea doar daca cultivi mac sau cânepa pentru a scoate opiu. Cei care au curajul sa porneasca o astfel de afacere se pot îmbogati rapid"

Ilie Boboescu

http://www.utcluj.ro/utcn/civeng/leonardo/training/cursuri_pdf/Modul%20curs%201.pdf

Tabelul 1.2.1.4-1 Clasificarea deteriorarilor prin fisurare

Categoria

GRADUL DE DETERIORARE Descrierea

fisurilor

Recomandari si

comentarii

0 1 2 3

1. Foarte usoare (putin vizibile) Fisuri fine,

pana la 1 mm

Pot fi reparate prin

simpla zugravire

2.

Usoare

Fisuri pana la

5 mm

deschidere

Poate fi necesara

umplerea rosturilor

la exterior, pentru a

asigura

etanseitatea.

3.

Moderate

Fisuri intre

5 si 15 mm

deschidere,

sau un numar

de fisuri pana

la 3 mm

deschidere

Fisurile necesita

desfacerea,

curatirea si reteserea

de catre un

zidar calificat, cu

umplerea rosturilor

la exterior.

Tevile se pot

sparge.

Etanseitatea la

agenti atmosferici

este cel mai adesea

periclitata..

43

Tabelul 1.2.1.4-1 (continuare)

4.

Grave

Fisuri de 15

la 25 mm

deschidere;

numarul

fisurilor este

de

asemenea

semnificativ.

Sunt necesare

reparatii importante

ale sectiunii peretilor.

Tocurile usilor si

ferestrelor pot fi

distorsionate, plansee

deplasate, pereti

inclinati sau deformati

(curbi).

Unele grinzi sunt

dislocate de pe

reazeme (reducerea

suprafetei de

rezemare).

Conductele de

instalatii pot fi

intrerupte.

5.

Foarte grave

Crapaturi de

25 mm

deschidere

sau mai mult,

tinand seama

si de numarul

fisurilor.

Sunt necesare lucrari

de reparatii majore,

care implica

reconstructia partiala

sau totala.

Grinzile sunt scoase

de pe reazeme.

Peretii sunt foarte

inclinati si trebuie

sprijiniti.

Sticla de la ferestre

crapa.

Pericol de pierdere

a stabilitatii.

Fructele de padure, o afacere de 5.000.000 $

de Lidia Truica Evenimentul Zilei

Luni, 16 august 2004, 0:00


In fiecare an, 90% din productia de afine, zmeura si mure ia calea exportului
Regia Nationala a Padurilor (RNP) incaseaza anual aproximativ 5 milioane de dolari din exportul de fructe de padure. Suma ar putea fi mult mai mare daca s-ar exporta produse finite, cum sint dulceata sau afinata, si nu materia prima, adica fructele refrigerate sau congelate. Pentru valorificarea superioara a fructelor de padure este insa nevoie de dezvoltarea unor capacitati de prelucrare.
Romania se poate lauda cu o productie de fructe de padure mult mai bogata decit a altor tari europene. Un argument in acest sens il reprezinta cererea mare la export. Chiar si pe piata romaneasca, un gem de afine, zmeura sau mure costa mai mult cu 30a-50a decit cel de prune sau de caise. Ceea ce inseamna ca pe piata externa produsele finite pot fi vindute la un pret cel putin dublu.

Din pacate, fructele de padure se valorifica de principiu ca materie prima pentru procesatorii occidentali, care apreciaza mult mai mult gustul zmeurei, al afinelor, al murelor sau al catinei.
10a din productie, pentru piata interna
RNP are exclusivitate la recoltarea si achizitionarea fructelor de padure prin directiile silvice din teritoriu, intrucit s-a interzis cesionarea la terti a dreptului de recoltare si achizitie din fondul forestier administrat de Romsilva. Potrivit datelor furnizate de Regie, pentru anul acesta se estimeaza o recolta de 7.465 tone fructe de padure, cu 5a mai mult fata de productia din 2003.

