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THE LATIN ELEMENT

grammar










ALTE DOCUMENTE

WHO and WHOM WHOEVER and WHOMEVER
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Reported Speech

THE LATIN ELEMENT.

I.--LATIN PREFIXES.

Prefix. Signification. Example. Definition.

A- a-vert to turn _from_.



ab- = _from_ ab-solve to release _from_.

abs- abs-tain to hold _from_.

AD- ad-here to stick _to_.

a- a-gree to be pleasing _to_.

ac- ac-cede to yield _to_.

af- af-fix to fix _to_.

ag- ag-grieve to give pain _to_.

al- = _to_ al-ly to bind _to_.

an- an-nex to tie _to_.

ap- ap-pend to hang _to_.

ar- ar-rive to reach _to_.

as- as-sent to yield _to_.

NOTE.--The forms AC-, AF-, etc., are euphonic variations of AD-, and follow

generally the rule that the final consonant of the prefix assimilates to

the initial letter of the root.

AM- = _around_ am-putate to cut _around_.

amb- amb-ient going _around_.

ANTE- = _before_ ante-cedent going _before_.

anti- anti-cipate to take _before_.

BI- = _two_ or bi-ped a _two_-footed animal.

bis- _twice_ bis-cuit _twice_ cooked.

CIRCUM- = _around_ circum-navigate to sail _around_.

circu- circu-it journey _around_.

CON- con-vene to come _together_.

co- co-equal equal _with_.

co- = _with_ or co-gnate born _together_.

col- _together_ col-loquy a speaking _with_ another.

com- com-pose to put _together_.

cor- cor-relative relative _with_.

NOTE.--The forms CO-, COL-, COM-, and COR-, are euphonic variations of

CON-.

CONTRA- contra-dict to speak _against_

contro- = _against_ contro-vert to turn _against_

counter- counter-mand to order _against_

DE- = _down_ or de-pose; to put _down_;

_off_ de-fend fend _off_.

DIS- _asunder_ dis-pel to drive _asunder_.

di- = _apart_ di-vert to turn _apart_.

dif- _opposite of_ dif-fer to bear _apart_; disagree.

NOTE.--The forms DI- and DIF- are euphonic forms of DIS-; DIF- is used

before a root beginning with a vowel.

EX- ex-clude to shut _out_.

e- = _out_ or e-ject to cast _out_.

ec- _from_ ec-centric _from_ the center.

ef- ef-flux a flowing _out_.

NOTE.--E-, EC-, and EF- are euphonic variations of EX-. When prefixed to

the name of an office, EX- denotes that the person formerly held the office

named: as, _ex_-mayor, the former mayor.

EXTRA- = _beyond_ extra-ordinary _beyond_ ordinary.

IN- (in nouns and in-clude to shut _in_.

il- verbs) il-luminate to throw light _on_.

im- = _in, into, on_ im-port to carry _in_.

ir- ir-rigate to pour water _on_.

en-, em- en-force to force _on_.

NOTE.--The forms IL-, IM-, and IR- are euphonic variations of IN-. The

forms EN- and EM- are of French origin.

IN- (in adjectives in-sane _not_ sane.

i(n) and nouns.) i-gnoble _not_ noble.

il- = _not_ il-legal _not_ legal.

im- im-mature _not_ mature.

ir- ir-regular _not_ regular.

INTER- = _between_ or inter-cede to go _between_.

intel- _among_ intel-ligent choosing _between_.

INTRA- = _inside of_ intra-mural _inside of_ the walls.

INTRO- = _within, into_ intro-duce to lead _into_

JUXTA- = _near_ juxta-position a placing _near_

NON- = _not_ non-combatant _not_ fighting.

NOTE.--A hyphen is generally, though not always, placed between _non-_ and

the root.

OB- ob-ject to throw _against_.

o- _in the way_, o-mit to leave _out_.

oc- = _against_, oc-cur to run _against_;

or _out_ hence, to happen.

of- of-fend to strike _against_.

op- op-pose to put one's self

_against_.

PER- = _through_, per-vade; to pass _through_;

pel- _thoroughly_ per-fect _thoroughly_ made.

pel-lucid _thoroughly_ clear.

NOTE.--Standing alone, PER- signifies _by_: as, _per annum_, _by_ the year.

POST- = _after_, post-script written _after_.

_behind_

PRE- = _before_ pre-cede to go _before_.

PRETER- = _beyond_ preter-natural _beyond_ nature.

PRO _for_, pro-noun _for_ a noun.

= _forth_, or pro-pose to put _forth_.

_forward_

NOTE.--In a few instances PRO- is changed into PUR-, as _pur_pose; into

POR-, as _por_tray; and into POL-, as _pol_lute.

RE- = _back_ or re-pel to drive _back_.

red- _anew_ red-eem to buy _back_.

RETRO- = _backwards_ retro-grade going _backwards_.

SE- = _aside_, se-cede to go _apart_.

_apart_

SINE- = _without_ sine-cure _without_ care.

SUB- sub-scribe to write _under_.

suc- suc-ceed to follow _after_.

suf- suf-fer to _undergo_.

sug- = _under_ or sug-gest to bring to mind from

_after_ _under_.

sum- sum-mon to hint from _under_.

sup- sup-port to bear by being _under_.

sus- sus-tain to _under_-hold.

NOTE.--The euphonic variations SUC-, SUF-, SUG-, SUM-, SUP-, result from

assimilating the _b_ of SUB- to the initial letter of the root. In

"sustain" SUS- is a contraction of _subs-_ for _sub-_.

SUBTER- = _under_ or subter-fuge a flying _under_.

_beneath_

SUPER- = _above_ or super-natural _above_ nature.

_over_ super-vise to _over_-see.

NOTE.--In derivatives through the French, SUPER- takes the form SUR-, as

_sur-_vey, to look over.

TRANS- _through_, trans-gress to step _beyond_.

tra- = _over_, tra-verse to pass _over_.

or _beyond_

ULTRA- = _beyond_, or ultra-montane _beyond_ the mountain

_extremely_ (the Alps).

ultra-conservativ _extremely_ conservative.

II.--LATIN SUFFIXES.

SUFFIX. SIGNIFICATION. EXAMPLE. DEFINITION.

-ABLE = _that may be_; cur-able _that may be_ cured.

-ible _fit to be_ possi-ble _that may be_ done.

-ble solu-ble _that may be_ dissolved.

-AC _relating to_ cardi-ac _relating to_ the heart.

= or demoni-ac _like_ a demon.

_resembling_

NOTE.--The suffix -AC is found only in Latin derivatives of Greek origin.

-ACEOUS _of_; sapon-aceous _having the quality of_

= _having the_ soap.

-acious _quality of_ cap-acious _having the quality of_

holding much.

_condition of_ celib-acy _condition of being_

-ACY = _being_; single.

_office of_ cur-acy _office of_ a curate.

-AGE _act_, marri-age _act of_ marrying.

= _condition_, or vassal-age _condition of_ a vassal.

_collection of_ foli-age _collection of_ leaves.

NOTE.--The suffix -AGE is found only in French-Latin derivatives.

adj. ment-al _relating to_ the mind.

-AL = _relating to_ remov-al _the act of_ removing.

n. _the act of_; capit-al _that which_ forms the

_that which_ head of a column.

-AN adj. _relating hum-an _relating to_ mankind.

-ane to_ hum-ane _befitting_ a man.

= or _befitting_ artis-an _one who_ follows a trade.

n. _one who_

-ANCE _state or_ vigil-ance _state of being_ watchful.

-ancy = _quality_ eleg-ance _quality of being_

_of being_ elegant.

-ANT = adj. _being_ vigil-ant _being_ watchful.

n. _one who_ assist-ant _one who_ assists.

-AR = _relating to; lun-ar _relating to_ the moon.

like_ circul-ar _like_ a circle.

adj. _relating epistol-ary _relating to_ a letter.

-ARY to_ mission-ary _one who is_ sent out.

= n. _one who_; avi-ary _a place where_ birds

_place where_ are kept.

n. _one who is_ deleg-ate _one who is_ sent by

adj. _having_ others.

-ATE = _the quality of_ accur-ate _having the quality of_

v. _to perform_ accuracy.

_the act of_, navig-ate _to perform the act of_

or _cause_ sailing.

-CLE = _minute_ vesi-cle a _minute_ vessel.

-cule animal-cule a _minute_ animal.

-EE = _one to whom_ refer-ee _one to whom_ something

is referred.

NOTE.--This suffix is found only in words of French-Latin origin.

-EER engin-eer _one who_ has charge of

= _one who_ an engine.

-ier brigad-ier _one who_ has charge of

a brigade.

NOTE.--These suffixes are found only in words of French-Latin origin.

-ENE = _having relation terr-ene _having relation to_ the

to_ earth.

-ENCE _state of being_ pres-ence _state of being_ present.

-ency = or _quality of_ tend-ency _quality of_ tending

towards.

-ENT n. _one who_ stud-ent _one who_ studies.

= or _which_ equival-ent _being_ equal to,

adj. _being_ equal_ing_.

or _-ing_

-ESCENCE = _state of conval-escence _state of becoming_ well.

becoming_

-ESCENT = _becoming_ conval-escent _becoming_ well.

-ESS = _female_ lion-ess a _female_ lion.

NOTE.--This suffix is used only in words of French-Latin origin.

-FEROUS = _producing_ coni-ferous _producing_ cones.

-FIC = _making, sopori-fic _causing_ sleep.

causing_

-FICE = _something done_ arti-fice _something done_ with

or _made_ art.

-FY = _to make_ forti-fy _to make_ strong.

rust-ic _one who_ has countrified

-IC n. _one who_ manners.

-ical = adj. _like_, hero-ic _like_ a hero.

_made of_, metall-ic _made of_ metal.

_relating to_ histor-ical _relating to_ history.

NOTE.--These suffixes are found only in Latin words of Greek origin,

namely, adjectives in -IKOS. In words belonging to chemistry derivatives in

-IC denote the acid containing most oxygen, when more than one is formed:

as _nitric_ acid.

-ICE _that which_ just-ice _that which_ is just.

-ICS _the science of_ mathemat-ics _the science of_ quantity.

-IC arithmet-ic _the science of_ number.

NOTE.--These suffixes are found only in Latin words of Greek origin.

-ID = _being_ or acr-id; flu-id _being_ bitter; flow_ing_.

_-ing_

_-ile_ = _relating to_; puer-ile _relating to_ a boy.

_apt for_ docile _apt for_ being taught.

-INE = _relating to; femin-ine _relating to_ a woman.

like_ alkal-ine _like_ an alkali.

_the act of,_ expuls-ion _the act of_ expelling.

-ION = _state of corrupt-ion _state of being_ corrupt.

being_, frict-ion rubb_ing_.

or _-ing_

-ISH = _to make_ publ-ish _to make_ public.

-ISE = _to render_, or fertil-ize _to render_ fertile.

-ize _perform the act

of_

NOTE.--The suffix -ISE, -IZE, is of French origin, and is freely added to

Latin roots in forming English derivatives.

-ISM = _state or act hero-ism _state of_ a hero.

of_; _idiom_ Gallic-ism a French _idiom_.

NOTE.--This suffix, except when signifying an idiom, is found only in words

of Greek origin.

_one who_ art-ist _one who practices_

-IST = _practices_ or an art.

_is devoted to_ botan-ist _one who is devoted to_

botany.

-ITE = n. _one who is_ favor-ite _one who is_ favored.

-yte adj. _being_ defin-ite _being_ well defined.

prosel-yte _one who is_ brought

over.

NOTE.--The form -YTE is found only in words of Greek origin.

-ITY = _state or security _state of being_ secure.

-ty quality_ ability _quality of being_ able.

_of being_ liber-ty _state of being_ free.

n. _one who is_

-IVE = or _that which_ capt-ive _one who is_ taken.

adj. _having_ cohes-ive _having power_ to stick.

_the power_

_or quality_

-IX = _feminine_ testatr-ix a _woman_ who leaves

a will.

IZE (See ISE.)

-MENT _state of being_ excite-ment _state of being_ excited.

= or _act of_; induce-ment _that which_ induces.

_that which_

-MONY _state or_ matri-mony _state of_ marriage.

= _quality of_; testi-mony _that which_ is testified.

_that which_

_one who_; audit-or _one who_ hears.

-OR = _that which_; mot-or _that which_ moves.

_quality of_ err-or _quality of_ erring.

adj. _fitted_ or preparat-ory _fitted_ to prepare.

-ORY = _relating to_

n. _place armor-y _place where_ arms are

where_; kept.

_that which_

-OSE = _abounding in_ verb-ose _abounding in_ words.

-ous popul-ous _abounding in_ people.

-TUDE = _condition or_ servi-tude _condition of_ a slave.

_quality of_ forti-tude _quality of_ being brave.

-TY (See -ITY.)

-ULE = _minute_ glob-ule a _minute_ globe.

-ULENT = _abounding in_ op-ulent _abounding in_ wealth.

-URE = _act or state depart-ure _act of_ departing.

of_; creat-ure _that which_ is created.

_that which_

CLASSIFIED REVIEW OF LATIN SUFFIXES, WITH GENERIC DEFINITIONS.

-an -ent

-ant -ier

-ary -ist = _one who_ (_agent_); _that which._

-ate -ive

-eer -or

-ate -ite = _one who is_ (_recipient_); _that

-ee -ive which is._

-acy -ism

-age -ity

-ance -ment

NOUN SUFFIXES -ancy -mony = _state; condition; quality; act._

-ate -tude

-ence -ty

-ency -ure

-ion

-ary = _place where._

-ory

-cle

-cule = _diminutives._

-ule

II.

-ac -ic

-al -ical

-an -id = _relating to; like; being_.

-ar -ile

-ary -ine

-ent -ory

-ate

-ose = _abounding in; having the quality_.

-ous

ADJECTIVE -able -ible = _that may be_.

SUFFIXES. -ble -ile

-ive = _having power_.

-ferous = _causing_ or _producing_.

-fic

-aceous = _of; having the quality_.

-acious

-escent = _becoming_.

III.

-ate

VERB SUFFIXES -fy = _to make; render; perform an act_.

-ise

-ize

EXERCISE.

I.

a. Write and define nouns denoting the agent (one who or that which) from

the following:--

1. Nouns.

MODEL: _art + ist = artist, one who practices an art._[5]

1 art

2 cash

3 humor

4 history

5 vision

6 tribute

7 cure

8 engine

9 auction

10 cannon

11 flute

12 drug

13 tragedy

14 mutiny

15 grammar

16 credit

17 note

18 method

19 music

20 flower (_flor_-)

2. Verbs.

1 profess

2 descend

3 act

4 imitate

5 preside

6 solicit

7 visit

8 defend

9 survey

10 oppose (_oppon_-)

3. Adjectives.

1 adverse

2 secret

3 potent

4 private

b. Write and define nouns denoting the recipient (one who is or that which)

from the following:--

1 assign

2 bedlam

3 _captum_ (taken)

4 devote

5 favor

6 lease

7 _natus_ (born)

8 patent

9 refer

10 relate

c. Write and define nouns denoting state, condition, quality, or act, from

the following:--

1. Nouns.

1 _magistr_ate

2 parent

3 cure

4 _priv_ate

5 pilgrim

6 hero

7 despot

8 judge

9 vassal

10 vandal

2. Verbs.

1 conspire

2 marry

3 forbear

4 repent

5 ply

6 abase

7 excel

8 prosper

9 enjoy

10 accompany

11 depart

12 abound

13 abhor

14 compose

15 deride (_deris_-)

3. Adjectives.

1 _accur_ate

2 _delic_ate

3 _dist_ant

4 _excell_ent

5 _curr_ent

6 parallel

7 prompt (_i_-)

8 similar

9 docile

10 moist

d. Write and define nouns denoting place WHERE from the following words:--

1 grain

2 deposit

3 penitent

4 arm

5 observe

e. Write and define nouns expressing diminutives of the following nouns:--

1 part

2 globe

3 animal

4 verse

5 _corpus_ (body)

II.

a. Write and define adjectives denoting relating to, like, or being, from

the following nouns:--

1 parent

2 nation

3 fate

4 elegy

5 demon

6 republic

7 Rome

8 Europe

9 Persia

10 presbytery

11 globule

12 _luna_ (the moon)

13 _oculus_ (the eye)

14 consul

15 _sol_ (the sun)

16 planet

17 moment

18 element

19 second

20 parliament

21 honor

22 poet

23 despot

24 majesty

25 ocean

26 metal

27 nonsense

28 astronomy

29 botany

30 period

31 tragedy

32 _ferv_or

33 _splend_or

34 infant

35 _puer_ (a boy)

36 _canis_ (a dog)

37 _felis_ (a cat)

38 promise

39 access

40 transit

b. Write and define adjectives denoting abounding in, having the quality

of, from the following nouns:--

1 passion

2 temper

3 _oper_- (work)

4 fortune

5 _popul_- (people)

6 affection

7 _aqua_- (water)

8 verb (a word)

9 beauty

10 courage

11 plenty

12 envy

13 victory

14 joy

15 globe

c. Write and define adjectives denoting that may be, or having the power,

from the following verbs:--

1 blame

2 allow

3 move

4 admit (_miss_-)

5 collect

6 abuse

7 _aud_- (hear)

8 divide (_vis_-)

9 vary

10 _ara_- (plough)

Write and define the following adjectives denoting--

(_causing_ or _producing_) 1 terror, 2 _sopor_- (sleep), 3 _flor_ (a

flower), 4 _pestis_ (a plague); (_having the quality of_) 5 _farina_

(meal), 6 crust, 7 _argilla_ (clay), (_becoming_), 8 effervesce.

III.

Write and define verbs denoting to make, render, or perform the act of,

from the following words:--

1 authentic

2 person

3 captive

4 _anima_ (life)

5 _melior_ (better)

6 ample

7 just

8 _sanctus_ (holy)

9 pan

10 false

11 _facilis_ (easy)

12 _magnus_(great)

13 equal

14 fertile

15 legal

III.--DIRECTIONS IN THE STUDY OF LATIN DERIVATIVES.

1. A LATIN PRIMITIVE, or root, is a Latin word from which a certain number

of English derivative words is formed. Thus the Latin verb _du'cere_, to

draw or lead, is a Latin primitive or root, and from it are formed _educe_,

_education_, _deduction_, _ductile_, _reproductive_, and several hundred

other English words.

2. LATIN ROOTS consist chiefly of verbs, nouns, and adjectives.

3. ENGLISH DERIVATIVES from Latin words are generally formed not from the

root itself but from a part of the root called the _radical_. Thus, in the

word "education," the _root-word_ is _ducere_, but the _radical_ is DUC-

(education = e + DUC + ate + ion).

4. A RADICAL is a word or a part of a word used in forming English

derivatives.

5. Sometimes several radicals from the same root-word are used, the

different radicals being taken from different grammatical forms of the

root-word.

