1. PRESENT SIMPLE or CONTINUOUS 3
2. PAST SIMPLE or CONTINUOUS 5
3. PRESENT PERFECT or SIMPLE PAST 7
4. PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE or CONTINUOUS 9
5. PAST SIMPLE or PAST PERFECT (S/C) 11
6. FOR or SINCE 13
7. FOR and SINCE - CORRECT TENSE 14
8. PRESENT CONTINUOUS or 'BE GOING TO' 15
9. FUTURE SIMPLE or PRESENT CONTINUOUS 16
10. FUTURE SIMPLE or 'BE GOING TO' 17
11. FUTURE SIMPLE or CONTINUOUS 18
12. FUTURE PERFECT SIMPLE or CONTINUOUS 19
13. FUTURE in TIME CLAUSES 20
14. PRESENT, PAST and FUTURE TENSES 21
II. ACTIVE VOICE - PASSIVE VOICE 25
III. DIRECT SPEECH - INDIRECT SPEECH 32
IV. REVISION: MULTIPLE CHOICE 38
I. KEY to TENSES 50
II. KEY to ACTIVE VOICE - PASSIVE VOICE 66
III. KEY to DIRECT SPEECH - INDIRECT SPEECH 73
IV. KEY to REVISION: MULTIPLE CHOICE 82
I. Give the correct form of the verbs in brackets:
1. PRESENT SIMPLE or CONTINUOUS
1. What you (do) at the moment? - I (watch) an interesting documentary on TV. - You always (watch) TV in the afternoon? - No, only when I (have) time.
2. Tom generally (catch) the 8.30 train, but tomorrow he (go) in Jack's car, so we (have) breakfast later than usual.
3. What bus you (wait) for? - A 5 or a 7. - You usually (not go) by car? - Yes, my husband (take) me to work every morning, but the car (be) serviced so I (queue) like you.
4. Cuckoos (not build) nests. They (use) the nests of other birds.
5. This fire (smoke) horribly, I (not see) across the room. I (think) birds (try) again to build a nest in the chimney. Why you (not put) wire across the top?
6. He usually (speak) so quickly that I (not understand) a word he (say).
You (know) that boy who (talk) on
the phone right now? - Yes, he (call) his girlfriend every afternoon. He (come)
8. You (enjoy) yourself or you (want) to leave now? - I (have) a great time and I (want) to stay to the end.
9. You (like) this necklace? I (give) it to my daughter for her birthday tomorrow. - You always (give) her jewellery as a present?
10. She (not work), she (swim) in the river. She (come) for a swim every day.
11. Why you (put) on your coat? - I (go) for walk. You (want) to come with me? - I would love to. You (mind) if I (bring) my dog? - Not at all. I (like) dogs.
12. What she (do) at the moment? She (lie) on the floor, (play) with the cat.
13. You (dream) at night? - Yes, I always (dream) and if I (eat) too much supper I (have) nightmares. - I never (remember) my dreams in the morning.
14. You can't see Tom now, he (have) a bath. He (have) a bath every other day.
15. The children (be) very quiet. I (not like) it. Go and see what they (do). - They (cut) up some Ł5 notes.
16. You (do) anything this evening? - Well, I (not go) out, because it (rain) and I (not have) an umbrella.
17. I (hate) autumn. It (rain) a lot in these parts. - Why you (not go) south?
18. What you (do) in the evenings? - We usually (play) cards or scrabble with the kids, but tonight we (go) to the theatre and they (stay) with friends.
19. She always (ring) up late at night and (ask) stupid questions.
20. You (belong) to the local library? - Yes, I do. - You (read) a lot? - Yes, quite a lot. - How often you (change) you books? - I (change) one every week. - What you (read) now? - I (read) a crime story by Agatha Christie.
21. You can cross the street when you (see) the green light.
22. He always (write) with his left hand? - No, but he (use) his left hand today because his right thumb (hurt).
23. The milk (smell) sour. You (keep) milk a long time?
24. I (see) that he (shout) something but I can't hear what he (say), the traffic (make) too much noise.
25. How much it (cost)? - That (depend) on whether you (pay) the whole sum now. You (intend) to buy it?
26. People seldom (trust) their own judgement in such cases.
27. I (not cook), I (make) a cake. - Someone (come) to tea this afternoon?
28. Why Ann (not wear) her new dress? - She (not like) to wear dark to parties.
29. You (write) to him tonight? - Yes, I always (send) him a card for his birthday. You (wish) to send any message? - Just tell him I still (think) of him.
30. He (not believe) what the newspapers (say). - Then why he (read) so many?
31. He (need) new glasses. - That's because he always (read) in bad light.
2. PAST SIMPLE or CONTINUOUS
1. Mr Smith never (wake) up in time in the mornings and always (get) into trouble for being late; so one day he (go) to town and (buy) an alarm clock.
2. To get home he (have to) go through a field where a bad-tempered bull usually (graze). This bull normally (not chase) people unless something (make) him angry. Now it (lie) near the fence, (chew) the cud.
3. Unfortunately, as Mr Smith (cross) the field, his alarm clock (go) off. This (annoy) the bull, who immediately (begin) to chase Mr Smith.
4. Mr Smith (carry) an open umbrella as it (rain) slightly. He (throw) the umbrella to the ground and (run) away as fast as he could.
5. The bull (stop) and (decide) to attack t 333f59d he umbrella. While he (do) this Mr Smith (climb) over the fence and (escape).
6. The children (be) afraid because it (get) dark.
7. When he (awake) she (sit) by the window. She (look) at something in the street, but when he (call) her name she (turn) and (smile) at him.
8. He said he (think) about starting his own business he (not know) whether to take a partner, and (look) at me hopefully.
9. Why you (interrupt) me just now? I (have) a very interesting conversation with Mr Prim. - I'm sorry, I (not realise) you still (talk) with him.
10. The murderer (carry) the corpse down the stairs when he (hear) a knock on the door. He immediately (put) the body down and (try) to hide on the landing.
11. When I (look) through your books I (notice) that you have a copy of Jaws.
12. As they (walk) along the road they (hear) a car coming from behind them. Tom (turn) round and (hold) up his hand. The car (stop).
13. When I (arrive) at the station Mary (wait) for me. She (wear) a blue dress and (look) very pretty. As soon as she (see) me she (wave) and (run) to me.
14. As soon as I (get) into the cottage I (notice) that water (drip) from the ceiling. I (look) for the ladder to fix the roof when I (remember) I had lent it to Tom.
15. The prisoner (escape) by climbing the wall of the garden where he (work). He (wear) blue overalls and black shoes.
16. She (say) that the car (travel) at 40 k.p.h. when it (begin) to skid.
17. While he (make) his speech the minister suddenly (feel) faint. But someone (bring) him a glass of water and after a few minutes he (be able) to continue.
18. I (take) my friend to a murder trial the other day. - Who (be) tried? - A man called Bill Sykes. - Was he eventually acquitted? - I don't know. They still (listen) to the evidence when we (leave).
19. He (say) he (not like) his present flat and (try) to find another.
20. I (be) sorry that I (have to) leave the party early, because I (enjoy) myself.
21. As we (come) here a policeman (stop) us. He (say) that he (look) for some stolen property and (ask) if he could search the car.
22. I (see) you yesterday from the bus. Why you (use) a stick? - I (use) a stick as I had hurt my leg that morning falling off a horse. - Whose horse you (ride)?
23. When I (hear) his knock I (go) to the door and (open) it, but I (not recognise) him at first because I (not wear) my glasses.
24. When he (tell) me he (need) another Ł 100 loan, I (advise) him to consult a lawyer. He (assure) me he (see) a financial expert the next day.
25. While the guests (dance) thieves (break) into the house and (steal) a lot of fur coats. The next day, as they (know) that the police (look) for them, they (hide) the coats in a wood and (go) off in different directions.
26. He (play) the guitar outside her house when someone (open) the window and (throw) out a bucket of water.
27. I just (open) the letter when the wind (blow) it out of my hand.
28. Why you (lend) him that book? I still (read) it. - I (not know) you still (read) it, I (reckon) you had already finished by now.
29. What you (do) when the doorbell (ring)? - I (make) a cake. - And what you (do) when you (hear) the bell? - I (go) to answer it of course. But when I (open) the door there was nobody there.
3. PRESENT PERFECT or SIMPLE PAST
1. You (wear) your hair long when you were a little girl? - Yes, my mother (insist) on it. But I (hate) it and when I (leave) school I (cut) my hair and (wear) it short ever since.
2. Shakespeare (write) a lot of plays.
3. My brother (write) several plays. He just (finish) his second tragedy.
4. I (fly) over Loch Ness last week. - You (see) the Loch Ness monster?
5. This is the first time I (fly). - I often (travel) by plane but I never (like) it.
6. He (not smoke) for two weeks. - The last time I (try) to give up smoking was last year, but I (not succeed). I (not try) again since then.
7. The guests (arrive)? - No, nobody (come) yet.
8. When he (arrive)? - He (leave) at four and (get) here two hours later.
9. You (lock) the door when you (leave) the house this morning?
10. I (read) his books when I was at school. I (enjoy) them very much.
11. You (read) his new book? - No, in fact I (not read) anything much lately.
12. I can't go out because I (not finish) my work. I only (start) half an hour ago.
13. The guests are due in half an hour. The girls (sample) three kinds of champagne but they even (not start) making the sandwiches.
never (drink) vodka. - Well, have some now. I just (bring) it from
15. I (write) the letter but I can't find a stamp. You (buy) any yesterday?
16. She (write) three letters since she (leave) but I (not answer) them yet.
17. The clock is slow. - It isn't slow, it (stop). - When you (notice)?
18. Here are your shoes; I just (clean) them. I also (iron) you shirt.
19. You (have) breakfast yet? - Yes, I (have) it at 8.00.
20. You can't speak to him, he just (go) out.
21. He should be back by now. He (go) out twenty minutes ago.
22. You (see) the moon last night? - No. I (sleep) peacefully through the night.
23. Anyone (see) my keys? I don't know where I (put) them when I (get) home.
24. This is my house. - How long you (live) here? - I (live) here since 1980.
25. It's quite a while since I (be) in this part of the town. We (live) here for twelve years when I was a kid. It (not change) much.
26. I just (finish) Psycho. You (read) it? - No. Is it like the film? - I (not see) the film. - I (see) it when I (be) on holiday and it (scare) me to death.
27. The newspaper (come)? - Yes, Ann is reading it.
28. I (not know) you (be) fond of dogs. - I'm not. I (get) it last year as a present and I (not be) able to get rid of it since. It already (bite) the postman twice.
29. I (cut) my hand rather badly. Have you a bandage? - I'll get you one. How it (happen)? - I was chopping some wood and the axe (slip).
30. How you (get) that scar? - I (have) a car accident a year ago.
31. You (meet) my brother at the lecture yesterday? - Yes. We (have) coffee together afterwards. He (tell) you anything about what we (decide) to do?
32. He (lose) his job last month and since then he (be) out of work. - Why he (lose) his job? - He (be) very rude to Mr Prim.
33. How long you (be) out of work? - I'm not out of work now. I just (start) a new job. - How you (find) it? - I (answer) an advertisement in the paper.
34. That is Mr Minus, who teaches me mathematics, but he (not have) time to teach me much so far. I only (be) in his class for a week.
35. I (not know) that you (be) here. You (be) here long? - Yes, I (be) here for two weeks. I (arrive) at the end of April. - You (visit) the Cathedral yet? -Yes, we (go) there last Sunday, but I (see) the castle or the museum yet.
36. The plumber (be) here yet? - Yes, but he only (stay) for an hour. - What he (do) in that time? - He (turn) off the water and (empty) the tank.
37. Where you (be)? - I (be) out on a yacht. - What you (do)? - We (take) part in a race. - You (win)? - No, we (come) in last but I (enjoy) it all the same. I never (ride) the waves at such speed before.
38. Since she (buy) herself that loom at the fair she (weave) three carpets. The first (look) rather horrible but her style (improve) a lot.
4. PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE or CONTINUOUS
1. We (walk) ten kilometres. We (cover) half the distance so far.
2. We (walk) for three hours and I still (not see) any sign of the cottage.
3. You (walk) too fast. That's why you are tired.
4. I (make) sandwiches for the party all the morning. - How many you (make)? - I (finish) 200 so far.
5. That boy (eat) seven ice-creams. He (not stop) eating since he arrived.
6. The driver (drink). I think somebody else ought to drive.
7. Would you like a cup of tea? - No, thanks, I already (drink) two cups.
8. I (pull) up dandelions all day. I (pull) up 100 so far.
9. What you (do)? - We (pick) apples. - How many you (pick)? - We already (pick) ten basketfuls. We never (have) so many apples before.