Cea mai mare parte, mai precis 85a-90a merg la exportul fie direct, fie prin firme comisionare. Marfa este atribuita firmelor exportatoare in urma unor licitatii organizate de directiile silvice. Campania de recoltare si valorificare a fructelor de padure este in plina desfasurare, si RNP a facut o estimare aproximativa a sumelor ce vor fi obtinute din aceasta activitate.

Daca din produsele livrate la export se estimeaza obtinerea unor venituri de 4,5-5 milioane de dolari, din vinzarea pe piata interna (10a-15a din totalul recoltei) se asteapta incasarea a 0,3 milioane dolari.

Exporturi estimate in 2004

Proaspat Refrigerat Congelat
Tone Euro/tona Tone Euro/tona Tone euro/tona
Afine - - 200 1.250 600 1.350
Zmeura - - 600 1.100 300 1.200
Mure - - 350 500 350 550
Catina - - 250 700 350 550
Macese 800 250 800 300 800 350
Porumbe - - 900 400 100 450
Paducel 300 400 - - - -
Sursa: Regia Nationala a Padurilor

Afinata, prea scumpa pentru romani

Pina la ora actuala, nu multi intreprinzatori s-au incumetat sa inceapa o afacere in sectorul de prelucrare a fructelor de padure. Omega Trust este unul dintre producatorii suceveni de afinata care nu isi pune deocamdata problema exportului. Directorul unitatii, Ghiocel Postelnicu, spune ca produsul sau nu ar fi competitiv pe pietele externe din cauza costurilor foarte mari.

“In primul rind, alcoolul este foarte scump. In Vest se produce cu 50-60 de centi, iar la noi cu un dolar. Se adauga acciza care este de aproape 100a. Siropurile si ambalajele sint, de asemenea, foarte scumpe”, declara Ghiocel Postelnicu.
Perspectiva cresterii accizei la 550 de euro pina in 2007 nu este de natura sa-i incurajeze pe cei care vor sa porneasca o astfel de afacere. Omega Trust produce anual 10.000 de litri de afinata, iar in societate s-au investit pina acum peste un milion de dolari. Daca de export nu poate fi vorba, nici pe piata interna vinzarile nu merg mai bine.

Fiind un produs natural, afinata este evident mai scumpa. De la producator, o sticla de o jumatate de litru pleaca la un pret de 46.000 de lei fara TVA.
La aceasta valoare se adauga transportul si adaosul comercial, ceea ce face ca produsul sa se gaseasca in rafturile magazinelor la un pret de aproape 100.000 de lei. Pret care nu este la indemina oricarui roman. “Puterea de cumparare este scazuta si toata lumea vrea pomana. Mi-as dori sa o dau guvernului sa vad ce face cu ea”, spune directorul de la Omega Trust.
Pe linga costurile de productie mari, procesatorii de fructe de padure considera ca daca produsele lor ar beneficia de o promovare mai agresiva atunci si vinzarile ar fi mai mari. Pentru acest lucru este insa nevoie de multi bani.

UNELE CONSIDERAŢII REFERITOARE LA PARTICULARITĂŢILE REFRIGERĂRII LEGUMELOR sI FRUCTELOR

lect. univ. drd. Natalita Maria SPERDEA

Universitatea “Gheorghe ANGHEL” Drobeta Turnu Severin

Fructele si legumele sunt principalele produse vegetale alimentare conservate prin frig. Prin calitatile lor nutritive, precum si prin calitatile lor psihosenzoriale deosebite, fructele si legumele reprezinta componente esentiale si de neînlocuit în alimentatia omului.

Consumul lor este restrâns, datorita sezonalitatii productiei, recoltarea fiecarei specii executându-se în general o data pe an, precum si degradarii destul de rapide pe care o sufera la temperatura obisnuita.

