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THE COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES

grammar










ALTE DOCUMENTE

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CONJUNCTIONS

THE COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES

There are three degrees of comparison:
POSITIVE degree, COMPARATIVE degree, SUPERLATIVE degree:



POSITIVE

COMPARATIVE

SUPERLATIVE

cool

cooler

coolest

intelligent

more intelligent

most intelligent


01. COMPARATIVE OF EQUALITY

AS .... AS (for positive comparisons),
(NOT) SO .... AS (for negative comparisons).

Her pronunciation is AS good AS yours.
His pronunciation is NOT SO good AS yours.

Note: We may say NOT AS .... AS, especially after a contracted form: Her pronunciation isn't AS good AS yours.


02. COMPARATIVE OF INFERIORITY

LESS ..... THAN + the adjective.

It is LESS cold today THAN it was yesterday.
Kelly is LESS old THAN Sandra.


03. SUPERLATIVE OF INFERIORITY

THE LEAST ....... OF (or IN) + the adjective.

Sunday was THE LEAST cold day of the week.
Christina is THE LEAST old girl in that class.


04. COMPARATIVE and SUPERLATIVE OF SUPERIORITY

a) Monosyllabic adjectives form their COMPARATIVE and SUPERLATIVE by adding - ER and - EST to the POSITIVE degree.

tall

tallER THAN

THE tallEST

warm

warmER THAN

THE warmEST

Exceptions:

just

MORE just THAN

THE MOST just

right

MORE right THAN

THE MOST right

real

MORE real THAN

THE MOST real

wrong

MORE wrong THAN

THE MOST wrong

b) Adjectives with more than two syllables form their COMPARATIVE and SUPERLATIVE by putting MORE and THE MOST in front of the adjective.

difficult

MORE difficult THAN

THE MOST difficult

important

MORE important THAN

THE MOST important


c) Disyllabic (two syllables) adjectives form their COMPARATIVE and SUPERLATIVE in two different ways:

1. Adjectives ending in ED, ING, RE, FUL, OUS and those with the stress on the first syllable usually take MORE and THE MOST:

charming

MORE charming THAN

THE MOST charming

famous

MORE famous THAN

THE MOST famous

hopeful

MORE hopeful THAN

THE MOST hopeful

learned

MORE learned THAN

THE MOST learned

obscure

MORE obscure THAN

THE MOST obscure


2. Adjectives ending in ER, Y, LE, OW and those with the stress on the second syllable add ER and EST to the POSITIVE degree.

clever

cleverER THAN

THE cleverEST

narrow

narrowER THAN

THE narrowEST

pretty

prettiER THAN

THE prettiEST

polite

politER THAN

THE politEST

simple

simplER THAN

THE simplEST

Note: Adjectives ending in SOME and the words cheerful, common, cruel, pleasant, quiet, civil may be compared by adding ER and EST or by MORE and MOST.

pleasant

pleasantER THAN

THE pleasantEST

or

pleasant

MORE pleasant THAN

THE MOST pleasant


05. ORTHOGRAPHIC NOTES
a) Add R and ST to adjectives ending in E.

large

largeR THAN

THE largeST

ripe

ripeR THAN

THE ripeST

b) VOWEL SANDWICH (VOWEL + CONSONANT + VOWEL) (THE LAST VOWEL IS DOUBLED)

big

bigGER THAN

THE bigGEST




fat

fatTER THAN

THE fatTEST

NO SANDWICH (JUST THE SUFFIX)

small

smallER THAN

THE smallEST

sweet

sweetER THAN

THE sweetEST

c) Adjectives ending in - y preceded by a consonant, change Y into I before ER and EST.

happY

happIER THAN

THE happIEST

Exceptions:

shY

shYER THAN

THE shYEST

gaY

gaYER THAN

THE gaYEST

greY

greYER THAN

THE greYEST


6. IRREGULAR COMPARISONS

good

better than

the best

bad

worse than

the worst

little

less than

the least

much

more than

the most

many

more than

the most

far

farther than

the farthest

far

further than

the furthest

old

older than

the oldest

old

elder than

the eldest

NOTES:
1. FARTHER and FARTHEST generally refer to distance; FURTHER and FURTHEST also refer to distance but they may have the meaning of "additional".
I live farther from here than you do.
Give me further details.

2. OLDER and OLDEST refer to persons or things; ELDER and ELDEST can only be used for members of the same family:
My elder sister is afraid of mice.
My older friend is afraid of wasps.

but ELDER can not be placed before THAN so OLDER is used:
My sister is two years older than I am.


7. CONSTRUCTIONS WITH COMPARATIVES

a) Gradual increase:
Those exercises are getting EASIER AND EASIER. OR
Those exercises are getting MORE AND MORE EASY.

The weather is getting NICER AND NICER. OR
The weather is getting MORE AND MORE NICE.

The rent of our flat is getting MORE AND MORE EXPENSIVE.


B) Parallel increase: (THE + comparative ...... THE + comparative).
THE MORE I see you THE MORE I want you.
THE HOTTER, THE BETTER.
THE MORE
he studies, THE BETTER he becomes.


COMPARISON OF ADVERBS

1. COMPARATIVE and SUPERLATIVE of SUPERIORITY.

a) Monosyllabic adverbs from their comparative and superlative of superiority in the same way as monosyllabic adjectives.

high

highER THAN

THE highEST

soon

soonER THAN

THE soonEST

fast

fastER THAN

THE fastEST

b) Adverbs of more than one syllable take MORE and MOST.

quickly

MORE quickly THAN

THE MOST quickly

slowly

MORE slowly THAN

THE MOST slowly

seldom

MORE seldom THAN

THE MOST seldom

Exception:

early

earliER THAN

THE earliEST


2. IRREGULAR COMPARISONS

well

better than

the best

badly

worse than

the worst

little

less than

the least

much

more than

the most

late

later than

the last













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