GRAMMAR: PRESENT PERFECT (I)
/. Study these example situations:
Torn 1ь looking for his key. He can't find it. He has lost his key
When we use the Present Perfect there is a connection with
I've lost the key. (=1 haven't got it now.)
Jim has gone to
Oh, dear! I've forgotten her name. (= I can't remember it now.)
Have you washed the dishes? (-Are they clean now?)
The train hasn't arrived yet. (=The train isn't at the sta-
The train has already arrived. ( = The train is at the station.)
//. Listen to the texts and answer the questions:
1 Mr Collins gave his secretary some letters to type an hour ago. He is going home soon and he wants to sign the letters before he leaves. He has just picked up the phone and asked his secretary this question:
"Have you done those letters yet?"
Questions: When did Mr Collins give his secretary the letters? Why does he want to sign them now? What has he just done? What is his question?
2 Arthur's secretary has just stopped another secretary in the
"Have you seen Mr Tigers?" she wants to know
"Yes, I have I saw him only a moment ago He's just gone down that corridor " She might catch him if she hurries.
Questions: What has Arthur's secretary just done? What does she want to know? Has the other secretary seen Arthur? What has he just done?
3. The police are asking the ticket collector about a man they
think might be
"Have you seen this man?"
"No, I haven't. I mean, I don't think so."
"No, it hasn't."
Questions: Why are the police asking the ticket collector about the man in the photograph? What are their questions? What are the collector's answers?
///. Listen and imitate. Role-play the conversations.
1. - So you are back from town
- Yes, and I've brought you a book from the library
- That's very nice of you.
2. - Aunt has promised to take me to the theatre.
- Will she be able to afford it, do you think?
- I hope so.
3. - Will Jane come to the dance tonight, do you think?
- I don't think so.
- Why not?
- Because she hasn't come home yet.
4. - It's Mrs Baker's birthday tomorrow.
- I know.
- Have you written to her yet?
- No, I haven't, but I'm going to.
5. - Has Tom got married?
- Yes, he has.
- When did he get married?
- Last month.
6. - Has Jane learnt to drive?
- No, she hasn't.
- When is she going to learn?
- Next month, I think.
7. - I am worried about Paul. He's failed his exam again.
- I say, he must be either unlucky or ill.
- He is neither unlucky nor ill. He is simply lazy
- You may be right.
8. - Have you thanked David for all his wonderful help?
- No, I haven't.
- Why haven't you?
- I'm sorry, but I've been unable to get in touch with him.
9. - Have you written to Ann?
- No, I haven't.
- Why haven't you?
- I'm sorry, but I've been awfully busy.
10. - Jim is going to become a professional footballer.
- Is he really?
- Yes, he is, though he has never played in the school team.
- How extraordinary!
11. - What's the matter?
- I've just fallen off my bicycle.
- Poor boy!
12. - Mike Hanson has joined a jungle expedition.
- What for?
- To shoot a film about animals
- That's very brave of him.
13. - I've found this pen Is it yours?
- No, it isn't mine I think it's Kate's.
- I don't think so, she has a green one.
- But she has more than one pen
14. - Have
you ever been to
- I've only
been there once, but I've often been to
- I've never
- Oh, very pleasant, but it frequently rains in summer.
15. - You've missed a lot of English classes lately
- Yes, I'm afraid so.
- I hope you'll come to class on Tuesday.
- I'm afraid
not. I'll be going to
16. - I don't see my dictionary on the table. Who has taken it?
- It's me. I have put it on the shelf
17. - Have
you ever been to
- Yes, I've been there several times.
- As for me I've never been there.
- Really? You should see it. It's one of the most beautiful cities I've ever seen.
18. - Have you read many books this year?
- I wouldn't say that. Just a couple.
- Which book has interested you most?
- "Hotel" by A Hailey.
19. - I'm afraid I have caught cold. I am not feeling well.
- Have you called the doctor?
- Yes, Mother has just phoned him.
20. - I see Peter hasn't returned yet, eh?
- No, he hasn't.
- Why is he so long?
- I think he has gone to the movies.
21. - What's the time?
- Sorry, I've left my watch at home.
22. - You know the city well You have been here before, haven't
- Yes, I have.
23. "Henry!" "Yes, dear?"
"I'm going up to bed now. Don't forget to do your little jobs." "No, dear."
Henry turned off the television and went into the kitchen. He fed the cat, washed up several dishes, dried them and put them away. Then he put the cat out, locked all the doors and turned out all the lights. When he got to the bedroom, his wife was sitting up in bed reading a book and eating chocolates.
"Well dear, have you done all your little jobs?" "I think so, my love." "Have you fed the cat?" "Yes, dear."
"Have you put him out?" "Yes, dear."
"Have you washed up the dishes?" "Yes, dear."
"Have you put them all away?" "Yes, dear."
"Have you turned out all the lights?" "Yes, dear."
"Have you locked the front door?" "Yes, dear."
"Then you can come to bed." "Thank you, dear."
After a little while they heard a gate banging downstairs. "Henry." . "Yes, dear."
"I'm afraid you've forgotten to shut the garden gate." "Oh dear! ..."
/. Listen and imitate:
1. Look! Dick has bought a record. 2. Pat hasn't given me the book yet. 3. I've just come from a very important meeting. 4. He has not thought about university yet. 5. They have received a lot of letters. 6. He has forgotten her name. 7. John is hungry because he hasn't had any breakfast. 8. We have done exercise No 2. 9. I have just spoken to my boyfriend on the phone. 10. She has planned an expensive holiday. 11. I haven't written to my wife yet. 12. My parents have just gone out for the evening. 13. Bill has asked me for some money. 14. Helen has brought the mail. 15. Our team has won the game. 16. He has paid a lot of money for his house. 17.
Oh, dear, it's going to rain and I've left my umbrella
at home. 18. The course has already begun. 19. I have drunk three cups of
coffee. 20. Oh, I've cut my finger. 21. I have not sent a letter to my mother
yet. 22. She hasn't seen her parents yet. 23. I have never met him before. 24.
Andrew has chosen a good present. 25. I've been to
//. Agree with the following utterances. Show the connection of these completed past actions with the present in their result. Use the prompts.
e.g. - You have washed the dishes, haven't you? (clean)
- Yes, I have. They are clean.
e.g. - Mary hasn't done the room, has she? (untidy)
- No, she hasn't. It's very untidy.