6. VERB-RADICALS are formed principally from two parts of the verb,--the

first person singular of the present indicative, and a part called the

_supine_, which is a verbal noun corresponding to the English infinitive in

-ing. Thus:--

_1st pers. sing. pres. ind._ duco (I draw)

_Root_ DUC-

_Derivative_ _educe_

_Supine_ ductum (drawing, or to draw)

_Root_ DUCT-

_Derivative_ _ductile_

I. In giving a Latin verb-primitive in this book three "principal parts" of

the verb will be given, namely: (1) The present infinitive, (2) the first

person singular of the present indicative, and (3) the supine--the second

and the third parts because from them radicals are obtained, and the

infinitive because this is the part used in naming a verb in a general way.

Thus as we say that _loved_, _loving_, etc., are parts of the verb "to

love," so we say that _a'mo_ (present ind.) and _ama'tum_ (supine) are

parts of the verb _ama're_.

II. It should be noted that it is incorrect to translate _amo_, _amatum_,

by "to love," since neither of these words is in the infinitive mood, which

is _amare_. The indication of the Latin infinitive will be found of great

utility, as it is the part by which a Latin verb is referred to in the

Dictionary.

7. NOUN-RADICALS and ADJECTIVE RADICALS are formed from the nominative and

from the genitive (or possessive) case of words belonging to these parts of

speech. Thus:--

NOM. CASE. ROOT. DERIVATIVE.

iter (a journey) ITER-. re_iter_ate

GEN. CASE. ROOT DERIVATIVE.

itineris (of a journey) ITINER- _itiner_ant

felicis (nom. _felix_, happy) FELIC- _felic_ity

NOTE.--These explanations of the mode of forming radicals are given by

way of general information; but this book presupposes and requires no

knowledge of Latin, since in every group of English derivatives from

Latin, not only the root-words in their several parts, but the

_radicals actually used_ in word-formation, are given.

Pronunciation of Latin Words.

1. Every word in Latin must have as many syllables as it has vowels or

diphthongs: as _miles_ (= _mi'les_).

2. _C_ is pronounced like _k_ before _a_, _o_, _u_; and like _s_ before

_e_, _i_, _y_, and the diphthongs _ae_ and _oe_: as _cado_, pronounced

_ka'do_; _cedo_, pronounced _se'do_.

3. _G_ is pronounced hard before _a_, _o_, _u_, and soft like _j_ before

_e_, _i_, _y_, _ae_, _oe_: as _gusto_, in which _g_ is pronounced as in

_August_; _gero_, pronounced _je'ro_.

4. A consonant between two vowels must be joined to the latter: as _bene_,

pronounced _be'ne_.

5. Two consonants in the middle of a word must be divided: as _mille_,

pronounced _mil'le_.

6. The diphthongs _ae_ and _oe_ are sounded like _e_: as _caedo_, pronounced

_ce'do_.

7. Words of two syllables are accented on the first: as _ager_, pronounced

_a'jer_.

8. When a word of more than one syllable ends in _a_, the _a_ should be

sounded like _ah_: as _musa_, pronounced _mu'sah_.

9. _T_, _s_, and _c_, before _ia_, _ie_, _ii_, _io_, _iu_, and _eu_,

preceded immediately by the accent, in Latin words as in English, change

into _sh_ and _zh_: as _fa'cio_, pronounced _fa'sheo_; _san'cio_,

pronounced _san'sheo_; _spa'tium_, pronounced _spa'sheum_.

NOTE.--According to the Roman method of pronouncing Latin, the vowels

_a_, _e_, _i_, _o_, _u_ are pronounced as in _baa_, _bait_, _beet_,

_boat_, _boot_; _ae_, _au_, _ei_, _oe_ as in _aisle_, _our_, _eight_,

_oil_; _c_ always like _k_; _g_ as in _get_; _j_ as _y_ in _yes_; _t_

as in _until_; _v_ as _w_. See any Latin grammar.

LATIN ROOTS AND ENGLISH DERIVATIVES.

DIVISION I.--METHOD OF STUDY.

1. AG'ERE: a'go, ac'tum, _to do_, _to drive_.

Radicals: AG- and ACT-.

1. ACT, _v._ ANALYSIS: from _actum_ by dropping the termination _um_.

DEFINITION: to do, to perform. The _noun_ "act" is formed in the same way.

DEFINITION: a thing done, a deed or performance.

2. AC'TION: act + ion = the act of doing: hence, a thing done.

3. ACT'IVE: act + ive = having the quality of acting: hence, busy,

constantly engaged in action.

4. ACT'OR: act + or = one who acts: hence, (1) one who takes part in

anything done; (2) a stage player.

5. A'GENT: ag + ent = one who acts: hence, one who acts or transacts

business for another.

6. AG'ILE: ag + ile = apt to act: hence, nimble, brisk.

7. CO'GENT: from Latin _cogens_, _cogentis_, pres. part, of _cog'ere_ (=

_co + agere_, to impel), having the quality of impelling: hence, urgent,

forcible.

8. ENACT': en + act = to put in act: hence, to decree.

9. TRANSACT': trans + act = to drive through: hence, to perform.

EXERCISE.

(1.) What two parts of speech is "act"?--Write a sentence containing this

word as a verb; another as a noun.--Give a synonym of "act." _Ans.

Deed._--From what is "deed" derived? _Ans._ From the word _do_--hence,

literally, something _done_.--Give the distinction between "act" and

"deed." _Ans_. "Act" is a _single_ action; "deed" is a _voluntary_ action:

thus--"The _action_ which was praised as a good _deed_ was but an _act_ of

necessity."

(2.) Define "action" in oratory; "action" in law.--Combine and define in +

action.

(3.) Combine and define in + active; active + ity; in + active + ity.--What

is the _negative_ of "active"? _Ans. Inactive_.--What is the _contrary_ of

"active"? _Ans. Passive_.

(4.) Write a sentence containing "actor" in each of its two senses. MODEL:

"Washington and Greene were prominent _actors_ in the war of the

Revolution." "David Garrick, the famous English _actor_, was born in

1716."--What is the feminine of "actor" in the sense of stage player?

(6.) Combine and define agile + ity.--What is the distinction between

"active" and "agile"? _Ans_. "Active" implies readiness to act in general;

"agile" denotes a readiness to move the _limbs_.--Give two synonyms of

"agile." _Ans. Brisk_, _nimble_.--Give the opposite of "agile." _Ans.

Sluggish_, _inert_.

(7.) Explain what is meant by a "_cogent_ argument."--What would be the

contrary of a _cogent_ argument?

(8.) Combine and define enact + ment.--What is meant by the "_enacting_

clause" of a legislative bill?--Write a sentence containing the word

"enact." MODEL: "The British Parliament _enacted_ the stamp-law in 1765."

(9.) Combine and define transact + ion.--What derivative from "perform" is

a synonym of "transaction"?

2. ALIE'NUS, _another_, _foreign_.

Radical: ALIEN-.

1. AL'IEN: from _alienus_ by dropping the termination _us_. DEFINITION: a

foreigner, one owing allegiance to another country than that in which he is

living.

2. AL'IENATE: alien + ate = to cause something to be transferred to

another: hence, (1) to transfer title or property to another; (2) to

estrange, to withdraw.

3. INAL'IENABLE: in + alien + able = that may not be given to another.

EXERCISE.

(1.) Combine and define alien + age.--Can an alien be elected President of

the United States? [See the Constitution, Article II. Sec. I. Clause

5.]--What is the word which expresses the process by which a person is

changed from an _alien_ to a _citizen_?

(2.) Combine and define alienate + ion.--Give a synonym of "alienate" in

its _second_ sense. _Ans._ To _estrange_.--What is meant by saying that

"the oppressive measures of the British government gradually _alienated_

the American colonies from the mother country"?

(3.) Quote a passage from the Declaration of Independence containing the

word "inalienable."

3. AMA'RE, _to love_, AMI'CUS, _a friend_.

Radicals: AM- and AMIC-.

1. A'MIABLE: am(i) + able = fit to be loved.

OBS.--The Latin adjective is _amabilis_, from which the English

derivative adjective would be _amable_; but it has taken the form

am_i_able.

2. AM'ITY: am + ity = the state of being a friend: hence, friendship;

good-will.

3. AM'ICABLE: amic + able = disposed to be a friend: hence, friendly;

peaceable.

4. INIM'ICAL: through Lat. adj. _inimi'cus_, enemy: hence, inimic(us) + al

= inimical, relating to an enemy.

5. AMATEUR': adopted through French _amateur_, from Latin _amator_, a

lover: hence, one who cultivates an art from taste or attachment, without

pursuing it professionally.

EXERCISE.

(1). What word is a synonym of "amiable"? _Ans. Lovable_.--Show how they

are exact synonyms.--Write a sentence containing the word "amiable." MODEL:

"The _amiable_ qualities of Joseph Warren caused his death to be deeply

regretted by all Americans."--What noun can you form from "amiable,"

meaning the quality of being amiable?--What is the negative of "amiable"?

_Ans. Unamiable_.--The contrary? _Ans. Hateful_.

(2.) Give a word that is nearly a synonym of "amity." _Ans.

Friendship._--State the distinction between these words. _Ans._

"Friendship" applies more particularly to individuals; "amity" to societies

or nations.--Write a sentence containing the word "amity." MODEL: "The

Plymouth colonists in 1621 made a treaty of _amity_ with the

Indians."--What is the opposite of "amity"?

(3.) Give a synonym of "amicable." _Ans. Friendly_.--Which is the stronger?

_Ans. Friendly_.--Why? _Ans._ "Friendly" implies a positive feeling of

regard; "amicable" denotes merely the absence of discord.--Write a sentence

containing the word "amicable." MODEL: "In 1871 commissioners appointed by

the United States and Great Britain made an _amicable_ settlement of the

Alabama difficulties."

(4.) What is the noun corresponding to the adjective "inimical"? _Ans.

Enemy_.--Give its origin. _Ans._ It comes from the Latin _inimicus_, an

enemy, through the French _ennemi_.--What preposition does "inimical" take

after it? _Ans._ The preposition _to_--thus, "_inimical_ to health," "to

welfare," etc.

(5.) What is meant by an _amateur_ painter? an _amateur_ musician?

4. AN'IMUS, _mind_, _passion_; AN'IMA, _life_.

Radical: ANIM-.

1. AN'IMAL: from Lat. n. _anima_ through the Latin _animal_: literally,

something having life.

2. ANIMAL'CULE: animal + cule = a minute animal: hence, an animal that can

be seen only by the microscope.

3. AN'IMATE, _v._: anim + ate = to make alive: hence, to stimulate, or

infuse courage.

4. ANIMOS'ITY: anim + ose + ity = the quality of being (ity) full of (ose)

passion: hence, violent hatred.

5. UNANIM'ITY: un (from _unus_, one) + anim + ity = the state of being of

one mind: hence, agreement.

6. REAN'IMATE: re + anim + ate = to make alive again: hence, to infuse

fresh vigor.

EXERCISE.

(1.) Write a sentence containing the word "animal." MODEL: "Modern science

has not yet been able to determine satisfactorily the distinction between

an _animal_ and a vegetable."

(2.) What is the plural of "animalcule"? _Ans. Animalcules_ or

_animalculae_.--Write a sentence containing this word.

(3.) What other part of speech than a verb is "animate"?--What is the

negative of the adjective "animate?" _Ans. Inanimate._--Define it.--Combine

and define animate + ion.--Explain what is meant by an "_animated_

discussion."

(4.) Give two synonyms of "animosity."

(5.) What is the literal meaning of "unanimity"? If people are of _one

mind_, is not this "unanimity"?--What is the adjective corresponding to the

noun "unanimity"?--What is the _opposite_ of "unanimity"?--Write a sentence

containing the word "unanimity."

(6.) Compare the verbs "animate" and "reanimate," and state the

signification of each.--Has "reanimate" any other than its literal

meaning?--Write a sentence containing this word in its figurative sense.

MODEL: "The inspiring words of Lawrence, 'Don't give up the ship!'

_reanimated_ the courage of the American sailors."--What does "_animated_

conversation" mean?

5. AN'NUS, _a year_.

Radical: ANN-.

1. AN'NALS: from _annus_, through Lat. adj. _annalis_, pertaining to the

year: hence, a record of things done from year to year.

2. AN'NUAL: through _annuus_ (annu + al), relating to a year: hence, yearly

or performed in a year.

3. ANNU'ITY: through Fr. n. _annuite_ = a sum of money payable yearly.

4. MILLEN'NIUM: Lat. n. _millennium_ (from _annus_ and _mille_, a

thousand), a thousand years.

5. PEREN'NIAL: through Lat. adj. _perennis_ (compounded of _per_ and

_annus_), throughout the year: hence, lasting; perpetual.

EXERCISE.

(1.) Give a synonym of "annals." _Ans. History._--What is the distinction

between "annals" and "history"? _Ans._ "Annals" denotes a mere

chronological account of events from year to year; "history," in addition

to a narrative of events, inquires into the causes of events.--Write a

sentence containing the word "annals," or explain the following sentence:

"The _annals_ of the Egyptians and Hindoos contain many incredible

statements."

(2.) Write a sentence containing the word "annual."

(4.) Write a sentence containing the word "millennium."

(5.) What is the meaning of a "_perennial_ plant" in botany? _Ans._ A plant

continuing more than two years.--Give the contrary of "perennial." _Ans.

Fleeting, short-lived._

6. ARS, ar'tis, _art, skill._

Radical: ART-.

1. ART: from _artis_ by dropping the termination _is_. DEFINITION: 1.

cunning--thus, an animal practices _art_ in escaping from his pursuers; 2.

skill or dexterity--thus, a man may be said to have the _art_ of managing

his business; 3. a system of rules or a profession--as the _art_ of

building; 4. creative genius as seen in painting, sculpture, etc., which

are called the "fine arts."

2. ART'IST: art + ist = one who practices an art: hence, a person who

occupies himself with one of the fine arts.

OBS.--A painter is called an artist; but a blacksmith could not

properly be so called. The French word _artiste_ is sometimes used to

denote one who has great skill in some profession, even if it is not

one of the fine arts: thus a great genius in cookery might be called an

_artiste_.

3. AR'TISAN: through Fr. n. _artisan_, one who practices an art: hence, one

who practices one of the mechanic arts; a workman, or operative.

4. ART'FUL: art + ful = full of art: hence, crafty, cunning.

5. ART'LESS: art + less = without art: hence, free from cunning, simple,

ingenuous.

6. AR'TIFICE: through Lat. n. _artificium_, something made (_fa'cere_, to

make) by art: hence, an artful contrivance or stratagem.

EXERCISE.

(1.) What is the particular meaning of "art" in the sentence from

Shakespeare, "There is no _art_ to read the mind's construction in the

face"?

(2.) Write a sentence containing the word "artist."--Would it be proper to

call a famous hair-dresser an _artist_?--What might he be called?--Combine

and define artist + ic + al + ly.--What is the negative of "artistic"?

(3.) What is the distinction between an "artist" and an "artisan"?

(5.) Give a synonym of "artless." _Ans. Ingenuous, natural._--Give the

opposite of "artless." _Ans. Wily._--Combine and define artless + ly;

artless + ness.

(6.) Give a synonym of "artifice."--Combine artifice + er.--Does

"artificer" mean one who practices artifice?--Write a sentence containing

this word.--Combine and define artifice + ial; artifice + al + ity. Give

the opposite of "artificial."

7. AUDI'RE: au'dio, audi'tum, _to hear_.

Radicals: AUDI-, and AUDIT-.

1. AU'DIBLE: audi + ble = that may be heard.

2. AU'DIENCE: audi + ence = literally, the condition of hearing: hence, an

assemblage of hearers, an _auditory_.

3. AU'DIT: from _audit(um)_ = to hear a statement: hence, to examine

accounts.

4. AU'DITOR: audit + or = one who hears, a hearer.

OBS.--This word has a secondary meaning, namely: an officer who

examines accounts.

5. OBE'DIENT: through _obediens, obedient(is)_, the present participle of

_obedire_ (compounded of _ob_, towards, and _audire_): literally, giving

ear to: hence, complying with the wishes of another.

EXERCISE.

(1.) "Audible" means that can be heard: what prefix would you affix to it

to form a word denoting what can _not_ be heard?--What is the adverb from

the adjective "audible"?--Write a sentence containing this word.

(2.) What is meant when you read in history of a king's giving _audience_?

(3.) Write a sentence containing the word "audit." MODEL--"The committee

which had to _audit_ the accounts of Arnold discovered great frauds."--How

do you spell the past tense of "audit"?--Why is the _t_ not doubled?

(5.) What is the _noun_ corresponding to the adjective "obedient"?--What is

the _verb_ corresponding to these words?--Combine and define dis +

obedient.

8. CA'PUT, cap'itis, _the head_.

Radical: CAPIT-.

1. CAP'ITAL, _a._ and _n._: capit + al = relating to the _head_: hence,

chief, principal, first in importance. DEFINITION: as an adjective it

means, (1) principal; (2) great, important; (3) punishable with death;--as

a noun it means, (1) the metropolis or seat of government; (2) stock in

trade.

2. CAPITA'TION: capit + ate + ion = the act of causing heads to be counted:

hence, (1) a numbering of persons; (2) a tax upon each head or person.

3. DECAP'ITATE: de + capit + ate = to cause the head to be taken off; to

behead.

4. PREC'IPICE: through Lat. n. _praecipitium_: literally, a headlong

descent.

5. PRECIP'ITATE: from Lat. adj. _praecipit(is)_, head foremost. DEFINITION:

(1) (_as a verb_) to throw headlong, to press with eagerness, to hasten;

(2) (_as an adjective_) headlong, hasty.

EXERCISE.

(1). Write a sentence containing "capital" as an adjective.--Write a

sentence containing this word as a noun, in the sense of _city_.--Write a

sentence containing "capital" in the sense of _stock_.--Is the _capital_ of

a state or country necessarily the metropolis or chief city of that state

or country?--What is the _capital_ of New York state?--What is the

_metropolis_ of New York State?

(3) Combine and define decapitate + ion.--Can you name an English king who

was _decapitated_?--Can you name a French king who was _decapitated_?

(4) What as the meaning of "precipice" in the line, "Swift down the

_precipice_ of time it goes"?

(5) Combine and define precipitate + ly.--Write a sentence containing the

adjective "precipitate". MODEL: "Fabius, the Roman general, is noted for

never having made any _precipitate_ movements."--Explain the meaning of the

verb "precipitate" in the following sentences. "At the battle of Waterloo

Wellington _precipitated_ the conflict, because he knew Napoleon's army was

divided", "The Romans were wont to _precipitate_ criminals from the

Tarpeian rock."

9. CI'VIS, _a citizen_.

Radical: CIV-.

1. CIV'IC: civ + ic = relating to a citizen or to the affairs or honors of

a city.

OBS.--The "_civic_ crown" in Roman times was a garland of oak-leaves

and acorns bestowed on a soldier who had saved the life of a citizen in

battle.

2. CIV'IL: Lat adj. _civilis_, meaning (1) belonging to a citizen, (2) of

the state, political, (3) polite.

