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LIMBA ENGLEZA - THE LANGUAGE OF ECONOMICS

economie












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UNIVERSITATEA DE VEST "VASILE GOLDIs" ARAD

FACULTATEA DE STIINTE ECONOMICE



DEPARTAMENTUL ÎNVĂŢĂMÂNT LA DISTANŢĂ

 

LIMBA ENGLEZĂ

THE LANGUAGE OF ECONOMICS

ANUL: I

SEMESTRUL I si II

 

               Lector univ. dr. ŢIRBAN  NARCISA

CONTENTS

I.   &nb 17217w2211r sp;   &nb 17217w2211r sp;   &nb 17217w2211r sp;   &nb 17217w2211r sp;  INTRODUCTION - KEYWORDS .............................. 3

II.   &nb 17217w2211r sp;   &nb 17217w2211r sp;   &nb 17217w2211r sp;   UP AND DOWN ............................................................10

III.   &nb 17217w2211r sp;   &nb 17217w2211r sp;   ECONOMICS  .............................................................. 12

IV.   &nb 17217w2211r sp;   &nb 17217w2211r sp;   MEASURING ECONOMIC ACTIVITY: MAIN INDEXES  ......................................................................27

V.   &nb 17217w2211r sp;   &nb 17217w2211r sp;   &nb 17217w2211r sp;  SENTENCES .................28

THE LANGUAGE OF ECONOMICS -

LIMBAJUL ECONOMIC

  

 

I Introducere - Keywords

 

  Acest capitol prezinta vocabularul general precum si  definitiile indicator-cheie absolute necesari accesului la informatia economica. El constituie o prima initiere si totodata baza pe care se vor acumula cunostintele mai complexe oferite pe parcursul celor doua semestre ale anului I.

Keywords - Cuvinte - Cheie

 Achizite                                                           acquisition, purchase

 Acord                                                             agreement

 Actionar                                                          shareholder, stockholder

 Actiune(bursiera)                                             share, (US)stock

 A administra(a conduce a gestiona)                  to manage, (un cont) to handle

Administrator(conducator)                                manager

Administratie    (conducere)                              management

Afaceri                                                             business trade

Afacere(contract)                                             deal

Agricol                                                 agricultural, farm, farming

Agricultor                                                         farmer

Alocatie                                                            allowance, subsidy

(cu) amanuntul                                     retail ( a vinde cu amanuntul) to retail, to sell                                 

                                                                        by retail

(vanzator) cu amanuntul                                    retailer

angajat                                                             1.(statut) employee 2.(calificare)clerk

angros                                                              wholesale

angrosist                                                           wholesaler

antreprenor                                                       employer 2.(sens economic general )

                                                                        entrepreneur, (pentru lucrari etc.) contractor

articol                                                               article, item

asigurare                                                           1.(activitate) insurance 2. (societate)                                                                              insurance company

B

balanta                                                             balance 

banca                                                               1.(institutie) bank 2.(activitate) banking

bani                                                                  money, (metal) silver

bani marunti, maruntis                           small change

beneficiu                                                           profit

Atentie benefit= 1)avantaj

                           2) alocare alocatie subventie bloc (commercial)                      bloc

buget                                                                budget

bun, bunuri                                                     good

Atentie, good nu se foloseste la singular decat in sens macro-economic : un mijloc de productie a capital good. In sensul de marfa ,el nu se foloseste decat la plural (goods) , o marfa a commodity

Bursa                                                               stock-exchange,executive(piata bursiera)

                                                                       Stock-market

C

Capital,capitaluri                                               capital

Cadre, personal de conducere                        executive

Atentie: cuvantul englez capital folosit cu acest sens nu are pl:

a-si procura fonduri to raise capital

A cadea, a scadea, a se reduce                       to fall, to drop, to decrease

Cadere(scadre)                                               fall, drop, decrease

Cerere                                                            demand (cerere si oferta law of demand and

                                                                      supply

cheltuiala, cheltuieli                                      spending , expense (pozitie bugetara)                                                                                             expenditure

cifra                                                                  figure

cifra de afaceri                                                  turn over

comerciant                                                        shopkeeper, trader

client                                                                customer (servicii) client

comert                                                              trade

competitiv                                                         competitive

competitivitate                                                  competitiveness

a concedia(a disponibliliza)                                to lay-off, to dismiss, to make (workers)

                                                                        redundant

concediere(economica)                         redundancy lay-off, laying-off

concentare                                                        concentration

concurent                                                         competitor

concurenta                                                        competition

concurential                                                      competitive

Conjunctura = atentie in lb engleza nu exista o traducere unica a acestui termen, folositi the economy sau expresii ca (present) economic trends, the (present) economic situation,the (present) state of the economy, the business outlook ,the economic situation.

                                               

Constructie                                                       housing, construction

Constituirea unei intreprinderi                business formation

(cererea unei intreprinderi)

consum                                                 consumption

a consuma                                                        to consume

consummator                                                    consumer

cont                                                                  account

contabilitate                                                      accounting

contabil                                                            taxpayer

cost                                                                  cost

cota                                                                  quota

Creanta                                                            debt[det]

Atentie: in lb engleza exista un singur cuvant pt creanta (bani care ne sunt datorati) si datorie (bani pe care ii datoram): dept

Credit                                                               credit

Creditor                                                           creditor

A creste                                                           to raise, to rise, to increase, to go up

cresterea                                                          growth

criza                                                                 slump, depression, crises(pl crises)

a cumpara                                                        to buy, to purchase

cumparare                                                        purchase , buy

comparator                                                       buyer, purchaser

D

Datorie                                                             debt

Debuseu                                                           outlet

Deficit                                                              deficit

Deflatie                                                 deflation

Deflationist                                                       deflationary

Depresie(econmica)                                          depression

Dereglementare

(neitreventia statului ineconomie)                       deregulation

devize                                                               currency

director                                                            manager

disponibilizare                                                   mass-dismissal

distributie                                                          distribution

dividend                                                           dividend

drept                                                                1.law 2.(vama etc) duty

E

Echilibru                                                           balance

Economic                                                       economic

Atentie : economical inseamna economic in sensul de economicos, prin care se poate economisi sau rentabil.