1. You've brought the records, haven't you? (in my
bag) 2. You haven't had dinner yet, have you? (hungry) 3. Susan has passed her
exams, hasn't she? (on holiday now) 4. Victor has gone away on business, hasn't
///. Express your disagreement with the following interrogative-negative utterances:
e.g. - You haven't seen Steve today, have you?
- Yes, I have. I've just seen him.
1. You haven't laid the table, have you? 2. He hasn't found his glasses, has he? 3. You haven't written to Paul, have you? 4. The lecture hasn't begun yet, has it? 5. She hasn't sent the parcel, has she? 6. John hasn't come yet, has he? 7. You haven't shut the door, have you? 8. He hasn't paid the bill yet, has he? 9. You
haven't told Dick, have you? 10. You haven't made tea, have you? 11. You haven't done your homework, have you? 12. Kitty hasn't woken up yet, has she? 13. Bill hasn't phoned you, has he? 14. The boss hasn't left yet, has he? 15. The postman hasn't brought the mail yet, has he? 16. You haven't washed my shirt yet, have you? 17. You haven't spoken to the boss yet, have you? 18. You haven't booked the tickets, have you? 19. You haven't read the article yet, have you? 20. You haven't cut the bread yet, have you?
IV. Answer the questions. Do it as in the example: e.g. - Has Simon sent a postcard to his mother?
- Yes, he has sent her a postcard.
1. Have you made a sweater for Peter? 2. Have the boys bought a present for me? 3. Has Roger given any money to you? 4. Have you lent your typewriter to Susan? 5. Have you made a cake for George and his wife? 6. Have you shown your album to Jack? 7. Have you sent a birthday card to Jane's parents? 8. Has Peter written a letter to you and your wife?
V. Say that you have already done what you are asked to do:
e.g. - Don't forget to answer the letters.
- I've already answered them.
1. Don't forget to buy the tickets. 2. Remember to sign the papers. 3. Don't forget to write to Mr Smith. 4. Don't forget to wash the dishes. 5. Remember to dust the bookshelves. 6. Don't forget to fix the sink. 7. Remember to phone Dr Ray. 8. Remember to cook the pudding. 9. Don't forget to post the letter. 10. Don't forget to tell Peter about the match. 11. Remember to pack our things. 12. Remember to clean your shoes. 13. Don't forget to polish the mirrors. 14. Remember to send the parcel. 15. Don't forget to shave.
VI. Say that you can't give your opinion on the subject. Follow the model:
e.g. - What do you think of the exhibition? (visit) - I haven't visited it yet.
1. Do you like the "
VII. Refuse the offers politely:
e.g. - Would you like something to eat? (have dinner)
- No, thank you. I've just had dinner.
1. Would you like a cigarette? (smoke one) 2. Would you like a cake? (eat one) 3. Would you like an orange? (have one)
4. Would you like a cup of coffee? (drink one) 5. Would you like a bottle of red wine? (buy one) 6. Would you like to taste my biscuits? (taste one)
e.g. - Shall I post the letter?
- No, you needn't, thank you. I've already (just) posted it. 1. Shall I wash the windows? 2. Shall I book a ticket for you?
3. Shall I buy you some medicine? 4. Shall I type your report?
5. Shall I translate the article? 6. Shall I phone Helen? 7. Shall I repair the iron? 8. Shall I dust the furniture?
VIII. Answer the questions using the prompts:
e.g. - What has become of your bicycle, Peter? (break)
- Don't you know? I've broken it.
1. Where is Alec? (leave for
4. Why hasn't Mary come? (fall ill) 5. Where is your car? (sell)
6. Why does Jane look so upset? (fail her finals) 7. I hear your brother is at hospital. What has happened to him? (break one's arm)
e.g. - Will Lucy take part in the discussion? (not,
- I don't
think so. She hasn't returned from
IX. Complete the situations. Use the verbs given:
e.g. Tom is looking for his key. He can't find it. (lose) He has lost his key.
1. Yesterday Bill was playing football. Now he can't walk and his leg is in plaster, (break) 2. Jane was busy typing some time ago. Now she is free, (finish typing) 3. Mr Brown knows much, (read a lot) 4. Kate is very happy, (do well in all her exams) 5. The girl is crying, (fall down) 6. The students were doing a test at
5. They are having a break at the moment, (write one's test)
7. I am very tired, (do a lot of work about the house) 8. Betty is pleased, (swim much today) 9. Harry is proud, (become a student) 10. I don't remember where Steve lives, (forget one's address)
A". Complete the situations. Use "so far":
e.g. - I saw Tom yesterday but I haven't seen him so far today. 1. It rained a lot last week but ... this week. 2. It snowed a lot last winter but ... this winter. 3. We ate a lot yesterday but ... today. 4. I played tennis a lot last year but ... this year. 5. She worked hard last term but ... this term. 6. I watched television yesterday evening but ... this evening. 7. My favourite football team won a lot of matches last season but ... this season.
XL You are writing a letter to a friend and giving news about the people you both know. Use the words given to make sentences and put the verb into the correct form: e.g. Phil/find a new job.
Phil has found a new job.
Lots of things have happened since I last wrote to you.
2. Jack and Jill/decide to get married
3. Susan/have a baby
4. Mike/give up smoking
5. George/pass his driving test
6. Mary/become a student
7. My parents/retire
XII. Complete the answers to these questions. Use the verbs in brackets:
e.g. - Is it a beautiful painting? (see)
- Yes, it's the most beautiful painting I've ever seen.
1. Is she an interesting person? (meet) 2. Is it a long book? (read) 3. Is it a good opera? (hear) 4. Is the article difficult? (translate) 5. Is the film funny? (see) 6. Is Uncle Jack a kind man? (know) 7. Is it an exciting trip? (have) 8. Is the record expensive? (buy) 9. Is Mary a tall girl? (meet) 10. Is the test hard? (do)
XIII. Ask and answer questions using the words given:
e.g. you/book the tickets
- Have you booked the tickets?
- No, I haven't but I'm going to.
1. Mary/type the article; 2. they/discuss the project;
3. you/eat at the new Italian restaurant; 4. you/pack the suitcase; 5.