3. CIV'ILIZE: civil + ize = to make a savage people into a community having

a government, or political organization; hence, to reclaim from a barbarous

state.

4. CIVILIZA'TION: civil + ize + ate + ion = the state of being civilized.

5. CIVIL'IAN: civil + (i)an = one whose pursuits are those of civil

life--not a soldier.

EXERCISE.

(2.) "What is the ordinary signification of "civil"?--Give a synonym of

this word.--Is there any difference between "civil" and "polite"? _Ans._

"Polite" expresses more than "civil," for it is possible to be "civil"

without being "polite."--What word would denote the opposite of "civil" in

the sense of "polite"?--Combine and define civil + ity.--Do you say

_un_civility or _in_civility, to denote the negative of "civility"?--Give a

synonym of "uncivil." _Ans. Boorish._--Give another synonym.

(3.) Write a sentence containing the word "civilize."--Give a participial

adjective from this word.--What compound word expresses _half_

civilized?--What word denotes a state of society between savage and

civilized?

(4.) Give two synonyms of "civilization." _Ans. Culture, refinement._--What

is the meaning of the word "civilization" in the sentence: "The ancient

Hindoos and Egyptians had attained a considerable degree of

_civilization_"?--Compose a sentence of your own, using this word.

10. COR, cor'dis, _the heart_.

Radical: CORD-.

1. CORE: from _cor_ = the heart: hence, the inner part of a thing.

2. COR'DIAL, _a._: cord + (i)al = having the quality of the heart: hence,

hearty, sincere. The _noun_ "cordial" means literally something having the

quality of acting on the heart: hence, a stimulating medicine, and in a

figurative sense, something cheering.

3. CON'CORD: con + cord = heart _with (con)_ heart: hence, unity of

sentiment, harmony.

OBS.--_Concord_ in music is harmony of sound.

4. DIS'CORD: dis + cord = heart _apart from (dis)_ heart: hence,

disagreement, want of harmony.

5. RECORD': through Lat. v. _recordari_, to remember (literally, to get by

_heart_): hence, to register.

6. COUR'AGE: through Fr. n. _courage_: literally, _heartiness_: hence,

bravery, intrepidity.

OBS.--The heart is accounted the seat of bravery: hence, the derivative

sense of courage.

EXERCISE.

(1.) "The quince was rotten at the _core_"; "The preacher touched the

_core_ of the subject": in which of these sentences is "core" used in its

_literal_, in which in its _figurative_, sense?

(2.) What is the Anglo-Saxon synonym of the adjective "cordial"?--Would you

say a "_cordial_ laugh" or a "_hearty_ laugh"?--What is the opposite of

"cordial"?--Combine and define cordial + ly: cordial + ity.--Write a

sentence containing the _noun_ "cordial" in its figurative sense. MODEL:

"Washington's victory at Trenton was like a _cordial_ to the flagging

spirits of the American army."

(3.) Give a synonym of "concord." _Ans. Accord._--Supply the proper word:

"In your view of this matter, I am in (_accord?_ or _concord?_) with you."

"There should be ---- among friends." "The man who is not moved by ---- of

sweet sounds."

(4.) What is the connection in meaning between "discord" in music and among

brethren?--Give a synonym of this word. _Ans. Strife._--State the

distinction. _Ans._ "Strife" is the stronger: where there is "strife" there

must be "discord," but there may be "discord" without "strife"; "discord"

consists most in the feeling, "strife" in the outward action.

(5.) What part of speech is "record'"?--When the accent is placed on the

first syllable (rec'ord) what part of speech does it become?--Combine and

define record + er; un + record + ed.

(6.) "Courage" is the same as having a stout--what?--Give a synonym. _Ans.

Fortitude._--State the distinction. _Ans._ "Courage" enables us to meet

danger; "fortitude" gives us strength to endure pain.--Would you say "the

Indian shows _courage_ when he endures torment without flinching"?--Would

you say "The three hundred under Leonidas displayed _fortitude_ in opposing

the entire Persian army"?--What is the contrary of "courage"?--Combine and

define courage + ous; courage + ous + ly.

11. COR'PUS, cor'poris, _the body_.

Radical: CORPOR-.

1. COR'PORAL: corpor + al = relating to the _body_.

OBS.--The noun "corporal," meaning a petty officer, is not derived from

_corpus_: it comes from the French _caporal_, of which it is a

corruption.

2. COR'PORATE: corpor + ate = made into a body: hence, united into a body

or corporation.

3. INCOR'PORATE: in + corpor + ate = to make into a body: hence, (1) to

form into a legal body; (2) to unite one substance with another.

4. CORPORA'TION: corpor + ate + ion = that which is made into a body:

hence, a body politic, authorized by law to act as one person.

5. COR'PULENT: through Lat. adj. _corpulentus_, fleshy: hence, stout in

body, fleshy.

6. COR'PUSCLE: corpus + cle = a diminutive body; hence, a minute particle

of matter.

7. CORPS: [pronounced _core_] through Fr. n. _corps_, a body. DEFINITION:

(1) a body of troops; (2) a body of individuals engaged in some one

profession.

8. CORPSE: through Fr. n. _corps_, the body; that is, _only_ the body--the

spirit being departed: hence, the dead body of a human being.

EXERCISE.

(1.) Give two synonyms of "corporal." _Ans. Corporeal_ and

_bodily_.--What is the distinction between "corporal" and "corporeal"?

_Ans._ "Corporal" means pertaining to the body; "corporeal" signifies

material, as opposed to spiritual.--Would you say a _corporal_ or a

_corporeal_ substance? _corporal_ or _corporeal_ punishment? Would you say

_corporal_ strength or _bodily_ strength?

(3.) Write a sentence containing the verb "incorporate" in its _first_

sense. MODEL: "The London company which settled Virginia was _incorporated_

in 1606, and received a charter from King James I."

(4.) Write a sentence containing the word "corporation." [Find out by what

corporation Massachusetts Bay Colony was settled, and write a sentence

about that.]

(5.) What noun is there corresponding to the adjective "corpulent" and

synonymous with "stoutness"?--Give two synonyms of "corpulent." _Ans._

_Stout_, _lusty_.--What is the distinction? _Ans._ "Corpulent" means fat;

"stout" and "lusty" denote a strong frame.

(6.) What is meant by an "army _corps_"? _Ans_. A body of from twenty to

forty thousand soldiers, forming several brigades and divisions.

(7.) How is the plural of corps spelled? _Ans. Corps._ How pronounced?

_Ans. Cores._--What is meant by the "diplomatic _corps_"?

(8.) What other form of the word "corpse" is used? _Ans_. The form _corse_

is sometimes used in poetry; as in the poem on the Burial of Sir John

Moore:

"Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note,

As his _corse_ to the ramparts we hurried."

12. CRED'ERE: cre'do, cred'itum, _to believe_.

Radicals: CRED- and CREDIT-.

1. CREED: from the word _credo_, "I believe," at the beginning of the

Apostles' Creed: hence, a summary of Christian belief.

2. CRED'IBLE: cred + ible = that may be believed: hence, worthy of belief.

3. CRED'IT: from credit(um) = belief, trust: hence, (1) faith; (2)

reputation; (3) trust given or received.

4. CRED'ULOUS: through the Lat. adj. _credulus_, easy of belief: credul +

ous = abounding in belief: hence, believing easily.

5. DISCRED'IT: dis + credit = to _dis_believe.

EXERCISE.

(2.) Write a sentence containing the word "credible." MODEL: "When the King

of Siam was told that in Europe the water at certain seasons could be

walked on, he declared that the statement was not _credible_."--What single

word will express _not credible_?--Combine and define credible + ity.--Give

a synonym of "credible." _Ans. Trustworthy._--State the distinction. _Ans_.

"Credible" is generally applied to things, as "_credible_ testimony";

"trustworthy" to persons, as "a _trustworthy_ witness."

(3.) What is the meaning of _credit_ in the passage,

"John Gilpin was a citizen

Of _credit_ and renown"?

Give a synonym of this word. _Ans. Trust._--What is the distinction? _Ans_.

"Trust" looks forward; "credit" looks back--we _credit_ what has happened;

we _trust_ what is to happen.--What other part of speech than a noun is

"credit"?--Combine and define credit + ed.--Why is the _t_ not doubled?

(4.) What is the meaning of "credulous" in the passage,

"So glistened the dire snake, and into fraud

Led Eve, our _credulous_ mother"?--MILTON.

What noun corresponding to the adjective "credulous" will express the

quality of believing too easily?--What is the negative of

"credulous"?--What is the distinction between "incredible" and

"incredulous"?--Which applies to persons? which to things?

(5.) To what two parts of speech does "discredit" belong?--Write a sentence

containing this word as a _noun_; another as a _verb_.

13. CUR'RERE: cur'ro, cur'sum, _to run_.

Radicals used: CURR- and CURS-.

1. CUR'RENT, a.: curr + ent = running: hence, (1) passing from person to

person, as a "_current_ report"; (2) now in progress, as the "_current_

month."

2. CUR'RENCY: curr + ency = the state of passing from person to person, as

"the report obtained _currency_": hence circulation.

OBS.--As applied to money, it means that it is in circulation or

passing from hand to hand, as a representative of value.

3. CUR'SORY: curs + ory = runn_ing_ or pass_ing_: hence, hasty.

4. EXCUR'SION: ex + curs + ion = the act of running out: hence, an

expedition or jaunt.

5. INCUR'SION: in + curs + ion = the act of running in: hence, an invasion.

6. PRECUR'SOR: pre + curs + or = one who runs before: hence a forerunner.

EXERCISE.

(1.) What other part of speech than an adjective is "current"?--What is now

the _current_ year?

(2.) Why are there two r's in "currency"? _Ans_. Because there are two in

the root _currere_.--Give a synonym of this word in the sense of "money."

_Ans._ The "circulating medium."--What was the "currency" of the Indians in

early times?--Compose a sentence using this word.

(3.) When a speaker says that he will cast a "_cursory_ glance" at a

subject, what does he mean?--Combine and define cursory + ly.

(4.) Is "excursion" usually employed to denote an expedition in a friendly

or a hostile sense?

(5.) Is "incursion" usually employed to denote an expedition in a friendly

or a hostile sense?--Give a synonym. _Ans. Invasion._--Which implies a

hasty expedition?--Compose a sentence containing the word _incursion_.

MODEL: "The Parthians were long famed for their rapid _incursions_ into the

territory of their enemies."

(6.) What is meant by saying that John the Baptist was the _precursor_ of

Christ?--What is meant by saying that black clouds are the _precursor_ of a

storm?

14. DIG'NUS, _worthy_.

Radical: DIGN-.

1. DIG'NIFY: dign + (_i_)fy = to make of worth: hence, to advance to honor.

2. DIG'NITY: dign + ity = the state of being of worth: hence, behavior

fitted to inspire respect.

3. INDIG'NITY: in + dign + ity = the act of treating a person in an

unworthy (_indignus_) manner: hence, insult, contumely.

4. CONDIGN': con + dign = very worthy: hence, merited, deserved.

OBS.--The prefix _con_ is here merely intensive.

EXERCISE.

(1.) What participial adjective is formed from the verb "dignify"? _Ans.

Dignified._--Give a stronger word. _Ans. Majestic._--Give a word which

denotes the same thing carried to excess and becoming ridiculous. _Ans.

Pompous._

(2.) Can you mention a character in American history remarkable for the

dignity of his behavior?--Compose a sentence containing this word.

(3.) Give the plural of "indignity."--What is meant by saying that

"indignities were heaped on" a person?

(4.) How is the word "condign" now most frequently employed? _Ans._ In

connection with punishment: thus we speak of "_condign_ punishment,"

meaning richly deserved punishment.

15. DOCE'RE: do'ceo, doc'tum, _to teach_.

Radicals: DOC- and DOCT-.

1. DOC'ILE: doc + ile = that may be taught: hence, teachable.

2. DOC'TOR: doct + or = one who teaches: hence, one who has taken the

highest degree in a university authorizing him to practice and teach.

4. DOC'TRINE: through Lat. n. _doctrina_, something taught; hence, a

principle taught as part of a system of belief.

EXERCISE.

(1.) Combine and define docile + ity.--Give the opposite of "docile." _Ans.

Indocile._--Mention an animal that is very docile.--Mention one remarkable

for its want of docility.

(2.) What is meant by "_Doctor_ of Medicine"?--Give the abbreviation.--What

does LL.D. mean? _Ans._ It stands for the words _legum doctor_, doctor of

laws: the double L marks the plural of the Latin noun.

(3.) Give two synonyms of "doctrine." _Ans. Precept, tenet._--What does

"tenet" literally mean? _Ans._ Something _held_--from Lat. v. _tenere_, to

hold.--Combine and define doctrine + al.

16. DOM'INUS, _a master or lord_.

Radical: DOMIN-.

1. DOMIN'ION: domin + ion = the act of exercising mastery: hence, (1) rule;

(2) a territory ruled over.

2. DOM'INANT: domin + ant = relating to lordship or mastery: hence,

prevailing.

3. DOMINEER': through Fr. v. _dominer_; literally, to "_lord_ it" over one:

hence, to rule with insolence.

4. PREDOM'INATE: pre + domin + ate = to cause one to be master _before_

another: hence, to be superior, to rule.

EXERCISE.

(1.) What is meant by saying that "in 1776 the United Colonies threw off

the _dominion_ of Great Britain"?

(2.) What is meant by the "_dominant_ party"? a "_dominant_ race"?

(3.) Compose a sentence containing the word "domineer." MODEL: "The

blustering tyrant, Sir Edmund Andros, _domineered_ for several years over

the New England colonies; but his misrule came to an end in 1688 with the

accession of King William."

(4.) "The Republicans at present _predominate_ in Mexico": what does this

mean?

17. FI'NIS, _an end or limit_.

Radical: FIN-.

1. FI'NITE: fin + ite = having the quality of coming to an end: hence,

limited in quantity or degree.

2. FIN'ISH: through Fr. v. _finir_; literally, to bring to an end: hence,

to complete.

3. INFIN'ITY: in + fin + ity = the state of having no limit: hence,

unlimited extent of time, space, or quantity.

4. DEFINE': through Fr. v. _definer_; literally, to bring a thing down to

its limits: hence, to determine with precision.

5. CONFINE': con + fine; literally, to bring within limits or bounds:

hence, to restrain.

6. AFFIN'ITY: af (a form of prefix _ad_) + fin + ity = close agreement.

EXERCISE.

(1.) What is meant by saying that "the human faculties are _finite_"?

(2.) What is the opposite of "finite"?--Give a synonym. _Ans.

Limited._--What participial adjective is formed from the verb to

"finish"?--What is meant by a "_finished_ gentleman"?

(3.) Give a synonym of "infinity." _Ans. Boundlessness._--"The microscope

reveals the fact that each drop of water contains an _infinity_ of

animalculae." What is the sense of _infinity_ as used in this sentence?

(4.) Combine define + ite; in + define + ite.--Analyze the word

"definition."--Compose a sentence containing the word "define."

(5.) Combine and define confine + ment.--What other part of speech than a

verb is "confine"? _Ans._ A noun.--Write a sentence containing the word

"confines."

(6.) Find in the dictionary the meaning of "chemical _affinity_."

18. FLU'ERE: flu'o, flux'um, _to flow_.

Radicals: FLU- and FLUX-.

1. FLUX: from flux_um_ = a flowing.

2. FLU'ENT: flu + ent = having the quality of flowing. Used in reference to

language it means _flowing_ speech: hence, voluble.

3. FLU'ID, _n._: flu + id = Flow_ing_: hence, anything that flows.

4. FLU'ENCY: flu + ency = state of flowing (in reference to language).

5. AF'FLUENCE: af (form of _ad_) + flu + ence = a flowing _to_: hence, an

abundant supply, as of thought, words, money, etc.

6. CON'FLUENCE: con + flu + ence = a flowing together: hence, (1) the

flowing together of two or more streams; (2) an assemblage, a union.

7. IN'FLUX: in + flux = a flowing in or into.

8. SUPER'FLUOUS: super + flu + ous = having the quality of _over_flowing:

hence, needless, excessive.

EXERCISE.

(2.) What is meant by a "fluent" speaker?--What word would denote a speaker

who is the reverse of "fluent"?

(3.) Write a sentence containing the word "fluid."

(4.) What is meant by "fluency" of style?

(5.) What is the ordinary use of the word "affluence"? An "_affluence_ of

ideas," means what?

(6.) Compose a sentence containing the word "confluence." MODEL: "New York

City stands at the ---- of two streams."

(8.) Mention a noun corresponding to the adjective "superfluous."--Compose

a sentence containing the word "superfluous."--What is its opposite? _Ans.

Scanty, meager._

19. GREX, gre'gis, _a flock or herd_.

Radical: GREG-.

1. AG'GREGATE, _v._: ag (for _ad_) + greg + ate = to cause to be brought

into a flock: hence, to gather, to assemble.

2. EGRE'GIOUS: e + greg + (i)ous, through Lat. adj. _egre'gius_, chosen

from the herd: hence, remarkable.

OBS.--Its present use is in association with inferiority.

3. CON'GREGATE: con + greg + ate = to perform the act of flocking together:

hence, to assemble.

EXERCISE.

(1.) What other part of speech than a verb is "aggregate"?--Why is this

word spelled with a double _g_?

(2.) Combine and define egregious + ly.--What does an "_egregious_ blunder"

mean?--Compose a sentence containing the word "egregious."

(3.) Why is it incorrect to speak of congregating _together_?--Combine and

define congregate + ion.

20. I'RE: e'o, i'tum, _to go_.

Radical: IT-.

1. AMBI'TION: amb (around) + it + ion = the act of going around.

DEFINITION: an eager desire for superiority or power.

OBS.--This meaning arose from the habit of candidates for office in

Rome _going around_ to solicit votes: hence, aspiration for office, and

finally, aspiration in general.

2. INI'TIAL, _a._: in + it + (i)al = pertaining to the _in_going: hence,

marking the commencement.

3. INI'TIATE: in + it + (i)ate = to cause one to go in: hence, to

introduce, to commence.

4. SEDI'TION: sed (_aside_) + it + ion = the act of going _aside_; that is,

going to a separate and insurrectionary party.

5. TRANS'IT: trans + it = a passing across: hence, (1) the act of passing;

(2) the line of passage; (3) a term in astronomy.

6. TRAN'SITORY: trans + it + ory = pass_ing_ over: hence, brief, fleeting.

EXERCISE.

(1.) Compose a sentence containing the word "ambition." MODEL: "Napoleon's

_ambition_ was his own greatness; Washington's, the greatness of his

country."--What is meant by "military ambition"? "political ambition"?

"literary ambition"?--What adjective means _possessing ambition_?--Combine

and define un + ambitious.

(2.) What is the opposite of "initial"? _Ans. Final, closing._--What part

of speech is "initial" besides an adjective?--What is meant by "initials"?

(3.) What is meant by saying that "the campaign of 1775 was _initiated_ by

an attack on the British in Boston"?--Give the opposite of "initiate" in

the sense of "commence."