10. I (sleep) on every bed in this house and I don't like any of them.
11. He (sleep) since ten o'clock. It's time he woke up.
12. He (ride); that's why he is wearing those trousers.
13. I (ride) all the horses in this stable and I think they all are reliable.
14. This is the first time I ever (ride) a horse. I hope it won't throw me.
15. What a lovely smell! - Mary (make) jam. She already (make) three kinds of jam this autumn. - I never (taste) black currant jam before.
16. You (work) very well this term. Keep up the good job.
17. The students (work) very well this term. They really deserve the holidays.
18. She (teach) in this school for five years.
19. I (teach) hundreds of students but I never (meet) such a hopeless class as this.
20. Why you (be) so long in the garage? - The tyres were flat; I (pump) them up. I (pump) up three tyres. Would you like to do the fourth?
21. It's almost midnight. We (play) cards for three hours. It's time we stopped.
22. You had better start with the rules. I never (play) this kind of game before.
23. We (look) for mushrooms for two hours but we (not find) any.
24. I (look) in the garage, I (search) the car, but I still can't find my bag. I guess I (leave) it at the office.
25. He (cough) a lot lately. He should see a doctor.
26. You (hear) the news? Tom and Ann are engaged! - That's not new. I (know) it for ages. - Well, I just (find) out about it.
27. I (try) to finish this letter for half an hour. I wish you would stop talking. - But I hardly (say) anything!
28. It (rain) for two hours. The ground is so wet that the match (be) postponed.
29. He (study) English for two years but he doesn't know the tenses yet. - I (learn) six so far. We (practise) tenses for a month.
30. Look at your hands! You (bite) your nails again.
31. Nobody ever (call) me a liar before. I never (be) so offended in my life.
32. You (call) the same number for ten minutes.
33. He (speak) for half an hour but he still (not mention) anything important.
34. I (not speak) to Jack lately. He (avoid) me since the meeting.
35. Someone (use) my bicycle. The chain (fall) off.
36. Ever since he came to us that man (try) to make trouble.
37. You ever (try) vodka with tomato juice?
38. I (swim). That's why my hair is wet. You ever (swim) in this river? - No, I (hear) that it is rather polluted.
39. You (drive) for five hours. Let me take over now. - But you ever (drive) this kind of car before? - No, but I (drive) since I was sixteen so I (learn) a few things about cars in general.
40. Why are your boots so muddy? Please wipe them, I just (have) the carpets cleaned. - I (work) in the garden. Here, I (pick) you some roses.
41. I'm on a diet. I (eat) nothing but bananas for the last month.
42. Why you (make) this horrible noise? - I (lose) my key and I (try) to wake my wife by throwing stones at her window. - You (throw) stones at the wrong window. You live next door.
5. PAST SIMPLE or PAST PERFECT (S/C)
1. He (give) me back the book, (thank) me for lending it to him and (say) that he (enjoy) it very much; but I (know) that he (not read) it because most of the pages (be) still uncut.
2. I (find) them in the tennis court and (ask) how long they (play). They (say) they (start) an hour before.
3. I (think) my train (leave) at 12.30, and (be) very disappointed when I (arrive) at 12.25 and (learn) that it just (leave), and the next one (be) late in the afternoon. I (find) later that I (use) an out-of-date timetable.
4. He (park) his car under a No Parking sign and (rush) into the shop. When he (come) out of the shop ten minutes later the car (be) no longer there. He (wonder) if someone (steal) it or if the police (drive) it away.
5. She only (answer) my question when I (repeat) it three times.
6. Next day he (realise) what a fearful mistake he (make).
7. I only (wait) five minutes when he (turn) up with two large ice creams.
8. She (look) vaguely familiar but I (not remember) where I (see) her before.
9. He (try) to sound as if he was merely glad I (find) such a good substitute.
10. Yesterday morning she (leave) in a hurry but she (not get) far before it (start) raining and she (discover) she (forget) to take her umbrella. So she (go) back for it, but her mother (tell) her that her brother (take) it a few minutes before.
11. He (experiment) for more than a year when he (think) of this solution..
12. When we (notice) him he already (pick) up his hat from the ground. He (say) the wind (blow) it off and he (chase) after it for five minutes.
13. Through the window he (see) the bench where they (sit) all afternoon the previous day. He suddenly (remember) what she (ask) him to do that day.
14. Mary, who (knit) and (count) stitches, (stop) abruptly and (look) around at us.
15. By the time I (phone) they already (sell) the car.
16. He (sell) cars for two years before he eventually (get) a promotion.
17. After he (see) his wife off at the station, he (return) home. He (not have) to pack, for his wife already (do) that for him and his case (be) ready in the hall.
18. He (not have) to check the doors and windows either, for his wife always (do) that before she (leave) the house. All he (have) to do (be) to decide whether or not to take his overcoat with him. In the end he (decide) not to.
19. At 8.30 he (pick) up his case, (go) out of the house and (slam) the door behind him. Then he (feel) in his pockets for the key, for his wife (remind) him to double-lock the front door.
20. When he (search) all his pockets and (find) no key he (remember) where it (be). He (leave) it in his overcoat pocket.
21. Then he (remember) something else; his passport and tickets (be) in his overcoat pocket as well.
22. When the old lady (return) to her flat she (know) at once that burglars (break) in during her absence, because the door (be) open, and everything in the flat (be) turned upside down.
23. The burglars themselves probably only just (leave) because a cigarette was still burning in an ashtray on the table.
24. She (feel) sure they (hear) the lift coming up and (run) down the fire escape.
25. They (help) themselves to her whisky, too, but apparently they (not have) time to finish it off, so she (pour) herself out a drink to help her recover from the first shock. She (wonder) if they (find) her jewellery and, strangely enough, she rather (hope) that they had.
26. The jewellery (be) given her by her husband, who (die) some years before.
27. Since his death, she (not have) the heart to wear it but she (not like) the idea of selling them, either. In fact, she (wonder) what to do with them for quite some time, although she (not get) as far as having them appraised.
28. Now it (seem) that fate (take) the matter out of her hands; and if the burglars really (make) away with the jewellery, the insurance money would certainly come in handy.
6. FOR or SINCE
1. That man has been standing there . six o'clock.
2. He has been very ill . the last month.
3. It was very cold in the whole house because the heating had not been turned on . half a year.
4. They have been quarrelling ever . they got married.
5. He had been Minister of Education . three years when he retired last year.
6. The police have been looking for me . they found her body.
7. We've had terrible weather . the last week.
8. I haven't seen him . last week.
9. Nobody has come to see us . we bought these bloodhounds.
10. We were getting worried because he had been missing classes . two weeks.
11. I've earned my own living . I left school.
12. He has been swimming under water . ten minutes.
13. When he was young, he was in prison . a year.
14. Things have changed . I was a child.
15. He said modern equipment was no good. He had been using his old machine . twelve years.
16. It has been very foggy . early morning.
17. She had been trying on dresses . hours before she finally made up her mind.
18. He worked here as a guide . a month last summer.
19. We have been arguing . hours over this subject.
20. Last summer we stayed at this hotel . two weeks.
haven't visited us . they got back from
22. I used to enjoy driving but I . the accident I can't stand the thought.
23. They will be paying the instalments . two years.
24. He had been waiting . ten minutes when they eventually asked him in.
7. FOR and SINCE - CORRECT TENSE
1. We (fish) for two hours but we (not catch) anything yet.
2. The kettle (boil) for ten minutes when she finally (make) the tea.
3. She said she had a driving licence but she (not drive) a car since 1997.
4. I (work) in this office for three months, but I (not get) to know all my colleagues yet.
5. I (study) German at my old school for five years.
6. She (study) Spanish intensely since she (decide) to marry Pedro.
7. They (study) three chapters since they (start) school.
8. What you (do)? I (look) for you for ages. - I (build) a barbecue in the garden but I need some help to finish it.
They (live) in
11. We (live) in this house for seven years when I (be) a child.
12. He said he (not live) in such a nice village since his childhood.
13. When I (hear) about the accident Mr Prim (be) in hospital for three days.
14. He (try) to open it for ten minutes before he (realise) it was the wrong door.
15. I already (try) three keys since you (phone) but none of them fits.
16. I (try) to phone him for half an hour but I (not get) through yet.
17. I suggested she should use some sweetener but she (say) she already (try) three different types since she (start) her diet.
18. He wrinkled his nose and asked for how long I (stew) the vegetables.
19. I (know) him for seven years when he (get) married.
20. By the time we (reach) the cottage he (chop) wood for half an hour.
(grow) these flowers since (bring)
the first seeds from
22. He said rather angrily that he (wait) for twenty minutes and that he (not be) kept waiting for so long by anyone since his divorce.
23. Life (not be) the same since you (leave) me.
8. PRESENT CONTINUOUS or 'BE GOING TO'
1. My uncle (make) a speech at the conference on Friday.
2. The President is standing up. He (make) a speech.
3. I (catch) the early train tomorrow. - Where you (leave) the car? - I (not take) the car, I (walk) to the station.
4. She looks very pale. I'm afraid she (faint).
5. You (knock) that flowerpot over if you're not more careful.
6. I (go) to the dentist on Monday. Mrs Prim (take) my class.
7. I've been coughing a lot lately. I think I (see) the doctor some time this week.
8. I have something important to tell Tom. You (see) him tonight?
Her parents (send) him to
has made up her mind: she (move) back to
11. Our neighbours have inherited a house and they (move) out next week.
12. There was very little blossom this spring. Apples (be) scarce.
13. I've lent you my car once. I (not do) it again.
14. You (do) anything tonight? - Yes, we (have) the Browns over for drinks.
15. When you (pay) me back?
16. I can't make it to the performance. - Pity. The children (be) disappointed.
you (take) your French friends this weekend? - We (go) to see
18. He (have) an operation next week.
19. If you give that bone to the dog, he (bury) it.
20. Now that I have seen the film, I (read) the book.
21. The inspector (ask) you a few questions.
22. I (pick) you up at 7.30., don't forget to take the tickets.
23. That phone has been ringing for five minutes. You (not pick) it up?
24. He (have) his hair cut this afternoon.
25. I've ordered three crates of champagne. They (be) delivered this afternoon.
9. FUTURE SIMPLE or PRESENT CONTINUOUS
1. I wonder how many of us (be) here this time next year.
2. Why don't you come over this afternoon? The kids (enjoy) seeing you again.
3. The game (start) at two. I hope you can be there.
4. I'm sure you (recognise) her at once.
5. I (collect) my new dress tomorrow.
6. She (not write) to you unless you write first.
7. We (know) the final results this afternoon.
8. What your brother (say) when he sees the damage? - He (not say) much but he never (invite) them again to his house.
9. Where you (meet) them? - I (meet) them at midnight in the middle of the wood. - Are you sure they (come)?
10. They (get) married next month.
Prime Minister (fly) to
12. The cat (scratch) you if you pull its tail.
13. He (play) in a tennis match on Friday.
14. The plumber (come) at eight tomorrow morning.
15. I (believe) it when I see it.
16. If you put any more polish on that floor someone (slip) on it.
17. They (lay) the foundations next week.
18. I (wait) here until he comes back.
19. I hope that you (have) a good time on the trip.
20. I am sure you (like) our new flat.
21. Helen (give) a garden party next week. You (go)? - I (not go) anywhere next week. We (have) the house redecorated and the workers (start) on Thursday.
22. You (understand) when you are older.
23. If I drop this it (explode).
24. My grandparents (celebrate) their golden wedding next week.
10. FUTURE SIMPLE or 'BE GOING TO'
1. I imagine the theatre (be) full for this performance.
2. When you retire, you (have) more time for gardening.
3. Get out of the building! It sounds like the generator (explode).
4. If you decide to contact Jane, I (give) you her address.
5. I read in the paper that they (increase) the price of gas again.
6. The fire has gone out. - I (go) and get some more wood.
7. You (paint) the whole room by yourself?
8. You (have) a cup of tea? - Yes, please.
9. When you (wash) the car? It looks awfully dirty.
has just returned from
11. The last train has just left. - Never mind, I (walk).
12. You (open) the door for me, please? - Yes, certainly.
13. I've come out without any money. - Never mind, I (lend) you some.
14. If you want to leave right away, I (drive) you to the station.
15. I'm not feeling very well. In fact, I think I (be) sick!
16. I wouldn't walk on that plank if I were you. It looks like it (break).
17. Do you like my new food mixer? Here, I (show) you how it works.
18. You (answer) my question or not?
19. Before I apply for the job, I (get) more information about it.
20. Unless aid arrives soon, thousands (starve).
21. You (buy) the morning papers? - Yes, I am. - You (buy) one for me, too?
22. How do I get to the station? - I don't know, but I (ask) that policeman there.
23. You (eat) any more of this or shall I ask the waiter to take it away?
24. You really (ride) that horse? He looks very bad-tempered to me.
25. Why are you peeling that clove of garlic? - I (put) it in the stew.
26. You (buy) some meat? - No, I (not buy) meat any more. I (eat) vegetables.
27. You (bath) you dog? - Yes, you (help) me? - I hope it (not bite) me.
11. FUTURE SIMPLE or CONTINUOUS
1. I (ring) you tomorrow at six. - Don't ring at six, I (watch) my favourite show.
2. I can't go to the station to meet him. - I (meet) him for you. But how I (recognise) him? - He's small and fair, and he (wear) a blue and white cap.
