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ALTE DOCUMENTE

GRAMMAR: REFLEXIVE, RECIPRICAL, INDEFINITE PRONOUNS (REVIEW)
PRACTICAL ENGLISH GRAMMAR EXERCISES
UNIT 7 GRAMMAR: INFINITIVE
Group II Non-continuous Verbs
GRAMMAR: PRESENT PERFECT (I)
Exercitii cu Past Tense Simple si Continuous
Conditional sentences
Negative Polarity Verbs in Norwegian
Have money, will travel

Chapter 3 :


How`s it going?





Present Continuous Tense

In English , the present continuous tense (sometimes referred to as present progressive tense) is very important when expressing actions happening NOW .

Construction:

Pronoun or noun

Verb to be : simple present

 Main verb + ING

I

am

working

Mr. Jones

is

sleeping

Maria and I

are

studying

My mother and father

are

laughing

The eagle

is

flying

Key Questions : What are you doing ?  What's happening ? What is going on?

Describe what's happening in the following pictures.

                       


We use present continuous when we speak about action verbs happening at the moment of speaking.

Practice using the present continuous tense, with your classmates or teacher.      Don't forget your ING !!!

come - coming                     drive - driving                     run - running

cook - cooking                     watch - watching                 listen - listening

dance - dancing                   sing - singing                       talk - talking

sit - sitting                            read - reading                      eat - eating

Grammar tip

We use the simple present tense when we talk about things in general or when we are stating a fact but we use the present continuous when we talk about an action that is going on now. A good example of this difference is when we discuss sports or talk about languages. Don't forget that with the simple present tense we must put a  "s" at the end of the verb for:

He, She and It.

Ex.

Ț  I play basketball. ( = I play on a regular basis, in general)

Ț  I am playing basketball. (= I am playing at this moment, right now)

Ț  Monica speaks Spanish. ( =She usually speaks Spanish. It is her native language.)

Ț  Monica is speaking English. (= She is speaking English now. We don't know if it's her native language or not)

When we talk about doing sports in the present tense, we often use the word play/plays . The rule is if it is a team sport we need to use the verb PLAY but if it is an individual sport we use the verb itself. Let me show you what I mean.

Team Sport                                                                          Individual Sport

Bruce plays basketball.(not He basketballs)      but      Mira skies. (not She plays ski.).

I play tennis.                                                                       You swim.

My sister and I play soccer.                                              They run.

Exception : Since golf can be played individually or in a group, you can use either form.

My father golfs. or  My father plays golf.

Sports Vocabulary :

baseball                     hockey                       basketball    

            skiing                         skating                       soccer            

swimming                gymnastics               rugby            

cycling                       hiking                                    running        

roller blading           dancing                     badminton   

wrestling                   boxing                       weightlifting


snowboarding          surfing                       diving                       

walking                     football                      tennis


Note : if you talk about martial arts, eg. kung fu, kendo, karate

you must using the verb to practice  

Ex. I practice karate. Now, I am practicing kung fu.


Negative formation                            Question formation

   Noun + simple present be + not+ verbING

   Simple present be + noun + verbING



I am not sleeping

 Am I sleeping ?

Julie is not working now.

Is Julie working now ?

Marco is not having lunch at the moment.

Is Marco having lunch at the moment ?

They are not playing tennis right now.

Are they playing tennis right now.?

We are not doing anything for the moment.

What are you doing for the moment ?

The dog is not barking at the neighbor.

Is the dog barking at the neighbor ?

She is not watching television.

Is she watching television ?


Present continuous questions can also be made up using the WH- question words:


What are you doing ?

Where is Carlos going ?

What are Susan and Edward eating ?

Why are they watching on television ?

What kind of music are they listening to ?

Who is she thinking about ?

When are we having a party ?

Where are you calling from ?

Who are you talking to ?



Substitute present continuous in the following sentences :


1.   Listen ! Elvis   is   playing   the guitar.

2.   They ______   ____________  in an expensive restaurant.

3.   Look ! The children _______   ______________   in the lake.

4.   You ______ ______________  on my foot.

5.   Hurry up ! The subway ______    _____________ .

6.   Where are you, Mom ?  In the kitchen. I ______   ____________  dinner.

7.   "Hello. Can I speak you Jamie, please ?" IŽm sorry he ______  ______________ a shower right now."