Economie      1. (stiinta) economics

                      2. (caracteristici economice ale unei tari sau conjunctura economica) (the)                       economy ; economia romaneasca: the Romanian economy (nu uitati articolul the!); economiile lumii a treia third-world economies

economii                                                                                saving, savings

a economisi                                                                            to save

econom (persoana care economiseste)                                    saver, small investor

export                                                                                    export

a exporta                                                                               to export

exportator                                                                             exporter

exterior                                                                                  foreign, overseas (GB)

F

a fabrica, a produce                                                              to manufacture, to make, to  

                                                                                               build                

fabricant, producator                                                            manufacturer, maker, builder

a factura                                                                                to invoice, to bill, to charge

factura                                                                                   invoice, bill

faliment                                                                                 bankruptcy, failure

financiar                                                                                (adj.) financial

finantare                                                                                financing, funding

a finanta                                                                                to finance, to fund

finante                                                                                    finance

finantist                                                                                  financier

fisc                                                                                         (the) tax authorities;

                                                                                               (GB) the Inland Revenue;

(US) the Internal Revenue Services (IRS)

fiscal                                                                                      tax, fiscal

flux                                                                                        flow

fond, fonduri                                                                          1.m.sg. fund 2.m.pl. funds,

                                                                                               capital money

formare                                                                                  1.(de personal) training

2.(a unei societati etc.) formation, forming,

                                                                                               founding, setting up, creation

a furniza                                                                                to supply 

furnizor                                                                                  supplier

a fuziona                                                                                to merge

fuziune                                                                                   merger

G

a (se) globaliza                                                                      to globalize (to go global)

globalizare                                                                             globalization

greva                                                                                     strike

grevist

I

importator                                                                             importer 

import                                                                                    import

a importa                                                                               to import

a impoza, a impozita                                                             to tax

impozare, impozitare                                                             taxation

impozite                                                                                 tax, taxes

indice, indicator                                                                     index, pl. indexes, indices;

                                                                                               indicator

industrializare                                                                        industrialization

industrializat                                                                          industrialized

industrie                                                                                 industry

industrial                                                                               adj. industrial

industrias                                                                               industrialist, businessman

inflatie                                                                                    inflation

inflationist                                                                              inflationary

informatica                                                                            information technology; computing; computer science; data processing

interior (intern)                                                                      domestic, home

a investi                                                                                 to invest

investitie                                                                                investment

investitor                                                                               investor

Î

împrumut                                                                               loan

a împrumuta (a lua cu împrumut)                                         to borrow

încetinire                                                                                slow-down

a înfiinta                                                                                to set up

întreprindere                                                                          business, firm, enterprise,

                                                                                               concern

L

liber schimb                                                                           free-trade

lichiditati                                                                                cash, liquidities

locuinta                                                                                  housing

lucrator                                                                                  worker, (GB) working man

M

marasm                                                                                  slump, doldrums

marfa                                                                                     commodity, product 

marfuri                                                                                  goods, commodities, products

masa monetara                                                                      money supply

materii prime                                                                         raw materials

mana de lucru                                                                        labour force, (US) labor

                                                                                               force, workforce

menaj                                                                                     household

mondial                                                                                  world, global

moneda                                                                                  currency

multinational                                                                         multinational

munca                                                                                    work

a munci                                                                                  to work

muncitor                                                                                worker, (GB) working man

a muta                                                                                   to relocate

mutare                                                                                   relocation

N

national                                                                                  national, home, domestic

a nationaliza                                                                          to nationalize

nationalizare                                                                          nationalization

a negocia                                                                               to negotiate

negociere                                                                               negotiation

negustor                                                                                 merchant, dealer

nivel                                                                                       level

nivel de trai                                                                           standard of living

O

obligatiune (bursiera)                                                            bond

oferta                                                                                     supply

a oferi, a face o oferta                                                           to make an offer

P

patron                                                                                    manager, fam. boss

patronat                                                                                 management

pensionare                                                                             retirement

pensionar                                                                               retiree, (GB) pensioner

piata                                                                                       market

plafon                                                                                    ceiling

plata                                                                                      payment

a plati                                                                                    to pay

planseu                                                                                  floor

plusvaloare                                                                            increase in value; (capitaluri)



                                                                                               capital gains   

povara (fiscala)                                                                     burden

a prevedea (a prognoza)                                                       to forecast

previziune (prognoza)                                                            forecast

a privatiza                                                                             to privatize

privatizare                                                                             privatization

producator                                                                             producer

a produce                                                                               to produce

productivitate                                                    productivity

produs                                                             product(agricol)produce

progres                                                            progress

Atentie:Pentru a traduce un progres(al stiintei etc )folositi advance sau breaktrough

profit                                                               profit

proportie                                                         rate

protectionism                                                  protectionism

protectionist                                                    protectionist ; adj. protectionist, protective

publicitate                                                       1. advertising 2.(=anunt) advertisment, ad

 R

randament                                                       output ;(agricol,financiar)yield ;return

raspundere            responsibility;(susceptibil de a antrena urmariri judiciare) liability

raspunzator          1. adj.responsible;(suscesptibil de a fi urmarit in justitie) liable                    