În general, fructele si legumele necesita o depozitare la temperatura joasa si constanta. În ultimul timp se acorda o importanta tot mai mare conservarii prin frig a acestor produse si chiar a celor care, în mod obisnuit se depoziteazua în silozuri (cum sunt cartofii), deoarece conservarea prim frig este mult mai avantajoasa (de exemplu, valoarea nutritiva a cartofilorndepozitati în silozuri pâna la începutul lunii iunie a înregistrat o pierdere de 19,1%, pe când pentru cei conservati prin frig pierderea a fost de 7,2%).

Fructele si legumele se conserva prin frig atât prin refrigerare cât si prin congelare.

Conservarea prin refrigerare

În acest caz, trebuie sa se ia în considerare influenta urmatorilor factori: calitatea fructelor si legumelor de a fi conservate prin frig, recoltarea fructelor si legumelor, transportul acestora, sortarea si ambalarea fructelor si legumelor.

Calitatea fructelor si legumelor de a putea fi conservate prin frig depinde, la mai multe specii, în mare masura, de soiul lor, ca si de terenul de cultura. Astfel, s-a constatat ca din 20 de soiuri de capsuni, numai doua- trei au dat rezultate bune la refrigerare. Se stie ca o tona din acelasi soi de mere, care degaja obisnuit 200 cal la 1şC pe unitatea de timp, în cazul în care este cultivat pe teren nisipos degaja 210 cal, iar cultivat pe teren mlastinos 250 cal, ceea ce determina alte conditii de pastrare prin refrigerare. Frudtele crescute pe arbori dezvoltati pe soluri umede sunt mai putin rezistente decât cele pe arbori dezvoltati pe soluri permeabile. Pe terenuri calcaroase si argilo – siliciloase cresc fructe mai rezistente, iar pe cele argiloase sau mlastinoase fructe mai putin rezistente. De asemenea, o cantitate mai mica de azotati în sol are o influenta nefavorabila, pe când o cantitate mai mare de compusi potasici are o influenta favorabila asupra capacitatii de pastrare prin frig.

Chiar vârsta  arboreluin pe care se dezvolta fructele influenteaza capacitatea acestora de a fo conservate prin frig, fructele de pe arbori mai în vârsta fiind mai rezistente. De asemenea, la soare în timpul dezvoltarii fructului mareste rezistenta acestuia la pastrarea prin frig.

Textura fructelor (fructele tari rezista mai bine), culoarea (fructele mai intens colorate rezista mai bine) si starea sanatatii lor la recoltare (fructele nu trebuie sa fie lovite, zgâriate sau sa aiba boli de livada) trebuie, de asemenea, luate în consideratie. Toate acestea limiteaza durata conservarii fructelor si a legumelor prin frig.

Recoltarea fructelor si a legumelor. Pentru aceasta operatie se tine seama de:

-         specia si soiul fructelor si al legumelor: se recolteaza separat fiecare soi al fiecarei specii;

-         gradul de maturatie: se recolteaza fructele cu grad de maturatie egal. Se culeg fructele si legumele ajunse la maturitate comerciala (la începutul maturarii propriu - zise), dar nu la maturitate optima de consum, adica atunci când sunt destul de ferme ca textura pentru a putea fi manipulate usor;

-         pastrarea sanatatii: nu se culeg decât fructe si legume sanatoase, iar culesul se face manual, pentru a evita lovirea sau zgârierea lor. Culesul se face seara sau dimineata, când nu bate soarele. Dupa cules, fructele si legumele se tin la umbra pâna când sunt transportate, în cel mai scurt timp, la prima statie frigorifera. O variatie a temperaturii cu 10şC dubleaza viteza de reactie la fructe.

Între cules si depozitare, fructele si legumele trebuie pastrate la o temperatura cât mai apropiata de cea a depozitarii.