8.   What ______ you ____________  on television ?

9. Who ______  your sister _____________ to at this time of night ?

10. Why _____ he _____________ the music so loud ?

Class Activity : Look around the classroom or outside the window and describe what you see . Exchange ideas with the other classmates and then write them down. You can also use magazines or interesting photographs to describe things that are happening in the present continuous tense.

Write it !

1.   ______________________________________________________ .

2.   ______________________________________________________ .

3.   _______________________________________________________

4.   _______________________________________________________ .

5.   _______________________________________________________ .

     6. _______________________________________________________ .

     

Conversation Practice :

Helen :  What are you doing ?

George: I'm thinking ?

Helen: What are you thinking about ?

George: I'm thinking about food ?

Helen: Are you going out to eat ?

George: Are you joking ? I don't have enough money to go out ? Why? Are you going out for lunch ?

Helen : Well, I am thinking about it. You can borrow some money from me.

George : Well, okay. Let's go. I am starving.*

Helen : Yeah, I'm starving*, too!

·        I am starving = I am very hungry.

What is happening ??????         Discuss these pictures with your class.



this/ that / these / those (demonstrative adjectives)




This is my passport  This passport is very important when I am traveling .

            We use this when we are talking about a single object that is close to        us.(relatively)

            Key Question :        What is this?             Is this passport important?

That is a bowling ball. That bowling ball is heavy.

            We use that when we are talking about a single object that is          far from us. (relatively)

           

            Key Question :        What is that ?           Is that bowling ball                                                                                                heavy ?

These are flowers. These flowers are dandelions.

            We use these when we are talking about two or more objects          that are close to us.

            Key Question :        What are these ?                  Are these                                                                                                     flowers daisies?

Those are hot air balloons. Those balloons are beautiful.

We use those when we are talking about two or more things that are far from us.

Key Question : What are those ?     Are those balloons                                                                      beautiful?

Fill in the blanks using this or these.

1.   _____________  table                 5. _____________ windows

2.   _____________  forks                 6. _____________ door

3.   _____________  computer         7. _____________ car

4.   _____________  pencils             8. _____________ girls

This - That or These - Those

'this' indicates that something is close to us. 'that' indicates that something is at a distance.

                        This pencil is in my hand.

                        That pencil is over there on the book.

the plural of this is these. the plural of that is those.

                        These pencils are in my hand.

                        Those pencils are over there on the book.

Change the following sentences from singular to plural or from plural to singular.


1.- That door is very big.

2.- That paper is blue.

3.- These markers are green.

4.- This exercise is long.

5.- Those clouds are white.

6.- That apple is terrible.

7.- Those students are wonderful.

8.- These plants are fabulous.

9.- This man is tall.

10.- That woman is thin.

11.- This knife is old.

12.- Those children are young.

13.- These babies are chubby.

14.- That rose is pretty.

15.- This building is low.


Fill in the blanks using that or those.

1.   ___________ clock                                  5. __________ tree

2.   ___________ socks                                 6. __________ eggs

3.   ___________ movie theatre                  7. __________ videos

4.   ___________ airplane                            8. __________ people

Class activity : Make some sentences using objects in your classroom. Each student should share four sentences, one for each of these adjectives, with the other students in the class.

Conversation Practice :

Danny : Is this a good book ?

Randy : Yes, this is an excellent book.

Danny : What about that one ?

Randy : No, I donŽt like it. Danny are these your glasses ?

Danny : No, those ones are mine, not these ones.

Randy : Oh, yeah these are too strong for you.

one / ones

* We use one or ones when we know which object or objects we are talking about because you can see it or because of the previous sentence.

Review the conversation:

Yes, this is an excellent book.

What about that one (that book) ?  It is understood by both Danny and Randy that they mean book because of the context.(the previous sentence clearly states they are referring to a book).

More examples :

These cookies are delicious. Would you like one (a cookie) ?

Can I borrow a pencil ? Sure, you can use this one (this pencil) .

Which flowers do you want ?  I want these red ones. (these red flowers).



This box is too small. I need that one (that box).

That cup is dirty. Can I use this one (this cup) ?

Practice using one / ones in a conversation and try using this / that / these / those, too.

Simple Future Tense

In the story we use the future tense to talk about events in the future. The future tense is one of the easiest tenses to learn in English because you only have to remember the word WILL . Take any present participle of any  verb and put the word will before it and you have the simple future.

Ex. :

                                                                                              Contractions 

I will see a good movie tonight. (to see)                                   IŽll see a good movie tonight.

You will be on television next week.(to be)                              YouŽll be on television next week..

He will have a big exam next Monday.(to have)                       HeŽll have a big exam next Monday.