     2. n.official; person in charge

recesiune                                                    recession

recuperare(revenire,                                   recovery ;(bursa)rally

restabilire)

a relansa                                                    to boost,to spur,to stimulate,to revive,to refuel

relansare                                    boosting, revival, stimulation, spurring; (prin investitii de       stat), pump-priming

rentabil                                                        profitable

rentabilitate                                                profitability

resurse                                                          resources

revendicare                                                  claim

S

salariat                                                         wage-earner

salariu                                                          salary (al unui muncitor) wage(s);(al unor      cadre etc.)

sanatate                                                       health

schimburi                                                    trade

sectorul privat                                             private sector

sectorul public                                            public sector

servicii                                                       service(s)

serviciu,slujba                                            employment,(o slujba-a job)

sindicalist                                                  union official,union member

sindicat                                                      union(GB trde union;US labor union)

social                                                          social

societate                                     1(inreprindere)company,business firm,US corporation

                                                   2society

                                                   Atentie:in afara sensului general(viata in societate)

                                                   society desemneaza o asociere in scop nelucrativ

sondaj                                                        (opinie) poll,survey

stoc(uri)                                                     inventory,stoc,store

strain                                                          foreigner(n.);foreign(adj,)

subventie                                                    subsidy;allowance

a subventiona                                             to subsidize

suma                                                           amount

 s

somaj                                                   unemployment;(US joblessness)

somer                                                    unemployed person

somerii, populatia                                 the jobless,the unemployed

aflata in somaj

T

tarif(taxa,curs)                                       rate

transport                                                 transport,(US) transportation

trimestru                                                quarter

Ţ

tara                                                        country

U

utilizator                                                 user

uzina                                                       factory, plant

V

valuta                                                       currency

vama                                                        customs

Atentie: nu omiteti s final in cuvintul englez

vanzator, vanzatoare                                salesperson, salesman,

                                                                 saleswoman; seller

a vinde                                                      to sell

vanzare                                                      sale

               

 

II. Up and down - Crestere si descrestere

 

 

 

1. VOCABULAR

Limba engleza dispune de un numar foarte mare de termini pentru a desemna o crestere sau o scadere ,in functie de gradul de intensitate si de rapiditatea lor.

Iata o lista cu substantivrle si verbele cele mai frecvent folosite,asa cum apar ele intr-un context economic,referitoare la cresterea /scaderea cursului etc.

a)    a creste, a se mari

 to go up

to rise

to increase

to move up

to inch up                     a creste putin cate putin

to surge                        a creste dintr-o data

to balloon                    a creste rapid

to soar                         a urca

to skyrocket                a creste fulgerator

to peak                        a atinge nivelul cel mai inalt,nivelul maxim

a rise

an increase

b)a scadea,a cobori

to go down

to fall                           a fall

to drop                         a drop

to decrease                   a decrease

to sage                          a  se prabusi

to slump                       a cadea brusc,a se prabusi    a slump ocriza economica

                                                                                                o recesiune

to plunge                      a plonja,a scadea in mod dramatic si brusc

to sink                           a scadea mult

to plummet                   a scadea brusc

to collapse                     a se prabusi                            a collapse

to be on the skids          a fi in decline,a fi pe cale de a se scufunda

a downturn                    o cadere,o recesiune

c)   &nb 17217w2211r sp;  a se stabiliza

dupa o scadere

to bottom out (indica in acelasi timp faptul ca va incepe cursul sa creasca)

dupa o crestere

to reach a plateau

to level off

d)    a se redresa

to recover                                                 a recovery

to look up

to turn up                                                  an upturn

to pick up

to pick up

to improve

      to rally (mai ales la bursa)              a rally

e)   &nb 17217w2211r sp; a fluctua

to fluctuate

to seesaw

to go into a roller-coaster (a fi ca pe un tobogan cu suisuri si coborari)

f)   &nb 17217w2211r sp;  a face sa urce, a face sa creasca

to raise

to raise                                                      a raise (US)

to hike (US)                                              a hike

to drive up

to step up              a accelera ritmul

to boost                 a stimula, a promova     a boost

g)    a face sa coboare, a face sa scada

to bring down

to cut                                                         a cut

to cut back                                                a cutback

to slash    a reduce considerabil                 a slash

2. PREPOZITII

Atentie la folosirea prepozitiilor:

an increase of 5% sau a 5% increase

an increase in production sau a production increase

it increased by 5% sau (US) it increased 5%

Acest lucru este valabil pentru toate verbele si substantivele care desemneaza cresterea sau scaderea (to go up, rise, drop, fall, decrease etc.)

Dar: a shortage of foreign currency.

3. FOLOSIREA VIRGULEI SI A PUNCTULUI

Atentie la folosirea corecta a punctului sau a virgulei:

2,5 la suta = 2.5 (two point five) per cent

o,5 la suta = 0.5 (zero point five) per cent sau .5% (point five)

10000 se scrie in engleza 10,000

5000 lire = Ł 5000

2 milioane de dolari = $ 2 million sau $ 2 m.

Atentie si la :

Sute/ mii/ milioane/ miliarde de dolari

Hundreds, thousands, millions, billions of dollars dar

Cinci sute/ mii/ milioane/ miliarde de dolari:

Five hundred/ thousand/ million/ billion dollars.

Hundred, thousand etc. sunt invariabile atunci cand sunt precedate de o cifra.