3. Come on deck; we (enter) harbour in a few minutes.
4. You can have my climbing boots. Now that I've broken my leg I (not use) them much this summer, will I?
5. She (work) for Mr Prim nest week as his own secretary (translate) at the meetings for the foreign partners.
6. Give me that bottle, I (open) it for you.
7. You can see him on TV tomorrow at five. He (open) a photo exhibition.
I'm afraid I (not go) to the party,
I have to be in
9. He (not drive) anywhere without first looking at a road map.
10. Imagine! This time tomorrow we (drive) to the seaside!
11. There's no need to call a cab. My son (drive) you home.
12. I've got a job at the library for the summer. - Then you (work) with my sister.
13. I've got rats in my basement. - I (bring) my dog around whenever you like. He (catch) them for you.
14. It's Guy Fawkes' Day. People (let) off fireworks and (make) bonfires in the streets all night.
16. I (come) at three o'clock. - Good, I (expect) you.
17. This time next month we (lie) on a beach under the tropical sun.
18. You (have) something to drink, won't you?
19. In a few years' time we all (live) in houses heated by solar energy.
20. You (use) the computer for much longer? I'd like to send an e-mail.
21. I'm afraid I have broken your goldfish bowl. - Never mind, I (put) the goldfish in the bath. Mary (have) a shock when she sees them there.
12. FUTURE PERFECT SIMPLE or CONTINUOUS
1. Next year I (work) in the company for thirty years.
2. When I retire next month I (work) for seventeen different companies.
3. When he is forty, he (learn) Chinese for fifteen years.
4. By tomorrow I (learn) one hundred Chinese words.
5. By next winter they (build) four houses in that field.
6. By next winter the (build) houses for fifteen years.
7. When we reach that island we (sail) for five months.
8. When we reach Port Suez we (sail) around the world.
9. By the time we get to the party everything (be) eaten.
10. By Sunday I (eat) nothing but fruit and vegetables for a week.
11. By the time the Zoo attendant gets here this elephant (eat) all my tomatoes.
12. When we get to the top we (climb) for twelve hours.
13. By next summer he (climb) sever peaks above 5000 meters high.
14. In a few minutes she (play) the same record for half an hour.
15. After this performance he (play) Hamlet twenty-four times.
16. By seven I (write) twenty invitations.
17. By seven he (sign) invitations for half an hour.
18. I will still be here next August but James (leave).
19. At this rate you (break) all the wine glasses by the end of the month.
20. The police (hear) of the theft by this time.
21. I (drink) this special tea for three months next Monday.
22. Next month he (write) that book for two years.
23. By the time the fire brigade gets here the house (burn) down completely.
24. By noon tomorrow they (dance) non-stop for five days.
25. We (visit) museums for two weeks by Saturday.
26. I (finish) this book by tomorrow evening.
27. At this rate, by the time he is thirty he (spend) all his money.
13. FUTURE in TIME CLAUSES
1. She will be delighted when she (hear) this.
2. He (wake) up when we turn the lights on.
3. When I (be) here for a year I will ask for a rise.
4. The car (not move) till you take the brakes off.
5. The train will have left before we (reach) the station.
6. You can go when you (type) these letters.
7. Turn the lights out when you (leave).
8. Before you (know) it, your children will have grown up.
9. We (stay) in the cottage until the fog clears.
10. Unfortunately, your eyesight will gradually worsen as you (get) older.
11. When the Queen (arrive) the audience (stand) up.
12. You (see) my house on the right as you (cross) the bridge.
13. After I (paint) the kitchen I (change) the wallpaper in the bedroom.
14. I (not give) up before I (finish) what I want to do.
15. He (wash) up before he (go) to bed.
16. You (get) a shock when you (open) that box.
17. When we (see) the cathedral we (go) to the museum.
18. You (feel) better when you (have) something to eat.
19. When you (look) at the photo you (see) what I mean.
20. I (wait) here until you (be) ready.
21. The lift (not start) unless you (press) that button.
22. When it (get) cold I (light) the fire.
23. As soon as everybody (go) to bed mice (come) out of their holes.
(ring) us when he (arrive) in
25. When winter (begin) the swallows (fly) away to a warmer country.
26. I (bolt) all the doors before I (go) to bed.
27. When the boa constrictor (eat) the goat it (become) very lethargic.
14. PRESENT, PAST and FUTURE TENSES
1. I (listen) carefully but I couldn't follow what they (say).
2. Who (make) this horrible noise? - It's my son. He (have) a bad cold and that's how it (sound) when he (blow) his nose, poor chap.
3. What you (stare) at? - This abstract picture. I (look) at it for half an hour but I still (not understand) what it is. - Well, that often (happen) when you (admire) modern art.
4. You please (turn) down the sound? You (wake) the children.
5. While we (fish) somebody (come) to the house and (leave) this note.
6. The rain (stop) now but an icy wind still (blow). I (not feel) like going out. - But you (not be) out of the house all week. It's high time you (get) some fresh air. I'm sure it (do) you good.
7. He (ring) up just as we (have) dinner. I (call) him back when we (finish) supper. He (want) to know whether we (go) to the theatre that night.
8. When I last (see) him he just (get) into a taxi on Piccadilly.
9. Why are you so angry? - Because I (quarrel) with my brother. - You two (quarrel) this time yesterday, too. - Of course we (be). We (do) that every evening when we (try) to decide on which channel to watch the news.
10. Who Jane (talk) to on the phone yesterday while her husband (do) the washing-up? - I (guess) it was her sister. They always (talk) for hours.
11. Can I come by at ten tomorrow? - Yes, but you probably (have to) ring several times because I (mow) the lawn in the back garden.
12. Mary (feed) the cat? - Yes, she (feed) him after lunch. - What she (give) him? - She (give) him some fish. - That cat (have) nothing but fish for days.
13. Two weeks (pass) since we (arrive) here, but we (not have) a single fine day yet. The rain (stop) from time to time, but the sky never (clear).
14. The moment I (have) enough money, I (buy) that new model they (advertise) on TV lately.
Frenchman who (learn) English at school, but half (forget) it, (stay) in
16. The Parisian (have) no experience with the English climate before and now (catch) a severe cold. He (feel) miserable and (cough) day and night.
17. At last he (decide) to get a remedy for his cough but as he (not remember) this English word, he (look) it up in his French-English dictionary.
18. There he (find) that the word (be) 'cough'. Unfortunately his French-English dictionary (not tell) him how to pronounce it and he (not bring) the English-French one with him.
19. He (remember), however, another similar word he (learn): 'plough', and (conclude) that 'cough' must be pronounced [kau].
20. So he (enter) a chemist's shop and (say): "Will you, please, give me something for my cow!" The chemist, thinking that he (misunderstand) him, (ask) politely: "I beg your pardon, sir?"
21. The Frenchman (repeat) his request for some remedy for his cow. "For your cow, sir?" (reply) the chemist. "You (be) a farmer, then?"
farmer?" (answer) the Frenchman indignantly. "What in the world (make) you
think so? Oh, no, I (come) from beautiful
23. The chemist now almost (begin) to think that he (deal) with a madman. In great bewilderment he (ask) again: "But you cow, sir? Where is your cow?"
24. "Here!" (cry) the Frenchman, coughing very loudly and pointing to his chest. "Here it is! I (have) a very big cow in my chest!"
25. Luckily, the chemist (understand) him and (give) him the remedy he (ask) for.
26. As I (cross) the road yesterday I (step) on a banana skin and (fall) heavily. I still (lie) on the road when I (see) a lorry approaching. Luckily the driver (notice) me and (stop) the lorry in time. I still (not recover) from the shock.
27. Someone (knock) at the door. - I (come) in a minute. I just (wash) my hands.
28. We (not meet) for twenty years. I don't think he (recognise) me tomorrow.
29. What all those people (look) at? - There (be) an accident. - You (see) what (happen)? - Yes, a motor cycle (run) into a lorry. - The police (arrive) yet? - No, but I (hear) that an ambulance (come).
30. You (be) here before? - Yes, I (spend) my holidays here last year. - You (have) a good time? - No, it never (stop) raining.
31. Why you (smoke) a cigar, Mrs Prim? You (not smoke) cigars as a rule. - I (smoke) it because I (want) the ash. This book (say) that cigar ash mixed with oil (remove) heat stains. I (try) to clean the stains from this table for ages.
32. I (glance) out of the window before I (go) to bed and (notice) a man standing on the opposite pavement. He (watch) the house. When I (get) up the following morning he (be) still there and I (wonder) whether he (stay) there all night or if he (go) away and (come) back.
34. Stop! You (not see) the notice? - I can't read it. I (not wear) my glasses. What it (say)? - It (say) 'These premises (be) patrolled by guard dogs'.
35. I (put) the Ł5 note into one of my books; but next day it (take) me ages to find it because I (forget) which book I (put) it into.
36. A convicted murderer (escape) from the prison further up the road. This whole neighbourhood (not be) safe until the police (recapture) him.
37. I (lose) my black gloves. You (see) them anywhere? - I'm afraid not. When you last (wear) them? - I (take) them with me to the theatre last night. - Maybe you (leave) them at the theatre.
39. She (trust) you. She (believe) anything you tell her when you (return).
40. You (speak) to Tom today? No, he (go) away at 8.00 as usual. - Where he (go)? - I (not see) where he (go), I still (sleep).
41. They (sit) at the table for half an hour when eventually a waiter (appear).
plane you (look) at now just (take) off for
43. Yesterday as he (climb) the ladder it (slip) sideways and he (fall) off it.
44. On the 3rd of next month we (travel) for half a year.
45. It was now 6 p.m. and Jack (be) tired because he (work) hard all day and he (have) nothing to eat since breakfast. His wife usually (bring) him sandwiches at lunch but for some reason she (not come) that day. Jack (wonder) what (happen).
46. It (save) time if you (take) the path through the wood? - No, it (not matter) which way you (go) but people usually (prefer) the one by the lake.
47. Why Mrs Prim (look) so angry? - Mr Prim's guest (smoke) a cigarette and (drop) the ash on her favourite carpet.
48. As I (get) off the bus I (see) that two men (fight) at the corner and a policeman (try) to stop them, without much success. - What they (fight) about? - Nobody (seem) to know.
time next week I (fly) my new plane over the
50. He (demand) to know how long the affair (go) on, but she (refuse) to answer him. She (accuse) him that he never (trust) her anyway.
is our itinerary. We (leave) home on the 8th, (arrive) in
52. I (not want) to meet Paul so when he (enter) the room I (leave).
53. When I (arrive) Ann just (leave) so we only (have) time for a few words.
54. By next August I (translate) this volume of poems.
55. I (see) you (not make) much progress yet. What you (do) all morning?
56. I (smell) something burning! - I (think) it (come) from the kitchen. Ann probably (iron). She usually (iron) and (watch) TV at the same time and if she (get) very interested in a programme she (forget) that she (press) a hot iron on to somebody's shirt. I (think) of moving the TV set from the kitchen.
57. They (build) that bridge when I (drive) past last year. They (not finish) it yet. I guess they still (work) on it this time next year, too.
