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Metode de lupta contra incendiilor pe nave. Organizarea echipajului

Transporturi


Metode de lupta contra incendiilor. Organizarea echipajului

Conform STCW, echipajul se va pregati teoretic si practic atat in centrele de calificare, instruire si perfectionare, cat si la nave, in vederea cunoasterii notiunilor referitoare la chimia focului, modul de producere si propagare, a mijloacelor de stingere a incendiilor izbucnite la bord, precum si notiuni elementare privind organizarea, tactica si comanda.



Se vor face exercitii de stingere in cat mai multe ipoteze (se va urmari deplasarea rapida a oamenilor, echiparea lor corespunzatoare, actionarea conform rolului) astfel, reusindu-se sa se cunoasca foarte bine potentialul uman si tehnic.

Semnalul de alarma pentru incendiu se transmite prin instalatia de semnalizare - alarmare a navei, de catre orice membru al echipajului sau persoana de la bord, care observa un incendiu in desfasurare sau pe cale sa se produca, ori prin instalatia generala de alarma, de catre ofiterul de punte (cart).

Semnalele de alarma transmise cu suneria sau sirena se dubleaza prin ordine verbale transmise prin mijloace de com 444c28e unicatii interioare de la bord, indicandu-se si locul de actiune, de exemplu ,,Alarma de (exercitiu) de incendiu in compartimentul de carma.

Pentru insusirea atributiilor prevazute in roluri si pentru formarea deprinderilor de a actiona rapid, corespunzator situatiei, sub conducerea comandantului navei se organizeaza periodic exercitii de roluri simuland situatii reale, atat cat nava este in mars cat si in stationare, astfel iincat fiecare membru al echipajului sa participe la cel putin un exercitiu de rol de incendiu pe luna iar la navele de pasageri, un exercitiu de rol de incendiu in fiecare saptamana, urmarindu-se in acest scop ca echipajul navei sa fie apt in orice moment pentru a interveni conform indatoririlor trasate in rolul de incendiu al fiecaruia. Curent, un astfel de exercitiu se numeste Emergency fire drill.

Proceduri pentru siguranta personalului. Conducerea operatiunilor de stingere revine de regula capitanului navei pentru punte si toate compartimentele acesteia, in timp ce seful mecanic coordoneaza operatiunile de stingere in compartimentele masinilor.

Conducatorul actiunii de stingere poarta intreaga raspundere pentru interventia operativ-tactica de lichidare a incendiului si siguranta echipajului.

Sarcinile conducatorului:

se informeaza asupra situatiei,

apreciaza situatia,

ia decizia de interventie,

da comanda de interventie.

Componenta echipei de stingere cu apa:

Conducatorul echipei trebuie sa fie un bun cunoscator al navei, compartimentelor,

instalatiilor si mijloacelor de stingere, al tacticii de lupta contra incendiului. Este cel care dirijeaza efectiv operatiunea de stingere.

Semnalizatorul (omul de legatura) in lipsa unor mijloace de comunicare radio.

Grupa de stingere: alcatuita din oamenii cei mai sanatosi, robusti, cu o buna rezistenta fizica,

sunt cei care actioneaza direct cu tevile de refulare asupra focarului. Se stabileste strict cine imbraca costumul anticaloric si cine este ajutorul in aceasta operatiune,

Grupa cu manicile (aduce manici si tevi de refulare). Din ea fac parte cei ce deschid

hidrantii, cupleaza si intind manicile, urmaresc traseul acestora, repara manicile deteriorate, au grija sa nu se stranguleze,

5. Grupa de apa are in compunere cel putin un om de la masina (de obicei of.mec.) care are rolul de

a porni pompele si a face liniile.

Pentru reusita actiunii de lichidare a focului, cei ce concura la actiune trebuie sa se apropie cat mai

mult de focar, sa se afle mai sus sau cel putin la acelasi nivel cu acesta, si sa tina cont de:

Directia si taria vantului (va actiona cu vantul din spate pentru a feri oamenii si a nu degrada spuma);

Focarul incendiului sa se atace incepand de la baza sa

Interventia trebuie facuta cu rapiditate deoarece succesul actiunii depinde de aceasta intr-o foarte mare masura.

