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Types of Contracts/ Tipuri de contracte

economie












ALTE DOCUMENTE

ZONA DE RESPONSABILITATE
CONTRACT DE FURNIZARE DE PRODUSE
POLITICA IMPORTULUI SI A EXPORTULUI
ANALIZA ECHILIBRULUI FINANCIAR
Organizarea bugetara in Romania
1. Pretul si modalitatile de plata in cotractul de vanzare internationala
CE ESTE NEGOCIEREA?
FIsA DE ÎNSCRIERE LA CONCURSUL DE ADMITERE SESIUNEA IULIE 2008
Conform uzantelor juridice actuale (noutate in domeniu?!), inspectorul fiscal prin PV
Stimata comisie

3.1. Types of Contracts/ Tipuri de contracte

3.1.1. Sale-Purchase Contract - Contract de vanzare-cumparare:
1. Fungible Contract - Contract pentru bunuri fungibile
2. Non-fungible contract - Contract pentru bunuri nefungibile
3. Cash-Payment Contract - Contract cu plata in numerar
4. Credit-Payment Contract - Contract cu plata pe credit



3.1.2. Commercial Banking Guarantee Contract - Contract comercial de garantie bancara
1. Factoring Contract - Contract de factoring (contract de realizare a creantelor sub forma de facturi)
2. Forfeiting Contract - Contract de forfeiting (contract pentru finantare prin negocierea titlurilor de credit)
3. Leasing Contract - Contract de leasing (inchiriere)
4. Lease-back Contract - Contract de finantare pe termen lung
5. Licence Contract - Contract de licenta pentru brevet de inventie
6. Know-how Contract - Contract de transfer know-how
7. Agent Contract - Contract de mandat
8. Commission Contract - Contract de comision
9. Consignment Contract - Contract de consignatie
10. Agency Contract - Contract de agency (corespunde in dreptul anglo-american celor de mandat comercial si de comision, prevazute in sistemele de drept continental e 111b123b uropean)
11. Concession Contract - Contract de concesiune
12. Franchising Contract - Contract de franchising
13. Warehouse Contract - Contract de depozit
14. Charter-Party - Contract de navlosire
15. International Railways Transport Contract - Contract de transport feroviar international
16. International River Transport Contract - Contract de transport fluvial international
17. International Air Transport Contract - Contract de transport aerian international
18. Insurance Contract - Contract de asigurare
19. Engineering Contract - Contract de engineering (consultanta tehnica)
20. Consulting Contract - Contract de consulting
21. Turn-key Project Contract - Contract pentru obiective


3.2. The Sales Contract / Contractul de vanzare - cumparare

3.2.1. Preamble, introduction, definition , scope of the contract/ Preambul, introducere, definitii, scopul contractului
This Contract is made between...Prezentul contract este incgeiat intre.
The Undersigned...represented by...and ...Co. Ltd., represented by... Subsemnatii...reprezentati de...si firma...reprezentata de...
...have agreed the followings...au cazut de acord asupra urmatoarelor
The Seller has sold and the Buyer has bought...Vanzatorul a vandut...si cumparatorul a cumparat...

3.2.2. Subject matter of the contract / Obiectul contractului
Includes:
- parties' obligations/ obligatiile partilor
The Seller undertakes to deliver and the Buyer will take over and pay according to the conditions of the present contract the....Vanzatorul se obliga sa livreze si Cumparatorul sa preia livrarea si sa plateasca in concordanta cu conditiile prezentului contract...

- description of the goods/ descrierea bunurilor

bearings/ rulmenti, wool/lana, cupboards/dulapuri...

- quality/ calitatea

by catalogue/ conform catalogului, by tender book/ conform caietului de sarcini, by description/ conform descrierii, by sample/ conform mostrei, to type/ conform tipului, to norm, standard/ conform normei, standardului, to contract/ conform contractului, at/on sight/ la vedere (vazut-placut), subject to inspection/ cu conditia inspectarii marfii, on approval/ cu aprobarea cumparatorului, on trial/ de proba, fair average quality f.a.q./ de calitate medie, good ordinary brand g.o.b./calit. obisnuita buna, mercantable quality/calitate vandabila, grade/quality I,II,III/ grad, calitate I,II,III, fine/fina, finest/foarte fina, superfine/extrafina, pure/pur, per analysis/conform analizei.