II. ACTIVE VOICE - PASSIVE VOICE
I. Turn the following sentences into passive:
1. The school bus picks up the children every morning at 8.30.
2. The milkman leaves the bottles at the door.
3. We only use this room when we have guests.
4. They make these artificial flowers of silk.
In some regions of
6. Someone switched on the lights on the upper floor.
7. Lightning struck the old oak.
8. The howling of wolves kept him awake all night.
9. The storm tore off the roof of the cottage.
10. He wrote the message on the back of an old envelope.
11. The boys are carrying the chairs into the garden.
12. They are pulling down the old theatre.
13. The dockers are unloading the cargo.
14. People are spending far too much money on food.
15. They are widening the street where I live.
16. They were ringing the church bells as a flood warning.
17. The children were hammering nails into an old stool.
18. They were handing out leaflets in the street.
19. He was developing a new variant of his invention.
20. They were releasing political prisoners at the time.
21. Somebody has made the beds.
22. They have already announced the official date.
23. The burglars have slashed the picture with a knife.
24. Someone has already informed the police about the theft.
25. That dog has already bitten me twice.
26. Previous climbers had cut steps in the ice.
27. He had already returned the book before the warning came.
28. They had not noticed the change before morning.
29. They had broken three windows by the time I arrived.
30. He had not finished the painting before the exhibition.
31. You mustn't wash this pullover in hot water.
32. She should replant these flowers in larger pots.
33. We couldn't lift the lid off the well.
34. The waiters will soon serve refreshments.
35. You must dissolve this medicine in some fluid.
36. They should have repaired the roof before it fell in.
37. He will have posted the answer by now.
38. They must have copied the solutions from the book.
39. She needn't have carried the child, it can walk.
40. The thunder might have scared the horses.
41. Who wrote 'Hamlet'?
42. How often do they feed the seals at the Zoo?
43. Will they admit children under sixteen?
44. Has anyone ironed my shirt?
45. When are they going to introduce the speed limit?
46. Where did they discover the stolen car?
47. Why were they sending those signals?
48. How long should I boil the eggs?
49. Where will the organisers exhibit the statues?
50. Could children have done all this damage?
51. Have they found anyone to take her place?
52. Why are they lighting these fires in the gardens?
53. Had they warned anybody about the possible risks?
54. Who was following him yesterday night?
55. The pupils soon started to respect the new teacher.
56. They appear to forget the nastier details.
57. They came to consider him a member of the family.
58. People seem to overcome this difficulty easily.
59. They tend to neglect safety measures.
60. They expect us to invite them personally.
61. Parents did not allow children to go out unaccompanied.
62. They asked us to sit down for a few minutes.
63. His doctor advised him to get more exercise.
64. His boss told him to hold all calls during the meeting.
65. People saw the creatures flying above the building.
66. The headmistress noticed her coming into class late.
67. The farmer caught them stealing apples from the orchard.
68. The neighbours heard him shouting at his wife.
69. They kept us waiting for twenty minutes.
70. Jim found them playing with matches in the garage.
71. He made us do the homework all over again.
72. They did not see him run into the building.
73. Nobody has ever heard him swear.
74. They noticed him hide the chocolate in his pocket.
75. People watched the balloon land safely in the field.
76. They say he writes poems.
77. They believe she is expecting a baby.
78. People think he inherited a fortune.
79. People say they were hiding in the woods.
80. They said she ate only raw vegetables.
81. People thought they were living on smuggling.
82. Everybody believed their ancestors had arrived with William of Normandy.
83. They said her doctor had been treating her with his own special tonic.
II. Turn the following sentences into active:
1. Most of the work is being done by students.
2. Bicycles must not be left in the hall by people.
What is meat usually spiced with in
4. This theory has been proved to be false by scientists.
5. He complained that books were not being returned in time by students.
6. This champagne should have been iced longer by the waiter.
7. Why are the dogs being trained in the park by him?
8. A better solution has not yet been found by them.
9. What was this part of the fence destroyed by?
10. These books can only be taken home for two days by you.
11. The fence was being painted green when I came.
12. My letters have been opened by somebody.
13. These two shouldn't have been invited by us for the same weekend.
14. The heating had not been turned on before the frost came.
15. His suitcases were already being packed by the maid.
16. The witness was accused by the judge of misleading the jury.
17. The footprints must have been found by the police by now.
18. My suggestion has not been taken seriously by the board.
19. By whom was this delicious birthday cake baked?
20. More evidence is being gathered by the investigators every day.
21. Several rare species were captured during the expedition.
22. The strange creature has not been seen for weeks.
23. The children are just being brought home from school by my husband.
24. The cars have been washed and polished by somebody today.
25. Where is the new theatre being built?
26. Pupils should never be beaten at school by teachers.
27. Five rats have been caught by the dog in the cellar this week.
III. Give the ONE suitable word to fill in each gap:
in the south of
They are appearing in waters all over (6) South of
situation is (8) bad that the lake, which supplies the
biologist at Marineland, a tourist
of turtles in
IV. Error correction. Which lines are correct (√ ) and what unnecessary extra word do the others have?
1. Martin Spark had just been left his car in a car
2. park near his office when he was approached by a
3. mugger with a knife who demanded of his wallet. Martin
4. gave to him his wallet and the man ran off. Martin
5. had decided to go to the nearest police station and
6. report the crime, but just as he was walking towards
7. it he was being stopped by a second man. This man
8. also wanted his wallet, but Martin tried to explain
9. him that it had already been stolen. The second
10. mugger told him to hand him over his shoes and
11. socks. Martin did it as he was told and then, when the
12. man had been gone, walked into the police station. The
13. police were absolute surprised to see him without
14. any shoes and socks and was questioned him about what
15. had happened. After having giving descriptions of
16. the two men, Martin was driven back to his car. But,
17. to his horror, when they got to the place at where
18. he had left it, he had discovered that it had been stolen.
V. Choose the correct variant:
a museum in
The next time it (9) was in 1830, in the collection of Henry Hope, a wealthy Irishman who (10) the diamond its present name. It (11) bought and sold many times during the following hundred years. It (12) through the hands of a prince, a jeweller, a banker and a newspaper editor before its last private owner (13) that this magnificent stone (14) only bad luck, unhappiness, ill-health, accidents and even death to its owners and their families. So, finally in 1958 the Hope Diamond (15) to the Smithsonian Institute, Washington, where it (16) to this day, (17) by thousands of visitors every day. Now it (18) displayed in a collection with other jewels, but it (19) to be by far the most beautiful of them all and the Museum's greatest attraction - obviously it no longer (20) any harm to anybody.
1. A. being B. is C. - D. was
2. A. is lain B. is lied C. is lying D. lies
3. A. had been B. has been C. was D. was being
4. A. had been B. had had C. was D. was being
5. A. had B. had had C. has D. was having
6. A. being polished B. having polished C. polished D. polishing
7. A. being known B. knew C. knowing D. known
8. A. - B. had C. has D. was
9. A. being seen B. had seen C. saw D. was seen
10. A. gave B. had given C. was given D. was giving
11. A. had been B. had C. was D. -
12. A. been passed B. had passed C. was passed D. was passing
13. A. had realised B. realised C. realising D. was realised
14. A. brought B. had brought C. was bringing D. was brought
15. A. being given B. had given C. gave D. was given
16. A. has remained B. is remaining C. remained D. was remained
17. A. admiring B. being admired C. having admired D. was admired
18. A. being B. has been C. is being D. is
19. A. considered B. was considered C. is considering D. is considered
20. A. brings B. has brought C. is bringing D. is brought
I. Turn the following sentences into indirect speech using the reporting verbs suggested at the end of each sentence:
1. "Nothing grows in my garden. It never gets any sun." (complain, explain)
2. "I'm going away tomorrow and won't be back until Sunday." (tell, warn)
3. "It isn't so foggy today as it was yesterday." (remark)
4. "I am going to move from this flat next month." (say)
5. "My neighbours are always having noisy parties." (complain)
6. "Your problem is being dealt with by our specialist now." (assure)
7. "The race has to be postponed because of the weather." (announce)
8. "This is the first time I have ever travelled abroad alone." (confide)
9. "There is a crack in the back wall of your house." (inform)
10. "If prices continue to rise at this rate, I will make a nice profit." (speculate)
11. "We are getting married next year." (announce)
12. "Someone is coming. Get into the cupboard, quick!" (say, urge)
13. "Everybody is smiling rather sourly." (notice)
14. "I am very concerned about him." (admit)
15. "If you listen carefully, you can hear the sound of water." (say)
16. "There is no quick and painless cure for this disease." (comment)
17. "The sunshine doesn't seem to do them any good." (complain)
18. "I need these ingredients for the cake I want to make." (explain)
19. "You will scorch your dress if you let the iron get too hot." (warn)
20. "I have no plans to leave the team before the end of this season." (reassure)
21. "The number of food poisonings doubles during this period." (estimate)
22. "The demand for our latest product is increasing rapidly." (report)
23. "I know exactly what they said. I bugged their phone." (assure, explain)
24. "They used to tell me everything about their day at school." (remember)
25. "I did not hide Aunt Marge's glasses!" (deny)
26. "I'm very sorry I'm late. The bus broke down." (apologise, explain)
27. "I dropped a box on my toe this morning." (explain)
28. "I saw your brother at the cinema yesterday." (mention)
29. "They were driving along the river at six yesterday." (tell)
30. "You spent too much on that holiday last year." (remark)
31. "We saw bright flashing lights in the clear sky last night." (report)
32. "I last smoked a cigar five years ago." (say)
got used to driving on the left side when I was in
34. "I knew nothing about the drugs they had hidden in my bag." (protest)
35. "I didn't see him climb into the garden." (deny)
36. "I have been spending a lot more time with gardening this year." (mention)
37. "You have again boiled the vegetables to a mush." (grumble)
38. "We have found a much easier way to deal with this problem." (claim)
39. "He hasn't answered any of the reporter's questions directly." (point out)
40. "I will pick you up on my way to the office." (promise)
41. "They will want to discuss the advantages in the smallest detail." (expect)
42. "They will get suspicious if you stop too often." (warn)
43. "I won't tell your secret to anybody." (promise)
44. "These flowers will die unless you put them into water." (point out)
45. "The new washing machine will be delivered tomorrow." (assure)
46. "We will consider the offer carefully next week." (promise)
47. "You must get there before the concert begins." (warn)
would be cheaper to go to the coast than to
49. "I can't find the chocolate I bought yesterday." (complain)
50. "This shelf may collapse if you sit on it." (warn)
51. "I couldn't get into the house. I had lost my key." (complain, confess)
"When does the 5.15 train arrive in
2. "Where does she get these horrible hats?" (wonder)
3. "Why does he take so many kinds of medicine?" (inquire)
4. "Who wants a lift home in my new car?" (ask)
5. "Why don't they serve coffee during the brakes?" (wonder)
6. "How do they always break so many glasses?" (want to know)
7. "Where do all these flies come from?" (wonder)
8. "Where does your aunt keep the salt?" (want to know)
9. "Where does your sister go at weekends?" (ask)
10. "How much sugar do you take in your coffee?" (ask)
11. "Which teams are playing next week?" (inquire)
12. "What are you watching on TV right now?" (ask)
13. "Why didn't you come to my party last Saturday?" (want to know)
14. "Who sent these beautiful flowers yesterday?" (want to know)
15. "Where did the dog bury that stinking bone?" (want to know)
16. "Why didn't you bring your friends yesterday?" (ask)
17. "When was the timetable changed?" (inquire)
18. "What was she wearing when she left home yesterday?" (inquire)
19. "Who is going to live in the big house from next month?" (ask)
20. "What shall I do with all this heavy luggage?" (wonder)
21. "How can I get from the station to the airport?" (ask)
22. "Does he always take his dog to the hairdresser?" (wonder)
23. "Have they finished repairing the road?" (ask)
24. "Can I bring my dog into the restaurant with me?" (ask)
25. "Have you already signed up for the race?" (ask)
26. "Is the weather drier there in winter?" (want to know)
27. "Did they hold a press conference last week?" (inquire)
Advice, requests, commands, offers, invitations, suggestions, etc.