She will give a speech for         her campaign.(to give) SheŽll give a speech for her campaign

It will change by Friday.(to change)                                         ItŽll change by Friday.

We will invite friends over for dinner.(to invite)             WeŽll invite friends over for dinner.

You will come to my house tomorrow.(to come)                      YouŽll come to my house tomorrow.

They will play at the nightclub at 10p.m..(to play)                     TheyŽll play at the nightclub at 10.

Negative formation                                         Question formation

Noun + will not + present participle of verb

Will + noun + present participle of verb

Michelle will not pass her exam.

Will Michelle pass her exam ?

Harry and Catherine will not go to Mexico.

Will Harry and Catherine go to Mexico ?

It will not be the last time I see you.

Will it be the last time I see you ?

We will not visit the Eiffel Tower.

Will we visit the Eiffel Tower ?

Answer the following questions using the simple future tense :

Ex. Will the bus arrive soon ?          Yes, it will. ItŽll arrive in 10 minutes.

1.   Will the soup be ready soon ?         Yes, _____.   _________ in a few minutes.

2.   Will Dr. Jones be here soon ?          Yes, _____ .  _________ in about half an hour.

3. Will the supper be ready soon ?       Yes, _____ .  _________ in the next few minutes.

4. Will you get the new job ?                Yes, _____ . _________ next week.

5. Will they go to the party ?                Yes, _____ . _________ tomorrow night.

6. Will we go to Europe in June ?         Yes, _____ . ________  in June.

7. Will Janet leave the hospital ?           Yes, _____ . ________ next Friday.

Reading Comprehension

I CANŽT WAIT FOR SPRING !

Winters in Canada are very long. They are usually four to five months. What a pain in the neck* ! I'm tired of winter. I'm sick of the snow and ice. IŽm sick of the icy weather and the winter coats, winter boots and winter hats ! In a few more weeks it won't be winter any more. It'll be spring. Yeah ! No more cold weather. The sun will be warm. I won't have to shovel snow or worry about slipping on the ice. I won't have to wear heavy winter clothes any more. I will be able to take nice, long walks outside. IŽll be able to ride my bicycle to work.

In a few weeks, the neighborhood won't look slushy and gray. The flowers will begin to grow and things will start to look green again. Now that spring is coming, my family will spend more time outside. We will work hard in the garden. We will have picnics on Sunday afternoons in the park. Everything will start to bloom and the cycle of life will continue. The birds will return home. I really love the spring.

·        a pain in the neck = something that is uncomfortable, irritating, annoying

Season Vocabulary :

Winter                         Spring                         Fall / Autumn             Summer                    

 

Questions about the seasons : discuss together in the class

What's your favorite season ? Why ?

What season is it now ? What is the weather like now ?

Describe the weather right now using the present continuous.

Ex. It is raining. It is sunny. etc...

What will the next season be ? (use future tense)

How many seasons do you have in your country ?

How would you describe winter, spring, summer and fall ?

Do you like the change of seasons ?

Wrap up:

Gail and Sheila are getting ready to go out to a party and are trying to decide what to wear.. Underline the present continuous, demonstrative adjectives and the future tense in their conversation. Then practice the conservation with a classmate and change the conversation using yourselves instead of Gail and Sheila.

Gail:                 Do you think this party will be fun ?

Sheila : Sure, what are you going to wear ?

Gail:                 I'm not sure maybe this red dress.

Sheila : That one, are you kidding ? That's a little too sexy for this party.

Gail :                Why? I think a lot of people will get dressed up ?

Sheila : Dressed up maybe but I still think you will get into trouble if you wear that dress ?

Gail :                Okay, okay. Maybe you're right. What about this green one ? Is it conservative enough for you ?

Sheila : Yeah, that one is perfect. It looks great on you!

Gail :                What are you going to wear ?

Sheila : I am thinking about this black strapless dress ?

Gail :                Oh brother! Then I am definitely wearing the red one!

Discuss the following questions in class.

Do you think it'll rain tomorrow ?

Do you think you will get married ?

Do you think that the summer will be very hot this year ? Do you think the winter will be long this year ?

Do you think there will be another world war ?

Do you think there will be world peace someday ?

Do you think that we will travel to other planets in the future ?

Now come up with some of your own questions using the simple future or the present continuous tenses. Write them down in the spaces below.

1.   ___________________________________________________________________________

2.   ___________________________________________________________________________

3.   ___________________________________________________________________________

4.   ___________________________________________________________________________













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