Peter/see the film; 6. you/begin the experiment; 7. you/tell Mary about the
read the article; 16. you/phone Lucy; 17. you/choose a present for Bill; 18. you/send for the doctor; 19. Harry/get married, e.g. Peter/get up/have breakfast
- Has Peter got up yet?
- Yes, he has. He is having breakfast now.
1. Tom/do one's exercises/play chess; 2. Jill/check the tests/ watch TV; 3. Lucy/have dinner/wash up; 4. Mary/clean the flat/type; 5. Jane/write the letters/dust the carpet; 6. you/cook supper/lay the table, e.g. John/get up/sleep
- Has John got up yet?
- No, he hasn't. He's still sleeping.
1. Emma/cook dinner/make soup; 2. you/give the book
back to Mike/read; 3. Dick/leave for the airport/pack one's suitcase; 4. Kate/find one's gloves/look for them; 5. Miss Green/finish typing/type; 6. the
boys/return home/play football, e.g. you/
- Have you ever
- Yes, I've been there several times, (twice, once) (No, I have never been there)
- Have you heard from George recently?
- Yes, I have. (No, I haven't)
1. you/read much/lately; 2. you/eat anything/today; 3. you/have a holiday/this year; 4. you/see/any good films/lately; 5. you/play tennis/recently; 6. you/see/Tom/in the past few days; 7. you/work hard/this week; 8. you/often/go out/lately; 9. you/ swim/much/recently; 10. you/be abroad/this year.
XIV. Respond to the following suggestions:
e.g. - Let's book the tickets tomorrow.
- Haven't you booked them yet?
- No, I haven't.
1. Let's invite Helen to the party. 2. Let's write a letter to Uncle Jack. 3. Let's make supper. 4. Let's hear "Carmen". 5. Let's see this film. 6. Let's send her a telegram. 7. Let's wash the windows. 8. Let's visit the art exhibition.
XV. Express surprise in response to the following utterances:
e.g. - Jack has failed his exam.
- Has he?
e.g. - Robert hasn't come.
- Hasn't he?
1. They have already finished the test. 2. We haven't invited the Blacks. 3. I have never heard this song before. 4. Mary has enjoyed the performance. 5. The Wests have sold their house. 6. Roger has won the race. 7. My parents have never been abroad. 8. Dick hasn't helped me. 9. Jane has decided to become an actress. 10. Mr Smith has already left. 11. John hasn't fixed the sink.
XVI. Express solidarity:
e.g. - I have already read this book. And you?
- So have I.
e.g. - Kate hasn't come yet. And Betsy?
- Neither has Betsy.
1. David has caught a lot of fish. And Jack? 2. Mary
has enjoyed the film. And Lucy? 3. I haven't heard from Steve yet. And you? 4.
Ann has never been to
XVII. Ask and answer questions as shown in the example:
e.g. Jack is driving a car but he's very nervous and not sure what to do. You ask: Is this the first time you've driven a car? John: Yes, I've never driven a car before.
1. Roger is playing tennis. He is not very good and doesn't know the rules. You ask: ... Roger: ...
2. Sue is riding a horse. She doesn't feel very confident and comfortable. You ask: ... Sue: ...
3. Maria is in
4. Lucy is making a cake. But she is not sure it will be a good cake. You ask: ... Lucy:
5. Mrs Smith is
on board a plane flying to
XVIII. Ask and answer questions. Use the words given.
e.g. you/invite/the Baxters/the Hunts
- You've invited the Baxters, haven't you?
- Yes, I have but I haven't invited the Hunts.
1. you/phone/Helen/Alice; 2. Dick/bring/the map/the compass; 3. you/be/London/Liverpool; 4. you/tell/Emma/Tom; 5. Mike/send/the letter/the parcel; 6. you/see/the art-gallery/the space
XIX. Respond to the following phrases:
e.g. - I am going to visit Paul.
- So you haven't visited him yet, have you? 1. I am going to send her a telegram. 2. Jane is going to change her flat. 3. I am going to visit Helen. 4. I am going to hear "Carmen". 5. Bill is going to buy a car. 6. I am going to write to Lucy.
XX. Answer the questions:
1. Have you seen any interesting films lately? 2. What new places have you visited this year? 3. How many cigarettes have you smoked today? 4. How much money have you spent this week? 5. How many holidays have you spent at the seaside over the past six years? 6. Have you read much this month? 7. How many questions have you answered so far?
XXI. Learn the dialogues and make substitutions:
1. A: Be careful! B: Why!
A: I've just painted the door.
B: It's all right ... I haven't touched it.
A: Haven't you? What's that on your arm?
Prompts: shelf/hand; desk/leg; chair/shoulder; wall/elbow
2. A: I'm bored.
B: Well, do something! A: What, for example? B: Wash your hair. A: I've already washed it. B: Brush your shoes! A: I've already brushed them. B: Why don't you clean your room? A: I've already cleaned it. B: Well, ... perfect your English! A: Hmm ...
Prompts: finish your homework; iron your clothes; telephone your friend; study your English
XXII. Complete the following phrases. Use the Present Perfect:
e.g. She must work hard.
She has failed her exam, (or: She has missed a lot of classes.)
1. We are free now. 2. Why don't you read the article? 3. Don't
forget to phone Tom. 4. Shall I send him some money? 5. Open the
door, please. 6. Where are the cups? 7. You must book a ticket in
advance. 8. What about going to a pub? 9. Do your homework.
10. What has happened to Paul? 11. Let's invite Mary.
12. I'm not hungry. 13. Victor won't come. 14. Switch off the light in the
kitchen. 15. Ann is upset. 16. Shall I wash the dishes? 17. Will you please fix
the sink? 18. What has become of your bicycle? 19. Kate looks happy. 20. Will
Steve join us? 21. Did you enjoy the book? 22. Is Peter a clever man? 23. Do
you like his new car? 24. You must teach him to swim. 25. I can't afford a rest
at the seaside this year. 26. I'm going to post the letter on my way home. 27.
Would you like a cup of tea? 28. I don't know your friend Smith. 29. What is
the film about? 30. What about a game of chess? 31. He knows
XXIII. Make up dialogues using the prompts: e.g. A: I've just been to the new Chinese restaurant.
B: Oh! Have you? I've just been to an Indian restaurant. Prompts: a new French car/a German car; a book by John Wyndham/a book by Nevil Shute; a new job in London/a new job in Bristol; lunch in the new canteen/lunch in the cafe round the corner; the film at the Odeon/the film at the Plaza; a concert on Radio 2/a play on Radio 3.