Alte conditii esentiale pentru o interventie prompta si o reusita a stingerii sunt:

Instalatiile de alarmare si stingere sa fie in perfecta stare de functionare;

Personalul sa cunoasca semnalul de alarma de incendiu si indatoririle fiecaruia conform Muster List;

Mijloacele de stins portabile sa fie in permanenta la posturi si in stare buna de functionare

Capacele false de obturare a hidrantilor de pe magistrala sa se desfaca usor;

Manicile sa fie impachetate in cutii astfel incat ambele racorduri sa fie libere;

Tevile de refulare sa fie la post (langa manici, in cutiile de pastrare ale acestora);

Caile de acces la posturile de incendiu sa nu fie blocate;

Generatoarele cu agent spumogen din C.M. sa aibe intotdeauna rezervoarele pline;

Afisarea la loc vizibil a rolurilor de incendiu si a planurilor cu amplasarea mijloacelor de stins incendiu la bordul navei;



Metode de lupta contra incendiilor pe nave

Pentru ca lupta contra incendiilor sa fie eficienta trebuiesc indeplinite simultan mai multe cerinte cum ar fi:

Nava sa corespunda din punct de vedere constructiv si al amenajarilor pentru scopul pentru

care este exploatata,

Utilizararea materialelor usor inflamabile, manevrarea si dispunerea acestora sa se faca

conform regulilor;

Instalatiile de detectare, instalatiile de comunicatie, instalatiile de stingere, mijloacele

portabile si transportabile de stingere precum si echipamentele de protectie sa fie in buna stare;

Echipajul sa fie instruit corespunzator in scopul prevenirii si stingerii incendiilor dupa cum

urmeaza:

Sa aiba cunostinte generale despre foc, chimia focului, conditii de producere si propagare;

Sa cunoasca si sa respecte intocmai regulile generale de prevenire a producerii incendiilor;

Sa cunoasca modalitatile de anuntare si de alarmare in caz de necesitate si sa le utilizeze fara retinere;

Sa cunoasca amplasarea posturilor de incendiu pe nava;

Sa cunoasca indatoririle ce le revin prin rolurile de echipaj pe linia prevenirii si combaterii incendiilor,

Sa cunoasca foarte bine in ce imprejurari si cum se utilizeaza instalatiile, mijloacele de stingere si echipamentele de protectie pe care este abilitat sa le foloseasca conform rolului de incendiu.

Intr-o situatie de urgenta, aplicarea celei mai potrivite actiuni de raspuns pentru protejarea echipajului, a marfii, a navei si a mediului, necesita o intelegere pe masura a situatiei si un plan prioritar si realist de actiune.

Odata cu implementarea International Safety Management Code (ISM), capitolul 8, SOLAS 74/96, capitolul III, regula 19 si MARPOL 73/78, Anexa I regula 26, s-a elaborat un sistem integrat de planuri de urgente la bord si care ofera clisee de abordare in cazul aparitiei unei situatii de urgenta, sau care este pe cale sa se produca. Aceste planuri, cuprind atat ghiduri de Actiuni Initiale (Initial Actions Plan), cat si scenarii secventiale de raspuns sau contracarare (Subsequent Response Plan) si care depind de variabile precum natura situatiei de urgenta, incarcatura navei, tipul de nava, etc ofera personalului posibilitatea de a aborda cu succes o situatie neasteptata in conditiile aplicarii corecte a masurilor necesare si in ordinea lor prioritara.

Dat fiind faptul ca in cele mai multe situatii, limba vorbita pe navele din flota mondiala si mai ales ordinele, informarile si comenzile comandantului, sefului mecanic si ofiterilor se fac in limba engleza, am considerat oportuna inserarea in acest material, a unor paragrafe in aceasta limba.

INITIAL ACTIONS

1. Sound Alarms & notify

2. On detection of an emergency situation, the general emergency alarm signal shall be sounded ommediately

3. The nature, and location if known, of an emergency shall be announced by using the public address system or other means.