III. ECONOMICS - Economie

  1. DATE GENERALE CU PRIVIRE LA ACTIVITATEA ECONOMICA

Agenti economici                                            economic agents

Agregate economice                                       economic aggregates

Ajustat (corectat) in functie de sezon             seasonally adjusted   

Ameliorare (imbunatatire)                              improvement

Anual                                                               annual, yearly

Austeritate                                                      austerity                    

Autarhie                                                          self-sufficiency

Birocratie                                                        red tape, bureaucracy

Bloc comercial                                                trading bloc

Bogatie                                                            wealth

Brut                                                                 gross

Capitalism                                                       capitalism

Cadere (scadere)                                             fall, drop        

Ciclu                                                                cycle

Cifra                                                                figure, digit, number

Competitivitate                                               competitiveness

Concurent                                                       competitor

Concurenta                                                     competition    

Conjunctura                                                    current situation, current trend, economic outlook

Crestere                                                          increase, rise

Crestere puternica                                          surge

Criza                                                               crisis, slump   

Curba                                                              curve

Date                                                                data

Declin                                                              decline

Decolare                                                          take off

Deflatie                                                           deflation

Densitatea populatiei                                      population density

Depresiune                                                      depression

Dereglementare (neinterventie a statului)      deregulation

Dezvoltare                                                       development

Economia unei tari                                         the economy

Economic (rentabil)                                        economical

Economic                                                        economics

Economie (stiinta)                                           economics

Economie libera                                              laisser-faire economy, liberal economy (atentie la cuvantul liberal, care in America de Nord denumeste o orientare politica progresista, de stanga in alte cuvinte (n. a.))

Economie paralela, subterana                        underground economy

Economie planificata                                      state controlled, state-run, planned        economy

Econommist                                                    economist      

Eficienta                                                          efficiency

Era post-industriala                                        post-industrial era

Evolutie                                                           evolution

Expansiune (avant, dezvoltare)                      expansion, development

Expansiune                                                     expansion

Flexibilitate                                                     flexibility

Fluctuatie                                                        fluctuation, swing      

Fluxuri economice                                          economic flows

Fluxuri migratoare                                         migratory flows         

Grad, masura                                                  scale, table

Grafic                                                              graph, chart

Impas                                                              stalemate

Imobilism                                                        status quo

Independenta (economica)                              self-sufficiency

Indexare                                                          indexing

Indice                                                              index (pl. indexes, indices)

Indicatori economici                                       economic indicators

Indicatori de tendinta                                     trend indicators

Indicatori (principali)                                      leading, key indicators

Industrializare                                                 industrialization

Inferior                                                            lower

Infrastructuri                                                  infrastructures

Imbatranirea populatiei                                  ageing

Incetinire                                                         slowdown, slackness

La scara redusa                                              small-scale

Legea ofertei si a cererii                                 law of supply and demand

Liberalism                                                       laisser-faire, free market economy, liberalism (atentie la cuvantul liberal, care in America de Nord denumeste o orientare politica progresista, de stanga in alte cuvinte (n. a.))

Libera concurenta, piata libera                      free market   

Liber schimb                                                   free trade

Lumea a treia                                                  Third-World

Lunar                                                              monthly

Macroeconomie                                              macroeconomics        

Mercantilism                                                   mercantilism  

Mediu (adj.)                                                    average, median, mean

microeconomie                                                 microeconomics

migrari ale populatiei                                         population shifts

miscare de fonduri                                            movement of capital

miscare de marfuri                                            movement of goods

mutare                                                  relocation

neoliberalism                                                     neo-conservative economic policy

                                                                        neo-liberalism

net                                                                    net

oferta, cerere                                                    supply, demand

parteneri comerciali                                           trade partners

perspectiva                                                       outlook, prospects

pe scara larga                                                   large-scale

pe termen lung                                                  long-term

pe termen mediu                                               medium-term

pe termen scurt                                     short-term

piramida vârstelor                                             age pyramid

plafon                                                               ceiling

plan de relansare                                               recovery plan, incentive plan

planificare                                                         planning

politica economica                                            economic policy

politica de preturi                                              pricing policy

populatia activa                                     working population

prag                                                                 threshold

pragul saraciei                                                   poverty line

pret                                                                  price

previziuni(prognoze)                                          economic forecasts, survey

economice

procentaj                                                          percentage

productivism                                                     productivism

proiect                                                              project

progres                                                             progress, advantage

prosperitate, avânt                                            boom, prosperity

protectie sociala                                                social protection

rata fertilitatii                                                     fertility rate

rata mortalitatii                                      death, mortality rate

rata mortalitatii infantile                         infant mortality rate

rata natalitatii                                                    birth rate

rata                                                                  rate

recesiune                                                          recession

redresare, recuperare                                        recovery, rebound, rally

reforma                                                            reform

relansare(revigorare)                                         revival

restructurare                                                     restructuring

retea                                                                 network

revolutie industriala                                           industrial revolution

rigoare                                                              austerity

saturatie                                                            saturation, glut

saracie                                                              poverty

scadere                                                                        decrease

schimburi comerciale                                         trade exchanges

societate bogata                                                affluent society

societate cu doi parteneri                                  two-tier society

societate de consum                                          consumer society

societate de servicii                                           service society

speranta de viata                                               life expectancy

spirit de initiativa                                               entrepreneurial spirit, entrepreneurship

stagflatie                                                           stagflation

stagnare                                                            stagnation

statistica                                                           statistics

strategie                                                            strategy

strategie de reconversie                         reconversion strategy

strategie de redistribuire                                    redeployment strategy

strategie de recentrare                                       core strategy

subdezvoltare                                                   under development

superior(adj.)                                                    upper

supraîncalzire                                                    overheating

taraganare                                                        sluggishness

tendinta (ascendenta,                                        upward, downward, trend

descendenta)

teoria ofertei                                                     supply-side, economics

transa                                                               bracket

tara care creste rapid                                        fast-growing country