- quantity/ cantitatea

- number of pieces/numarul de bucati - grams/ grame, kilograms/kilograme, pounds/livre;

-units of length/unitati de lungime - millimeters/ milimetri, centimeters/centimetri, meters/metri, inches/ inci, feet/picioare, yards/iarzi
- units of area/ unitati de suprafata
- units of volume/ unitati de volum

- packing / ambalare
- seaworthy packing/ambalaj rezistent la transportul pe mare, moisture-proof packing/ambalaj care protejeaza impotriva umezelii, water-proof packing/ambalaj impermeabil, fire-proof packing/ambalaj neinflamabil
- bag or sack/ sac, box, chest/cutie, case/lada, jar/borcan,
tin, can/bidon, barrel, cask, wooden/butoi....

- marking / marcaj
- shipper's own distinctive marks/marcajele distinctive ale expeditorului
- consignee's distinctive marks/ marcajele distinctive ale destinatarului
- pentru marcaje se folosesc: stencils/sabloane, paint/imprimari cu vopsea, indelible ink/cerneala neradiabila

Exemple: Do not drop/Nu trantiti, fragile/fragil, keep in cold place/ pastrati in loc rece, handle with care/manuiti cu grija, open here/deschideti aici etc.

3.2.3. Price, costs, rates, related matters / Pret, costuri, tarife si alte probleme
- pretul poate fi fix - fixed price- sau variabil - sliding price
- pretul contractului se scrie atat in cifre cat si in litere
- calificative care se asociaza cu pretul pentru a aprecia obligatiile reciproce ale partilor contractuale: duty paid/vamuit, duty unpaid/nevamuit, package included/inclusiv ambalajul, package excluded/exclusiv ambalajul, non returnable package/ cu ambalaj nereturnabil, freight, charges and expenses prepaid/ cu taxele si cheltuielile de transport platite, free/franco domicile/franco domiciliu, delivered in/at/livrat in/la, free of charges/gratuit, delivered free to/livrat franco etc.



3.2.4. Terms of payment; bank guarantees/Conditii de plata;garantii bancare
- by sight drafts - prin trate la vedere
- by 90 days' time drafts - prin trate la termen de 90 de zile
- by cash with order - in numerar la darea comenzii
- by irrevocable letter of credit - prin acreditiv documentar irevocabil
- in cash against first presentation of documents - in numerar contra primei prezentari a documentelor
- in installments - in rate.

3.2.5. Delivery / Termene de livrare
ex stoc - din stoc
ex warehouse - din depozit
ex works - din fabrica
prompt delivery - livrare prompta
delivery on call - livrare la cerere
fixed time delivery - livrare la termen fix
delivery on, by, within - livrare la, pana la, in intervalul...
delivery in time - livrare la timp
advance delivery - livrare anticipata
late/postponed delivery - livrare cu intarziere
to extend the time of delivery - sa prelungeasca termenul de livrare
to speed up deliveries - sa urgenteze livrarile
complete delivery, one lot shipment - livrare efectuata integral, intr-un singur lot
delivery by installments - livrare efectuata esalonat
part/partial shipments - livrari partiale

Se mai precizeaza:
place of delivery - locul livrarii
transfer of property and risks from the Seller to the Buyer - transferul proprietatii si al riscurilor de la vanzator la cumparator
evidence of delivery - documentele doveditoare ale efectuarii livrarii.

3.2.6. Insurance / Asigurare
The insurance of the goods shall be made/ Asigurarea marfii trebuie efectuata
- by the Buyers and is charged to their account...de catre cumparatori si trece in contul lor
- by the Buyers, the incumbent expenses are on their account unless it is otherwise stipulated in this contract....de catre cumparatori, cheltuielile care le revin sunt suportate de ei, cu exceptia cazurilor cand este stabilit altfel in prezentul contract
- by Sellers for Buyers' account...de catre vanzatori in contul cumparatorilor....