4. Muster at stations

5. On hearing the general emergency alarm, all crew members shall muster at their emergency stations as defined in muster lists and personnel instruction cards.

6. Establish Communication

7. Communication should be established between emergency parties by using portable VHF transceivers or other means.

8. Identify / Verify Nature & Location Of Emergency

9. The head of the each emergency team will contact the control team on the bridge, to advise, verify or inquire as to the nature and location of the emergency, on arrival at the muster stations.

10. Count Crew

11. All crew mustered at stations shall be counted and report made to the control team on the bridge.

12. If any crew is missing a search shall be started and if there are any injured a rescue shall be started.

13. Activate Subsequent Response Plan

14. The control team on the bridge shall activate and organize emergency teams as prescribed in this chapter

15. The other teams will carry out necessary actions as described.

16. Monitor Response Action

17. The control team on bridge shall monitor response actions and re-organize as the emergency situation develops.

18. Activate Reporting

19. The control team on bridge shall activate reporting. Designated Person ( see Standinng Instructions Chapter 2, & SOPEP Manual)

20. Collect Additional Information

21. Detailed information, specific to the nature of the emergency, shall be collected as prescribed in subsequent response plan.

22. Initiate External Response

23. The control team on the bridge shall initiate external responses as prescribed in subsequent response plan.




SUBSEQUENT RESPONSE - ACCOMMODATION FIRE (other than galley)

Check-List / Accommodation fire

1 General Emergency Initial Actions carried out ?

2 Course altered to reduce air flow ?

3 Combustibles involved known ?

4 All accommodation mechanical ventilators (air condition, fans e.g.) stopped ?

5 Natural ventilators leading to area closed ?

6 Fire flaps closed if necessary ?

7 Fire and water-tight doors and other closing appliances surrounding area closed ?

8 Electrical circuits in the area isolated ?

9 Fire-fighters in pairs, with available Fireman Outfits ready ?

10 The wearer of Fireman Outfit and the person assisting agreed on method of signaling ?

11 Fire pumps started (main & emergency) and full pressure put in to fire mains ?

12 Maximum available fire hoses connected to hydrants and boundary cooling started ?

13 Six sides of the fire (four sides, top and bottom) under close observation

SUBSEQUENT RESPONSE - GALLEY FIRE

Check-List / Galley Fire

1 General Emergency Initial Actions carried out ?

2 All accommodation mechanical ventilators (air condition, fans e.g.) stopped ?

3 Natural ventilators leading to area closed ?

4 Fire flaps closed if necessary ?

5 Fire and water-tight doors and other closing appliances surrounding area closed?

6 Electrical circuits in the area isolated ?

7 Fire-fighters in pairs, with available Fireman Outfits ready ?

8 The wearer of Fireman Outfit and the person assisting agreed on method of signaling ?

9 Fire pumps started (main & emergency) and full pressure put in to fire mains ?

10 Maximum available fire hoses connected to hydrants and boundary cooling started ?

11 Six sides of the fire (four sides, top and bottom) under close observation ?

12 Galley vent duck been checked to prevent fire spreading ?

SUBSEQUENT RESPONSE - ENGINE ROOM FIRE

Check-List / Engine Room Fire

1 General Emergency Initial Actions carried out ?

2 Emergency stops and quick closing valves actuated ?

3 Emergency Fire pump started ?

4 Fuel tripped ?

5 Emergency power on line ?

6 Emergency steering on line ?

7 Forced ventilation restricted /stopped?

8 Fire dampers/flaps shut (including in funnel casing) if necessary ?

9 Maximum available fire hoses connected to hydrants and boundary cooling started ?

10 emperature monitoring of engine room started ?