(cu crestere rapida)                  

tara care se dezvolta rapid                                fast-developing country

tara industrializata                                             industrialized, developed country

tara în curs de dezvoltare                                  developing country

tarile cele mai sarace                                         less developed countries (LDC)

(mai putin dezvoltate)

tari recent industrializate                                    newly industrialized countries

urbanizare                                                         urbanization

zilnic                                                                 daily

2. ECONOMIC ACTIVITY INDEXES   INDICATORII ACTIVITĂŢII ECONOMICE




alocatie                                                 allowance

cheltuieli                                                           expenditures, spendings

conducere(gestiune)                                          management

consum casnic (al menajelor)                         household consumption

controlul preturilor                                         price control

costuri salariale                                              labour costs

credit                                                               credit

crestere a cereri                                              excess demand

crestere a productivitatii                                productivity gain       

crestere zero                                                    zero growth

disponibilizare                                     dismissal        

disponibilizare (economica)                            lay-of, redundancies

deficit                                                              deficit

economii                                                          savings

economii ale menajelor                                   household savings

econom (persoana care economisteste)          saver, investor

emisiune monetara                                          money issuing

excedent                                                          surplus

export                                                              export

flexibilitate                                                      elasticity, flexibility

import                                                             import

impozit asupra consumului                             consumer tax

impozit asupra plusvalorii                              capital gains tax        

impozit asupra venitulu societatilor               corporate income tax

impozit direct/indirect                                     direct taxation/ indirect taxation, excise duties

impozit funciar                                                land tax                                  

impozit (taxa) de succesiune                           inheritance tax

impozit pe venit (al persoanelor fizice)           (individual) income tax

indemnizatie                                                    allowance, indemnity

indicele costului vietii                                     Cost of Living index (C.O.L. index)

indicele preturilor (bunurilor de consum)       consumer price index

inflatie                                                             inflation

inflatie cu doua cire                                        double digit inflation

inghetarea salariilor                                       wage-freeze

lipsa, penurie                                                   shortage

masa monetara                                               money supply

masa salariala                                                 aggregate remuneration, payroll

menaj, gospodarie                                          household

mic investitor                                                  small investor

nivel de trai                                                     standard of living

nivelul general al preturilor                            overall price level

PIB commercial                                              merchant GDP

Plusvaloare                                                     capital gain

PNB pe cap de locuitor                                   GNP per capita

Politica bugetara                                            budget policy

Prestatii sociale                                              social security benefits

Productivitate                                                 productivity

Produs intern brut (PIB)                                 Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

Produs national brut (PNB)                            Gross National Product (GNP)

Putere de cumparare                                      purchasing power

Randament                                                      return, productivity, yield

Rata de crestere                                              growth rate

Reducerea personalului unei societati            downsizing

Relaxarea politicii de credite                          easing of credit restrictions, easy credit policy

Rentabilitate                                                    profitability

Restrictie de credit                                          credit squeeze, tight credit policy

Resurse (naturale)                                           (natural) resources

Salariu mediu                                                  median wage

Salariu minim                                                  minimum wage

Spirala inflationista                                        wage and price spiral

Stoc                                                                 stock

Subproductie                                                   underproduction

Subventie                                                        subsidy, subvention

Supraproductie                                               overproduction

Surplus                                                            surplus

Taxe si impozite asupra produselor petroliere (TIPP) domestic oil tax       

TVA (taxa pe valoare adaugata)                    Value-Added Tax (VAT)

Unitate de productie                                       production unit

Valoare adaugata                                           added value

Valoarea de piata                                           market value

Venit                                                                income, revenue

Venitul mediu al menajelor                             household median income

Venit national                                                 national income

Venit pe cal de locuitor                                   per capita income

  1. BUSINESS AND EMPLOYMENT FIRME SI LOCURI DE MUNCA

Agricultor                                                        farmer

Angajare cu jumatate de norma/ cu norma intreaga part-time/full-time employment

angajare pe viata                                               lifetime employment

angajare temporara                                           temporary, precarious employment

angajat                                                             employee

angajator(patron)                                              employer

antreprenor, intreprinzator                                 entrepreneur

aport social                                                       social contributions

aportul social al parto-                          employer's social contributions

nului(al angajatorului)

artisan, mestesugar                                            craftsman, artisan

artizanat, activitate                                            craft industry, cottage industry

mestesugareasca

atelier                                                               workshop

autoritatile publice                                             the public authorities

avantaje sociale                                                benefits

beneficiu(comercial)                                          profit

birou                                                                office

bogatii                                                              the rich

cadru, cadre (de conducere)                             executive, manager

cadru de conducere                                          top executive

cadru mediu                                                      middle manager

cadru superior                                                  senior executive, senior manager

castiguri                                                            earnings

cecurile de afaceri                                             business circles, quarters

cifra de afaceri                                                  turnover

clasa bogata                                                     the well-off

clasa conducatoare                                           the ruling class

clasa de mijloc                                                  the middle class

clasa defavorizata                                             the lower class

clasa muncitoare                                               the working class

clasa superioara                                                the upper class

clasa sociala                                                     social class, social status

comerciant                                            shopkeeper, store operator(US), tradesman (GB)

companie, firma, societate                                 company

companie multinationala                                    multinational company

concern (clasa de comert)                                 concern

conducatorul intreprinderii                                 company manager, head, owner

conglomerat                                                      conglomerate

cooperativa                                                      cooperative

corporatism                                                      corporatism

crearea(infiintarea)                                            (business) formation, start-up, set-up

unei intreprinderi

deposit                                                             warehouse

faliment                                                 bankruptcy

filiala                                                                 subsidiary, affiliate

firma                                                                 firm

functionar (al statului)                                        state employee, civil servant

fuziune                                                              merger, amalgamation