Transportul fructelor si al legumelor. La pastrarea prin refrigerare este foarte iportant timpul care trece de la cules la antrepozitare; de aceea, la locul de cules trebuie prevazute mijloace de transport rapide, putând fi folosite cai ferate, navale si rutiere. Cele mai indicate mijloace de transport sunt autocamioanele, când se evita manipulari în plus între livada si prima statie frigorifera, în afara de încarcare – descarcare.

Trensportul trebuie facut cât mai lin, pentru ca fructele si legumele sa nu se loveasca între ele, iar cosurile cu fructe si legume trebuie acoperite, pentru a nu fi batute de soare (în cazul în care mijlocul de transport nu este acoperit).

Sortarea fructelor si a legumelor. În general, sortarea se face la statia frigorifera, pentru a se evita introducerea în frigorifer a fructelor lovite în timpul transportului. Fructele se sorteaza pe calitati, în functie de marime, grad de coacere si starea sanatatii. Din cantitatea sosita în depozitul frigorific se admit 3% fructe si legume lovite sau care nu corespund normelor de sortare, care sunt destinate altor prelucrari. Cantitatile mari de fructe sau legume se sorteaza pe banda rulanta.

Ambalarea se face manual sau pe banda rulanta. Ambalajele cele mai folosite la refrigerare sunt: ladite olandeze cu capacitate de 5 kg (pentru zmeura, capsuni, fragi etc.) sau de 10 kg (pentru struguri, rosii, mere); ladite de 25 kg cu capac (pentru mere, pere); ladite cu sipci rare (pentru salata, spanac, cartofi).

Pentru a împiedica condensarea apei pe suprafata fructelor si legumelor din frigorifer, ca si dezvoltarea de mucegaiuri, pierderea de greutate prin evaporare si strivirea, straturile de fructe si legume se alterneaza cu straturi de turba, talas sau rumegus (în cazul patlagelelor, rosii, al strugurilor, merelor sau perelor) sau se învelesc fructele în foita de matase (citricele, piersicile, merele, perele).

De asemenea, se foloseste ambalarea în saci de polietilena de 20 – 25 kg (de exemplu pentru ceapa).

Ambalajele se aseaza astfel în frigerator, încât sa permita circulatia aerului printre ele.

Se recomanda ca fructele si legumele destinate conservarii prin refrigerare sa fie supuse preracirii, pentru a atinge cât mai repese o temperatura joasa. Preracirea se poate efectua atât în unitati mobile, în care se foloseste aerul ca agent de racire (aceste unitati se pot deplasa în regiunile care au o productie limitata, la o perioada de timp relativ scurta), cât si în unitati fixe, apropiate de centrele de recoltare, la care preracirea se efectueaza prin mai multe procedee, pe care le vom prezenta în cele ce urmeaza.

Preracirea cu aer în camere sau în tunele cu temperatura cuprinsa între 0 si 2şC , în functie de soi si de specia care trebuie preracita. În cazul folosirii tunelelor de refrigerare, aerul poate avea la început o temperatura mai joasa, de –2…-5şC. în afara de viteza aerului (3-4 m/s) si de temperatura, modul de ambalare determina în mare masura durata de preracire.

Preracirea cu apa cu gheata în bazine, în care se introduce uneori si un antiseptic (hipoclorit de calciu), prin cufundarea ambalajelor din sipci rare, în care se gasesc produsele. Acest procedeu este indicat în special pentru legume (telina, sparanghel) si pentru unele fructe (cirese, piersici, caise). Procedeul este aplicat adeseori, fiind apreciat pentru viteza mare de racire care se realizeaza (de exemplu, piersicile se preracesc în 14 min). În loc de cufundarea în apa cu gheata, produsele se pot raci prin stropire cu apa si gheata (5 kg de spanac se pot raci de la 40 la 20 şC în 5 min.).

Preracirea cu gheata. Gheata se aplica pe materia prima direct, fie în straturi (bucati mici), fie prin pulverizare (ca zapada). Se obtine o racire rapida si omogena. Acest procedeu se recomanda în special pentru legume, ca salata si spanacul. Aplicarea acestei raciri înainte de transport s-a dovedit foarte eficace.