(4.) Give a synonym of "sedition." _Ans. Insurrection._--Give

another.--Compose a sentence containing this word.

(5.) Explain what is meant by goods "in _transit_."--Explain what is meant

by the "Nicaragua _transit_."--When you speak of the _transit_ of Venus,"

you are using a term in what science?

(6.) Give a synonym of "transitory."--Give its opposite. _Ans. Permanent,

abiding._

21. LA'PIS, lap'idis, _a stone_.

Radical: LAPID-.

1. LAP'IDARY: lapid + ary = one who works in stone: hence, one who cuts,

polishes, and engraves precious stones.

2. DILAP'IDATED: di + lapid + ate + ed = put into the condition of a

building in which the stones are falling apart: hence, fallen into ruin,

decayed.

3. DILAPIDA'TION: di + lapid + ate + ion = the state (of a building) in

which the stones are falling apart: hence, demolition, decay.

EXERCISE.

Use the word "lapidary" in a sentence. MODEL: "When Queen Victoria wanted

the Koh-i-noor to be recut, she sent it to a famous _lapidary_ in Holland."

(2.) Write a sentence containing the word "dilapidated." MODEL: "At

Newport, Rhode Island, there stands a _dilapidated_ mill, which some

writers have foolishly believed to be a tower built by Norsemen in the

twelfth century."--If we should speak of a "_dilapidated_ fortune," would

the word be used in its literal meaning or in a figurative sense?

(3.) Give two synonyms of "dilapidation." _Ans. Ruin, decay._

22. LEX, le'gis, _a law or rule_.

Radical: LEG-.

1. LE'GAL: leg + al = relating to the law; lawful.

2. ILLE'GAL: il (for _in_, not) + leg + al = not legal: hence, unlawful.



3. LEG'ISLATE: from _legis_ + _latum_ (from Lat. v. _fer're, latum_, to

bring), to bring forward: hence, to make or pass laws.

4. LEGIT'IMATE: through Lat. adj. _legitimus_, lawful; legitim (us) + ate =

made lawful: hence, in accordance with established law.

5. PRIV'ILEGE: Lat. adj. _privus_, private; literally, a law passed for the

benefit of a private individual: hence, a franchise, prerogative, or right.

EXERCISE.

(1.) Point out the different senses of "legal" in the two expressions, "the

_legal_ profession" and "a _legal_ right."--Combine and define legal +

ize.

(2.) Give an Anglo-Saxon synonym of "illegal." _Ans. Unlawful._--Show that

they are synonyms. _Ans_. il (_in_) = un; _leg_ = law; and al =

ful.--Compose a sentence containing the word "illegal."--Combine and define

illegal + ity.

(3.) What noun derived from "legislate" means the law-making

power?--Combine and define legislate + ion; legislate + ive.

(4.) Give the negative of "legitimate."

(5.) What is the plural of "privilege"?--Define the meaning of this word in

the passage,--

"He claims his _privilege_, and says 't is fit

Nothing should be the judge of wit, but wit."

23. LIT'ERA, _a letter_.

Radical: LITER-.

1. LIT'ERAL: liter + al = relating to the letter of a thing; that is, exact

to the letter.

2. LIT'ERARY: liter + ary = pertaining to _letters_ or learning.

3. OBLITERATE: ob + liter + ate = to cause letters to be rubbed out: hence,

to rub out, in general.

4. LIT'ERATURE: through Lat. n. _literatura_ = the collective body of

literary works.

5. ILLIT'ERATE: il (for _in_, not) + liter + ate = of the nature of one who

does not know his letters.

EXERCISE.

(1.) Define what is meant by a "_literal_ translation."

(2.) Give a synonymous expression for a "literary man."--Compose a sentence

containing the terms "literary society."

(3.) Give a synonym of "obliterate" in its literal meaning. _Ans._ To

_erase_.--If we should speak of _obliterating_ the memory of a wrong,

would the word be used in its primary or its derivative sense?

(4.) "When we speak of English "literature" what is meant?--Can you mention

a great poem in Greek "literature"?--Compose a sentence containing the word

"literature."

(5.) Give a synonym of "illiterate." _Ans. Unlearned_.--What is the

opposite of "illiterate"? _Ans. Learned_.

24. MORS, mortis, _death_.

Radical: MORT-.

1. MOR'TAL: mort + a = relating to death.

2. MOR'TIFY: mort + ify = literally, to cause to die: hence, (1) to destroy

vital functions; (2) to humble.

3. IMMOR'TALIZE: im (for _in_, not) + mort + al + ize = to make not subject

to death: hence, to perpetuate.

EXERCISE.

(1.) What does Shakespeare mean by the expression to "shuffle off this

_mortal_ coil"?--Combine and define mortal + ity.--What is the opposite of

"mortal"?--Give a synonym. _Ans. Deathless_.

(2.) State the two meanings of "mortify."--What noun is derived from this

verb? _Ans. Mortification_.--When a surgeon speaks of "mortification"

setting in, what does he mean?--What is meant by "mortification" when we

say that the British felt great _mortification_ at the recapture of Stony

Point by General Anthony Wayne?

(3.) Compose a sentence containing the word "immortalize." MODEL: "Milton

_immortalized_ his name by the production of Paradise Lost."

25. NOR'MA, _a rule_.

Radical: NORM-.

1. NOR'MAL: norm + al = according to rule.

2. ENOR'MOUS: e + norm + ous = having the quality of being out of all rule:

hence, excessive, huge.

3. ENOR'MITY: e + norm + ity = the state of being out of all rule: hence,

an excessive degree--generally used in regard to bad qualities.

4. ABNOR'MAL: ab + norm + al = having the quality of being _away_ from the

usual rule: hence, unnatural.

EXERCISE.

(1.) What is meant by the expression, "the _normal_ condition of

things"?--"What is the meaning of the term a "_normal_ school"? _Ans._ It

means a school whose methods of instruction are to serve as a model for

imitation; a school for the education of teachers.

(2.) Give a synonym of "enormous." _Ans. Immense_.--Give another.--"What is

meant by "_enormous_ strength"? an "_enormous_ crime?"--Combine and define

enormous + ly.

(3.) Illustrate the meaning of the word "enormity" by a sentence.

26. OR'DO, or'dinis, _order_.

Radical: ORDIN-.

1. OR'DINARY: ordin + ary = relating to the usual order of things.

2. EXTRAOR'DINARY: extra + ordin + ary = beyond ordinary.

3. INOR'DINATE: in + ordin + ate = having the quality of not being within

the usual order of things: hence, excessive.

4. SUBOR'DINATE: sub + ordin + ate = having the quality of being under the

usual order: hence, inferior, secondary.

5. OR'DINANCE: ordin + ance = that which is according to order: hence, a

law.

6. INSUBORDINA'TION: in + sub + ordin + ate + ion = the state of not being

under the usual order of things: hence, disobedience to lawful authority.

EXERCISE.

(1.) What is meant by "_ordinary_ language"? an "_ordinary_ man"?

(2.) Combine and define extraordinary + ly.--Compose a sentence using the

word "extraordinary."--Give a synonym of "extraordinary." _Ans. Unusual._

(3.) Explain what is meant by saying that General Charles Lee had

"_inordinate_ vanity."--Is "inordinate" used with reference to

praiseworthy things?

(4.) What part of speech other than an adjective is "subordinate"?--What is

meant by "a _subordinate_"?--What does "subordinate" mean in the sentence,

"We must _subordinate_ our wishes to the rules of morality"?--Combine and

define subordinate + ion.

(5.) What does the expression "the _ordinances_ of the Common Council of

the City of New York" mean?

(6.) Compose a sentence containing the word "insubordination."--Give the

opposite of "insubordination"? _Ans. Subordination, obedience._

27. PARS, par'tis, _a part or share_.

Radical: PART-.

1. PART: from part_is_ = a share.

2. PAR'TICLE: part + (_i_)cle = a small part.

3. PAR'TIAL: part + (_i_)al = relating to a part rather than the whole:

hence, inclined to favor one party or person or thing.

4. PAR'TY: through Fr. n. _partie_: a set of persons (that is, a part of

the people) engaged in some design.

5. PAR'TISAN: through Fr. n. _partisan_ = a party man.

6. DEPART': de + part = to take one's self away from one part to another.

EXERCISE.

(1.) What part of speech is "part" besides a noun?--Write a sentence

containing this word as a noun; another as a verb.

(2.) Point out the connection of meaning between "particle" and

"particular." _Ans_. "Particular"' means taking note of the minute parts or

_particles_ of a given subject.

(3.) What is the negative of "partial"? _Ans. Impartial._--Define it.

(4.) Explain what is meant by a "political _party_."

(6.) Combine and define depart + ure.

28. PES, pe'dis, _a foot_.

Radical: PED-.

1. PED'AL: ped + al = an instrument made to be moved by the foot.

2. BI'PED: bi + ped = a two-footed animal.

3. QUAD'RUPED: quadru + ped = a four-footed animal. (_Quadru_, from

_quatuor_, four.)

4. PED'DLER: literally, a trader who travels on foot.

5. EXPEDITE': ex + ped + ite (_ite_, equivalent to _ate_) = literally, to

free the feet from entanglement: hence, to hasten.

6. EXPEDI'TION: ex + ped + ite + ion = the act of expediting: hence, (1)

the quality of being expeditious, promptness; (2) a sending forth for the

execution of some object of importance.

7. IMPED'IMENT: through Lat. n. _impedimentum_; literally, something which

_impedes_ or entangles the feet: hence, an obstacle, an obstruction.

EXERCISE.

(2.) Make up a sentence containing the word "biped."

(3.) Make up a sentence containing the word "quadruped."

(4.) What is the English verb from which "peddler" comes?--In what other

way is "peddler" sometimes spelled? _Ans._ It is sometimes spelled with but

one _d_--thus, _pedler_.

(5.) "To expedite the growth of plants": what does that mean?--Give the

opposite of "expedite." _Ans._ To _retard_.

(6.) Point out the double sense of the word "expedition" in the following

sentences: "With winged _expedition_, swift as lightning."--_Milton_. "The

_expedition_ of Cortez miserably failed."--_Prescott._

(7.) Compose a sentence containing the word "impediment."--What is meant by

"_impediment_ of speech"?--Is the word here used in its literal or its

figurative sense?

29. RUM'PERE: rum'po, rup'tum, _to break_.

Radical: RUPT-.

1. RUP'TURE: rupt + ure = the act of breaking with another; that is, a

_breach_ of friendly relations.

2. ERUP'TION: e + rupt + ion = the act of breaking or bursting out.

3. ABRUPT': ab + rupt = broken off short: hence, having a sudden

termination.

4. CORRUPT': cor (for _con_) + rupt = thoroughly broken up: hence,

decomposed, depraved.

5. INTERRUPT': inter + rupt = to break in between: hence, to hinder.

6. BANK'RUPT: literally, one who is bank-broken, who cannot pay his debts,

an insolvent debtor.

EXERCISE.

(1.) What other part of speech than a noun is "rupture"? _Ans._ A

verb.--Compose one sentence using the word as a verb, the other as a

noun.--What does the "_rupture_ of a blood vessel" mean? Is this the

literal sense of the word?--The "_rupture_ of friendly relations" between

Maine and Massachusetts: is this its literal or its figurative sense?

(2.) Compose a sentence containing the word "eruption."

(3.) Combine and define abrupt + ness; abrupt + ly.--When we speak of an

"_abrupt_ manner," what is meant?--When we speak of an "_abrupt_ descent,"

what is meant?

(4.) Explain what is meant by "corrupt principles"; a "_corrupt_

judge."--Combine and define corrupt + ion; corrupt + ible; in + corrupt +

ible.--What other part of speech than an adjective is "corrupt"?--What part

of speech is it in the sentence "evil communications _corrupt_ good

manners"?

30. TEM'PUS, tem'poris, _time_.

Radical: TEMPOR-.

1. TEM'PORAL: tempor + al = relating to time: hence, not everlasting.

2. TEM'PORARY: tempor + ary = lasting only for a brief time.

3. CONTEM'PORARY: con + tempor + ary = one who lives in the same time with

another.

4. TEM'PERANCE: through Fr. n. _temperance_; literal meaning, the state of

being _well timed_ as to one's habits: hence, moderation.

5. EXTEMPORA'NEOUS: ex + temporane(us) + ous = produced at the time.

6. TEM'PORIZE: tempor + ize = to do as the times do: hence, to yield to the

current of opinion.

EXERCISE.

(1.) Give the opposite of "temporal." _Ans. Eternal._ Illustrate these two

words by a sentence from the Bible. _Ans._ "The things which are seen are

_temporal_; but the things which are not seen are _eternal_."

(2.) Give the opposite of "temporary." _Ans. Permanent._--What is meant by

the "_temporary_ government of a city"?--Give a synonym of "temporary."

_Ans. Transitory._--Would you say that man is a "_temporary_ being" or a

"_transitory_ being"?

(3.) Compose a sentence illustrating the use of the word

"contemporary."--What adjective corresponds to this adjective?

(4.) State the distinction between "temperance" and "abstinence."--Write a

sentence showing the use of the two words.

(5.) What is meant by an "_extemporaneous_ speech?"

(6.) What is one who _temporizes_ sometimes called? _Ans_. A _time_-server.

DIVISION II.--ABBREVIATED LATIN DERIVATIVES.

NOTE--In Division II, the English derivatives from Latin roots are

given in abbreviated form, and are arranged in paragraphs under the

particular _radicals_, from which the several groups of derivatives are

formed. The radicals are printed at the left in bold-face type--thus.,

ACR-, ACERB-, etc. Derivatives not obviously connected with the Latin

roots are given in the last paragraph of each section. Pupils are

required to unite the prefixes and suffixes with the radicals, thus

forming the English derivatives, which may be given either orally or in

writing. Only difficult definitions are appended: in the case of words

not defined, pupils may be required to form the definition by reference

to the signification of the radicals and the formative elements, thus,

acr + id = acrid, being bitter, acr + id + ity = state of being bitter,

bitterness.

1. A'CER, a'cris, _sharp_; Acer'bus, _bitter_; Ac'idus, _sour_; Ace'tum,

_vinegar_.

ACR: -id, -idity; ac'rimony (Lat. n. _acrimo'nia_, sharpness of temper);

acrimo'nious.

ACERB: -ity; exac'erbate, _to render bitter_; exacerba'tion.

ACID: ac'id; -ify, -ity; acid'ulate (Lat. adj. _acid'ulus_, slightly sour);

acid'ulous; subac'id, _slightly acid_.

ACET: -ate, _a certain salt; _-ic, _pertaining to a certain acid; _-ify,

-ification, -ose, -ous.

2. AE'DES, _a house_.

ED: ed'ify; edifica'tion; ed'ifice (Lat. n. _edifi'cium_, a large

building); e'dile (Lat. n. _aedi'lis_, a Roman magistrate who had charge of

buildings).

3. AE'QUUS, _equal_: AEqua'lis, _equal, just_.

EQU: -able, -ation, -ator, -atorial, -ity, -itable; ad'equate (Lat. v.

_adequa're_, _adequa'tum_, to make equal); inadequacy; inad'equate;

iniq'uity (Lat. n. _iniq'uitas_, want of equal or just dealing);

iniq'uitous.

EQUAL: e'qual (n., v., adj.), -ity, -ize; co-e'qual; une'qual.

4. AE'VUM, _an age_; AEter'nitas, _eternal_.

EV: co-e'val; longevity (Lat. adj. _lon'gus_, long); prime'val (Lat. adj.

_pri'mus_, first).

ETERN: -al, -ity, -ize; co-eter'nal.

5. A'GER, a'gri, _a field, land_.

AGRI: agra'rian (Lat. adj. _agrarius_, relating to land); agra'rianism;

ag'riculture (Lat. n. _cultu'ra_, cultivation), agricult'ural,

agricult'urist.

Per'egrinate (Lat. v. _peregrina'ri_, to travel in foreign lands);

peregrina'tion; pil'grim (Fr. n. _pelerin_, a wanderer); pil'grimage.

AGERE, to do. (See p. 23.)

6. AL'ERE: a'lo, al'itum _or_ al'tum, _to nourish_; ALES'CERE:

ales'co _to grow up_.

AL: al'iment (Lat. n. _alimen'tum_, nourishment); alimen'tary; al'imony

(Lat. n. _alimo'ma_, allowance made to a divorced wife for her support).

ALIT: coali'tion (-ist).

ALESC: coalesce' (-ence, -ent).

ALIENUS. (See p. 25.)

7. AL'TER, _another_; Alter'nus, _one after another_.

ALTER: al'ter, -ation, -ative (a medicine producing a change); unal'tered;

alterca'tion (Lat. n. _alterca'tio_, a contention).

ALTERN: -ate, -ation, -ative; subal'tern, _a subordinate officer_.

AMARE; AMICUS. (See p. 25.)

ANIMUS; ANIMA. (See p. 26.)

ANNUS. (See p. 27.)

8. ANTI'QUUS, _old, ancient_.

ANTIQU: -ary, -arian, -ated, -ity; antique' (Fr. adj. _antique_), _old,

ancient_.

9. AP'TUS, _fit, suitable_.

APT: apt, -itude, -ly, -ness; adapt' (-able, -ation, -or).

10. A'QUA, _water_.

AQUE: -duct (_du'cere_, to lead); a'queous; suba'queous; terra'queous (Lat.

n. _terra_, land); aquat'ic (Lat. adj. _aquat'icus_, relating to water);

aqua'rium (Lat. n. _aqua'rium_, a reservoir of water), _a tank for

water-plants and animals_.

11. AR'BITER, ar'bitri, _a judge or umpire_.

ARBITER: ar'biter, _a judge or umpire_.

ARBITR: -ary, -ate, -ation, -ator; arbit'rament (Lat. n. _arbitramen'tum_,

decision).

12. AR'BOR, ar'boris, _a tree_.

ARBOR: ar'bor, _a lattice-work covered with vines, etc., a bower_; -et, _a

little tree_; -ist, -escent, -(e)ous; arbore'tum, _a place where specimens

of trees are cultivated_; arboricult'ure (-ist).

13. AR'MA, _arms, weapons_.

ARM: arm (n. and v.); arms, _weapons_; -or, _defensive weapons_; ar'morer;

ar'mory; armo'rial, _belonging to the escutcheon or coat of arms of a

family_; ar'mistice (_sis'tere_, to cause to stand still); disarm';

unarmed'.

Arma'da (Span, n.), _a naval warlike force_; ar'my (Fr. n _armee_);

ar'mament (Lat. n. _armamen'ta_, utensils); armadil'lo (Span, n.), _an

animal armed with a bony shell_.

ARS. (See page 28.)

14. ARTIC'ULUS, _a little joint_.

ARTICUL: -ate (v., to utter in distinctly _jointed_ syllables), -ate (adj.

formed with joints), -ation; inartic'ulate; ar'ticle (Fr. n. _article_).

15. AS'PER, _rough_.

ASPER: -ate, -ity; exas'perate; exas'peration.