1. "Don't forget to take out the garbage." (remind)
2. "Would you like to have dinner with me tonight?" (invite)
3. "Do not open the door to anybody." (advise)
4. "Will you please shut the door as you go out?" (ask)
5. "Shall I open that tin for you?" (offer)
6. "I would not drink that green stuff if I were you." (advise)
7. "I will lock you up in your room!" (threaten)
8. "You should take the job, it will suit you perfectly." (encourage, assure)
9. "I will throw the TV set out of the window!" (threaten)
10. "Wear a wig if you don't want to be recognised." (advise)
11. "Give me some wire, I'll hang that picture for you." (ask for, offer)
12. "I'll punish you if you ever play with matches again!" (threaten)
13. "Would you mind not opening that window?" (ask)
14. "Let's go to the new Chinese restaurant tonight." (suggest)
15. "Could I have another cup of tea, please?" (ask for)
16. "Would you like to see the wild-park?" (offer)
17. "Don't believe everything you hear." (warn)
18. "Go and get me a paper, but come straight back." (order, instruct)
19. "We're going for a walk. Would you like to join us?" (say, invite)
20. "I will cook a special dinner tonight." (volunteer)
21. "Leave young Tommy here, I'll keep an eye on him." (suggest, promise)
22. "Don't forget to post these letters today." (remind)
23. "Please, please don't gesticulate while you're driving!" (beg)
24. "I won't answer any questions." (refuse)
25. "You've been leaking information to the press! You traitor!" (accuse, call)
26. "You should read the books on the list before your exam." (recommend)
27. "The results will be a pleasant surprise for everybody." (guarantee)
II. Turn the following sentences into direct speech:
1. They wanted to know why we hadn't phoned the previous day.
2. They suggested taking a trip to the lake the following week.
3. He demanded to have his own key to the building.
4. She denied having listened through the keyhole.
5. She offered to lend me the money I needed.
6. She said she was looking for his slippers.
7. The policeman inquired whether I had seen her that week.
8. She wanted to know where he bought those extravagant ties.
9. They inquired whether I had bought any books recently.
10. She inquired why he always carried that old umbrella.
11. She promised to buy him a new one for Christmas.
12. The doctor inquired whether I had noticed any change lately.
13. The captain threatened to drop him from the team if he didn't train harder.
14. Tom invited Ann to come for a drive the following day.
15. They suggested visiting the country that afternoon.
16. He said he was reading an interesting novel.
17. She refused to do the washing up that night.
18. His friend asked whether they should begin training for the race that day.
19. Mother reminded them to buy bread on their way home.
20. She suggested he put an advertisement in the paper.
21. They warned me not to walk in those streets after dark.
22. She accused him of having ruined her life.
23. The teacher recommended listening to cassettes to improve our English.
24. They suggested we should have a party the following weekend.
25. She asked where we were thinking of going that day.
26. They warned us not to go near the edge as it wasn't safe.
27. She reminded him to get a bone for the dog when he was at the butcher's.
III. a) Give the correct form of the verbs in brackets;
b) Turn the bits of text into direct speech wherever possible:
I had a most strange experience a few weeks ago. I (1-sit) at home, when about nine o'clock there was a knock on the door. I (2-not expect) anyone, so I wondered who it (3-be). I (4-open) the front door, and there was this man in an old raincoat. I asked him what he (5-want) but he (6-not tell) me at first. He asked me whether I was alone in the house, which I (7-think) was an odd question. Anyway, I said I was, because everyone else (8-go) out for the evening. Then he asked if he (9-come) in so I said I (10-want) to know who he was before I (11-let) him into the house, which (12-be) only natural, after all. Anyway, he pretended that he (13-not hear), but looked up and down the street. By this time, however, I (14-get) a bit worried, and I started to wonder whether I (15-call) the police because this chap (16-seem) a bit suspicious. But then he eventually told me who he was: a policeman, and he (17-show) me his card.
He said the police (18-watch) for some time the people who (19-live) in a house a few doors away. He asked me if I (20-know) them. I said I didn't. Indeed, I (21-see) them a few times, but I (22-never/ speak) to them. Then he wanted to know how long (23-they/ live) there. I said that I (24-see) their furniture van on the day they (25-move) in, a few weeks before. He asked me if he (26-stay) in my room to watch the street for a while, so I showed him in. However, I (27-not help) asking him why he (28-watch) them.
He hesitated a bit but explained that they (29-suspect) of being drug smugglers. I couldn't believe it. After he (30-observe) the street for three hours, it seemed he (31-finish) and apologised for (32-intrude) upon my privacy but I assured him I (33-not mind) helping the authorities. He said he (34-wish) all citizens (35-be) like that, then the police (36-catch) more criminals.
Anyway, a few days later, I (37-read) in the paper that our dubious neighbours (38-eventually/ arrest) by the police.
I. Choose the correct variant:
1. Where . born?
2. We . here since 1994.
3. I couldn't remember where I . her before.
A. have seen B. saw C. had seen D. had been seeing
4. The eyewitnesses said the lorry . at 60 m/h when it hit the lamp post.
A. travelled B. had travelled C. was travelling D. has been travelling
5. I . English for seven years at my old school.
A. had studied B. studied C. have studied D. have been studying
6. We . for hours now. I'm getting tired.
A. are climbing B. have climbed C. climbed D. have been climbing
7. This meat . fresh. You should have kept it in the fridge.
A. isn't looking B. don't look C. doesn't look D. don't seem
8. Why . his glasses for reading?
A. he nor wear B. doesn't he wear
C. is not he wearing D. he isn't wearing
9. When we got home, we found that the house . broken into.
A. had B. had been C. has been D. was
10. I'll wait in the car until you . ready, but hurry, please.
A. are B. will be C. got D. are going to be
11. You'll be amazed at the results when you . this new face cream.
A. are trying B. tried C. try D. will try
12. The children were afraid because it . dark.
A. were getting B. got C. was getting D. had been got
13. . a good time?
14. By the end of the month she . seven driving lessons.
A. has had B. will be had C. will have D. will have had
15. He . Chinese for seven years now.
A. is studying B. studied C. studies D. has been studying
I . that song, I will think of my holiday in
A. am hearing B. have heard C. hear D. will hear
17. I . expect this exercise to be so easy, really.
A. can't B. didn't C. shouldn't D. don't
18. No one saw the man ... in the window.
A. climb B. has climbed C. is climbing D. to climb
19. She has been out of town ... week.
A. for B. for last C. for the last D. last
20. The horse . the emblem of Iron Age coins.
A. became B. become C. has become D. was become
21. We . translated fifty pages of the book.
A. already have B. have already C. yet have D. have yet not
22. Early peoples also . the temple as a calendar.
A. used B. have used C. were using D. would using
23. He . some medicine when I entered.
A. has prepared B. prepared C. was preparing D. was being prepared
24. His future wife was a nurse at the hospital where he . then.
A. was treating B. was treated C. got treated D. was being treated
25. I almost . when I first rode my new bicycle.
A. falled B. fell C. felt D. felled
26. Everything is white, it . for three days now.
A. snows B. has snowed C. is snowing D. has been snowing
27. The Roman system of roads . to this day.
A. has survived B. is survive C. survived D. is surviving
28. Why . join us yesterday for the trip?
A. did not you B. did you not C. you did not D. you not did
29. They want . a new hospital here next year.
A. building B. have built C. to build D. built
30. Don't look down, we . over a deep valley.
A. are flying B. fly C. have flown D. flew
31. He . collecting rocks for years before that exhibition.
A. had been B. has been C. was D. is
32. My grandmother . with this doll eighty years ago.
A. had played B. played C. was playing D. plaid
33. Our hotel . ideal conditions for businessmen.
A. has offer B. is offering C. is offered D. offers
34. After the Roman invasion the Britons continued . .
A. fight B. fought C. to fighting D. fighting
35. We have to wait, he . the statues and the pigeons.
A. admires B. has admired C. is admired D. is admiring
36. Remember . the labels and the boxes.
A. keeping B. the keeping C. to keep D. to have kept
37. He . in a Hippie community when we met.
A. was living B. lived C. has lived D. had lived
38. He always . modern music with live performances.
A. was combined B. combining C. is combining D. combines
39. He said that those flowers . the previous day.
A. got sent B. were sent C. had been sent D. have been sent
40. The champagne . by the waiters at the moment.
A. is served B. is serving C. is being served D. are to serve
. growing tulips since he returned from
A. are B. have been C. have being D. have
wanted to know when the bus . at
A. arrived B. did arrive C. will arrive D. arrives
43. A little girl . the ducks on the lake that afternoon.
A. was feeding B. was being fed C. was fed D. had been feeding
44. Father accused me that I . the car the day before.
A. damaged B. had damaged C. was damaging D. having damaged
45. I . the letter but I can't find a stamp.
A. finished B. have finished C. had finished D. finish
46. He promised . say anything if I gave back the money then.
A. never to B. that he won't C. to not ever D. he will not
47. He . in the same workshop from boyhood until retirement.
A. worked B. was working C. had worked D. had been working
48. The top of the shed. off by the wind last night.
A. was blowen B. got blowed C. was blown D. had been blowne
49. Harry had an uncomfortable feeling that he . followed.
A. is B. was C. is being D. was being
hasn't written to us since he . back from
A. got B. had got C. has got D. was getting
51. I can't drive the car, somebody . my driving license.
A. has stolen B. stealed C. stole D. was stolen
52. At the moment she . on the floor playing with the cat.
A. has lied B. is laying C. is lying D. lies
53. Supper will be ready by the time you . home.
A. get B. got C. have got D. will get
54. It's at least ten years since I . a cigarette.
A. don't smoke B. have smoked C. smoked D. was smoking
55. He . in a restaurant when I last saw him.
A. has sat B. sat C. had set D. was sitting
56. They . working hard all day and are tired now.
A. are B. were C. have been D. had been
57. Do you know who . "Nostromo"?
A. has written B. did write C. had written D. wrote
58. Look! Somebody . a message on the door.
A. has sticked B. has stuck C. sticked D. was sticking
see you when I . back from
A. shall come B. will come C. come D. came
60. She asked the policeman where . park her car.
A. could she B. can she C. she could D. she can
you ever been to
A. were B. went C. have been D. have gone
62. He let me in after I . for about ten minutes.
A. have waited B. had waited C. was waiting D. had waiting
63. My hostess asked me if . well the night before.
A. I had slept B. I did sleep C. I slept D. did I sleep
64. '. leave the door open?' 'Yes, please.'
A. Shall I B. Will you C. Will I D. Can you
65. The light . in the hall.
A. turned on B. was turned on C. has turned on D. has been turn on
66. He . as a prisoner here from 1985 to 1990.
A. was kept B. was being kept C. was keeping D. has been kept
67. The children were . up by the nose in the street.
A. awoke B. woken C. woke D. waked
68. I . German since I was at school.
A. didn't speak B. don't speak C. forgot D. haven't spoken
69. I didn't know you . for me.
A. were waiting B. are waiting C. have waited D. have been waiting
70. Last year I . to school every day.
A. had walked B. have walked C. was walking D. had to walk
71. Don't ask for another book until you . this one.
A. finished B. don't finish C. have finished D. haven't finished
72. "What do you do?" ". ."
A. I'm a nurse B. I'm all right C. I read a paper D. I'm reading
this the first time you .
A. are in B. come to C. have been to D. are visiting
74. Don't open this parcel until you . home
A. get B. don't get C. had got D. will get
75. It's a long time since he last . a letter to me.
A. has written B. hasn't written C. wrote D. didn't write
76. By the time the guests arrived, everything . ready.
A. had been B. has been C. was D. will have been
77. As soon as they . enough, they'll buy a sailing boat.
A. can save B. have saved C. are saved D. will save
78. Every time I see pink carnations, I . of my fifteenth birthday.
A. remember B. am reminded C. recall D. am remembered
79. The dogs will have woken the neighbourhood by the time you . down.
A. get B. had got C. will get D. would get
80. The interviewer asked the author how many novels . so far.
A. did he write B. has he written C. he had written D. he wrote
81. "Why are you so tired?" "I ... jam all day."
A. am making B. have made C. made D. have been making
82. I'm not sure where. .
A. the boys did go B. did the boys go
C. the boys have gone D. have the boys gone
83. We had hoped you . able to meet us at the airport.
A. are B. were C. will be D. would be
84. I asked him why . his sunglasses, since the sun had set long before.
A. was he still wearing B. he still was wearing
C. he was still wearing D. was he wearing still
85. If no one . to the radio, why don't you turn it off?
A. is listening B. listens C. will listen D. has listened
86. When we get there, we'll . five thousand kilometres.
A. drive B. be driving
C. have driven D. have been driving
87. It turned out that his lost hat . in the back of the car all the time.
A. is B. was C. has been D. had been
88. It was a lucky thing. They . the thief's fingerprints at the scene before.
A. never found B. had never found
C. had never been found D. were never found
89. Up to now five passengers of the upturned boat . pulled out of the water.
A. are B. are to be C. have been D. were
you taste the bouillabaisse in
A. go B. are going C. will go D. will be going
91. The policeman came over and asked what . for.
A. we waited B. did we wait
C. we were waiting D. were we waiting
92. "Is your sister at home?" "No, she . to the market."
A. is gone B. has gone C. has been D. is out
93. "Has that tomcat ever run away before?" "Yes, once he . for a week."
A. was missing B. missed C. was missed D. had missed
94. My brother . jobs five times in the last three years.
A. changed B. has changed C. was changing D. has been changing
95. Uncle Alfred is getting rather absent-minded; he . things these days.
A. forgets often B. is always forgetting
C. has often forgot C. often forgot
96. When he took the headphones off, he realised that the doorbell . .
A. is ringing B. was rung C. was ringing D. had rung
II. Choose the INCORRECT variant:
1. He . the violin when he was younger, but after his accident he gave it up.
A. could play B. played C. liked playing D. was playing
2. We . for a month.
A. did no meeting B. didn't meet C. haven't met D. won't be meeting
3. "Don't forget to turn off the gas, will you?" " . ."