3.2.7. Forwarding and shipping / Expediere si transport
- loading - incarcare, forwarding - expediere, discharging/unloading - descarcare

- loading port/station - statia de icarcare, unloading port/station - statia de descarcare

- chartering of a ship wholly - navlosirea unei nave in intregime, chartering of a ship in part - navlosirea unei nave partial, railway wagoon - vagon de cale ferata, truck - autocamion, plane - avion.


3.2.8. Claims / Reclamatii
Exemple:
- Quantity claims shall be filed by the Buyers within 10 days from the reception of the goods...Reclamatiile cu privire la cantitate se vor depune de catre cumparator in termen de 10 zile de la receptionarea marfii.

- Complaints made by subcontractors will be disregarded by the Sellers...Reclamatiile facute de subcontractanti nu vor fi luate in consideratie de vanzatori.
Pot fi generate de: Seller's fault/vina vanzatorului, Buyer's fault/ vina cumparatorului, both to blame/vina ambelor parti, force majeure/cauze de forta majora.

Reclamatiile cumparatorului pot avea urmatoarele cauze:
- a fault in merchandise quantity, quality, damage/ deficiente cu privire la marfa: cantitate, calitate, pagube;
- delay in delivery/ intarziere la livrare;
- faulty documents/ documente cu erori;
- faulty or unsuitable packing/ ambalaj defectuos sau necorespunzator;




Reclamatiile vanzatorului pot avea urmatoarele cauze:
- delayed payment/ intarzierea platii;
- non-payment/ neplata contravalorii marfurilor;
- failure to place/ nepunerea la dispozitia vanzatorului a mijlocului de transport etc.

3.2.9. Cancellation of the contract / Rezilierea contractului
As you are unable to deliver the goods / Intrucat nu puteti sa livrati marfa:
- by the agreed time ....la termenele convenite
- under the agreed conditions...in conditiile asupra carora am cazut de acord...
we are compelled to cancel the contract concluded against our order dated... suntem obligati sa reziliem contractul incheiat pe baza comenzii noastre din..

3.2.10. Force majeure / Forta majora
Both parties shall be exonerated from any liability, if contract provisions cannot be observed due to a contingency such as: storm, hurricane, earthquake, flood, war, strike or any other event beyond their control.... / Ambele parti vor fi exonerate de orice raspundere in caz ca prevederile contractuale nu vor putea fi respectate ca urmare a unui caz de forta majora, precum: furtuna, uragan, cutremur, inundatie, stare de razboi, greva sau orice alt eveniment independent de vointa acestora.

Miscellaneous / Prevederi diverse
Final dispositions / Dispozitii finale
Appendices (Annexes) / Anexe

3.3. Contract Draft / Model de contract de vanzare - cumparare

Date / Data:...

Place/ Locatie: Bucharest, Romania
Concluded between:....X as the Seller and Y as the Buyer, represented by..../ Incheiat intre:...firma X in calit. de vanzator si firma Y in calit de cumparator, reprezentat de...

1. Object of the contract / Obiectul contractului
2. Orders / Comenzi
3. Quality / Clauza cu privire la calitate
4. Quantity / Clauza cu privire la cantitate
5. Time of delivery / termenele de livrare
6. Prices / Clauza preturi
7. Payment terms / Termenii de plata
8. Packing and Marking / Ambalajul si Marcajul
9. Guarantee / Clauza privind garantia
10. Quality and Quantity Inspection / Clauzele privind inspectia calitatii si cantitatii
11. Force Majeure / Clauza privind forta majora
12. Arbitration / Clauza arbitraj
13. Insurance / Clauza privind asigurarea
14. Tnasport / Clauza privind transportul
15. Claims / Reclamatii
16. Cancellation / Rezilierea contractului
17. Other conditions / Alte prevederi

Made on the ..... in Bucharest, Romania / Redactat in data de ..., in Bucuresti, Romania

For and on behalf of the Sellers, For and on behalf of the Buyer,

Semnatura si stampila vanzatorului, Semnatura si stampila cumparatorului












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