Preracirea prin vid. Se realizeaza în camere speciale cu vid de 5 mm Hg, încarcate si descarcate automat printr-un sistem special de conveiere.  Racirea se datoreaza evaporarii apei de la suprafata legumelor si se realizeaza în circa 30 min. procedeul este aplicat la legume cu frunze (salata, spanac), în instalatii cu capacitatea de 6-8 vagoane/ora, reprezentând avantaje de economicitate, rapiditate, rapiditate, calitate superioara.

Refrigerarea fructelor si a legumelor preracite pâna la 3-4şC se executa în camere frigorifere, dotate cu racitoare de aer si în care temperatura, umiditatea, circulatia si starea de igiena a aerului pot fi reglate cu usurinta. Depozitarea se face în aceleasi camere, refrigerarea fiind o operatie de scurta durata, mai ales în cazul când materia prima este preracita. La refrigerare se tine seama de urmatorii factori:

Temperatura, care variaza între 0 si 4şC, în functie de sensibilitatea speciilor si chiar a soiurilor. În general, temperatura de refrigerare si depozitare este imediat deasupra lui 0şC (cu exceptia bananelor, pentru care se folosesc temperaturi mult mai înalte). Cresterea temperaturii accelereaza procesele de maturare, dar o scadere a temperaturii prezinta pericolul de înghetare a produselor. Datorita proceselor respiratorii, cu degajare de caldura, care continua la fructe si la legume, temperatura acestora are tendinta de a se ridica peste cea a camerei de depozitare cu 0,5 – 1,5şC. aceasta diferenta variaza cu specia, cu gradul de maturitate, cu temperatura de depozitare, cu modul de amplasare.

Umiditatea. Acest factor are o mare importanta la pastrarea fructelor si legumelor; de obicei, umiditatea variaza între 85 si 95%. Cresterea umiditatii aerului favorizeaza dezvoltarea microorganismelor pe suprafata fructelor, mai ales daca este însotita si de cresterea temperaturii. Micsorarea umiditatii relative a aerului duce la pierderi mari în greutate, la zbârcirea produsului, la înrautatirea calitatilor psihosenzoriale.

Împrospatarea aerului. Datorita procesului de respiratie care are loc cu degajare de CO2, precum si eliminarii altor substante volatile (etilena, aldehide etc.), ca urmare a metabolismului intern, este necesara împrospatarea aerului de 1-2 ori vol.cam/zi. La unele procedee, însa, se prevede pastrarea sau conditionarea anumitor proportii de gaze în aerul din camera de depozitare. Astfel, se poate conditiona aerul din camerele de racire prin micsorarea concentratiei de oxigen, marirea celei de bioxid de carbon sau, în unele cazuri, marirea continutului de azot.

Circulatia aerului nu trebuie sa fie prea intensa; se recomanda, în general, 2-4 vol. cam/h

Durata de depozitare. Depozitarea fructelor si a legumelor în stare refrigerata depinde, în primul rând, de starea materiei prime la intrarea în frigorifer, precum si de rezistenta conservarii prin frig a speciei sau a soiului respectiv.

Fructele si legumele refrigerate pot fi depozitate:

-         pentru durata scurta (1-7 zile), datorita, în unele cazuri, rezistentei reduse la depozitare a unor specii si soiuri, necesitatii sortarii sau aplatizarii unor vârfuri în sezonul de productie;

-         pentru durata medie (1-4 saptamâni), conditionata de capacitatea de depozitare prin frig a materiei prime si executata, în general, în scopul prelungirii duratei de consum (mai ales la  sfârsitul perioadei de recoltare, când piata este saturata cu produse proaspete);

-         pe termen îndelungat (4-6 luni), care se executa în special la specii si soiuri care se pot conserva timp îndelungat prin frig (mere, pere, struguri, cartofi), în scopul stocarii si distribuirii în sezonul lipsit de productie de fructe si legume.