greva                                                                strike

grevist                                                              striker

grila de salarizare                                              wage scale

grup                                                                 group

holding                                                 holding company

inginer                                                              engineer

intreprindere                                                     firm, company (GB), corporation (US)

intreprindere de statie                            state-owner company, public utility company

intreprinderi mici si                                            small and medium sized business

mijlocii(IMM)

maistru                                                             foreman, supervisor

mana de lucru                                                   workforce, manpower

munca minorilor                                                child labour

munca grea                                                       hard labor

muncitor                                                           worker

muncitorii zilieri(sezonieri)                                  day laborers

nationalizare                                                      nationalization

partener                                                            partner

patronat                                                            management circles, the employers

pensionare                                                        retirement

pensioner                                                          retiree, pensioner

pescar                                                              fisherman

privatizare                                                         privatization

profesie                                                            occupation, trade

profesie (liberala)                                              profession        

profesii liberale                                     professional people

profit                                                                profit

salariat                                                              wage-earner

salariu                                                               wage, salary

saracii                                                               the poor

sectorul public/ privat                                        public/private sector

sectie (in fabrica)                                              the shop floor

sediu                                                                head office, registered office

serviciu public                                                   civil service, public service

sindicalism                                                        trade unionism

sindicalist                                                          unionist                                    

sindicat                                                            trade union, labour union (US)

societate (comerciala)                                     company, firm, corporation (US)

societate mixta                                      joint venture

sucursala                                                         branch

sef, patron, director,                                       boss, owner, manager, employer

angajator                               

somaj                                                              unemployment

somer                                                              unemployed

uzina                                                                factory, plant

4. PRODUCTS, MARKETS AND FINANCE PRODUSE, PIEŢE sI FINANŢE

actiune                                                             share, stock (US)

angrosist                                                         wholesaler

aparate casnice                                               household appliances, white goods

articol                                                              item, article

banca                                                              bank

bunuri                                                              goods

bunuri de folosinta                                          durable goods, durables

îndelungata

bunuri de marfuri                                            commodity exchange, commodity market

bursa de valori                                                stock exchange, stock market

capital, capitaluri                                            capital

casa de economii                                             savings bank

client (servicii)                                                client              

client                                                               customer

client permanent                                             patron

clientela                                                           clientele

comerciant                                                      shopkeeper, tradesman, dealer, merchant

comerciant cu amanuntul                               retail dealer, retailer

comert                                                             commerce, trade

comert en detail                                              retail trade

(cu amanuntul)           

comert en gros                                                            wholesale trade

conducator, director,                                      manager

manager         

consumator                                                     consumer

creanta                                                            debt

creditor                                                           creditor

cumparare                                                       purchase

cumparator                                                     purchaser, buyer

datorie                                                             debt

debitor                                                             debtor

devize                                                              currency

distribuitor                                                      distributor

distributie                                                        distribution

distributie în masa                                           mass retail, mass distribution

exportator                                                       exporter

fabricant                                                         manufacturer

febra cumparaturilor                                      spending spree

finantist                                                           financier

fiscalitate, sistem fiscal                                   taxation, tax system

importator                                                       importer

intermediar                                                     middleman, intermediary

investitie                                                          investment

investitor                                                         investor

împrumut                                                        loan

îndatorare                                                       debt, indebtness

marfa                                                              commodity

marfuri, bunuri                                               goods, merchandise, wares

marfuri de larg consum                                  mass consumption goods

marfuri de prima necessitate                          staple goods, staples

marfuri de uz casnic                                        household goods

mijloace de productie                                      capital goods

obligatiune                                                      bond, debenture

oportunitate (pe o piata)                                 niche

piata                                                                market

piete financiare                                               financial markets

plasament (investitie                                       investment

mobiliara)

politica fiscala                                                 fiscal policy, taxation policy

politica vamala                                               tariff policy

producator                                                      producer, manufacturer

productia interna                                            domestic output, national production,

nationala                                

productie                                                         output, production

productie în vrac                                             in bulk production, output

produs (industrial)                                          product

produs agricol                                                 produce

produs de lux                                                  luxury goods

produs finit                                                      finished product

produs semi-finit                                             semi-finished product

produse alimentare                                         produce, foodstuffs

produse lactate                                               dairy produce

produse perisabile                                           perishable goods, perishables

protectia consumatorilor                                consumerism

rata de schimb                                                            exchange rate

rata dobânzii                                                   interest rate

renta                                                                revenue

reprezentant                                                    representative, agent

servicii                                                             services

subcontractare                                                subcontracting

subcontractor                                                  subcontractor



taxa vamala                                                    customs duty

titlu (de valoare)                                             security

troc                                                                  barter

unitate de productie                                        production unit

valoare (bursiera)                                           security

vama                                                               customs

vânzator, -oare,                                              salesman, -woman; seller

agent de vânzare

vânzare                                                           sale

5. MAIN VERBS VERBELE PRINCIPALE

a cadea                                                            to drop

a câstiga (bani)                                               to make, to earn

a cheltui                                                          to spend

a comercializa                                                 to market

a concedia                                                       to dismiss

a conduce                                                        to run, to operate, to lead, to manage

a consuma                                                       to consume

a creste                                                            to increase, to rise, to grow

a creste (puternic)                                           to surge, to skyrocket

a cuceri (o piata)                                             to grab, to seize, to corner

a cumpara                                                       to buy, to purchase

a da faliment                                                   to go bankrupt

a dezvolta                                                        to develop, to expand

a disponibiliza                                                 to lay off, to make redundant