AUDIRE. (See page 29.)

16. AUGE'RE: au'geo, auc'tum, _to increase_.

AUG: augment' (v.); augmentation.

AUCT: -ion, _a sale in which the price is increased by bidders_; -ioneer.

Author (Lat. n. _auc'tor_, one who increases knowledge); author'ity;

au'thorize; auxil'iary (Lat. n. _auxil'ium_, help).

17. A'VIS, _a bird_; Au'gur, Aus'pex, aus'picis, _a soothsayer_.

AUGUR: au'gur (n.), _one who foretells future events by observing the_

_flight of birds_, (v.) _to foretell_; au'gury, _an omen_; inau'gurate, _to

invest with an office by solemn rites_; inaugura'tion; inau'gural.

AUSPICI: -ous, _favorable_; inauspi'cious; aus'pices.

18. BAR'BARUS, _savage, uncivilized_.

BARBAR: -ian (n. and adj.), -ic, -ism, -ity, -ize, -ous.

19. BIS, _twice or two_.

BI: bi'ennial (Lat. n. _an'nus_, a year); big'amy (Greek n. _gamos_,

marriage); bil'lion (Lat. n. _mil'lio_, a million; literally, twice a

million); bipar'tite (Lat. n. _pars, par'tis_, a part); bi'ped (Lat. n.

_pes, pe'dis_, foot); bis'cuit (Fr. v. _cuit_, cooked); bisect' (Lat. v.

_sec'tum_, cut); bi'valve (Lat. n. _val'vae_, folding-doors); bi'nary (Lat.

adj. _bi'ni_, two by two); binoc'ular (Lat. n. _oc'ulus_, the eye);

combine'; combina'tion.

20. BO'NIS, _good_; Be'ne, _well_.

BONUS: bonus (something to the _good_ of a person in addition to

compensation), bounty (Fr. n. _bonte_, kindness); boun'teous; boun'tiful.

BENE: ben'efice (Lat. v. _fac'ere, fac'tum_, to do), literally, _a benefit,

an ecclesiastical living_; benef'icence; benef'icent; benefi'cial;

ben'efit; benefac'tion; benefac'tor; benedic'tion (Lat. v. _dic'ere,

dic'tum_, to say); benev'olence (Lat. v. _vel'le_, to will).

EXERCISE.

_In this and the following exercises, tell the roots of the words printed

in italic_: The _equator_ divides the globe into two _equal_ parts. Good

_agriculturists_ read _agricultural_ papers. In the _primeval_ ages the

_longevity_ of man was very great. The _pilgrims_ have gone on a

_pilgrimage_ to the Holy Land. The _subaltern_ had no _alternative_ but to

obey. To remove the stain a powerful _acid_ must be used. The _alimony_

which had hitherto been allowed was no longer considered _adequate_. The

discourse, though learned, was not _edifying_. God is an _eternal_ and

unchangeable being. The handsome _edifice_ was burned to the ground. The

plants and animals in the _aquarium_ were brought from abroad. Though the

style is _antiquated_, it is not inelegant. The _arbitrary_ proceedings of

the British Parliament _exasperated_ the Americans. God is the _bountiful_

Giver of all good. The President made a short _inaugural_ address. By

_combined_ effort success is sure. One of Scott's novels is called The

_Antiquary_. It is _barbarous_ needlessly to destroy life. George Peabody

was noted for his _benevolence_. The Romans were famous for their great

_aqueducts_.

21. CAD'ERE: ca'do, ca'sum, _to fall_.

CAD: -ence, _a falling of the voice_; cascade' (Fr. n.); deca'dence.

CIDE: ac'cident; coincide' (con + in); coin'cidence; decid'uous; in'cident;

oc'cident, _the place of the falling or setting sun, the west_.

CASE: case, _the state in which a thing happens or falls to be_; casual

(Lat. n. _ca'sus_, a fall); cas'ualty; cas'uist, _one who studies cases of

conscience_; cas'uistry; occa'sion.

Chance (Fr. v. _choir_, to fall), _something that befalls without apparent

cause_; decay (Fr. v. _dechoir_, to fall away).

22. CAED'ERE: cae'do, cae'sum, _to cut, to kill_.

CIDE: decide', _to cut off discussion, to determine_; frat'ricide, _the

killing of a brother_ (Lat. n. _fra'ter_, a brother); hom'icide (_ho'mo_, a

man); infan'ticide (_in'fans_, an infant); mat'ricide (_ma'ter_, a mother);

par'ricide (_pa'ter_, a father); reg'icide (_rex, re'gis_, a king);

su'icide (Lat. pro. _sui_, one's self).

CISE: con-, ex-, pre-; concise'ness; decis'ion; deci'sive; excis'ion,

incis'ion; inci'sor; precis'ion.

23. CAL'CULUS, _a pebble_.

CALCUL: -able (literally, that may be counted by the help of pebbles

anciently used in reckoning), -ate, -ation, -ator; incal'culable;

miscal'culate.

24. CANDE'RE: can'deo, can'ditum, _to be white, to shine

(literally, to burn, to glow)_; Can'didus, _white_.

CAND: -id, _fair, sincere_; -or, _openness, sincerity_; incandes'cent.

CAN'DID: -ate (in Rome aspirants for office wore _white_ robes).

Cen'ser, _a vessel in which incense is burned_; in'cense (n.), _perfume

given off by fire_; incense' (v.), _to inflame with anger_; incen'diary

(Lat. n. _incen'dium_, a fire); can'dle (Lat. _cande'la_, a _white_ light

made of wax); chand'ler (literally a maker or seller of candles);

chandelier'; candel'abra.

25. CAN'ERE: ca'no, can'tum, _to sing_; Fr chanter, _to sing_.

CANT: cant, _hypocritical sing-song speech_; canta'ta, _a poem set to

music_; can'ticle; can'ticles, _the Song of Solomon_; can'to, _division of

a poem_; discant'; incanta'tion, _enchantment_; recant', literally, _to

sing back, to retract_.

CHANT: chant; chant'er; chan'ticleer; chant'ry; enchant'.

Ac'cent (Lat. _ad._ and _cantus_, a song), literally, _a modulation of the

voice_; accentua'tion; precen'tor (Lat. v. _praecan'ere_, to sing before).

26. CAP'ERE: ca'pio, cap'tum, _to take_.

CAP: -able, -ability; inca'pable.

CIP: antic'ipate; eman'cipate (Lat. n. _ma'nus_, hand), literally, _to take

away from the hand of an owner, to free_; incip'ient; munic'ipal (Lat. n.

_municip'ium_, a free town; _mu'nia_, official duties, and _cap'ere_, to

take); partic'ipate (Lat. n. _pars, par'tis_, a part); par'ticiple; prince

(Lat. n. _prin'ceps_,--Lat. adj. _pri'mus_, first: hence, taking the

_first_ place or lead); prin'cipal; prin'ciple; recip'ient; rec'ipe

(imperative of _recip'ere_; literally, "take thou," being the first word of

a medical prescription).

CEIVE (Fr. root = cap- or cip-): conceive'; deceive'; perceive'; receive'.

CAPT: -ive, -ivate, -ivity, -or, -ure.

CEPT: accept' (-able, -ance, -ation); concep'tion; decep'tion; decep'tive;

except' (-ion, -ionable); incep'tion; incep'tive; intercept'; pre'cept;

precep'tor; recep'tacle; recep'tion; suscep'tible.

CEIT (Fr. root = capt- or cept-): conceit'; deceit'; receipt'.

Capa'cious (Lat. adj. _ca'pax_, _capa'cis_, able to hold: hence large);

capac'itate; capac'ity; incapac'itate.

CAPUT. (See page 30.)

27. CA'RO, carnis, _flesh_.

CARN: -age, _slaughter_; -al, -ation, _the flesh-colored flower_;

incar'nate; incarna'tion.

Carne'lian (Lat. adj. _car'neus_, fleshy), _a flesh-colored stone_;

car'nival (Lat. v. _vale_, farewell), _a festival preceding Lent_;

carniv'orous (Lat. v. _vora're_, to eat); char'nel (Fr. adj. _charnel_,

containing flesh).

28. CAU'SA, _a cause_.

CAUS: -al, -ation, -ative; cause (Fr. n. _cause_), n. and v.

Accuse' (Fr. v. _accuser_, to bring a charge against), -ative, -ation, -er;

excuse' (Fr. v. _excuser_, to absolve); excus'able; rec'usant (Lat. v.

_recusa're_, to refuse).

29. CAVE'RE: ca'veo, cautum, _to beware_.

CAUT: -ion, -ious; incau'tious; precaution.

Ca'veat (3d per. sing. present subjunctive = let him beware), _an

intimation to stop proceedings_.

30. CA'VUS, _hollow_.

CAV: -ity; concav'ity; ex'cavate.

Cave (Fr. n. _cave_), literally, _a hollow, empty space_; con'cave (Lat.

adj. _conca'vus_, arched); cav'il (Lat. n. _cavil'la_, a jest).

31. CED'ERE: ce'do, ces'sum, _to go, to yield_.

CEDE: cede; accede'; antece'dent; concede'; precede'; recede'; secede';

unprecedented.

CEED: ex-, pro-, sub- (suc-).

CESS: -ation, -ion; ab'scess, _a collection of matter gone away, or

collected in a cavity_; ac'cess; acces'sible; acces'sion; acces'sory;

conces'sion; excess'; exces'sive; interces'sion; interces'sor; preces'sion;

proc'ess; proces'sion; recess'; seces'sion; success' (-ful, -ion, -ive).

32. CENSE'RE: cen'seo, cen'sum, _to weigh, to estimate, to tax_.

CENS: -or, -ure; censo'rious; cen'surable; recen'sion.

Cen'sus (Lat. n. _census_, an estimate).

33. CEN'TRUM, _the middle point_.

CENTR: -al, -ical; centrif'ugal (Lat. v. _fu'gere_, to flee); centrip'etal

(Lat. v. _pet'ere_, to seek); concen'trate; concentra'tion; concen'tric;

eccen'tric; eccentric'ity.

Cen'ter or cen'tre (Fr. n. _centre_), n. and v.; cen'tered.

34. CEN'TUM, _a hundred_.

CENT: cent; cent'age; cen'tenary (Lat. adj. _centena'rius_); centena'rian;

centen'nial (Lat. n. _an'nus_, a year); cen'tigrade (Lat. n. _gra'dus_, a

degree); cen'tipede (Lat. n. _pes_, _pe'dis_, the foot); cen'tuple (Lat.

adj. _centu'plex_, hundredfold); centu'rion (Lat. n. _centu'rio_, a captain

of a hundred); cent'ury (Lat. n. _centu'ria_, a hundred years);

percent'age.

35. CER'NERE: cer'no, cre'tum, _to sift, to see, to judge_; Discrimen,

discrim'inis, _distinction_.

CERN: con-, de-, dis-; unconcern'; discern'er, discern'ible, discern'ment.

CRET: decre'tal, _a book of decrees_; discre'tion; discre'tionary;

excre'tion; se'cret; sec'retary.

DISCRIMIN: -ate, -ation; indiscrim'inate.

Decree' (Fr. n. _decret_); discreet' (Fr. adj. _discret_); discrete'

(literally, sifted apart), _separate_.

36. CERTA'RE: cer'to, certa'tum, _to contend, to vie_.

CERT: con'cert (n.); concert' (v.); disconcert'; preconcert'.

37. CIN'GERE: cin'go, cinc'tum, _to gird_.

CINCT: cinct'ure; pre'cinct; succinct', literally, _girded or tucked up,

compressed, concise_; succinct'ness.

38. CIR'CUS, _a circle_; cir'culus, _a little circle_.

CIRC: cir'cus, _an open space for sports_; cir'clet.

CIRCUL: -ar, -ate, -ation, -atory.

Cir'cle (Fr. n. _cercle_); encir'cle; sem'icircle.

39. CITA'RE: ci'to, cita'tum, _to stir up, to rouse_.

CITE: cite, _to summon or quote_; excite' (-able, -ability, -ment); incite'

(-ment); recite' (-al); resus'citate (Lat. v. _suscita're_, to raise).

CITAT: cita'tion; recita'tion; recitative', _a species of musical

recitation_.

CIVIS. (See p. 31.)

40. CLAMA'RE: cla'mo, clama'tum, _to cry out, to shout_; Clam'or,

_a loud cry_.

CLAIM: claim (v. and n., to demand; a demand), ac-, de-, dis-, ex-, pro-,

re-; claim'ant; reclaim'a'ble.

CLAMAT: acclama'tion; declama'tion; declam'atory; exclama'tion;

exclam'atory; proclama'tion; reclama'tion.

CLAMOR: clam'or (v. and n.), -er, -ous.

EXERCISE.

The _decay_ of the tree was caused by the _incisions_ which had

_accidentally_ been made in the bark. The _captives_ will be set at

liberty, but the _precise_ time of their _emancipation_ has not been fixed.

The harbor is _capacious_, and can _receive_ vessels of the largest size.

The merits of the _candidates_ were _discriminated_ with great _candor_. We

were _enchanted_ with the _carnival_ at Rome. This _recitation_ is

satisfactory. Have you ever seen a _centigrade_ thermometer? Nothing is so

_successful_ as _success_. The number of _concentric circles_ in the trunk

marked the age of the tree. No _censer_ round our altar beams. The heat

being _excessive_, we took shelter in the _recesses_ of a _cave_.

_Precision_ is the _principal_ quality of good writing. Franklin's father

was a tallow _chandler_. Last _century_ there was great _carnage_ in

America. _Infanticide_ is much practiced in China. The _proclamation_ was

widely _circulated_. The president was _inaugurated_ on the 4th of March.

The _census_ is taken every ten years. _Conceit_ is worse than

_eccentricity_. Have you filed your _caveat_?

41. CLAU'DERE: clau'do, clau'sum, _to shut, to close_.

CLUD: conclude'; exclude'; include'; preclude'; seclude'.

CLUS: conclu'sion; conclu'sive; exclu'sion; exclu'sive; recluse';

seclu'sion.

CLOSE: close (v., n., adj.); clos'et; close'ness; inclose' (-ure); enclose'

(-ure).

Clause (Fr. n. _clause_); clois'ter (old Fr. n. _cloistre_).

42. CLINA'RE: cli'no, clina'tum, _to bend_; Cli'vus, _a slope or hill_.

CLINAT: inclina'tion.

CLINE: de-, in-, re-.

CLIV: accliv'ity; decliv'ity; procliv'ity.

43. COL'ERE: co'lo, cul'tum, _to till, to cultivate_ (_Low Lat._

Cultiva're, _to cultivate_).

CULT: cult'ure (Lat. n. _cultu'ra_, a cultivation); ag'riculture (Lat. n.

_a'ger_, a field); arboricult'ure (Lat. n. _ar'bor_, a tree); flor'iculture

(Lat. n. _flos_, _flo'ris_, a flower); hor'ticulture (Lat. n. _hor'tus_, a

garden); ausculta'tion (Lat. n. _ausculta'tio_, a listening; hence, a test

of the lungs).

CULTIV: -ate, -ation, -ator.

Col'ony (Lat. n. _colo'nia_, a settlement); colo'nial; col'onist;

col'onize.

COR. (See page 32.)

CORPUS. (See page 33.)

CREDERE. (See page 35.)

44. CREA'RE: cre'o, crea'tum, _to create_.

CREAT: -ion, -ive, -or, -ure; create' (pro-, re-).

45. CRES'CERE: cres'co, cre'tum, _to grow_.

CRESC: cres'cent; excres'cence; decrease'; increase'.

CRET: accre'tion; con'crete; concre'tion.

Accrue' (Fr. n. _accrue_, increase); in'crement (Lat. n. _incremen'tum_,

increase); recruit' (Fr. v. _recroitre_, _recru_, to grow again).

46. CRUX, cru'cis, _a cross_.

CRUC: cru'cial (Fr. adj. _cruciale_, as if bringing to the cross: hence,

severe); cru'cible (a chemist's melting-pot--Lat. n. _crucib'ulum_--marked

in old times with a cross); cru'ciform (Lat. n. _for'ma_, a shape);

cru'cify (Lat. v. _fig'ere_, _fix'um_, to fix); crucifix'ion;

excru'ciating.

Cross (Fr. n. _croix_); cro'sier (Fr. n. _crosier_); cruise (Dan. v.

_kruisen_, to move crosswise or in a zigzag); crusade' (Fr. n. _croisade_,

in the Middle Ages, an expedition to the Holy Land made under the banner of

the cross); crusad'er.

47. CUBA'RE: cu'bo (_in compos, _cumbo__), cub'itum, _to lie down_.

CUB: in'cubate; incuba'tion; in'cubator.

CUMB: incum'bency; incum'bent; procum'bent; recum'bency; recum'bent;

succumb' (sub-); superincum'bent.

Cu'bit (Lat. n. _cub'itus_, the elbow, because it serves for leaning upon);

in'cubus (Lat. n. _in'cubus_), the nightmare.

48. CU'RA, _care_.

CUR: -able, -ate, -ative, -ator; ac'curate; ac'curacy; inac'curate;

proc'urator.

Cu'rious; prox'y (contracted from _proc'uracy_). _authority to act for

another_; secure' (Lat. adj. _secu'rus_, from _se_ for _si'ne_, without,

and _cu'ra_, care); secu'rity; insecure'; si'necure (Lat. prep. _si'ne_,

without--an office without duties).

CURRERE. (See page 36.)

49. DA'RE: do, da'tum, _to give_.

DAT: date (originally the time at which a public document was

given--_da'tum_); da'ta (Lat. plural of _da'tum_), _facts or truths given

or admitted_; da'tive.

DIT: addi'tion; condi'tion; ed'it (-ion, -or); perdi'tion; tradi'tion;

extradi'tion.

Add (Lat. v. _ad'dere_, to give or put to); adden'dum (pl. adden'da),

_something to be added_.

50. DEBE'RE: de'beo, deb'itum, _to owe_.

DEBT: debt; debt'or; indebt'ed; deb'it (n. and v.).

51. DE'CEM, _ten_; Dec'imus, _the tenth_.

DECEM: Decem'ber (formerly the _tenth_ month); decem'virate (Lat. n. _vir_,

a man), _a body of ten magistrates_; decen'nial (Lat. n. _an'nus_, a year).

DECIM: dec'imal; dec'imate; duodec'imo (Lat. adj. _duodec'imus_, twelfth),

_a book having twelve leaves to a sheet_.

52. DENS, den'tis, _a tooth_.

DENT: dent, _to notch_; den'tal; den'tifrice (Lat. v. _frica're_, to rub);

den'tist; denti'tion (Lat. n. _denti'tio_, a cutting of the teeth);

eden'tate (Lat. adj. _edenta'tus_, toothless); indent'; indent'ure;

tri'dent (Lat. adj. _tres_, three), _Neptune's three-pronged scepter_;

dan'delion (Fr. _dent-de-lion_, the lion's tooth), _a plant_.

53. DE'US, _a God_; Divi'nus, _relating to God, divine_.

DE: de'ify; de'ism; de'ist; deist'ical; de'ity.