A. I won't B. I don't C. I never do D. I'll see to it
4. I was hoping that you . help me.
A. could B. might C. should D. would
My aunt, who . in
A. had lived B. once lived C. grew up D. was born
They . for
A. are leaving B. have left C. leave D. were to leave
Have you been to
A. before B. ever C. lately D. recently
8. Martin . dinner very early.
A. usually has B. use to have C. is having D. had
George was in
A. in 1995 B. for two years C. since 1995 D. two years ago
10. I . lunch at home today.
A. have B. shall have C. am having D. am going to have
haven't been to
A. last year B. since 2001 C. before D. yet
12. . this work done I'll have a rest.
A. When I shall get B. As soon as I've got
C. Soon after I get D. When I have got
13. His young wife hasn't . very well lately
A. been B. been feeling C. felt herself D. been looking
14. The bank robber who got away is . to be carrying a gun.
A. thought B. considered C. said D. believed
15. Although the child seemed . , I'm sure it was listening to the conversation.
A. sleeping B. to be asleep C. asleep D. to be sleeping
16. We generally . before 6 a.m. on weekdays.
A. rise B. are rising C. get up D. got up
17. Do you remember . last night?
A. whether you dreamed B. what you dreamed
C. to have dreamed D. having any dreams
18. We . for about twenty minutes before being allowed in.
A. were made to wait B. were waiting
C. had queued D. hung about
I. KEY to TENSES (p.3)
1. PRESENT SIMPLE OR CONTINUOUS (p.3)
1. Are you doing; am watching; Do you always watch; have
2. catches; is going; are having
3. Are you waiting; Do you not / Don't you usually go; takes; is being; am
4. do not build; use
5. is smoking; do / can not see; think; are trying; do you not / Don't you put
6. speaks; do not understand; says
7. Do you know; is talking; calls; comes; think; is speaking; reckon; are chatting
8. Are you enjoying; want; am having; want
9. Do you like; am giving; Do you always give
10. is not working; is swimming; comes
11. are you putting; am going; Do you want; Do you mind; bring; like
12. is she doing; is lying; playing
13. Do you dream; dream; eat; have; remember
14. is having; has
15. are; do not like; are doing; are cutting
16. Are you doing; am not going; is raining; do not have
17. hate; rains; do you not go / Don't you go
18. do you do; play; are going; are staying
19. is always ringing; asking
20. Do you belong; Do you read; do you change; change; are you reading; am
22. Does he always write; is using; hurts
23. smells; Do you keep
24. (can) see; is shouting; is saying; is making
25. does it cost; depends; pay; Do you intend
27. am not cooking; am making; Is someone coming
28. is Ann not / isn't Ann wearing; does not like
29. Are you writing; send; Do you wish; am thinking
30. does not believe; say; does he read
31. needs; is always reading
2. PAST SIMPLE OR CONTINUOUS (p.5)
1. woke; got; went; bought
2. had to; grazed / was usually grazing; did not chase; made; was lying; chewing
3. was crossing; went; annoyed; began
4. was carrying; was raining; threw; ran
5. stopped; decided; was doing; climbed; escaped
6. were; was getting
7. awoke; was sitting; was looking; called; turned; smiled
8. was thinking; did not know; looked
9. did you interrupt; was having; did not realise; were still talking
10. was carrying; heard; put; tried
11. was looking; noticed
12. were walking; heard; turned; held; stopped
13. arrived; was waiting; was wearing; looked; saw; waved; ran
14. got; noticed; was dripping; was looking; remembered
15. escaped; was working; was wearing
16. said; was travelling; began
17. was making; felt; brought; was able
18. took; was being; were still listening; left
19. said; did not like; was trying
20. was; had to; was enjoying
21. were coming; stopped; said; was looking; asked
22. saw; were you using; was using; were you riding
23. heard; went; opened; did not recognise; was not wearing
24. told; needed; advised; assured; was seeing
25. were dancing; broke; stole; knew; was looking; hid; went
26. was playing; opened; threw
27. was just opening; blew
28. did you lend; was still reading; did not know; were still reading; reckoned
29. were you doing; rang; was making; did you do; heard; went; opened
3. PRESENT PERFECT OR SIMPLE PAST (p.7)
1. Did you wear; insisted; hated; left; cut; have worn / been wearing
3. has written; has just finished
4. flew; Did you see
5. have flown; have often travelled; have never liked
6. has not smoked; tried; did not succeed; have not tried
7. Have the guests arrived; has come
8. did he arrive; left; got
9. Did you lock; left
10. read; enjoyed
11. Have you read; have not read
12. have not finished; started
13. have sampled; have not even started
14. have never drunk; have just brought
15. have written; Did you buy
16. has written; left; have not answered
17. has stopped; did you notice
18. have just cleaned; have also ironed
19. have you had; had
20. has just gone
22. Did you see; slept
23. Has anyone seen; put; got
24. have you lived; have live
25. was; lived; has not changed
26. have just finished; Have you read; have not seen; saw; was; scared
27. Has the newspaper come
28. did not know; were; got; have not been; has already bitten
29. have cut; did it happen; slipped
30. did you get; had
31. Did you meet; had; has he told; decided
32. lost; has been; did he lose; was.
33. have you been; have just started; did you find; answered
34. has not had; have only been
35. did not know; were; Have you been; have been; arrived; Have you visited;
went; have not seen
36. Has the plumber been; stayed; did he do; turned; emptied
37. have you been; have been; did you do; took; did you win; came; enjoyed;
have never ridden
38. bought; has woven; looked; has improved
4. PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE OR CONTINUOUS (p.9)
1. have walked; have covered
2. have been walking; have not seen
3. have been walking
4. have been making; have you made; have finished
5. has eaten; has not stopped
6. has been drinking
7. have already drunk
8. have been pulling; have pulled
9. have you been doing; have been picking; have you picked; have already
picked; have never had
10. have slept
11. has been sleeping
12. has been riding
13. have ridden
14. have ever ridden
15. has been making; has already made; have never tasted
16. have been working
17. have worked
18. has been teaching
19. have taught; have never met
20. have you been; have been pumping; have pumped
21. have been playing
22. have never played
23. have been looking; have not found
24. have looked; have searched; have left
25. has been coughing
26. Have you heard; have known; have just found
27. have been trying; have hardly said
28. has been raining; has been postponed
29. has been studying; have learnt; have been practising
30. have been biting
31. has ever called; have never been
32. have been calling
33. has been speaking; has not mentioned
34. have not spoken; has been avoiding
35. has been using; has fallen
36. has been trying
37. Have you ever tried
38. have been swimming; Have you ever swum; have heard
39. have been driving; have you ever driven; have been driving; have learnt
40. have just had; have been working ; have picked
41. have been eating
42. have you been making; have lost; have been trying; have been throwing
5. PAST SIMPLE OR PAST PERFECT (S/C) (p.11)
1. gave; thanked; said; had enjoyed; knew; had not read; were
2. found; asked; had been playing; had started
3. thought; left; was; arrived; learned; had just left; was; found; had used
4. parked; rushed; came; was; wondered; had stolen; had driven
5. answered; had repeated
6. realised; had made
7. had only waited; turned
8. looked; did / could not remember; had seen
9. tried; had found
10. left; had not got; started; discovered; had forgotten; went; told; had taken
11. He ( had been experimenting; thought
12. noticed; had already picked; said; had blown; had been chasing
13. could see / saw; had sat / been sitting; remembered; had asked
14. had been knitting; counting; stopped; looked
15. phoned; had already sold
16. had been selling; got
17. had seen; returned; did not have; had already done; was
18. did not have; did; left; had; was; decided
19. picked; went; slammed; felt; had reminded
20. had searched; had found; remembered; was; had left
21. remembered; were
22. returned; knew; had broken; was; had been
23. had only just left
24. felt; had heard; had run
25. had helped; had not had; poured; wondered; had found; hoped
26. had been; had died
27. had not had; had not liked; had been wondering; had not got
28. seemed; had taken; had really made
6. FOR or SINCE (p.13)
7. FOR and SINCE - CORRECT TENSE (p.14)
1. have been fishing; have not caught
2. had been boiling; made
3. had not driven
4. have been working; have not got
6. has been studying; decided
7. have studied; started
8. have you been doing; have been looking; have been building
9. had been living; visited
10. has lived / has been living
11. lived; was
12. had not lived
13. heard; had been
14. had been trying; realised
15. have already tried; phoned
16. have been trying; have not got
17. said; had already tried; had started
18. had stewed
19. had known; got
20. reached; had been chopping
21. have been growing; brought
22. had been waiting; had not been
23. has not been; left
8. PRESENT CONTINUOUS or 'BE GOING TO' (p.15)
1. is making
2. is going to make
3. am catching; are you leaving; am not taking; am walking
4. is going to faint
5. are going to knock
6. am going; is taking
7. am going to see
8. Are you seeing
9. are sending
10. is going to move
11. are moving
12. are going to be
13. not going to do
14. Are you doing; are having
15. are you going to pay
16. are going to be
17. are you taking; are going
18. is having
19. is going to bury
20. am going to read
21. is going to ask
22. am picking
23. Are you not going to pick
24. is having
25. are being
9. FUTURE SIMPLE or PRESENT CONTINUOUS (p.16)
1. will be
2. will enjoy
3. is starting
4. will recognise
5. am collecting
6. will not write
7. will know
8. will your brother say; will not say; will never invite
9. are you meeting; am meeting; will come
10. are getting
11. is flying
12. will scratch
13. is playing
14. is coming
15. will believe
16. will slip
17. are laying
18. will wait
19. will have
20. will like
21. is giving; Are you going; am not going; are having; starting
22. will understand
23. will explode
24. are celebrating
10. FUTURE SIMPLE or 'BE GOING TO' (p.17)
1. will be
2. will have
3. is going to explode
4. will give
5. are going to increase
6. will go
7. Are you going to paint
8. Will you have
9. are you going to wash
10. will ask
11. will walk
12. Will you open
13. will lend
14. will drive
15. am going to be
16. is going to break
17. will show
18. Are you going to answer
19. am going to get
20. are going to starve
21. Are you going to buy; Will you buy
22. will ask
23. Are you going to eat
24. Are you really going to ride
25. am going to put
26. Are you going to buy; am not going to buy; am going to eat
27. Are you going to bath; will you help; will not bite
11. FUTURE SIMPLE or CONTINUOUS (p.18)
1. will ring; will be watching
2. will meet; will I recognise; will be wearing
3. will be entering
4. will not be using
5. will be working; will be translating
6. will open
7. will be opening
8. will not be going
9. will not drive
10. will be driving
11. will drive
12. will be working
13. will bring; will catch
14. will be letting; will be making
15. will very likely be raining
16. will come; will be expecting
17. will be lying
18. will have
19. will all be living
20. Will you be using
21. will put; will have
12. FUTURE PERFECT SIMPLE or CONTINUOUS (p.19)
1. will have been working
2. will have worked
3. will have been learning
4. will have learnt
5. will have built
6. will have been building
7. will have been sailing
8. will have sailed
9. will have been
10. will have been eating
11. will have eaten
12. will have been climbing
13. will have climbed
14. will have been playing
15. will have played
16. will have written
17. will have been signing
18. will have left
19. will have broken
20. will have heard
21. will have been drinking
22. will have been writing
23. will have burnt
24. will have been dancing
25. will have been visiting
26. will have finished
27. will have spent
13. FUTURE in TIME CLAUSES (p.20)
2. will wake
3. have been
4. will not move
6. have typed
9. will stay
11. arrives; will stand
12. will see; cross
13. have painted; will change
14. will not give; have finished
15. will wash; goes
16. will get; open
17. have seen; will go
18. will feel; have had
19. look; will see
20. will wait; are
21. will not start; press
22. gets; will light
23. has gone; will come
24. Will he ring; arrives
25. begins; will fly
26. will bolt; go
27. has eat; will become
14. PRESENT, PAST and FUTURE TENSES (p.21)
1. listened / was listening; were saying
2. is making; has; sounds; blows / is blowing
3. are you staring; have been looking; do / can not understand; happens; admire
4. Will you turn; will wake
5. were fishing; came; left
6. has stopped; is still blowing; do not feel; have not been; got; will do
7. rang; were having; called; had finished; (had) wanted; were going
8. saw; was just getting
9. have been quarrelling; were quarrelling; were; do; try
10. was Jane talking; was doing; guess; talk
11. will have to; will be mowing
12. Has Mary fed; fed; did she give; gave; has had
13. have passed; arrived; have not had; has stopped; has never cleared
14. have; will buy; have been advertising
15. had learned; had half forgotten; was staying; had turned
16. had had; (had) caught; felt / was feeling; coughed / was coughing
17. decided; did / could not remember; looked;
18. found; was; did not tell; had not brought
19. remembered; had learned; concluded
20. entered; said; had misunderstood; asked
21. repeated; replied; Are you
22. answered; makes; come; added
23. began; was dealing; asked
24. cried; have
25. understood; gave; had been asking
26. was crossing; stepped; fell; was still lying; saw; noticed; stopped; have not
27. is knocking; am coming; am just washing
28. have not met; will recognise
29. are all those people looking; has been; Did you see; happened; ran; Have the
police arrived; (can) hear; is coming.