/. Listen to the conversations. Ask and answer questions. Role-play the conversations.
\. Paul: Can you lend me $ 50?
Bill: Sorry, I can't ... I haven't been to the bank today.
Paul: Oh dear ... I haven't been either, and I need some money. It's too late now... it's four o'clock.
Bill: Why don't you ask Peter?
Paul: Oh, has he been to the bank?
Bill: Yes, he has He always goes on Mondays.
Questions: How much money does Paul need? Why can't Bill lend him $ 50? Has Paul been to the bank today? What does Bill advise Paul to do? 2. David: Have you travelled a lot, Nora?
Nora: Yes, I've been to 47 different countries.
David: Really! Have you been to
never been to
Questions: Has Nora travelled much? How many countries has she
visited? Has she been to
hasn't she? What countries have you visited? Have you
ever been to
3. Father: Your mother has told me that you've given up your job.
You don't want to work any more. What are your plans?
John: Yes, that's right. I've decided to drive a
camping bus across Europe and the Middle East to
Father: I've talked to your mother and she's very unhappy about what you're doing. Please think again.
John: I've thought about it carefully and it's my decision. Questions: What has John done? What are his plans? Are John's parents happy that he has given up his job?
4. Jill: Hello, Steve. I'm home. It's rather cold in here.
Steve: I've turned the heating on. It's getting warm now. I've been very busy, so I'm not cold. I've washed all the windows. I've cleaned the flat and I've answered four letters. I've also cleared a lot of papers off my desk, so it looks nice and tidy now. I feel exhausted. Jill: And have you washed the dishes? Steve: I've already washed and dried the dishes. And I've
just made a pot of tea. Come and have a cup. Jill: Wonderful! Have you painted the kitchen door? Steve: No, I haven't started with the door yet. Jill: You've worked really hard, Steve. Congratulations! Oh, Steve... I've invited Pam and Jeff for dinner. They are coming tonight and ... Have you cooked dinner? Steve: No, I haven't. Jill: Oh, good! Your curries are so good, they are better than
Questions: Why does Steve feel exhausted? What housework has he done? What hasn't he done yet? Who is coming to see the Baxters tonight?
Situation: You've just come home from work. You ask your daughter whether she has done the work you told her to do when you were leaving the house.
5. Elmer Colt
Mrs Colt: ... Elmer? ... Is that you?
Elmer: Yes, Momma.
Mrs Colt: Where are you now, Elmer?
Elmer: I've just arrived in
Mrs Colt: You haven't sent me any postcards yet.
Elmer: Yes, I have ... I've sent one from every city.
Mrs Colt: Have you been to Paris yet, Elmer?
Elmer: Yes, I have.
Mrs Colt: Have you been to
Elmer: No, I haven't. We are going to
Mrs Colt: Elmer! Are you still there?
Elmer: Yes, Momma.
Mrs Colt: How many countries have you seen now, Elmer?
Elmer: Well, this is the eighth day, so I've already seen eight
Mrs Colt: Have you spent much money, Elmer? Elmer: Yes, Momma. I've bought a lot of souvenirs ... and I want to buy some more. Can you send me a thousand dollars?
Mrs Colt: All right, Elmer. Mrs Colt: Elmer, are you listening to me? Elmer: Yes, Momma.
Mrs Colt: Have you taken many photographs, Elmer? Elmer: Yes, Momma, I've taken a lot. I've used three rolls
Mrs Colt: Have you met any nice girls yet, Elmer?
Elmer: Oh, yes, Momma... there's a
tour. We've done everything together. Mrs Colt: Elmer! Elmer! Are you still there, Elmer?
Questions: Where is Elmer Colt from? What is he doing at the moment? How many countries has he visited so far? Where is he phoning his mother from? Has he sent his mother any postcards? What does Elmer ask his mother to do? Has Elmer taken any photographs? Has Elmer met any nice girls? Where is his girlfriend from?
Situation: Imagine you are on a tour of
/. Use the proper tense forms.
1. At last I (do) my homework. I can go for a walk
now. 2. The delegation already (arrive) but we (not, speak) with its members
yet. 3. Last month I (read) two interesting books but I (not, read) anything so
far this month. 4. "You (make) any spelling mistakes in your test?" -
"No, I (not, make) any mistakes." 5. "Where is Jane?"
"She (go) to the shops. She'll be back soon." 6. "You ever (be)
several times." 7. I (play) a lot of tennis since the summer (begin). 8. We (not, see) John this morning but we (see) him a couple of days ago. 9. Harry is ill. He (have) an accident. He (break) his leg. 10. "You (finish) typing?" "Not yet. In fact I just (begin)." 11. "How many records you (bring)?" "Five". 12. "You ever (find) anything valuable?" "No, I... ." 13. "Mr West (sell) his house yet?" "Yes, he ... . He (sell) it last week." "He (move) to his new house yet?" "No, not yet."
//. Translate into English:
1. Вы когда-либо играли в шахматы с Виктором? Он хорошо играет? - Не знаю. Я никогда с ним не играл. 2. Как поживает Аня? Я ее не вижу в последнее время.- Спасибо, хорошо.- А как ваш сын? Он уже окончил школу? - Да, он уже студент. 3. Я должна упаковать чемодан.- Не беспокойся, я его уже упаковал. 4. Моему племяннику только 5 лет, но он уже научился хорошо читать. 5. Вы когда-либо бывали в Англии? - Да, я был там два года назад. 6. Что случилось? - Я разбила свою любимую чашку. 7. Мы купили новый телевизор. Мне он очень нравится. 8. Нина очень расстроена. Она не сдала экзамен. 9. Николай придет на вечер? - Нет, он уехал в командировку. 10. Будем смотреть сегодня вечером телевизор? - Я его еще не починил. 11. Вы уже подписали документы? - Да, вы можете их забрать.
PRESENT PERFECT (I) AND SIMPLE PAST (COMPARED)
/. Study these example situations. Learn them.
We use the Present Perfect (have done) to give new information or to announce a recent happening. But if we continue to talk about it we normally use the Past Simple (did):
1. - Oh! I've burnt myself!