DIVIN: divine'; divina'tion (Lat. n. _divina'tio_, a foretelling the aid of

the gods); divin'ity.

54. DIC'ERE: di'co, dio'tum, _to say_.

DICT: dic'tate; dicta'tor; dictatorial; dic'tion; dic'tionary (Lat. n.

_dictiona'rium_, a word-book); dic'tum (pl. dic'ta), _positive opinion_;

addict' (Lat. v. _addic'ere_, to devote); benedic'tion (Lat. adv. _be'ne_,

well); contradict'; e'dict; indict' (Lat. v. _indic'ere_, to proclaim), _to

charge with a crime_; indict'ment; in'terdict; jurid'ic (Lat. n. _jus_,

_ju'ris_, justice), _relating to the distribution of justice_; maledic'tion

(Lat. adv. _ma'le_, ill); predict'; predic'tion; valedic'tory (Lat. v.

_va'le_, farewell); ver'dict (Lat. adj. _ve'rus_, true).

Dit'to, _n_. (Ital. n. _det'to_, a word), _the aforesaid thing_; indite'

(Lat. v. _indic'ere_, to dictate), _to compose_.

55. DI'ES, _a day_; _French_ jour, _a day_.

DIES: di'al; di'ary; di'et; diur'nal (Lat. adj. _diur'nus_, daily);

merid'ian (Lat. n. _merid'ies_ = _me'dius di'es_, midday); merid'ional;

quotid'ian (Lat. adj. _quotidia'nus_, daily).

JOUR: jour'nal; jour'nalist; jour'ney; adjourn'; adjourn'ment; so'journ;

so'journer.

DIGNUS (See page 37.)

56. DIVID'ERE: div'ido, divi'sum, _to divide, to separate_.

DIVID: divide'; div'idend; subdivide'; individ'ual, literally, _one not to

be divided, a single person_.

DIVIS: -ible, -ibility, -ion, -or.

Device' (Fr. n. _devis_, something imagined or devised); devise' (Fr. v.

_deviser_, to form a plan).

DOCERE. (See page 38.)

57. DOLE'RE: do'leo, doli'tum, _to grieve_.

Dole'ful; do'lor; dol'orous; condole'; condo'lence; in'dolent (literally,

not grieving or caring), _lazy_.

DOMINUS. (See page 38.)

58. DU'CERE: du'co, duc'tum, _to lead, to bring forward_.

DUC: adduce'; conduce'; condu'cive; deduce'; educe'; ed'ucate; educa'tion;

induce'; induce'ment; introduce'; produce'; reduce'; redu'cible; seduce';

superinduce'; traduce'; tradu'cer.

DUCT: abduc'tion; duc'tile (-ity); conduct' (-or); deduct' (-ion, -ive);

induct' (-ion, -ive); introduc'tion; introduc'tory; prod'uct (-ion, -ive);

reduc'tion; seduc'tion; seduc'tive; aq'ueduct (Lat. n. _a'qua_, water);

vi'aduct (Lat. n. _vi'a_, a road); con'duit (Fr. n. _conduit_), a channel

for conveying water.

59. DU'O, _two_.

DU: du'al; du'el (-ist); duet'; du'plicate (Lat. v. _plica're_, to fold) ;

dupli'city (Lat. n. _duplic'itas_, double dealing).

Dubi'ety (Lat. n. _dubi'etas_, uncertainty); du'bious (Lat. adj. _du'bius_,

uncertain); indu'bitable (Lat. v. _dubita're_, to doubt); doub'le (Fr. adj.

_double_, twofold); doubt (Fr. n. _doubt_), -ful, -less ; undoubt'ed.

60. DU'RUS, _hard, lasting_; DURA'RE: du'ro, dura'tum, _to last_.

DUR: -able, -ableness, -ability, -ance, _state of being held hard and

fast_; duresse, _hardship, constraint_; endure' (-ance); ob'duracy.

DURAT: dura'tion ; in'durate, _to grow hard_; indura'tion; ob'duracy.

EXERCISE.

When the speech, was _concluded_ loud acclamation _arose_. In many parts of

the _colony_ much of the waste land has been _reclaimed_, and

_agricultural_ operations now _receive_ the due attention of the

_colonists_. The patient declined to undergo _auscultation_. Fishing is a

healthful _recreation_. Many of the _crusaders_ were inspired with great

courage. _Security_ was offered, but it was not _accepted_. The _incumbent_

could not stand the _crucial_ test, and hence _succumbed_. A _curious

excrescence_ was cut from the tree. To Neptune with his _trident_ the

Greeks ascribed _divine_ power. A French _journalist_ has been _indicted_.

The _valedictory_ was pronounced in _December_. What is the difference

between _addition_ and _division_? We may easily _predict_ the ruin of an

_indolent debtor_. How many _maledictions_ are heaped on _dentists_! The

_reduction_ of the public _debt_ is desirable. The prisoner was _doleful_

because he was in _duresse_ vile. An educated man is known by his

_accurate_ use of language. The _dandelion_ is a _productive_ plant. The

_pilgrims received_ the priest's _benediction_ before setting out on their

_journey_. The _decimal_ system _conduces_ to the saving of time.

61. EM'ERE: E'MO, EMP'TUM, to buy or take.

EMPT: exempt' (-ion); per'emptory (Lat. adj. _perempto'rius_, wholly taken

away), _decisive_, _final_; pre-empt'; pre-emp'tion, _the right of buying

before others_; redemp'tion.

Redeem' (Lat. v. _redim'ere_, to buy back); redeem'er; prompt (Lat. adj.

_promp'tus_ = _pro-emp'tus_, taken out; hence, ready); prompt'er;

prompt'itude; prompt'ness; impromp'tu (Lat. _in promp'tu_, in readiness).

62. ERRA'RE: er'ro, erra'tum, _to wander_.

ERR: err, -ant, -antry; er'ror (Lat. n. _er'ror_); erro'neous (Lat. adj.

_erro'neus_, erring).

ERRAT: errat'ic; erra'tum (pl. er'rata), _a mistake in printing_;

aberra'tion.

63. ES'SE, _to be_; en, en'tis, _being_.

ENT: ab'sent (-ee); ab'sence; en'tity; nonen'tity; omnipres'ent (Lat. adj.

_om'nis_, all); pres'ent (-ation, -ly); represent' (-ation, -ative);

misrepresent'.

Es'sence (Lat. n. _essen'tia_, being); essen'tial; quintes'sence (Lat. adj.

_quin'tus_, fifth), _the highest essence; in'terest_ (3d pers. sing. pres.

indic. of _interes'se_ = it interests or is of interest); disin'terested.

64. FA'CERE: fa'cio, fac'tum, _to do or make_; _French_ Faire.

FAC: face'tious (Lat. adj. _face'tus_, merry); fac'ile (Lat. adj.

_fa'cilis_, easily done); facil'ity; facil'itate; fac'ulty (Lat. n.

_facul'tas_, power, ability); fac-sim'ile (Lat. adj. _sim'ilis_, like),

literally, _make like_, _an exact copy_; facto'tum (Lat. adj. _to'tum_, the

whole; literally, do the whole), _a servant of all work_.

FIC: ben'efice (see _bene_); def'icit (literally, it is wanting), _a lack_;

defi'ciency; defi'cient; dif'ficult (Lat. adj. _diffic'ilis_, arduous);

ef'ficacy (Lat. adj. _ef'ficax_, _effica'cis_, powerful); effi'cient,

_causing effects_; of'fice (Lat. n. _offic'ium_, a duty); of'ficer;

offi'cial; offi'cious; profi'cient; suffice', literally, _to make up what

is wanting_; suffi'cient.

FACT: fact; fac'tor; fac'tion, _a party acting in opposition_; fac'tious;

facti'tious (Lat. adj. _facti'tius_, artificial); benefac'tor; manufacture

(Lat. n. _ma'nus_, the hand).

FECT: affect' (-ation, -ion); disaffec'tion; confec'tion, literally, _made_

_with sugar_ (-er); defect' (-ion, -ive); effect' (-ive); effect'ual;

infect' (-ion); infec'tious; per'fect, literally, _thoroughly made_ (-ion);

imper'fect (-ion); refec'tion; refec'tory.

FAIRE (past participle _fait_): fash'ion (Fr. n. _facon_, the make or form

of a thing); fea'sible (Old Fr. _faisible_, that may be done); feat;

affair'; coun'terfeit, literally, _to make again_, _to imitate_; for'feit,

(Fr. v. _forfaire_, to misdo), _to lose by some fault_; sur'feit, v., _to

overdo in the way of eating_.

65. FAL'LERE: fal'lo, fal'sum, _to deceive_; _French_ Faillir, _to fall

short or do amiss_.

FALL: fal'lacy; falla'cious; fal'lible; fallibil'ity; infal'lible.

FALS: false (-hood, -ify); falset'to (Ital. n. = a false or artificial

voice).

FAIL: fail'ure; fault (Old Fr. n. _faulte_); fault'y; fal'ter; default'

(-er).

66. FA'NUM, _a temple_.

FAN: fane; fanat'ic (Lat. adj. _fanat'icus_, literally, one inspired by

divinity--the god of the fane), _a wild enthusiast_; fanat'ical;

fanat'icism; profane', v. (literally, to be before or outside of the

temple), _to desecrate_; profane', adj., _unholy_; profana'tion;

profan'ity.

67. FA'RI, fa'tus, _to speak_.

FAT: fate, -al, -ality, -alism, -alist; pref'atory.

Affable (Lat. adj. _affab'ilis_, easy to be spoken to); affabil'ity;

inef'fable; in'fant (Lat. participle, _in'fans_, _infan'tis_, literally,

not speaking) (-ile, -ine); in'fancy; nefa'rious (Lat. adj. _nefa'rius_,

impious); pref'ace (Fr. n. _preface_), _something spoken or written by way

of introduction_.

68. FATE'RI: fa'teor, fas'sus (_in comp._ fes'sus), _to acknowledge, to

show_.

FESS: confess' (-ion, -ional, -or); profess' (-ion, -ional, -or).

69. FELIX, feli'cis, _happy_.

FELIC: -ity, -itous; infeli'city; feli'citate, _to make happy by

congratulation_.

70. FEN'DERE: fen'do, fen'sum, _to keep off, to strike_.[6]

FEND: fend (-er); defend' (-er, -ant); offend' (-er).

FENS: defense' (-ible, -ive); offense' (-ive); fence (n. and v.,

abbreviated from defence);[7] fencer; fencing.

71. FER'RE: fe'ro, la'tum, _to bear, to carry_.

FER: fer'tile (Lat. adj. _fer'tilis_, bearing, fruitful); fertil'ity;

fer'tilize; circum'ference, literally, _a measure carried around anything_;

confer', _to consult_; con'ference; defer'; def'erence; deferen'tial;

dif'fer (-ence, -ent); infer' (-ence); of'fer; prefer' (-able, -ence,

-ment); prof'fer; refer' (-ee, -ence); suf'fer (-ance, -able, -er);

transfer' (-able, -ence); conif'erous (Lat. n. _co'nus_, a cone);

florif'erous (Lat. n. _flos_, _flo'ris_, a flower); fructif'erous (Lat. n.

_fruc'tus_, fruit); Lu'cifer (Lat. n. _lux_, _lucis_, light), _the morning

or evening star, Satan_; pestif'erous (Lat. n. _pes'tis_, pest, plague).

LAT: ab'lative (literally, carrying away; the sixth case of Latin nouns);

collate' (-ion); dilate' (-ory); elate'; ob'late, _flattened at the poles_;

obla'tion, _an offering_; prel'ate; prel'acy; pro'late, _elongated at the

poles_; relate' (-ion, -ive); correla'tion; correl'ative; super'lative;

translate' (-ion); delay' (= dis + lat, through old Fr. verb _delayer_, to

put off).

72. FERVE'RE: fer'veo, _to boil_; Fermen'tum, _leaven_.

FERV: -ent, -ency, -id, -or; effervesce', _to bubble or froth up_;

efferves'cence.

FERMENT: fer'ment, -ation.

73. FES'TUS, _joyful, merry_.

FEST: -al, -ival, -ive, -ivity; feast (Old Fr. _feste_, a joyous meal);

fete (modern Fr. equivalent of _feast_), _a festival_; festoon (Fr. n.

_feston_, originally an ornament for a festival).

74. FID'ERE: fi'do, _to trust_; Fi'des, _faith_; Fide'lis, _trusty_.

FID: confide' (-ant, -ence, -ent, -ential); dif'fidence; dif'fident;

per'fidy (per = through and hence _away from_ good faith); perfid'ious.

FIDEL: fidel'ity; in'fidel; infidel'ity.

Fe'alty (Old Fr. n. _fealte_ = Lat. _fidel'itas_), _loy'alty_; fidu'cial

(Lat. n. _fidu'cia_, trust); fidu'ciary; affi'ance, _to pledge faith_, _to

betroth_; affida'vit (Low Lat., signifying, literally, he made oath), _a

declaration on oath_; defy' (Fr. v. _defier_, originally, to dissolve the

bond of allegiance; hence, to disown, to challenge, to brave).

75. FI'GERE: fi'go, fix'um, _to join, fix, pierce_.

FIX: affix'; cru'cifix (Lat. n. _crux_, _cru'cis_, a cross); cru'cify;

fix'ture; post'fix; pre'fix; suf'fix (n., literally, something fixed below

or on; hence, appended); transfix', _to pierce through_.

76. FIN'GERE: fin'go, fic'tum, _to form, to feign_; Figu'ra, _a shape_.

FICT: fic'tion; ficti'tious.

FIGUR: fig'ure; figura'tion; configura'tion; disfig'ure; prefig'ure;

transfig'ure.

Feign (Fr. v. _feindre_, _feignant_, to pretend); feint (_feint_, past

part. of _feindre_); ef'figy (Lat. n. _effig'ies_, an image or likeness);

fig'ment (Lat. n. _figmen'tum_, an invention).

FINIS. (See page 40).

77. FIR'MUS, _strong, stable_.

FIRM: firm; firm'ness; infirm' (-ary, -ity); fir'mament, originally, _firm

foundation_; affirm' (-ation, -ative); confirm' (-ation, -ative).

78. FLAM'MA, _a stream of fire_.

FLAM: flame; inflame' (-able, -ation, -atory).

Flambeau' (Fr. n. _flambeau_ from v. _flamber_, to blaze); flamin'go (Span.

n. _flamenco_), _a bird of a flaming red color_.

EXERCISE.

Age does not always _exempt_ one from _faults_. _Peremptory _orders were

given that all the princes should be _present_ at the _diet_. Many

_beneficial_ results must come from the _introduction_ of drawing into the

public schools. The lady is _affable_ and _perfectly_ free from

_affectation_. The field is _fertile_ and _produces_ abundant crops. The

_professor's_ lecture _related_ to _edentate_ animals. Men sometimes

_feign_ a _fealty_ they do not feel. The lady _professed_ that her

_felicity_ was ineffable. The King seized a _flambeau_ with zeal to

destroy. It is a _nefarious_ act to make a _false affidavit_. _Fanaticism_

is often _infectious_. The _confirmed offender_ had issued many

_counterfeits_. Dickens gives us the _quintessence_ of the _facetious_. In

_figure_ the earth is an _oblate_ spheroid.

79. FLEC'TERE: flec'to, flex'um, _to bend_.

FLECT: deflect' (-ion); inflect' (-ion) ; reflect' (-ion, -ive, -or).

FLEX: -ible, -ile, -ion, -or (a muscle that bends a joint), -ure;

flex'-uous; flex'uose; cir'cumflex; re'flex.

80. FLOS, flo'ris, _a flower_.

FLOR: -al, -et, -id, -ist; Flo'ra, _the goddess of flowers_; flor'iculture

(Lat. n. _cultu'ra_, cultivation); florif'erous (Lat. v. _fer're_, to

bear); flor'in (originally, a Florentine coin with a lily on it); flour

(literally, the _flower_ or choicest part of wheat); flow'er (-et, -y);

flour'ish (Lat. v. _flores'cere_, to begin to blossom, to prosper);

efflores'cence; efflores'cent.

FLUERE. (See page 41.)

81. FOE'DUS, foed'eris, _a league or treaty_.

FEDER: fed'eral; fed'eralist (in the United States a member of the party

that favored a strong league of the States); fed'erate; confed'erate;

confed'eracy; confedera'tion.

82. FO'LIUM, _a leaf_.

FOLI: -aceous, -age, -ate; fo'lio (ablative case of _fo'lium_, a leaf), _a

book made of sheets folded once_; exfo'liate, _to come off in scales_;

foil, _a thin leaf of metal_; tre'foil, _a plant with three (tres) leaves_;

cinque'foil (Fr. _cinque_, five).

83. FOR'MA, _shape, form_.

FORM: form (-al, -ality); conform' (-able, -ation, -ity); deform' (-ity);

inform' (-ant, -er, -ation); perform' (-ance, -er); reform' (-ation,

-atory, -er); transform' (-ation); for'mula (Lat. n. _for'mula_, pl.

_for'mulae_, a little form, a model); for'mulate; mul'tiform (Lat. adj.

_mul'tus_, many); u'niform (Lat. adj. _u'nus_, one).

84. FOR'TIS, _strong_.

FORT: fort; for'tress, _a fortified place_; for'tify; fortifica'tion;

for'titude; com'fort, n., _something that strengthens or cheers_ (-able,

-er, -less); discom'fort; effort, _a putting forth of one's strength_;

force (Fr. n. _force_, strength); for'cible; enforce' (-ment); reinforce'

(-ment).

85. FRAN'GERE: fran'go, frac'tum, _to break_; Fra'gilis, _easily

broken_.

FRANG, FRING: fran'gible (-ibility); infran'gible; infringe' (-ment);

refran'gible.

FRACT: frac'tion; frac'tious; fract'ure; infract' (-ion); refract' (-ion,

-ory).

Fra'gile; frag'ment; frail (old Fr. ad; _fraile_ = Lat. _fra'gilis_);

frail'ty.

86. FRA'TER, fra'tris, _a brother_; Frater'nus, _brotherly_.

FRATR: frat'ricide (Lat. v. _caed'ere_, to kill).

FRATERN: -al, -ity, -ize; confrater'nity.

Fri'ar (Fr. n. _frere_, a brother); fri'ary.

87. FRONS, fron'tis, _the forehead_.

FRONT: front (-age, -al, -less, -let); affront'; confront'; effront'ery;

fron'tier (Fr. n. _frontiere_); front'ispiece (Lat. n. _frontispi'cium_,

from _frons_ and _spic'ere_, to view; literally, that which is seen in

front).

88 FRU'OR: fruc'tus, _to enjoy_; Fru'ges, _corn_; French Fruit, _fruit_.

FRUCT: -ify, -ification; fructif'erous (Lat. v. _fer're_, to bear).

FRUG: -al, -ality; frugif'erous (Lat. v. _fer're_, to bear).

FRUIT: fruit; fruit'erer; fruit'ful; frui'tion.