30. Have you been; spent; Did you have; stopped
31. are you smoking; do not smoke; am smoking; want; says; removes; have been
32. (had) glanced; went; noticed; was watching; got; was; wondered; had stayed;
had gone; (had) come
33. is leaving; will have seen; will come
34. Do you not / Don't you see; am not wearing; does it say; says; are
35. put; took; had forgotten; had put
36. has escaped; will not be; have recaptured
37. have lost; Have you seen; did you last wear; took; left
38. Are you going; thought; were going
39. trusts; will believe; return
40. Have you spoken; went; did he go; did not see; went; was still sleeping
41. had been sitting; appeared
42. are looking; is just taking; Have you ever been
43. was climbing; slipped; fell
44. will have travelled
45. was; had worked / been working; had had; brought; had not come; wondered;
46. Does it save; take; does not matter; go; prefer
47. does Mrs Prim look; is smoking; (is) dropping
48. got; saw; were fighting; was trying; were they fighting; seemed
49. will be flying
50. demanded; had been going; refused; accused; had never trusted
51. leave; arrive; spend; set; sounds; get
52. did not want; entered; left
53. arrived; was just leaving; had
54. will have translated
55. (can) see; have not made; have you been doing
56. (can) smell; think; is coming; is probably ironing; irons; watches; gets;
forgets; is pressing; am thinking
57. were building; drove; have not finished; will still be working
II. KEY to ACTIVE VOICE - PASSIVE VOICE (p.25)
I. Turn the following sentences into passive (p.25)
1. The children are picked up by the school bus every morning at 8.30.
2. The bottles are left at the door by the milkman.
3. This room is only used (by us) when we have guests.
4. These artificial flowers are made of silk.
5. In some regions of France pigs are used by farmers to find truffles.
6. The lights on the upper floor were switched on.
7. The old oak was struck by lightning.
8. He was kept awake all night by the howling of wolves.
9. The roof of the cottage was torn off by the storm.
10. The message was written (by him) on the back of an old envelope.
11. The chairs are being carried into the garden by the boys.
12. The old theatre is being pulled down.
13. The cargo is being unloaded by the dockers.
14. Far too much money is being spent on food.
15. The street where I live is being widened.
16. The church bells were being rung as a flood warning.
17. Nails were being hammered (by the children) into an old stool.
18. Leaflets were being handed out in the street.
19. A new variant of his invention was being developed by him.
20. Political prisoners were being released at the time.
21. The beds have been made.
22. The official date has already been announced.
23. The picture has been slashed with a knife by the burglars.
24. The police have already been informed about the theft.
25. I have already been bitten twice by that dog.
26. Steps had been cut in the ice by previous climbers.
27. The book had already been returned before the warning came.
28. The change had not been noticed before morning.
29. Three windows had been broken by the time I arrived.
30. The painting had not been finished by him before the exhibition.
31. This pullover mustn't be washed in hot water.
32. These flowers should be replanted in larger pots.
33. The lid couldn't be lifted off the well.
34. Refreshments will soon be served by the waiters.
35. This medicine must be dissolved in some fluid.
36. The roof should have been repaired before it fell in.
37. The answer will have been posted by now.
38. The solutions must have been copied from the book.
39. The child needn't have been carried by her, it can walk.
40. The horses might have been scared by the thunder.
41. Who was 'Hamlet' written by? / By whom . ?
42. How often are the seals fed at the Zoo?
43. Will children under sixteen be admitted?
44. Has my shirt been ironed by anyone?
45. When is the speed limit going to be introduced?
46. Where was the stolen car discovered?
47. Why were those signals being sent (by them)?
48. How long should the eggs be boiled?
49. Where will the statues be exhibited by the organisers?
50. Could all this damage have been done by children?
51. Has anyone been found to take her place?
52. Why are these fires being lit in the gardens?
53. Had anybody been warned about the possible risks?
54. Who was he being followed by yesterday night? / By whom . ?
55. The new teacher soon started to be respected by the pupils.
56. The nastier details appear to be forgotten (by them).
57. He came to be considered (by them) a member of the family.
58. This difficulty seems to be overcome easily (by people).
59. Safety measures tend to be neglected (by them).
60. We are expected to invite them personally.
61. Children were not allowed (by parents) to go out unaccompanied.
62. We were asked (by them) to sit down for a few minutes.
63. He was advised by his doctor to get more exercise.
64. He was told by his boss to hold all calls during the meeting.
65. The creatures were seen flying above the building.
66. She was noticed (by the headmistress) coming into class late.
67. They were caught (by the farmer) stealing apples from the orchard.
68. He was heard (by the neighbours) shouting at his wife.
69. We were kept waiting for twenty minutes.
70. They were found (by Jim) playing with matches in the garage.
71. We were made to do the homework all over again.
72. He was not seen to run into the building.
73. He has never been heard to swear (by anybody).
74. He was noticed to hide the chocolate in his pocket.
75. The balloon was watched to land safely in the field.
76. He is said to write poems.
77. She is believed to be expecting a baby.
78. He is thought to have inherited a fortune.
79. They are said to have been hiding in the woods.
80. She was said to eat only raw vegetables.
81. They were thought to be living on smuggling.
82. Their ancestors were believed to have arrived with William of Normandy.
83. Her doctor was said to have been treating her with his own special tonic.
II. Turn the following sentences into active (p.28)
1. Most of the work is being done by students.
2. People must not leave bicycles in the hall.
3. What do they usually spice meat with in Greece?
4. Scientists have proved this theory to be false.
5. He complained that students were not returning books in time.
6. The waiter should have iced this champagne longer.
7. Why is he training the dogs in the park?
8. They have not yet found a better solution.
9. What destroyed this part of the fence?
10. You can only take these books home for two days.
11. They were painting the fence green when I came.
12. Somebody has opened my letters.
13. We shouldn't have invited these two for the same weekend.
14. They had not turned on the heating before the frost came.
15. The maid was already packing his suitcases.
16. The judge accused the witness of misleading the jury.
17. The police must have found the footprints by now.
18. The board have not taken my suggestion seriously.
19. Who baked this delicious birthday cake?
20. The investigators are gathering more evidence every day.
21. They captured several rare species during the expedition.
22. They haven't seen the strange creature for weeks.
23. He is just bringing the children from school.
24. Somebody has washed and polished the cars today.
25. Where are they building the new theatre?
26. Teachers should never beat pupils at school.
27. The dog has caught five rats in the cellar this week.
III. Give the ONE suitable word to fill in each gap (p.29)
13. can / could
IV. Error correction (p.29)
V. Choose the correct variant (p.30)
1. C. -
2. D. lies
3. C. was
4. A. had been
5. B. had had
6. C. polished
7. D. known
8. A. -
9. D. was seen
10. A. gave
11. C. was
12. B. had passed
13. B. realised
14. B. had brought
15. D. was given
16. A. has remained
17. B. being admired
18. D. is
19. D. is considered
20. A. brings
1. He complained that nothing grew in his garden and explained (that) it never
got any sun.
2. She told me (that) she was going away the next day and warned me (that) she
wouldn't be back until (the following) Sunday."
3. They remarked (that) it wasn't so foggy that day as it had been the day before
/ the previous day.
4. She said (that) she was going to move from the / that flat the next month.
5. He complained that his neighbours were always having noisy parties.
6. They assured me that my problem was being dealt with by their specialist
7. They announced that the race had to be postponed because of the weather.
8. She confided that it was the first time she had ever travelled abroad alone.
9. They informed me that there was a crack in the back wall of my house.
10. He speculated that if prices continued to rise at that rate, he would make a
11. They announced that they were getting married the next / following year.
12. She said (that) someone was coming and urged him to get into the cupboard.
13. He noticed that everybody was smiling rather sourly.
14. She admitted that she was very concerned about him.
15. He said (that) if one listened carefully, one could hear the sound of water.
16. They commented that there was no quick and painless cure for that disease.
17. She complained that the sunshine didn't seem to do them any good.
18. He explained that he needed those ingredients for the cake he wanted to
19. She warned me (that) I would scorch my dress if I let the iron get too hot.
20. He reassure us that he had no plans to leave the team before the end of the /
21. They estimated that the number of food poisonings doubled during that
22. They reported that the demand for their latest product was increasing rapidly.
23. He assured her (that) he knew exactly what they had said and explained that
he had bugged their phone.
24. She remembered that they used to tell her everything about their day .
25. He denied having hidden / that he had hidden Aunt Marge's glasses.
26. He apologised for being late and explained that the bus had broken down.
27. He explained that he had dropped a box on his toe that morning.
28. He mentioned having seen / that he had seen my brother at the cinema the
previous day / the day before.
29. She told me (that) they had been driving along the river at six the day before /
the previous day.
30. He remarked (that) I had spent too much on that holiday the previous year /
the year before.
31. They reported having seen / that they had seen bright flashing lights in the
clear sky the previous night.
32. He said (that) he had last smoked a cigar five years before.
33. She confessed (that) she had got used to driving on the left side when she had
been in England.
34. He protested that he had known nothing about the drugs they had hidden in
35. She denied having seen / that she had seen him climb into the garden.
36. He mentioned that he had been spending more time with gardening that year.
37. He grumbled that she had again boiled the vegetables to a mush.
38. They claimed (that) they had found a much easier way to deal with the / that
39. She pointed out that he hadn't answered any of the reporter's questions .
40. He promised to pick / (that) he would will pick me up on his way to the
41. He expected (that) they would want to discuss the advantages in the .
42. She warned us (that) they would get suspicious if we stopped too often.
43. He promised not to tell / (that) he wouldn't tell my secret to anybody.
44. She pointed out that those flowers would die unless I put them into water.
45. They assured us that the new washing machine would be delivered the next / the following day.
46. They promised to consider / (that) they would consider the offer carefully the
next / the following week.
47. They warned me (that) I must / had to get there before the concert began.
48. He agreed that it would be cheaper to go to the coast than to London.
49. She complained that she couldn't find the chocolate she had bought the
previous day / the day before.
50. He warned me (that) the / that shelf might collapse if I sat on it.
51. He complained that he couldn't get into the house and confessed (that) he
had lost his key.
1. He wanted to know when the 5.15 train arrived in York .
2. They wondered where she got those horrible hats.
3. She inquired why he took so many kinds of medicine.
4. He asked who wanted a lift home in his new car.
5. She wondered why they didn't serve coffee during the brakes.
6. He wanted to know how they always broke so many glasses.
7. We wondered where all the / those flies came from.
8. He wanted to know where my aunt kept the salt.
9. They asked where my sister went at weekends.
10. She asked how much sugar he took in his coffee.
11. They inquired which teams were playing the next / the following week.
12. He asked what I was watching on TV right then.
13. She wanted to know why he hadn't come / gone to her party the previous
14. He wanted to know who had sent those beautiful flowers the previous day /
the day before.
15. She wanted to know where the dog had buried that stinking bone.
16. They asked me why I hadn't brought my friends the previous day.
17. He inquired when the timetable had been changed.
18. They inquired what she had been wearing when she had left home the
previous day / the day before.
19. She asked who was going to live in the big house from the next / the
20. She wondered what she should do with all that heavy luggage.
21. He asked how he could get from the station to the airport.
22. She wondered if / whether he always took his dog to the hairdresser.
23. He asked if / whether they had finished repairing the road.
24. She asked if / whether she could bring her dog into the restaurant with her.
25. They asked if / whether I had already signed up for the race.
26. She wanted to know if / whether the weather was drier there in winter.
27. He inquired if / whether they had held a press conference the previous week /
the week before.