- How did you do that?
- I touched a hot dish.
2. - I've bought a very good raincoat.
- Where did you buy it?
- In one of the
small shops in
- How much did it cost?
- £ 50.
Do not use the Present Perfect when you are talking about a finished time in the past (for example: yesterday, two years ago, in 1979, when I was a child, etc.):
Tom lost his key yesterday. I translated the article on Friday. I last saw him in 1985.
Use the Simple Past to ask WHEN something happened: What time (when) did he arrive?
Compare: I've smoked 20 cigarettes today, (it is still today) I smoked 20 cigarettes yesterday, (the event is past)
3. Julia has just come to work. She is late again. She is asking one of the typists about her boss. He often comes in late, too. "Has the boss come yet?"
"Yes, he has. He's in the office now." "When did he come?"
"He came very early. He noticed you weren't here." Questions: What has Julia just done? Has her boss come yet? What did he notice? Did he come early or late?
4. __ Have you ever studied a language before?
- Yes, I have.
- Oh, which one did you study?
- I studied French at school.
5. - Have you ever been to a wedding?
- Yes, I have.
- Whose wedding was it?
- It was my brother's.
6. - Have you ever eaten at the Royal Hotel?
- Yes, I have.
- When did you eat there?
- Mary and I ate there two months ago.
7. - Have you ever broken a bone?
- Yes, I have.
- What did you break?
- I broke my leg.
8. - Have you ever had flue?
- Yes, I have.
- When did you have it?
- I had it last winter.
9. - Have you seen any films lately?
- Yes, I've ьееп "The White Canyon". -- When did you see it?
- Last week,
10. - Have you sold your car?
- Yes, I have.
- Why did you sell it?
- I'd like to buy a Jaguar.
/. Respond to the following using the Present Perfett and the Simple Past:
e.g. - Why don't you buy this dictionary? (yesterday)
- I've already bought it. I bought it yesterday.
1. Why don't you send her a telegram? (this morning) 2. Will you make tea, please? (a few minutes ago) 3. Do your homework, (before supper) 4. You should read the book, (in summer) 5. Put the towel into the suitcase, (some minutes ago) 6. Why don't you speak to the boss? (the day before yesterday) 7. What about seeing "Oliver"? (on Tuesday) 8. You should build a garage, (last year) 9. Why don't you phone Peter? (in the afternoon) 10. Tell Dick about the expedition, (last Friday) 11. Why don't you invite the Browns? (yesterday) 12. You must repair the TV set. (yesterday morning) 13. You should book the tickets in advance, (last Saturday) 14. Give her your typewriter for a few days, (yesterday)
//. Say "when":
e.g. Henry has fallen ill. He fell ill on Tuesday.
1. They have begun the experiment. 2. I've found my
ticket. 3. He has finished the work. 4. They have rung him up. 5. I have
written the letter. 6. He has passed his exam. 7. She has paid for the
furniture. 8. They have bought a boat. 9. They have seen the museum. 10. The
porter has already brought our suitcases. 11. I've lost my umbrella again. 12.
They have changed their flat. 13. She has broken her watch. !4. They have got
married. 15. I've already had dinner. 16. The delegation has already arrived.
17. The train has left. 18. Victor has gone to
///. Answer the questions using the prompts:
e.g. - Has he seen Ann? (yesterday)
- Yes, he saw her yesterday.
1. Have you sold your car? (last month) 2. Have you
spoken to Jack? (on Friday morning) 3. Have you written to Mary? (the day
before yesterday) 4. Have you thrown the letter away? (some minutes ago) 5.
Have you burnt the documents? (three nours ago) 6. Have you found your keys?
(this morning) 7. Has your husband ever forgotten your birthday? (last year) 8.
Have you rung Tom* (yesterday afternoon) 9. Has Jack ever been to
work yet? (at 10 o'clock) 12. Have you eaten the cake? (in the morning)
IV. Ask your friend whether he has done certain things and when he did them. Use the prompts:
e.g. buy a house
- Have you bought a house?
- Yes, I have.
- When did you buy it?
- Two months ago.
1. pay the bill 2. send for the doctor 3. see
"Gone with the Wind" 4. book a ticket 5. read "War and
Peace" 6. have dinner 7. receive the documents 8. type the papers 9. do
one's homework 10. rest in the
V. Study the model conversations. Then, make conversations of your own on the same model. Ask WHEN and other questions like that:
1. Patricia Riley is an Irish girl. She is trying to get a job as a shorthand-typist. At interviews people ask her questions like these:
"Have you ever done this sort of work before?"
"Where did you work last?" "How long did you work there?"
2. - Have you
ever been to
- Yes, 1 have.
- When were you there?
- Last spring.
- What did you think of it?
- It was very beautiful.
3. Richard never believes what the critics say about a film He always asks his friends instead. He wants to know if the new Fellini film is any good He is talking to a friend now. His first
"Have you seen the new Fellini film?"
The answer is: "Yes, I have."
Richard then asks different questions like: When did you see it? Where did you see it? Was it good?
1. You never believe what travel brochures say. You
want to know about
2. You want to go to a language school in
b) When e) a lot of English?
c) weather like? f) prices very high?
3. Arthur Docker has a different car every year. He has a Rolls Royce this year. Ask questions with these words.
a) ever/a Mercedes d) fast
b) When e) expensive
c) a good car f) How long
VI. Answer the questions:
1. Have you ever been to
/. Listen to the conversation and ask questions with these words:
a) Ken/cinema? e) What/think of the film?
b) What/see? f) George/Paris?
c) George/Paris in the Spring? g) Ken/Paris?
d) When? h) the weather? George: Hullo, Ken.
Ken: Hullo, George. George: Have you just been to the cinema? Ken: Yes, I have. George: What's on?
George: Oh, I've already seen it. I saw it on a B.B.C.
television programme last year. It's an old film, but It's very good. Ken:
Ken: Yes, I have. I was there in April.
Ken: It was spring but the weather was awful. It. rained all
the time. George: Just like dear old
//. Role-play the conversation.
III. Situation: You suggest to your friend going to the movies, but he has already seen the film you suggest. You ask him some questions about the film.
IV. Listen to the conversation, ask and answer questions, role-play the conversation.
Peggy: Hullo, John. Come in.