(din ratiuni economice)

a economisi                                                     to save, to spare

a exploata (o                                                   to operate

întreprindere)

a exporta                                                         to export

a fabrica                                                          to manufacture

a face afaceri cu                                             to do business with

a face o afacere cu                                          to make a deal with

a gestiona (a administra)                                to manage, to handle

a importa                                                        to import

a investi                                                           to invest

a încheia (un contract,                                    to sign, to close, to clinch

o afacere)

a înfiinta                                                          to set up

a lansa                                                             to launch

a se mari                                                         to increase, to rise

a muta                                                             to relocate

a opri inflatia, somajul                                    to curb, to stern the tide of, to check

a patrunde (pe o piata etc.)                             to penetrate, to break into, to tap

a produce                                                        to produce

a realiza un profit                                           to make a profit

a reduce                                                          to reduce, to cut, to lower

a reduce (puternic)                                          to slash

a reforma                                                        to reform

a relansa                                                         to spur, to boost, to revive, to prime

a scadea                                                          to decrease, to fall

a scadea, a se prabusi                                     to plummet, to collapse

(preturi)

a stapâni, a controla                                       to control       

(costurile, cheltuielile)

a subcontracta                                                            to subcontract, to contract out

a sustine                                                          to sustain

a trata cu, a se                                                            to deal with

confrunta cu

a vinde                                                                        to sell

6. A COUNTRY'S NATIONAL ECONOMY ECONOMIA NAŢIONALĂ A UNEI ŢĂRI

sectorul primar                                               primary sector

sectorul secundar                                            secondary sector

sectorul tertiar                                                tertiary sector

1. AGRICULTURA                                     FARMING

a) productia agricola                                         agricultural production

bere                                                                 beer

cacao                                                               cocoa

cafea                                                               coffee

cartof                                                              potato

ceai                                                                  tea

cereale                                                             cereals

citrice                                                              citrus

grâu                                                                 wheat (US), corn (GB)

oleaginoase                                                     oilseeds

orez                                                                 rice

porumb                                                            maize (GB), corn (US)

tutun                                                                 tobacco

vita-de-vie                                                        vine

zahar                                                                sugar

b ) zootehnia (cresterea                                     cattle-raising, cattle-breeding, cattle

animalelor)                                                        rearing                                               

bovine                                                              cattle

ovine                                                                the ovine race

pasari                                                               poultry

porcine                                                             swine, pigs

c ) piscicultura (pescuitul)                                  fishing industry (the)

flota comerciala                                                merchant fleet

piscicultura                                                       aqua farming

port pescaresc                                                  fishing harbor

d ) industria forestiera                                       forest industry (the)

padure, lemn                                                     wood

2. INDUSTRIA ENERGETICA          POWER INDUSTRY (THE)

carbune (huila, lignit)                                         coal (coal, beown coal)

energia nucleara                                                the nuclear energy, nuclear power

gaze naturale                                                     natural gas

hidroelectricitate                                               hydroelectricity

petrol                                                               oil (US), petroleum (GB)

surse de energie alternativa solara,                     alternative sources of energy (sun,

 eoliana etc.)                                                                 wind, etc.)

3.METALURGIA GREA                     HEAVY METALLURGICAL                                                                                               

                                                                        INDUSTRY (THE)

(siderurgie, minerale)                                         ( iron and steel industry, ore)

aluminiu                                                            aluminum (US), aluminium

bauxita                                                             bauxite

cobalt                                                               cobalt

crom                                                                chromium

cupru                                                                copper

fier                                                                   iron

fosfati                                                               phosphates

mangan                                                 manganese

nichel                                                                nickel

otel                                                                   steel

plumb                                                               lead

staniu                                                                tin

zinc                                                                  zinc

4. INDUSTRIA MINIERA                  MINING INDUSTRY (THE)

argint                                                                silver

aur                                                                   gold

diamante                                                           diamond

5. INDUSTRIA TEXTILA                   TEXTILE INDUSTRY (THE)

bumbac                                                            cotton

fibre artificiale                                                   artificial fibres

fibre sintetice                                                    synthetic fibres

in                                                                      linen

iuta                                                                   jute

lana                                                                  wool

matase                                                              silk

6. ALTE RAMURI DE PRODUCTIE OTHER PRODUCTIONS                  

ciment                                                              cement

cauciuc                                                 rubber

mase plastice                                                    plastics

7. INDUSTRIILE PRELUCRATOARE           PROCESSING INDUSTRIES

industria aeronautica si                          aerospace industry (the)

spatiala

industria aparatelor de cale                                rail, railway, railroad industry (the)

industria automobilelor                          car industry (the)       

industria navala                                     shipbuilding (the)

8.TRANSPORTURI                            TRANSPORT, TRANSPORTATION

transportul aerian                                              air transport(ation)

transportul feroviar                                            rail transport(ation)

transportul maritim                                            sea transport(ation)

transportul rutier                                               road transport(ation)

transportul terestru                                            ground transport(ation)

9. DIVERSE                                                           MISCELLANEOUS

alimentatie                                                        food diet

analfabetism                                                      iliteracy

timp liber                                                          leisure

sanatate                                                            health

scolarizare                                                        schooling

rata dotarii                                                        equipment rate

turism                                                               tourism

7.INDUSTRIES AND SECTORS    INDUSTRII SI SECTOARE

industria agro-alimentara                                   agro-business (the)

industria alimentara                                           food industry (the)

industia chimica                                     chemical industry (the)

industria de armament                                       arms industry (the)

industria de constructii                           building industry,building trade