Advice, requests, commands, offers, invitations, suggestions, etc. (p.35)
1. She reminded me to take out the garbage.
2. He invited her to (have) dinner (with him) that night.
3. They advised not to open the door to anybody.
4. She asked me to shut the door as I went out.
5. He offered to open the / that tin for me.
6. He advised me not to drink that green stuff.
7. She threatened to lock / (that) she would lock him up in his room.
8. They encouraged me to take / that I should take the job and assured me (that)
it would suit me perfectly.
9. He threatened to throw / that he would throw the TV set out of the window.
10. They advised her to wear a wig if she didn't want to be recognised.
11. He asked for some wire and offered to hang the / that picture for me.
12. He threatened to punish / that he would punish us if we ever played with
13. She asked him not to open the / that window.
14. He suggested going to the new Chinese restaurant that night.
15. She asked for another cup of tea.
16. He offered to show us wild-park.
17. They warned us not to believe everything we heard.
18. He ordered me to go and get him a paper, but instructed me to come / go
19. He said they were going for a walk and invited me to join them.
20. She volunteered to cook a special dinner that night.
21. She suggested (that)I should leave / I left young Tommy there and promised to keep / (that) she would keep an eye on him.
22. He reminded me to post those letters that day.
23. She begged him not to gesticulate while he was driving.
24. He refused to answer any questions.
25. They accused him of having leaked / that he had been leaking information to
the press and called him a traitor.
26. She recommended reading / that we (should) read the books on the list before
27. They guaranteed that the results would be a pleasant surprise for everybody.
II. Turn the following sentences into direct speech (p.36)
1. "Why didn't you phone yesterday?"
2. "Let's take . ! / How about a trip to the lake next week?"
3. "I want to have my own key to the building."
4. "I didn't listen / haven't listened through the keyhole!"
5. "I will / can lend you the money you need."
6. "I am looking for your / his slippers."
7. "Have you seen her this week?"
8. "Where do you buy these extravagant ties?"
9. "Have you bought any books recently?"
10. "Why do you always carry this / that old umbrella?"
11. "I will buy you a new one for Christmas."
12. "Have you noticed any change lately?"
13. "I will drop him from the team if you don't train harder!"
14. "Would you like to come for a drive tomorrow?".
15. "Let's visit the country this afternoon!"
16. "I am reading an interesting novel."
17. "I will not do the washing up tonight!"
18. "Shall / Should we begin training for the race today?"
19. "Don't forget to buy bread on your way home!"
20. "You should put an advertisement in the paper./ Why don't you . ?"
21. "Don't walk in these streets after dark!"
22. "You have ruined my life!"
23. "You should listen to cassettes to improve your English."
24. "We / You should have a party next weekend. / Let's have .!"
25. "Where are you thinking of going today?"
26. "Don't go near the edge, it isn't safe."
27. "Don't forget to get a bone for the dog when you are at the butcher's."
III. a) Give the correct form of the verbs in brackets (p.37)
2-was not expecting
6-did not tell
13-had not heard
18-had been watching
19-lived / were living
22-had never spoken
23-they had been living
24-had seen / saw
25-had moved / moved
27-could not help
32-intruding / having intruded
33-did not mind
38-had eventually been arrested
b) Turn the bits of text into direct speech wherever possible (p.37)
I had a most strange experience a few weeks ago. I was sitting at home, when about nine o'clock there was a knock on the door. I was not expecting anyone. "Who can it be?" I wondered. I opened the front door, and there was this man in an old raincoat. "What do you want?" I asked him, but he did not tell me at first. "Are you alone in the house?" he asked me. "That is an odd question," I thought. "I am, because everyone else has gone out for the evening," I said anyway. "May I come in?" he said then. "I want to know who you are before I let you into the house," I said, which was only natural, after all. Anyway, he pretended that he had not heard, but looked up and down the street. By this time, however, I was getting a bit worried. "Shall I call the police?" I started to wonder, "because this chap seems a bit suspicious." But then he eventually said "I am a policeman. Here's my card."
"The police have been watching for some time the people who live / are living in a house a few doors away. Do you know them?" he asked. "No, I don't. I have seen them a few times, but I have never spoken to them," I said. "How long have they been living here?" he wanted to know. "I saw their furniture van on the day they moved in, a few weeks ago," I said. "May I stay in your room to watch the street for a while?" he asked, so I showed him in. "Why are you watching them?" I couldn't help asking.
"They are suspected of being drug smugglers," he explained after some hesitation. "I can't believe I," I said. After he had observed the street for three hours, it seemed had finished. "I'm sorry to have intruded upon your privacy," he said. "But I don't mind helping the authorities," I assured him. "I wish all citizens were like this, then the police would catch more criminals," he commented.
Anyway, a few days later, I read in the paper the headlines "Dubious neighbour eventually arrested by police" and it was about them.
I. Choose the correct variant (p.38)
1. D. Where were you born?
2. B. We have lived here since 1994.
3. C. I couldn't remember where I had seen her before.
4. C. The eyewitnesses said the lorry was travelling at 60 m/h when it hit .
5. B. I studied English for seven years at my old school.
6. D. We have been climbing for hours now. I'm getting tired.
7. C. This meat doesn't look fresh. You should have kept it in the fridge.
8. B. Why doesn't he wear his glasses for reading?
9. B. When we got home, we found that the house had been broken into.
10. A. I'll wait in the car until you are ready, but hurry, please.
11. C. You'll be amazed at the results when you try this new face cream.
12. C. The children were afraid because it was getting dark.
13. D. Are you having a good time?
14. D. By the end of the month she will have had seven driving lessons.
15. D. He has been studying Chinese for seven years now.
16. C. Whenever I hear that song, I will think of my holiday in Greece.
17. B. I didn't expect this exercise to be so easy, really.
18. A. No one saw the man climb in the window.
19. C. She has been out of town for the last week.
20. A. The horse became the emblem of Iron Age coins.
21. B. We have already translated fifty pages of the book.
22. A. Early peoples also used the temple as a calendar.
23. C. He was preparing some medicine when I entered.
24. D. His future wife was a nurse at the hospital where he was being treated.
25. B. I almost fell when I first rode my new bicycle.
26. D. Everything is white, it has been snowing for three days now.
27. A. The Roman system of roads has survived to this day.
28. B. Why did you not join us yesterday for the trip?
29. C. They want to build a new hospital here next year.
30. A. Don't look down, we are flying over a deep valley.
31. A. He had been collecting rocks for years before that exhibition.
32. B. My grandmother played with this doll eighty years ago.
33. D. Our hotel offers ideal conditions for businessmen.
34. D. After the Roman invasion the Britons continued fighting.
35. D. We have to wait, he is admiring the statues and the pigeons.
36. C. Remember to keep the labels and the boxes.
37. A. He was living in a Hippie community when we met.
38. D. He always combines modern music with live performances.
39. C. He said that those flowers had been sent the previous day.
40. C. The champagne is being served by the waiters at the moment.
41. B. They have been growing tulips since he returned from Holland.
42. A. They wanted to know when the bus arrived at Markham station.
43. A. A little girl was feeding the ducks on the lake that afternoon.
44. B. Father accused me that I had damaged the car the day before.
45. B. I have finished the letter but I can't find a stamp.
46. A. He promised never to say anything if I gave back the money then.
47. A. He worked in the same workshop from boyhood until retirement.
48. C. The top of the shed was blown off by the wind last night.
49. D. Harry had an uncomfortable feeling that he was being followed.
50. A. Tony hasn't written to us since he got back from India.
51. A. I can't drive the car, somebody has stolen my driving license.
52. C. At the moment she is lying on the floor playing with the cat.
53. A. Supper will be ready by the time you get home.
54. C. It's at least ten years since I smoked a cigarette.
55. D. He was sitting in a restaurant when I last saw him.
56. C. They have been working hard all day and are tired now.
57. D. Do you know who wrote "Nostromo"?
58. B. Look! Somebody has stuck a message on the door.
59. C. I'll see you when I come back from Italy next month.
60. C. She asked the policeman where she could park her car.
61. B. 'Have you ever been to France?' 'Yes. I went there last August.'
62. B. He let me in after I had waited for about ten minutes.
63. A. My hostess asked me if I had slept well the night before.
64. A. 'Shall I leave the door open?' 'Yes, please.'
65. B. The light was turned on in the hall.
66. A. He was kept as a prisoner here from 1985 to 1990.
67. B. The children were woken up by the nose in the street.
68. D. I haven't spoken German since I was at school.
69. A. I didn't know you were waiting for me.
70. D. Last year I had to walk to school every day.
71. C. Don't ask for another book until you have finished this one.
72. A. "What do you do?" "I'm a nurse."
73. C. Is this the first time you have been to London?
74. A. Don't open this parcel until you get home
75. C. It's a long time since he last wrote a letter to me.
76. C. By the time the guests arrived, everything was ready.
77. B. As soon as they have saved enough, they'll buy a sailing boat.
78. B. Every time I see pink carnations, I am reminded of my fifteenth .
79. A. The dogs will have woken the neighbourhood by the time you get down.
80. C. The interviewer asked . how many novels he had written so far.
81. D. "Why are you so tired?" "I have been making jam all day."
82. C. I'm not sure where the boys have gone.
83. D. We had hoped you would be able to meet us at the airport.
84. C. I asked him why he was still wearing his sunglasses, since .
85. A. If no one is listening to the radio, why don't you turn it off?
86. C. When we get there, we'll have driven five thousand kilometres.
87. D. It turned out that his lost hat had been in the back of the car all the time.
88. B. They had never found the thief's fingerprints at the scene before.
89. C. Up to now five passengers . have been pulled out of the water.
90. A. Will you taste the bouillabaisse in France when you go there next month?
91. C. The policeman came over and asked what we were waiting for.
92. B. "Is your sister at home?" "No, she has gone to the market."
93. A. . "Yes, once he was missing for a week."
94. B. My brother has changed jobs five times in the last three years.
95. B. Uncle Alfred . is always forgetting things these days.
96. C. . , he realised that the doorbell was ringing.
II. Choose the INCORRECT variant (p.48)
EXERCISE (+GRAMMAR) BOOKS
Adamson, D.: Practice Your Tenses
Alexander, L.G.: Practice and Progress (Pre-Intermediate)
Bantas, A.: Limba engleza în liste si tabele
Budai, L.: Gramatica engleza (Teorie si exercitii)
Chitoran, D./ Panovf, I./ Poenaru, I.: English Grammar Exercises
Corder, S.P.: An Intermediate English Practice Book
English Grammar Exercises (Macmillan
Galateanu-Fârnoaga, G.: Exercitii de gramatica engleza
Galateanu-Fârnoaga, G.: Sinteze de gramatica engleza
Iatcu, T.: Curs practic de limba engleza
Iatcu, T.: A Short Grammar for Upper-Intermediate/ Advanced
Iatcu, T./ stefanovici, A.: The Verb: Book of Exercises
Ilovici, E./ Chitoran, M./ Coifu, M.: A Practical Guide to E. Gr. (Ex. de gram.)
Magyarics, P./ Medgyes, P.: Teste de engleza pentru nivel mediu si avansat
Murphy, R.: English Grammar in Use (intermediate)
Murphy, R.: Essential Grammar in Use (elementary)
O'Connell, S.: Focus on Advanced English
Paidos, C.: English Grammar (Theory and Practice)
Pawlowska, B./ Kempinski, Z.: Teste de limba engleza
Popp, M.: Gramatica limbii engleze prin exercitii
Stanciu, V./ Ilea, D.: Exercitii de limba engleza pt. bacalaureat si admitere
stefanovici, A. /Iatcu, T.: Grammar Exercises
Thomson, A. J./ Martinet, A. V.: A Practical English Grammar - Exercises (1-2)
Timár, E.: Limba engleza în teste si exercitii
Vianu, L.: Engleza cu cheie
Vince, M.: First Certificate Language Practice
GENERAL GRAMMAR BOOKS
Gramatica limbii engleze (Vol. 1-2)
Badescu, A.: Gramatica limbii engleze
Cobuild Student's Grammar
Iatcu, T.: A Short Gr. for Upper-Intermediate and Advanced Students
Levitchi, L.: Gramatica limbii engleze
Levitchi, L./ Preda, I.: Gramatica limbii engleze
Trofin, A.: Gramatica limbii engleze
Burton, S.H.: ABC of Common Errors
Broughton, G.: The Penguin English Grammar A-Z for Advanced Students
Butler, E./ Hickman, M.A./ Overby, L.: Correct Writing
Collins-Cobuild English Usage
Fitikides, T. J.: Common Mistakes in English
Heaton, T. J.: Longman Dictionary of Common Errors
Leech, G.: An A-Z of English Grammar and Usage
Swan, M.: Practical English Usage
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