Tom: Hullo, John. We're having lunch. Do you want to have
lunch with us? John: No thank you, Tom. I've already had lunch. I had lunch
at half past twelve. Peggy: Have a cup of coffee then. John: I've already had a cup, thank you. I had one after my
lunch. Tom: Let's go into the living-room, Peggy. We can have our
coffee there. PeggY: Excuse the mess, John. This room's very untidy. We're
packing our suitcases. We're going to leave tomorrow.
Tom and I are going to have a holiday. John: Aren't you lucky!
Tom: When are you going to have a holiday, John? John: I don't know. I've already had my holiday this year. PeggY: Where did you go? John: I stayed at home!
V. Situation: Your friend is in Minsk on business. He's staying at the Minsk hotel. You are free today and can take him sightseeing. But it turns out that your friend has already seen most of the sights you wanted to show him.
VI. Listen to the conversation, learn it and make conversations of your own on the same model:
One of Deborah's friends is asking her about all the holidays she has had and all the places she has been to. "Have you ever been to Rome?" "Yes, I have. I was there in 1989." "Have you ever been to Mexico City or to Rio?" "Yes, I've been to all those places."
"Oh? When were you in Mexico City ... and when were you in Rio?"
/. Put the verb into the correct form:
1. You (hear) about Bob? He (break) his leg.-Really? How that (happen)? 2. I just (return) from Yalta.- You (go) there alone? - Together with my son.- How long you (stay) there? - Three weeks. 3. Your hair looks different. You (have) a haircut? - Yes.- You (cut) it yourself? - No, Ann (cut) it for me. 4. Look! Somebody (spill) milk on the carpet.- Well, it (not, be) me.- I wonder who it (be) then. 5. You (see) the film on television last night? 6. My bicycle isn't here any more. Somebody (take) it.
7. I (not, eat) anything yesterday because I (not, feel) hungry.
8. Why Jim (not, want) to play tennis last Friday? - He (be) busy on Friday.
9. Brian: Hello, Susan. Is Alan here? Susan: No, I'm afraid he (go) out. Brian: What a pity! When exactly he (go) out? Susan: About ten minutes ago.
10. Peter Atkins is talking to one of his girl-friends. "You (see) that film yet?"
"Yes, I .... I (see) it last week." "What you (think) of it?" "I (not, like) it very much."
11. Harry: I
(go) to a new Indian restaurant last night with Mary. Steve: To that new place in
Harry: Yes. You ever (be) there?
Steve: No, but Barbara already (be) there. She (love) it. She
says she never (eat) such delicious Indian food.
What you (order)? Harry: I (have) a prawn curry and Mary (try) a Tandori
chicken. They (be) both fantastic.
12. Mikis: I never (be) to
Paul: Oh, I (go) there last summer. I (do) a language course
Mikis: You ever (be) to
years ago. He (enjoy) it very much.
//. Translate into English:
1. Я никогда не бывал в Китае, но я был в Японии. Это было три года назад. 2. Где мой учебник? Я только что оставил его здесь. Здесь кто-нибудь был? 3. Катя ушла в кино два часа назад
и еще не вернулась 4. Виктор уже починил магнитофон? - Нет
5. - Ты заказала билеты?
- Нет еще.
- Почему ты не сделала этого вчера?
- Я совершенно забыла об этом.
6. - Вы когда-либо бывали в Большом театре?
- Что вы смотрели?
- «Лебединое озеро».
- Вам понравился балет?
- Да, музыка прекрасная, актеры танцевали великолепно.
U N IT 2 TOPIC: HOLIDAYS
TEXT. SUMMER HOLIDAYS IN
I was very glad to have a letter from you and to know
that you and your wife are keeping well and busy. I'm glad too that you are
both coming to
You say you want a different kind of holiday this year. Perhaps when you were here last year, I took you to see too many historic buildings and places. You saw most of the places that tourists usually see. So this year you want a rest from sightseeing. You don't want to come as tourists. You want the kind of holiday that middle-class English people usually have, not too expensive, of course. You want to meet English people who are on holiday and to have plenty of chances to make friends with them.
I don't like crowds when I'm on holiday. I remember
that when I was a small boy we - my brothers and sisters and I - always tried
to get away from other people. We always had our holidays on the coast. Sea and
sunshine, that's what we looked forward to every summer. We always went to a
small fishing village on the
Hotels at the large seaside towns on the south coast are expensive. You say you want to come here in July or August. Those are the two months when hotel rates are highest.
You'd soon make friends at a hotel, but if you want to meet lots of English people, you might like to go to a holiday camp. That
doesn't mean sleeping and eating in tents. Holiday
There are usually lots of children in holiday camps. There are nurses to look after small children, so that the parents can be free to amuse themselves. That's one reason why holiday camps are popular with married couples who have very young children. They not only get a holiday from work, but also a holiday from the children.
Here's another suggestion - a walking holiday. Walking
holidays are much cheaper than the kind of holidays I've been telling you
about. You know something about the Youth Hostels Association, I'm sure. It's
international. There are hostels all over
Thank you for your very kind invitation 1o visit you and stay with you. I'm sorry I can't accept it this year; we've already made our plans. But next year, perhaps, if it's convenient to you then.
Please write and let me know if there's anything else you'd like to know. I'm always glad to help you
My wife joins me in best wishes to you both.
Yours sincerely, John Grant
/. Listen to the text "Summer
Where are Mario and his wife going to spend their
holidays? Where did they spend their holidays last year? What kind of holidays
did they have? What kind of holiday would they like this year? What is John's
idea of a good holidav? What are holiday camps in
//. Read the text and analyse the language peculiarities o/ the text. Do some exercises in the next section to remember them.
/. Report the following suggestions: e.g. A: (Paul): Shall we start on Friday? B: Paul suggests starting on Friday.
1. Shall we play tennis? 2. Let's rebuild the garage. 3. Shall we hitch-hike? 4. Why not drink the local wine? 5. Let's go for a walk. 6. Let's take the dogs out. 7. Why don't we bring guitars and make our own music? 8. Let's climb the mountain. 9. Why don't we cook over an open f ire? 10. Shall we eat in restaurants? 11. Let's carry the boxes upstairs. 12. Let's go on a motor-tour. 13. Shall we sleep in Youth Hostels? 14. Let's spend the day on the beach.