Modificari ale fructelor si legumelor la conservarea prin refrigerare

Depozitarea prin refrigerare permite prelungirea duratei de pastrare a fructelor si a legumelor de 5-10 ori fata de pastrarea obisnuita, asigurând o calitate senzoriala si nutritiva superioara si reducerea pierderilor în greutate si prin alterare. Cu toate acestea, în materia prima se produc si unele modificari care afecteaza în mare masura calitatea acesteia la sfârsitul perioadei de depozitare.

Modificarile fizice. Aceste modificari sunt, în special, psihosenzoriale si pierderi în greutate. Toate transformarile care duc la maturarea fructelor si legumelor sunt foarte mult încetinite de conservarea prin refrigerare, procesul de maturare nefiind însa oprit. Acest fapt ajuta chiar la prelungirea perioadei de depozitare a unor produse, care au perioada scurta de maturare, cum sunt bananele sau patlagelele rosii târzii. Acestea se culeg înainte de atingerea maturitatii de consum, calitatile lor psihosenzoriale caracteristice urmând sa fie atinse în timpul depozitarii.

Modificarile fizice cum sunt zbârcirea suprafetei, ca urmare a evaporarii intense a apei din straturile exterioare, si înghetarea unor portiuni sau a produselor în întregime, pot aparea accidental în timpul depozitarii. Ţesutul se brunifica în unele cazuri (caise, struguri), datorita oxidarii taninului eliberat la distrugerea prin înghetare a celulelor.

Modificarile microbiologice, cum este putrezirea unor portiuni din produse datorita dezvoltarii microorganismelor din aer sau fixate pe produse, datorita dezvoltarii microorganismelor din aer sau fixate pe produs înca înainte de introducerea în frigorifer, sunt favorizate de eventualele rupturi în tesuturile de protectie ale fructelor si legumelor.

Modificarile fiziologice se produc atunci când în pulpa unor fructe (mai ales la mere putin colorate, culese din pomi tineri) apar pete brune spongioase, însotite uneori de amareala. Mentinerea unei temperaturi si umiditati cât mai constante limiteaza aceasta modificare.

Înmuierea tesuturilor se produce datorita maturarii excesive si unei fermentatii abundente (mai ales la fructele acide). În faza initiala a maturarii, aceste fermentatii, datorate enzimelor proprii fructelor, dau compusi aromatici specifici si suculenta. Continuarea acestor procese duce la înmuierea totala, la brunarea si deprecierea tesuturilor.

Pierderea aromei, atât prin încetarea formarii substantelor volatile aromate din fructe si legume, cât si degajarii lor în aer, este o alta modificare care se poate produce în timpul depozitarii acestora.

Pierderile în greutate sunt datorate atât evaporarii apei din tesuturi, cât si consumului de substante din fructe în urma proceselor fiziologice normale (respiratie, transpiratie, fermentatii etc.), care continua sa se desfasoare în timpul depozitarii.

Modificarile chimice sunt legate de procesele fiziologice de maturare care continua, precum si de procesele microbiologice. În cursul depozitarii se produce o scadere a substantei uscate totale, a aciditatii si a continutului de zaharuri, iar continutul de vitamina C scade ca urmare a proceselor de oxidoreducere care au loc în fructe si legume.

Modificarile microbiologice. Fructele si legumele sunt usor invadate de microorganisme; cu cât stratul protector natural este mai intact, cu atât aceasta invadare este mai limitata. Mai întâi se fixeaza mucegaiurile, care patrund prin epiderma fisurata accidental sau prin stomate. Dezvoltarea mucegaiurilor si distrugerea partiala a tesuturilor superficiale de catre acestea sunt urmate de invadarea produsului de catre bacterii.

Caracteristici ale refrigerarii unor fructe si legume

Merele, au punctul de congelare –2…-2,8şC; constituie principalele fructe