89. FU'GERE: fu'gio, fu'gitum, _to flee_.

FUG: fuga'cious; centrif'ugal (Lat. n. _cen'trum_, the center); feb'rifuge

(Lat. n. _fe'bris_, fever); fugue (Lat. n. _fu'ga_, a flight), _a musical

composition_; ref'uge (-ee); sub'terfuge; ver'mifuge (Lat. n. _ver'mis_, a

worm).

FUGIT: fu'gitive (adj. and n.).

90. FU'MUS, _smoke_.

FUM: fume; fu'mid; fumif'erous (Lat. v. _fer're_, to bear), _producing

smoke_; fu'matory, _a plant with bitter leaves_; per'fume (-er, -ery).

Fu'migate (Lat. v. _fumiga're_, _fumiga'tum_, to smoke), _to disinfect_;

fumiga'tion; fu'migatory.

91. FUN'DERE: fun'do, fu'sum, _to pour_.

FUND: refund'; found (Fr. v. _fondre_ = Lat. _fun'dere_), _to form by

pouring into a mould_ (-er, -ery); confound' (Fr. v. _confondre_,

literally, to pour together; hence, to confuse).

FUS: fuse (-ible, -ion); confuse' (-ion); diffuse' (-ion, -ive); effuse'

(-ion, -ive); infuse' (-ion); profuse' (-ion); refuse' (-al); suffuse'

(-ion); transfuse' (-ion).

92. GER'ERE: ge'ro, ges'tum, _to bear or carry_.

GER: ger'und, _a Latin verbal noun_; bellig'erent (Lat. n. _bel'lum_, war);

con'geries (Lat. n. _conge'ries_, a collection); vicege'rent (Lat. _vi'ce_,

in place of), _one bearing rule in place of another_.

GEST: gest'ure; gestic'ulate (Lat. n. _gestic'ulus_, a mimic gesture);

gesticula'tion; congest' (-ion, -ive); digest', literally, _to carry

apart_: hence, _to dissolve food in the stomach_ (-ible, -ion, -ive);

suggest', literally, _to bear into the mind from below_, that is,

_indirectly_ (-ion, -ive); reg'ister (Lat. v. _reger'ere_, to carry back,

to record); reg'istrar; registra'tion; reg'istry.

93. GIG'NERE: gig'no, gen'itum, _to beget_; Gens, gen'tis, _a clan or

nation_, Ge'nus, gen'eris, _a kind_.

GENIT: gen'itive, _a case of Latin nouns_; congen'ital, _born with one_;

primogen'itor (Lat. adj. _pri'mus_, first), _an ancestor_; primogen'iture,

_ state of being first born_; progen'itor, _an ancestor_.

GENT: genteel' (Lat. adj. _genti'lis_, pertaining to the same clan; hence,

of good family or birth); gentil'ity; gen'tle (_genti'lis_, of good birth),

_mild, refined_; gen'try (contracted from gentlery), _a class in English

society_; gen'tile, _belonging to a nation other than the Jewish_.

GENER: gen'eral (-ity, -ize); gen'erate (Lat. _genera're, genera'tum_, to

produce); genera'tion; regenera'tion; gener'ic; gen'erous; generos'ity;

con'gener, _of the same kind_; degen'erate, _to fall off from the original

kind_; degen'eracy.

Gen'der (Fr. n. _genre_ = Lat. _ge'nus, gen'eris_), _the kind of a noun as

regards the sex of the object_; gen'ial (Lat. adj. _genia'lis_, cheerful);

gen'ius (Lat. n. _ge'nius_, originally, the divine nature innate in

everything); gen'uine (Lat. adj. _genui'nus_, literally, proceeding from

the original stock; hence, natural, true); ge'nus, a kind including many

species; engen'der (Fr. v. _engendrer_, to beget); ingen'ious (Lat. adj.

_ingenio'sus_, acute, clever); ingen'uous (Lat. adj. _ingen'uus_, frank,

sincere).

94. GRA'DI: gra'dior, gres'sus, _to walk_.

GRAD: grada'tion; gra'dient (_gra'diens, gradien'tis_, pres. part. of v.

_gradi_), _rate of ascent, grade_; grad'ual (Lat. n. _gradus_, a step);

grad'uate; degrade' (-ation); ingre'dient (Lat. part. _ingre'diens_,

entering); ret'rograde.

GRESS: aggres'sion; aggres'sive; con'gress (-ional); digress' (-ion);

e'gress; in'gress; prog'ress (-ion, -ive); retrogres'sion; transgress'

(-ion, -or).

Grade (Fr. n. _grade_ = Lat. _gra'dus_, degree or rank); degree' (Fr. n.

_degre_ = _de_ + _gradus_).

95. GRA'TUS, thankful, _pleasing_.

GRAT: grate'ful; gra'tis (Lat. _gra'tiis_, by favor, for nothing)

grat'itude; gratu'ity; gratu'itous; grat'ify (-ication); congrat'ulate

(-ion, -ory); ingra'tiate.

Grace (Fr. _grace_ = Lat. _gra'tia_, favor, grace); grace'ful; gra'cious;

grace'less; disgrace'; agree' (Fr. v. _agreer_, to receive kindly), -able,

-ment; disagree'.

96. GRA'VIS, _heavy_.

GRAV: _grave_, literally, _heavy_: hence, _serious_; grav'ity;

gravita'tion; ag'gravate (-ion).

Grief (Fr. _grief_ = Lat. _gra'vis_), literally, _heaviness of spirit,

sorrow_; grieve; griev'ance; griev'ous.

GREX. (See page 41.)

97. HABE'RE: ha'beo, hab'itum, _to have or hold_; HABITA'RE,

hab'ito, habita'tum, _to use frequently, to dwell_.

HABIT: habit'ual; habit'uate; hab'itude; hab'itable; hab'itat, _the natural

abode of an animal or a plant_; habita'tion; cohab'it; inhab'it (-able,

-ant).

HIBIT: exhib'it, literally, _to hold out, to show_ (-ion, -or); inhib'it

(-ion); prohib'it (-ion, -ory).

Hab'it (Lat. _hab'itus_, state or dress); habil'iment (Fr. n.

_habillement_, from v. _habiller_, to dress); a'ble (Lat. adj. _hab'ilis_,

literally, that may be easily held or managed; hence, apt, skillful.)

98. HAERE'RE: hae'reo, hae'sum, _to stick_.

HER: adhere' (-ency, -ent); cohere' (-ence, -ency, -ent); inhere' (-ent).

HES: adhe'sion; adhe'sive; cohe'sion; cohe'sive.

Hes'itate (Lat. v. _haesita're, haesita'ium, _to be at a stand, to doubt);

hes'itancy ; hesita'tion.

99. HAERES, haere'dis, _an heir or heiress_; French Heriter, _to be heir

to_.

HERED: hered'itary, _descending to heirs_.

HERIT: her'itable ; her'itage ; inher'it (-ance); disinher'it.

Heir (Old Fr. _heir_ = Lat. _hae'res_); heir'ess; heir'loom (Anglo-Saxon

_geloma_, goods).

100. HO'MO, hom'inis, _a man_; Huma'nus, _human_.

HOM: hom'age (Fr. _hommage_, literally, acknowledgment by a _man_ or vassal

to his feudal lord); homicide (Lat. v. _caed'ere_, to kill)

HUMAN: hu'man, _belonging to a man_; humane', _having the feelings proper

to a man, kind_; human'ity; hu'manize; inhu'man.

EXERCISE.

_Floral devices_ were tastefully _introduced_. The _friar_ gives himself to

_reflection_, and does not care a _florin_ for worldly pleasures. The tree

is covered with _foliage_, but bears no _fruit_. The rights of the

_fraternity_ have been _infringed_. The metal was _fused_ in iron pans. By

the law of _primogeniture_ the eldest son will _succeed_ to the estate.

_Congress_ met, and a _general_ of the army was chosen president. The

_gradient_ is _gentle_, and the _access_ easy. The _reform_ of the

_refractory_ was in the highest _degree genuine_. We _received_ our

_frugal_ meal with _gratitude_. Many of the _inhabitants_ perished in the

_flames_. Hamilton and Jay were leading _federalists_. To err is _human_;

to forgive, _divine_. The boy _gesticulated_ violently, but it was a mere

_subterfuge_. Your words _infuse comfort_ into my heart. May one not be

_human_ without being _humane_? Do you know the _difference_ between the

_genitive_ and the _ablative case_?

101. HU'MUS, _the earth_; Hu'milis, _on the ground, lowly_.

HUM: exhume' (-ation); inhume.

HUMIL: humil'ity; humil'iate (-ion); hum'ble (Fr. adj. _humble_ = Lat.

_hu'milis_).

IRE. (See page 41.)

102. JA'CERE: ja'cio, jac'tum, _to throw or cast_.

JECT: ab'ject; ad'jective; conject'ure (-al); deject'ed; dejec'tion; eject'

(-ion, -ment); inject' (-ion); interject' (-ion); object' (-ion, -ionable,

-ive, -or); project' (-ile, -ion, -or); reject' (-ion); subject' (-ion,

-ive); traject'ory.

Ejac'ulate (Lat. v. _ejacula're, ejacula'tum_, to hurl or throw);

ejacula'tion; ejac'ulatory; jet (Fr. v. _jeter = ja'cere_); jet'ty; jut.

103. JUN'GERE: jun'go, junc'tum, _to join_; Ju'gum, _a yoke_.

JUNCT: junc'tion; junct'ure, _a point of time made critical by a joining of

circumstances_; ad'junct; conjunc'tion; conjunc'tive; disjunc'tion;

disjunc'tive; injunc'tion; subjunc'tive (literally, joined subordinately to

something else).

JUG: con'jugal, _relating to marriage; _conjugate (-ion); sub'jugate

(-ion).

Join (Fr. v. _joindre_ = Lat. _jun'gere_); adjoin'; conjoin'; disjoin';

enjoin'; rejoin'; subjoin'; joint (Fr. part, _joint_ = Lat. _junc'tum_);

joint'ure, _property settled on a wife_, _to be enjoyed after her husband's

death_; jun'ta (Spanish _junta_ = Lat. _junc'tus_, joined), _a grand

council of state in Spain; _jun'to (Span, _junt_), _a body of men united

for some secret intrigue_.

104. JURA'RE: ju'ro, jura'tum, _to swear_.

JUR: ju'ry; ju'ror; abjure'; adjure'; conjure'; con'jure, _to effect

something as if by an oath of magic_; con'jurer; per'jure, _to forswear_;

per'jurer; per'jury.

105. JUS, ju'ris, _right law_; Jus'tus, _lawful_; Ju'dex, ju'dicis,

_a judge_.

JUR: jurid'ical (Lat. v. _dica're_, to pronounce), _relating to the

administration of justice_; jurisdic'tion, _legal authority_;

jurispru'dence, _science of law_; ju'rist; in'jure; in'jury.

JUST: just; jus'tice; justi'ciary; jus'tify; justifica'tion.

JUDIC: ju'dicature, _profession of a judge_; judi'cious, _according to

sound judgment_; prej'udice, n., _judgment formed beforehand_;

prejudi'cial; judge (Fr. n. _juge_ = Lat. _ju'dex_); judg'ment; prejudge'.

106. LE'GERE: le'go, lec'tum, _to gather, to read_.

LEG: le'gend (originally, stories of saints to be read--_legen'da_--in

church); leg'endary; leg'ible; le'gion (originally, a body of troops

_gathered_ or levied--_le'gio_); el'egance; el'egant; sac'rilege

(originally, the gathering or stealing of something sacred--_sa'crum_).

LIG: dil'igent (originally, esteeming highly; hence, assiduous): el'igible;

intel'ligible; intel'ligence; intel'ligent; neg'ligent (literally,

not--_neg_ = _nec_ = not--picking up).

LECT: lect'ure (-er); collect' (-ion, -ive, -or); recollect' (-ion);

eclec'tic (Greek _ec_ = _ex_) ; elect' (-ion, -or, -oral); in'tellect;

neglect'; predilec'tion, _a liking for_; select' (-ion) ; les'son (Fr. n.

_lecon_ = Lat. _lec'tio_, a reading).

107. LEVA'RE: le'vo, leva'tum, _to raise_; Le'vis, _easily raised, light_;

_French_ Lever, _to rise or raise_.

LEV: lev'ity; levita'tion; alle'viate (-ion); el'evate (-ion); rel'evant,

literally, _raising up_: hence, _pertinent, applicable_; rel'evancy;

irrel'evant.

LEVER: leav'en (Fr. _levain_, yeast); Levant', literally, _the place of the

rising sun--the countries near the eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea_;

lev'ee; le'ver (-age); lev'y.

LEX. (See page 43.)

108. LI'BER, _free_.

LIBER: -al, -ality, -alize, -ate, -ator, -ty.

Deliv'er (Fr. v. _delivrer_ = Lat. _delibera're_, to set free);

deliv'erance; deliv'ery.

LITERA. (See page 43.)

109. LO'CUS: _a place_.

LOC: -al, -ality, -alize, -ate; locomo'tive (Lat. v. _move're_, to move);

al'locate; col'locate (-ion); dis'locate (-ion).

110. LO'QUI: lo'quor, locu'tus, _to speak_.

LOQU: loqua'cious ; loqua'city ; col'loquy; collo'quial ; el'oquent;

magnil'oquent (Lat. adj. _mag'nus_, big, pompous); ob'loquy; solil'oquy

(Lat. adj. _so'lus_, alone); ventril'oquist (Lat. n. _ven'ter_, the

stomach).

LOCUT: circumlocu'tion; elocu'tion; interloc'utor.

111. LU'DERE: lu'do, lu'sum, _to play or deceive_.

LUD: lu'dicrous (Lat. adj. _lu'dicrus_, sportive, laughable); allude',

literally, _to play at, to refer to indirectly_; delude'; elude'; prelude'.

LUS: allu'sion; collu'sion; delu'sion; delu'sive; illu'sion; prelu'sive;

prelu'sory.

112. LUX, lu'cis, _light_; Lu'men, lu'minis, _light_.

LUC: Lu'cifer (Lat. v. _fer're_, to bear); lu'cid; elu'cidate;

translu'cent.

LUMIN: lu'minary; lu'minous; illu'minate; illu'mine.

113. MAG'NUS, _great_; Ma'jor, _greater_; Magis'ter, _master_.

MAGN: magnanim'ity (Lat. n. _an'imus_, soul); mag'nate, _a man of rank_;

mag'nify (-er); magnif'icent (Lat. v. _fac'ere_, to make), _showing

grandeur_; mag'nitude.

MAJ: maj'esty (-ic); ma'jor (-ity); may'or; may'oralty.

MAGISTER: mag'istrate; mag'istracy; magiste'rial; mas'ter (Old Fr.

_maistre_ = Lat. _magis'ter); _mis'tress (Old Fr. _maistresse_ = Lat

_magis'tra_, fem. of _magis'ter_).

114. MA'NUS, _the hand_; _French_ Main, _the hand_.

MAN: man'acle (Lat. n. _man'ica_, a fetter); manip'ulate, _to work with the

hand_ (-ion, -or); man'ual; manufact'ure (Lat. v. _fac'ere_, to make);

manufac'tory; manumit' (Lat. v. _mit'tere_, to send); man'uscript (Lat. v.

_scrib'ere, scrip'tum_, to write); amanuen'sis (= _ab_ + _ma'nus), one who

does handwriting for another_; eman'cipate (Lat. v. _cap'ere_, to take);

quadru'manous (Lat. _quatuor_, four).

MAIN: man'ner (Fr. n. _maniere_, originally, the mode in which a thing is

_handled_); maneu'ver (Fr. n. _manoeuvre_, literally, hand work; Fr. n.

_oeuvre = o'pus_, work); manure', _v_. (contracted from Fr. _manoeuvrer_,

to cultivate by manual labor).

115. MA'RE, _the sea_.

Marine' (Lat. adj. _mari'nus_, pertaining to the sea); mar'iner; mar'itime

(Lat. adj. _mariti'mus_ = _mari'nus_); submarine'; transmarine';

ultramarine'; mermaid (Fr. n. _mer_ = Lat. _ma're_).

116. ME'DIUS, _the middle_.

Mediae'val (Lat. n. _ae'vum_, age), _relating to the Middle Ages_; me'diate

(-ion, -or); me'diocre (Lat. adj. _medio'cris_, middling; hence inferior);

medioc'rity; Mediterra'nean (Lat. n. _ter'ra_, land); me'dium (Lat. n.

_me'dium_, the middle) ; imme'diate (prefix _in_ = not), _with nothing

intervening_; interme'diate.

117. MENINIS'SE: mem'ini, _to remember_; Me'mor, _mindful_; MEMORA'RE

mem'oro, memora'tum, _to remember, to mention_.

MEMINISSE: memen'to (imper. mood; literally, _remember thou), a reminder, a

memorial_.

MEMOR: mem'orable; memoran'dum (Lat. _memoran'dus_, p. part. of

_memora're_; literally, something to be remembered); commem'orate (-ion,

-ive); mem'ory (Lat. n. _memo'ria_); memo'rial (-ize); immemo'rial.

Mem'oir (Fr. n. _memoire_ = Lat. _memoran'dum_); men'tion (Fr. n. _mention_

= Lat. _men'tio_, a speaking of); remem'ber (Old Fr. v. _remembrer = Lat.

remem'orare_); remem'brance; remem'brancer; reminis'cence (Fr. n.

_reminiscence_, from Lat. v. _reminis'ci_, to recall to mind).

118. MENS, men'tis, _the mind_.

MENT: men'tal; dement'ed; demen'tia, _insanity_; ve'hement (Lat. adj.

_ve'hemens = ve_, not, and _mens_; literally, not reasonable), _furious,

ardent_.

EXERCISE.

We _reject_ insincere _homage_. When the body was _exhumed_ the _jury

decided_ that poison had been administered. _Legendary_ stories were

_related_ by the _friar_. The _lessons_ were _selected_ with _intelligence.

Levity_ and _gravity_ are _different_ qualities. The _mayor's_ speech was

more _ludicrous_ than _facetious_. The _magistrate_ claimed _jurisdiction_

in the _locality_. We heard Hamlet's _soliloquy_ finely _delivered_. Do you

_recollect_ the _magnificent_ lines at the beginning of "Paradise Lost"?

The _lecturer_ was _lucid_ in his _allusions_. In _mediaeval_ times _homage_

was exacted of all vassals. The _mariners maneuvered_ beautifully. Your

_magnificent donation_ will be _gratefully remembered_. The _mermaid_ is a

mere _delusion. Illegible manuscript_ is a _decided nuisance_. The eastern

part of the _Mediterranean_ is called the _Levant_. Franklin's _memoirs_

are very interesting.

119. MER'CES, _hire_; Merx, mer'cis, _merchandise_.

MERC: mer'cantile (Lat. part. _mer'cans, mercan'tis_); mer'cenary (Lat.

adj. _mercena'rius_); mer'cer (Fr. n. _mercier_), _one who deals in silks

and woolens_; mer'chant (Lat. part, _mer'cans_); mer'chandise; com'merce

(Fr. n. _commerce_); commer'cial; mar'ket (Lat. n. _merca'tus_, a place of

public traffic).