15. Shall we find out about pop festivals? 16. Let's pick apples. 17. Shall we move the piano? 18. Let's swim across the river.
//. Make up dialogues using the verb "suggest" + gerund:
e.g. - Why didn't you go to his flat?
- Well, Ann suggested going to his flat but I didn't think
it was necessary. Why didn't you ...
1. record this coversation 2. look at his passport 3. consult a lawyer 4. discuss it with me 5. wait a few weeks 6. check his figures
7. read the small print 8. find out about his previous work 9. make some enquiries about him 10. take his photograph 11. follow him home 12. borrow a tent 13. see the manager 15. tell your parents
16. phone Bill
///. Respond to the following using the verb "offer":
e.g. A: Peter paid [or me. -
B: He offered to pay for me too, but I refused.
1. painted my door 2. waited for me 3. lent me $5 4. found me a job 5. got me a seat 6. showed me the way 7. washed my car
8. helped me 9. carried my luggage 10. saw me off 11. met my train 12. tuned my guitar 13. drove me home 14. looked after my dog 15. typed my essay 16. dug my garden 17 repaired my washing machine 18. fixed my TV
IV. Fill in the gaps. Use either "suggest" or "offer": 1. I ... him an interesting book to read 2. He ... a visit to the theatre. 3. We ... her our help. 4. Mike ... to carry my suitcase but I said it wasn't heavy 5. He ... discussing the matter at our next
meeting. 6. Did he ... any money? 7. What shall we do on the weekend? - Well, what do you ...? 8. I was very busy and Mary ... to buy a ticket for me.
V. Fill in the gaps. Use the nouns "suggestion" or "offer":
1. Did you accept his ... of help? 2. Have you any ... to make? 3. Your ... seems interesting to me. 4. He offered me some money. I was surprised at his ... . 5. I like your ... but I'm not sure whether I'll be able to join you.
VI. Make up short dialogues as shown in the example:
e.g. A: When you get home you'll be able to ski, won't you? B: Yes, I'm looking forward to skiing.
When you get home you'll be able to ..., won't you?
1. swim in the sea 2. skate 3. ride your horse again 4. meet your friends 5. speak your own language again 6. fish in the river 7. have a good holiday 8. sunbathe 9. get a good job 10. continue your university course 11. start your training 12. go out without an umbrella 13. open a language school 14. write a book about your experiences
e.g. A: He wanted to go but I said "No". B: But why didn't you let him go?
He wanted to ... but I said "No".
1. stop 2. help 3. pay 4. hitch-hike 5. tell the truth 6. leave early 7. drive home 8. bring his passport 9. decide for himself
10. sail round the island 11. join the club e.g. A: He bullies his sisters.
B: But why do you let him bully his sisters.
1. kicks his brother 2. shouts at his sisters 3. fights with the neighbours' children 4. answers back 5. disobeys me 6. breaks the furniture 7. misses school every Monday 8. watches TV all Saturday 9. plays his stereo till 2 a.m. 10. stays in bed all Sunday
11. talks with his mouth full 12. rides his bicycle along the pavements 13. uses awful language
VII. Make up sentences using the prompts: e.g. he/rich
He seems to be rich.
1. she/know him 2. he/have plenty of money 3. she/like children 4. he/ afraid of smth 5. she/dislike him 6 he/interested in art 7. you/tired 8. she/surprised 9. she/energetic
VIII. Translate into English (self check):
1. Кажется, они знают друг друга. 2. Он производит впечат-
ление очень умного человека. 3. Я с нетерпением жду встречи с тобой. 4. Николай предложил мне свою палатку, но я отказался. 5. Я предложил отправиться в пятницу утром. Мои друзья согласились. 6. Завтра я уезжаю в командировку. Нина предложила присмотреть за моим сыном. 7. Его предложение помочь удивило нас. 8. Аня предложила провести отпуск в Ялте. Мне понравилось ее предложение.
/. Ask questions about a) holiday
//. Speak on a) the way John Grant prefers to spend his holidays; b) holiday camps and their conveniences; c) a walking holiday.
///. When did you last have your holiday? Where and how did you spend it? What kind of holiday do you prefer?
Mary: Have you had your holiday for this
year, Jane? Jane; Not yet. I'm taking
it at the end of September. Mary: Where are you going? Have you made up your
mind? Jane: Not really. I thought of going to
afford it. I'm much too hard up at the moment. Mary: The air-fare is quite expensive, I admit, but you needn't
spend a lot when you get there.
Jane: I've already spent a lot of money this year. My flat was done up last month, so I haven't got much to spare for expensive holidays abroad. Mary: Oh, I see.
Jane: Perhaps I'll just go to
husband a visit. They're in
Mary: If you decide on
Jane: That's a good idea! I haven't seen Jill for more than three years now and I'd like to know how she's getting on.
/. Listen to the conversation "
When is Jane taking her holiday? Has she
made her plans yet? Why can't she afford going abroad this year? Where might
she spend her holiday this year? What makes
//. Read the conversation and analyse its language peculiarities.
III. Give a brief account of the conversation.
IV. Find in the text appropriate phrases for the following:
Куда ты едешь? Ты уже приняла решение? Я в затруднительном материальном положении в настоящий момент. Похоже, он хорошо проводит время. Это хорошая идея. Я не видела Джил более трех лет, и мне бы хотелось знать, как она поживает. У тебя уже был отпуск за этот год? Мой брат только что уехал в Мексику на две недели. Если ты остановишь свой выбор на Ирландии, ты можешь навестить их. Я уже была в Испании дважды. Я беру отпуск в конце сентября. Почему бы тебе не поехать в Мексику? Хорошо вам, состоятельным людям. Я уже потратила много денег в этом году. Мы ездили в Ирландию два года назад навестить Джил и ее мужа. Я уверена, Джил охотно приняла бы тебя на несколько дней. В прошлом месяце в моей квартире был ремонт.
V. Ask questions on the conversation.
VI. Role-play the conversation.
VII. Situation: Your friend and you are making plans for the coming holidays.
After the Holidays
Peter: It's nice to see you, Helen. How are you?
Helen: Good morning, Peter. Hope you are well. Haven't seen
you for ages. Where have you been all this
time? Peter: I've just arrived from
the seaside. Have you ever been there?