11 Fire-fighters in pairs, with available Fireman Outfits ready ?

12 The wearer of Fireman Outfit and the person assisting agreed on method of signaling ?

Before carrying out total flooding;

13 Battening down engine room checklist completed ?

SUBSEQUENT RESPONSE - CARGO HOLD FIRE

Check-List / Cargo Hold Fire

1 General Emergency Initial Actions carried out ?

2 Mechanical ventilators leading to hold stopped ?

3 Natural ventilators leading to hold closed ?

4 Hold battened down properly ?

5 Electrical circuits in the area (if available) isolated ?

6 Fire pumps started (main & emergency) and full pressure put in to fire mains ?

7 Maximum available fire hoses connected to hydrants and boundary cooling started ?

8 Fixed fire-fighting system ready for use ?

9 Checked if hazardous gas being given off (flammable and/or Toxic)

10 Temperature in spaces adjacent to hold in fire been checked and under observation ?

11 Before opening hold possibility of cargo re-ignition and temperature checked ?

12



SUBSEQUENT RESPONSE - CARGO FIRE ON DECK

Check-List / Cargo Fire on Deck

1 General Emergency Initial Actions carried out ?

2 Electrical circuits in the area (if available) isolated ?

3 Fire pumps started (main & emergency) and full pressure put in to fire mains ?

4 Course altered to reduce air flow over deck (at sea)?

5 Cargo operation stopped, terminal or port informed (at port/terminal) ?

6 Can water be used to fight this fire ?

7 Any chemical reaction from material on fire ?

8 Maximum available fire hoses connected to hydrants and boundary cooling started ?

9 Checked if hazardous gas being given off (flammable and/or Toxic)

10 Temperature in spaces adjacent to fire area been checked and under observation ?

SUBSEQUENT RESPONSE - PUMP ROOM FIRE

Check-List / Pump Room Fire

1 General Emergency Initial Actions carried out ?

2 Cargo operation stopped ?

3 All mechanical ventilators stopped ?

4 Natural ventilators leading to area closed ?

5 Electrical circuits in the area (if available) isolated ?

6 Fire pumps started (main & emergency) and full pressure put in to fire mains ?

7 Maximum available fire hoses connected to hydrants and boundary cooling started ?

8 Fire-fighters in pairs, with available Fireman Outfits ready ?

9 The wearer of Fireman Outfit and the person assisting agreed on method of signaling ?

10 Checked if hazardous gas being given off (flammable and/or Toxic)

SUBSEQUENT RESPONSE - EMERGENCY GENERATING ROOM FIRE

Check-List / Emergency Generating Room Fire

1 General Emergency Initial Actions carried out ?

2 Diesel generator shut down ?

3 All fuel tanks shut off ?

Emergency switchboard isolated ?

4 Compressed air line from engine room shut ?

5 Compressed air bottles shut off ?

6 All ventilation stopped ?

7 Main air cooling flaps closed ?

8 Fire flaps closed (one small one left open until CO2 discharged to allow expansion)

9 Doors closed ?

SUBSEQUENT RESPONSE - BATTENING DOWN ENGINE ROOM

Check-List / Battening Down Engine Room

1 Sound evacuation alarm ?

2 Emergency generator running and on the board ?

3 Main engines stopped ?

4 Boilers closed down ?

5 Ventilation fans stops an main deck fire station operated ?

6 All personnel out of engine room , head count been done ?

7 All fire flaps closed funnel door shut ?

8 All doors to inert gas plant and engine room entrances closed ?

9 Emergency fire pump running and fire main pressurized ?

10 Fixed fire-fighting system operated ?

SUBSEQUENT RESPONSE - DAMAGE TO SHIP

Check-List / Tank Explosion

1 General Emergency Initial Actions carried out ?

2 Fixed fire-fighting system for ready for use if applicable ?

3 Fire pumps started (main & emergency) and full pressure put in to fire mains ?

4 Fire and/or Fixed fire-fighting system lines intact ? Any isolating valves ?

5 All vessels pumps, generators & auxiliary machinery operational ?

6 All water-tight doors and openings closed ?

7 Spray accommodation front bulkhead with sea water.

Adjust course and speed to minimize fire spread & smoke ?

8 Damage assessment checked & compared to vessels damage stability ?

9 Pollution levels been ascertained and actions taken as defined in S.O.P.E.P. Manual ?













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