                                                                        (the)

industria de telecomunicatii                                telecommunications industry (the)

industiile de varf                                                leading industries (the)

industria farmaceutica                                        pharmaceutical industry (the)

industria grea/usoara                                         heavy/light industry (the)

industria informatica                                          computer industry (the)

industria petrochimica                                       petrochemical industry (the)

industria producatoare                                      clothing industry (the)

de confectii

industria produselor de lux                                luxury goods industry (the)

industria spectacolului                           show business, entertainment

                                                                        industry (the)

industria de inalta tehnologie                              high tech industry (the)

8.MISCELLANEOUS                                   DIVERSE

audiovizualul                                                     audio-visual industry (the)

averea imobiliara                                               real estate

editurile                                                            publishing industry (the)

industria producatoare de imbracaminte (productie in serie) ready-to-wear industry (the)

locuinte                                                              housing

mass-media                                                       media(the)

robotica                                                             robotics

sectorul asigurarilor                                            insurance industry(the)

sectorul bancar                                                   banking industry(the)

telematica                                                          telematics

9. Vocabular suplimentar                        Additional vocabulary

baraj                                                                dam

bazin                                                                 field

centrala (energetica)                                           power plant

companie aeriana                                                airline company

extractie de minereuri                             mining

foraj                                                                  drilling, boring

furnal                                                                  blast furnace

linie de montaj                                                  assembly line

masina-unealta                                                   machine tool

mina                                                                   mine

otelarie                                                              steel mill

piese de schimb                                                 spare parts

rafinarie                                                            refinery

ssantier naval                                                     shipyard

transportator, caraus                                         carrier, haulier

zacamint                                                           deposit

 

 

 

 

 

 

IV. Measuring economic activity : main indexes - Evaluarea activitatii economice: principalii indicatori

Gross National Product (GNP) Produsul national brut (PNB)

The total final value of goods and services produced in a national economy over one year.

The Growth Rate (rata de crestere) of an economy is the increase in its GNP from one year to another.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) produsul intern brut (PIB)

The index measures the value of goods and services produced on the national territory over a year.

Balance of trade, trade balance balanta comerciala

The difference over a period of time (generally a year) between the value of a country's imports and exports of merchandise. The balance is said to be favourable (US favorable) when it shows a surplus of exports, in which case it shows a deficit. An  unfavourable balance is referred to as a trade gap.

Balance of payments balanta de plati

A system for the recording of a country's total transactions with the rest of the world during a given period of time (usually a year).

Consumer Price Index (CPI) indicele preturilor (bunurilor) de consum.

A measure of change in consumers prices, determined by a monthly survey.

Also known as Cost-of-Living Index.

Household consumption consumul casnic (al menajelor);

Industrial consumption indicele productiei industriale;

A monthly statistics on the total output of factories and mines.

Unemployment figures (US Jobless Rate) numarul soemerilor/rata somajului.

The proportion of the labour (US labor) force that is without paid work.

Exchange rate  rata de schimb.

The prices at which a country's currency can be converted into another's.

Other indexes and yardsticks   alti indicatori si instrumente de masura;

Consumer demand   nivelul consumului, cererea consumatorilor;

Purchasing power    puterea de cumparare;

Standard of living    nivelul de trai;

Population growth   cresterea demografica;

Birth rate   rata natalitatii;

Death rate  rata mortalitatii;

Life expectancy/expectation   speranta de viata.

 

 

 

 

 

V. SENTENCES

  1. The economy's performance in the last few months has not been encouraging.
  2. Sluggishness has persisted throughout the year, and most estimates have had to be revised downwards.
  3. The immediate outlook is gloomy.
  4. There is a widespread concern over a deepening of the business slowdown.
  5. Business is at a standstill.
  6. A devaluation would give exporters a competitive edge.
  7. The aftermath/ outcome of a devaluation is often a rise in the production costs, prices and wages.
  8. We are headed for a slump.
  9. The situation is compounded of inflation and social unrest.
  10. Stagflation is rampant.
  11. There are disturbing reports of mounting chaos and widespread lay-offs.
  12. Unemployment has been inching up all year.
  13. Beleaguered industrialists are casting about for means of coping with the rash of wildcat strikers.
  14. The rising tide of inflation will have to be stemmed.
  15. Unions should be discouraged from speeding up the wage-price spiral.
  16. If consumer demands levels off or falls, employers will eventually have no alternative than to cut their payrolls.
  17. The government is now contemplating a wage-freeze.
  18. Additional measures will have to be taken to reduce inflationary/upward pressures on costs and prices.
  19. According to the forecasts of experts, household consumption should go up in the next quarter.
  20. Expectations of an early rebound in the economy have been disappointed.
  21. Many economists feel that artificially stimulated demand is preferable to slack economy.
  22. There is no alternative but to spur the lagging economy.
  23. Some amount of pump-priming will be needed if the country is to be set on its feet again.
  24. The country now seems on its way to recovery.
  25. A powerful surge of buying has been developing.
  26. (The) consumers have gone on a spending spree.
  27. The revival spreads although the country is still plagued by inflation.

28. Despite official optimism, it is still far from sure that the economy is recovering from its mild recession.

29. Retail sales are up only 3% over last year - an actual drop in volume after discounting inflation.

30. New incentives to spur capital spending are currently under active/serious consideration.

31. There is a need to spur/stimulate employment and consumption.

32. The question is: how to retain prosperity curbing/checking inflation.

33. Seasonally adjusted unemployment figures tend to suggest that business start-ups have not been so/as numerous as expected.

34. Businessmen have been loath to use the credit already available.

35. With interest rates falling, hot money will flow to other areas/regions.

36. Confidence cannot be restored overnight.

37. The business slowdown is causing serious concern in government circles.

38. The Gross National Product (GNP) has increased (by) 5.25%.

39. The Xmas (i.e. Christmas - n.red.) buying spree should not be mistaken for a genuine recovery.

40. Production is down 4.5% on last year

                  












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