Helen: Yes, I was there last year. It's a nice place, isn't it? I hope
you enjoyed yourself greatly.
yes. I had a very nice time. The weather was fine. I swam much, lay in the sun
and made a lot of friends. Helen: Did you go to
Helen: Sure. Has he finished school yet? Peter: Yes, he is a student at
you getting on? I haven't heard from you lately. Helen: I'm quite all right, thank you. Come and see me some day,
Peter: I'd be delighted. Good-bye. Helen: See you soon. Bye.
/. Listen to the conversation and answer the following questions:
Where did Peter spend his holidays? Did he have a good
//. Read the conversation and analyse its language peculiarities.
III. Give a brief account of the conversation.
IV. Find in the text appropriate phrases for the following: Я только что приехал из Брайтона. Как поживаешь? Я очень
хорошо провел время. Сто лет тебя не видела. Где ты пропадал все это время? Он уже кончил школу? Последнее время я не получал от тебя никаких известий. Заходи ко мне на днях. Ты когда-либо бывала в Брайтоне? С удовольствием. Рад тебя видеть. До скорой встречи. Ты ведь помнишь его? Конечно. * V. Give synonymous expressions from the text:
I'm glad to see you. How are you keeping? Certainly. I'd love to. How about coming to see me one of these days? I'm fine, thank you. I hope you had a good time.
VI. Act out the conversation.
You meet a friend
of yours. He says he has just returned from
Ann Goes to
Ann is a student at
/. Listen to the text "Ann Goes to
II. Tell about
Ann's trip to
III. Situation: Your friend has just come back from his holiday. You are asking him about it.
Prompts: where/spend? how long/stay there? go alone? how/ travel? the weather/fine? where/meals? what/do in the evenings? meet any interesting people? buy anything? have a good time? when/come back?
IV. Tell about a holiday you enjoyed.
I Thought It was a Shark
Last year my friend Robert went to a small seaside town for a week's holiday. Robert usually takes his holiday in June but last year he took it in August.
He didn't take many clothes with him - only a few
shirts, a pair of shorts and his swimming-costume. He went from
He stayed at a small hotel near the beach. Every morning before breakfast he ran down to the sea and had a quick swim. Sometimes he took a boat and went fishing for the day.
Once he jumped into the water when a big crab bit him. He jumped up and shouted for help. People ran from the beach into the water to help him. They thought he was dead. The hotel - keeper ran down to the beach too. He thought someone was drowning.
In a very short time there were about fifty or sixty people. They were standing round Robert. They all wanted to know what
was going on. Robert became red in the face. He thought a shark was going to eat him. But it was only a crab.
/. Listen to the text, ask and answer questions on the text.
II. Tell about Robert's holiday last year.
People have more money and more leasure nowadays and even young people can afford to go abroad. Many travel agents offer cheap cut-price tickets for flights to all parts of the world, so the youngsters can avoid the crowded, well-known places and get to less famous areas which are off the beaten track. Instead of using public transport and hotels they can travel by hitch-hiking and stay at youth hostels. But most people prefer some kind of package holiday at a popular holiday resort, which means that everything is arranged for you and the price you pay includes transport, food and accomodation. Try to avoid taking your holiday during the busy peak tourist season. It's more crowded and expensive. If possible go in the quieter off-peak period.
/. Use the proper tense' forms. A. Mr Brown: I say what you and you sister (be going) to
do for your holiday this year?
Mr Robinson: Well, I (not, know), I'd like to take my sister abroad, but then she can't leave her children. What you (do)?
Mr Brown: We (go) to the sea. Mr Robinson: Where you (go) as a rule? Mr Brown: We (try) many seaside places on the east and south coasts; on the whole, I think we (prefer) the south.
Mr Robinson: You (take) rooms or (stay) at a hotel? Mr Brown: This year we (take) a furnished house. Why
don't you join us? It (be) great fun.
Mr Robinson: I think it (be) a good idea. I (talk) it over
with my sister and see what she (think) about it.
B. Postcards always (spoil) my holidays. Last summer I (go)
A friendly waiter (teach) me a few words of Italian. Then he
(lend) me a book. I (read) a few lines but I (not, understand)
a word. Every day I (think) about postcards. My holidays (pass) very quickly, but I (not, send) any postcards to my friends. On the last day I (make) a big decision. 1 (get) up early and (buy) thirty-seven cards. I (spend) the whole day in my room but I (not, write) a single card.
//. Translate into English:
- Привет, Андрей! Рад тебя видеть.
- Здравствуй, Виктор! Не видел тебя целую вечность Где ты
- Видишь ли, я только что вернулся из Англии. Ты когда-либо
- К сожалению, нет. Но я собираюсь поехать туда в следующем году. Ты доволен своей поездкой?
- Конечно. Лондон один из красивейших городов, которые я когда-либо видел. Я пробыл там две недели и прекрасно провел время. Приходи ко мне на днях. Я покажу тебе свои фотографии.
- Хорошо. До скорой встречи.
/. Talking points:
1. What is your idea of a good holiday?
2 Speak in favour or against spending a holiday in a quiet fishing village.
3. What are the advantages and disadvantages of going on a
4. What do you think of a walking holiday? Do you find it
5. Why do you think tourism is becoming more and more popular?
6. People talk about some places as being "typical tourist spots". What do you think they mean by the phrase?
7. Do you like to spend your holidays at the seaside? Which do you prefer: the Baltic resorts or
8. Discuss some ways of spending a holiday. //. Role play:
1. A family are discussing where they will go for their summer holidays. Even though their tastes are very different they want to go on holiday together and see if there's a way of reconciling the different ideas they have about what holidays should be. 2.Your friend and you have just returned from your summer holidays. At the moment you are sharing your impressions.
1. Write a postcard home to a friend. Say where you are and what you are doing Say something about your plans for the next days and when you are arriving back home. Ask your friend to meet you at the station. Do it Hke this:
We are really enjoying
Yours sincerely, Roger
//. Describe the most memorable holiday you've ever had.
///. Write about your plans for the coming holiday.
IV. Write about a holiday you spent at the seaside.
V. Describe your sightseeing in a town of special historical interest.
VI. Write about different ways of spending a holiday.
Politica de confidentialitate