120. MER'GERE: mer'go, mer'sum, _to dip, to sink_.

MERG: merge; emerge'; emer'gency, _that which arises suddenly_; submerge'.

MERS: emer'sion; immerse'.

121. MIGRA'RE: migro, migra'tum, _to remove_.

MIGR: em'igrant (Lat. part. _mi'grans, migran'tis_).

MIGRAT: mi'grate (-ion, -ory); em'igrate (-ion); im'migrate (-ion);

transmigra'tion, _the passage of the soul into another body after death_.

122. MI'LES, mil'itis, _a soldier_.

MILIT: -ary, -ant; mil'itate, _to act against_; mili'tia, _enrolled

soldiers not in a standing army_.

123. MINE'RE: min'eo, min'itum, _to hang over_.

MIN. em'inent (Lat. part, _em'inens, _standing out); em'inence ; im'minent,

literally, _threatening to fall_; pre-em'inent; pre-em'inence; prom'inent;

prom'inence; superem'inent.

124. MINU'ERE: min'uo, minu'tum, _to lessen_; Mi'nor, _less_;

Mi'nus, _less_.

MINUT: minute'; minu'tiae (pl. of Lat. n. _minu'tia_, a very small object);

min'uend (Lat. part, _minuen'dus_, to be lessened); min'uet (Fr. n.

_minuet_ = Lat. adj. _minu'tus, _small), _a dance of small steps_;

dimin'ish (Lat. v. _diminu'ere_, to lessen); diminu'tion; dimin'utive.

MINOR: mi'nor, _n_. and a.; minor'ity.

MINUS: mi'nus (Lat. adj. comp. deg., less); min'imum (Lat. adj. super,

deg., least); min'im.

125. MINIS'TER, _a servant or attendant_.

MINISTER: min'ister ; ministe'rial; min'istry ; admin'ister;

administra'tion; admin'istrative; administra'tor.

126. MIRA'RI: mi'ror, mira'tus, _to wonder_.

MIR: admire' (-able, -ation); mir'acle (Lat. n. _mirac'ulum_, a wonderful

thing); mirac'ulous.

Mirage' (Fr. n. _mirage_, a reflection); mir'ror (Fr. n. _miroir_, from v.

_mirer_, to view).

127. MISCE'RE: mis'ceo, mix'tum, _to mingle_.

MISC: mis'cellany; miscella'neous; promis'cuous.

MIXT: mix; mixt'ure; admixt'ure; intermix'.

128. MI'SER, _wretched_.

MISER: mi'ser (-able); mis'ery; commis'erate (-ion).

129. MIT'TERE: mit'to, mis'sum, _to send or cast_.

MIT: admit' (-ance); commit' (-ee, -ment); demit'; emit'; intermit' (-ent);

manumit' (Lat. n. _manus_, the hand), _to release from slavery_; omit';

permit'; pretermit'; remit' (-ance); submit'; transmit'; mit'timus (Lat.

_we send_), _a warrant of commitment to prison_.

MISS: mis'sile; mis'sion (-ary); admis'sible; admis'sion; com'missary, _an

officer who furnishes provisions for an army_; commissa'riat; commis'sion

(-er); com'promise; demise', _death_; em'issary; intermis'sion; omis'sion;

permis'sion; premise'; prem'ises; prom'ise (-ory); remiss' (-ion);

submis'sion; submis'sive; transmis'sion; transmis'sible.

130. MODERA'RI: mod'eror, modera'tus, _to keep within bounds_;

Mo'dus, _a measure or manner_.

MODERAT: mod'erate (-ion, -or); immod'erate.

MOD: mode; mood; mod'ify (-able, -er); modifica'tion; accom'modate (-ion);

commode' (Lat. adj. _com'modus_, convenient). _a small sideboard_;

commo'dious, literally, _measured with_; commod'ity, literally, _a

convenience_; incommode'; mod'ern (Lat. adv. _mo'do_, lately, just now);

mod'ernize; mod'ulate (Lat. n. _mod'ulus_, a measuring of tones);

modula'tion.

131. MONE'RE: mo'neo, mon'itum, _to remind, to warn_.

MON: admon'ish; mon'ument (Lat. n. _monumen'tum_); premon'ish; sum'mon

(Lat. v. _summone're_ = _sub_ + _mone're_, to remind privily), _to call by

authority_.

MONIT: mon'itor (-ial); admoni'tion; admon'itory; premoni'tion;

premon'itory.

132. MONS, mon'tis, _a mountain_.

MOUNT: mount, n. _a high hill_; v. _to rise or ascend_; moun'tain (-eer,

-ous); mount'ebank (It. n. _banco_, a bench); amount'; dismount';

par'amount (Fr. _par_ = Lat. _per_, exceedingly), _of the highest

importance_; prom'ontory (literally, the _fore_-part or projecting part of

a mountain); remount'; surmount' (-able); tan'tamount (Lat. adj. _tan'tus_,

so much); ultramon'tane (literally, beyond the Alps; i. e. on the Italian

side).

133. MONSTRA'RE: mon'stro, monstra'tum, _to point out, to show_.

MONSTR: mon'ster; mon'strous; monstros'ity; mus'ter, literally, _to show

up_, _to display_.

MONSTRAT: dem'onstrate (-able, -ion, -ive); remon'strate; remon'strance.

134. MORDE'RE: mor'deo, mor'sum, _to bite_.

MORD: mor'dant, _biting_, _serving to fix colors_; morda'cious (Lat. adj.

_mor'dax_, _morda'cis_, biting), _severe_, _sarcastic_.

MORS: mor'sel, literally, _a little bite_; remorse', _the biting of

conscience_ (-ful, -less).

MORS. (See page 44.)

135. MOS, mo'ris, _manner, custom_; _pl._ Mo'res, _manners or morals_.

MOR: mor'al (ist, -ity, -ize); immor'al (-ity); demor'alize (-ation).

136. MOVE'RE: mo'veo, mo'tum, _to move_.

MOV: move (-able, -er, -ment); remove' (-able, -al).

MOT: (-ive, -or); commo'tion; emo'tion (-al); locomo'tion (Lat. n.

_lo'cus_; a place); promote' (-er, -ion); remote' (-ness).

Mob (Lat. adj. _mob'ilis_, easily moved); mo'bile (-ity); momen'tum, _the

force of a moving body_, _impetus_.

137. MUL'TUS, multi, _many, much_.

MULTI: mul'titude; multitu'dinous; multifa'rious; mul'tiform; mul'tiple

(Lat. adj. _mul'tiplus_ for _mul'tiplex_, manifold); mul'tiply (Lat. adj.

_mul'tiplex_); mul'tiplicate (-ion); multiplic'ity.

138. MU'NUS, mu'neris, _a gift, a service_.

MUN. munic'ipal (Lat. n. _municip'ium_, a free town), _pertaining to a

corporation_; municipal'ity; munif'icent; munif'icence; com'mon (Lat. adj.

_commu'nis_ = _con_ + _munus_; literally, ready to be of service);

commune', _v._ literally, _to share (discourse) in common_; commun'ion,

commu'nity; com'munism; com'munist; commun'icate (-ion, -ive);

commu'nicant; excommu'nicate; immu'nity (_in_ + _munus_; literally, absence

of service).

MUNER: remunerate (-ion, -ive).

139. MUTA'RE: mu'to, muta'tum, _to change_.

MUT: mu'table (-ity); immu'table; commute'; transmute' (-able).

MUTAT: muta'tion; commutation; transmuta'tion.

140. NAS'CI: nas'cor, _na'tus, to be born, to grow_; Natu'ra, _nature_.

NASC: nas'cent, _growing_; renaissance' (a style of decorative art

_revived_ by Raphael).

NAT: na'tal; na'tion, originally, _a distinct race or stock_ (-al, -ality,

-ize); interna'tional; na'tive (-ity); cog'nate; in'nate.

NATUR: nat'ural (-ist, -ize, -ization); preternat'ural; supernat'ural.

141. NA'VIS, _a ship_.

NAV: nave, _the middle or body of a church_; na'val; na'vy; nau'tical (Lat.

adj. _nau'ticus_, from _nauta_ or _nav'ita_, a sailor); nav'igate (Lat. v.

_naviga're_ = _na'vis_ + _ag'ere_); nav'igable; naviga'tion; nav'igator;

circumnavigate.

142. NEC'TERE: nec'to, nex'um, _to tie or bind_.

NECT: connect' (-ion, -ive); disconnect' (-ion).

NEX: annex'; annexation.

EXERCISE.

The _administration_ of affairs is in the hands of her _majesty's

ministers_. A _miscellaneous collection_ of goods was sold on _commission_.

The _merchant remitted_ the money called for in the _emergency_. The

_suggestion_ to _modify_ the plan was _tantamount_ to its _rejection_. Do

you _admire_ Bunker Hill _Monument_? A _miser_ is an object of

_commiseration_ to all who know him. _Remuneration_ will be allowed

according to the _amount_ of labor. The _major_ has been _promoted_ to the

rank of colonel. All who were _connected_ with the _movement_ were

_excommunicated_. As the _annexed_ territory is chiefly _maritime_ it will

greatly _increase_ the _commerce_ of the _nation_. The _monitor admonished_

the pupils with great _gentleness_. The _committee_ said the _master_ had

done his work in an _admirable_ manner. The _Pilgrim_ Fathers _emigrated_

to this country in 1620. A _minute missile moved_ towards us. What is the

_subjunctive mood_ or _mode_? A _multitude_ of _communists_ appeared in

Paris.

143. NEGA'RE: ne'go, nega'tum, _to deny_.

NEGAT: nega'tion; neg'ative; ab'negate (-ion); ren'egade, _an apostate_.

Deny' (Fr. v. _denier_ = Lat. _de_ + _nega're_, to contradict); deni'al;

undeni'able.

144. NEU'TER, neu'trum, _neither of the two_.

NEUTR: neu'ter; neu'tral (-ity, -ize).

145. NOCE'RE: no'ceo, no'citum, _to hurt_.

NOC: no'cent, _hurtful_; in'nocent; in'nocence; innoc'uous.

Nox'ious (Lat. adj. _nox'ius_, hurtful); obnox'ious; nui'sance (Fr. v.

_nuire_ = Lat. _noce're_).

146. NO'MEN, nom'inis, _a name_.

NOMEN: nomenclat'ure, _a list of technical names_; cogno'men, _a surname_.

NOMIN: nom'inal; nom'inate (-ion, -ive); nominee'; denom'inate (-ion, -or);

ig'nominy (Lat. _i(n)_ + _gnomen_, old form of _nomen_, a deprivation of

one's good name); ignomin'ious.

Noun (Fr. n. _nom_ = Lat. _no'men_); pro'noun; misno'mer (Old Fr. _mes_ =

wrong, and _nommer_, to name), _a wrong name_.

NORMA. (See page 45.)

147. NOS'CERE: nos'co, no'tum, _to know_; No'ta, _a mark_.

NOT: note (-able, -ary, -ice, -ify, -ion); no'ticeable; notifica'tion;

noto'rious (Lat. adj. _noto'rius_, making known), _known in a bad sense_;

notori'ety; an'notate (-ion); denote'.

No'ble (Lat. adj. _no'bilis_, deserving to be known); noblesse' (Fr. n.

_noblesse_ = Lat. _nobil'itas_); nobil'ity; enno'ble; igno'ble (Lat. prefix

_i(n)_ + _gnobilis_, old form of _nobilis_); cog'nizance (Old Fr.

_cognizance_ = Lat. _cognoscen'tia_, notice or knowledge), _judicial

observation_; connoisseur' (Fr. n. _connoisseur_, a critical judge);

incog'nito (Italian _incognito_, from Lat. part. _incog'nitus_, unknown),

_unknown, in disguise_; rec'ognize (Lat. _re_, again, and _cognos'cere_, to

know); recog'nizance, _a term in law_; recogni'tion; reconnoi'ter (Fr. v.

reconnoitre), _to survey, to examine_.

148. NO'VUS, _new_.

NOV: in'novate (-ion, -or); ren'ovate (-ion, -or).

Nov'el (Lat. adj. _novel'lus_, diminutive of _no'vus_); adj. _something

new, out of the usual course_; n., literally, _a story new and out of the

usual course_; nov'elist; nov'elty; nov'ice, _a beginner_; novi'tiate,

_time of being a novice_.

149. NU'MERUS, _a number_.

NUMER: (-al, -ate, -ation, -ator, -ic, -ical, -ous); enu'merate (Lat. v.

_enumera're_, _enumera'tum_, to count or tell of), _to reckon up singly_;

enumera'tion; innu'merable (= _in_ + _nu'mer_ + _able_, that may not be

counted); supernu'merary, _one above the necessary number_; num'ber (Old

Fr. n. _numbre_ = Lat. _nu'merus_).

150. NUNCIA'RE: nuncio, nuncia'tum, _to announce_; Nun'cius, _a

messenger_.

NUNCIAT: enun'ciate, _to utter_ (-ion); denuncia'tion; pronuncia'tion;

renuncia'tion, _disavowal, relinquishment_.

Nun'cio (Sp. n. _nuncio_ = Lat. _nun'cius), a messenger from the Pope_;

announce' (Fr. v. _annoncer_ = Lat. _ad_ + _nuncia're_), _to proclaim_;

announce'ment; denounce' (Fr. v. _denoncer_ = Lat. _de_ + _nuncia're_), _to

accuse publicly_; pronounce' (Fr. v. _prononcer_ = Lat. _pro_ +

_nuncia're_); pronounce'able; renounce' (Fr. v. _renoncer_ = Lat. _re_ +

_nuncia're_), _to disclaim_; renounce'ment.

151. NUTRI'RE: nu'trio, nutri'tum, _to nourish_.

NUTRI: nu'triment, _that which nourishes_; nutri'tion; nutri'tious;

nu'tritive.

Nour'ish (Fr. v. _nourrir_ = Lat. _nutri'ere_); nurse (Fr. v. _nourrice_; a

nurse); nur'sery; nurs'ling, _a little one who is nursed_; nurt'ure.

152. O'PUS, op'eris, _a work or deed_; OPERA'RI, opera'tus, _to work_.

OPER: operose, _requiring labor_, _tedious_.

OPERAT: operate (-ion, -ive, -or); co-operate (-ion, -ive, -or).

Op'era (It. _op'era_ = _opera_, pains, pl. of _o'pus_), _a musical drama_;

operat'ic.

ORDO. (See page 45.)

153. PAN'DERE: pan'do, pan'sum, _and_ pas'sum, _to spread_; Pas'sus,

_a step_.

PAND: expand', _to spread out_.

PANS: expanse' (-ion, -ive).

PASS: pass; pass'able, _that may be passed_, _tolerable_; pas'sage;

com'pass, v. _to stretch round_; encom'pass; surpass'; tres'pass (_tres_ =

_trans_), _to pass beyond due bounds_.

Pace (Fr. n. _pas_ = Lat. _pas'sus_); pas'senger (Old Eng. _passager_);

pass'over, _a Jewish festival_;[8] pass'port (= pass + port, literally, a

permission to leave a port or to sail into it.)

154. PAR, _equal_.

PAR: par'ity; dispar'ity; dispar'age, _to injure by comparison of

unequals_; dispar'agement.

Pair (Fr. adj. _paire_ = Lat. _par_), _two of a kind_; peer (Old Fr. _peer_

or _pair_ = Lat. _par_), _an equal_, _a nobleman_; peer'age; peer'less;

compeer'; non'pareil (Fr. _non_, not, and _pareil_, equal), _a peerless

thing or person_.

155. PARA'RE. pa'ro, para'tum, _to make ready, to prepare_; SEPARA'RE:

sep'aro, separa'tum, _to separate_.

PARAT: compar'ative; prepara'tion; prepar'atory; repara'tion.

SEPAR: sep'arate, literally, _to prepare aside_: hence, _to disjoin_;

separa'tion; sep'arable; insep'arable.

Parade' (Fr. n. _parade_, literally, a parrying), _military display_; pare

(Fr. v. _parer_, to pare or ward off); par'ry (Fr. v. _parer_, to ward

off); appara'tus (Lat. _appara'tus_ = _ad_ + _paratus_, literally,

something prepared for a purpose); appar'el (Fr. n. _appareil_,

preparation); compare' (Fr. v. _comparer_ = Lat. _compara're_), _to set

things together to see how far they resemble each other_; prepare' (Fr. v.

_preparer_ = Lat. _prepara're_); repair' (Fr. v. _reparer_ = Lat.

_repara're_), literally, _to prepare again_, hence, _to restore after

injury_; irrep'arable; sev'er (Old Fr. v. _sevrer_ = Lat. _separa're_), _to

render asunder_; sev'eral (Old Fr. adj. _several_ = Lat. _separa'lis_,

separate); sev'erance; dissev'er.

PARS. (See page 46.)

156. PAT'ER, pa'tris, _a father_; Pa'tria, _one's native country_.

Pater'nal (Lat. adj. _pater'nus_, pertaining to a father); pater'nity (Lat.

n. _pater'nitas_, Fr. _paternite_), _fathership_; patri'cian (Lat. adj.

_patri'cius_, from _pa'tres_, fathers or senators), _a Roman nobleman_;

pat'rimony (Lat. n. _patrimo'nium_), _an estate inherited from one's

ancestors_; pa'tron (Lat. n. _patro'nus_, a protector), _one who

countenances or supports_; pat'ronage; pat'ronize; pat'tern (Fr. n.

_pattern_, something to be copied), _a model_; expatriate, _to banish_;

expatria'tion.

157. PA'TI: pa'tior, pas'sus, _to bear, to suffer_.

PATI: pa'tient; pa'tience; impa'tient; compat'ible, _consistent with_;

compat'ibility; incompat'ible.

PASS: pas'sion, _strong agitation of the mind_; pas'sive; impas'sive,

_insensible_; compas'sion, _sympathy_; compas'sionate.

158. PEL'LERE; pel'lo, pul'sum, _to drive_.

PEL (com-, dis-, ex-, im-, pro-, re-).

PULS: pulse, _the beating of an artery as blood is driven through it_;

pul'sate; pulsa'tion; compul'sion; compul'sory; expul'sion; propul'sion;

repulse'; repul'sive.

159. PENDE'RE; pen'deo, pen'sum, _to hang_.

PEND: pen'dant, _a long, narrow flag_; pend'ing, _not decided, during_;

append'; append'age; depend' (-ant, -ent, -ence); independ'ent;

independ'ence; suspend'.

PENS: pen'sile, _hanging_; suspense'(-ion).

Pen'dulous (Lat. adj. _pen'dulus_, hanging); pen'dulum (Lat. adj.

_pen'dulus)_; appen'dix (Lat. n. _appen'dix_, an addition).

160. PEN'DERE: pen'do, pen'sum, _to weigh, to pay_.

PEND: com'pend (contraction of compendium); compen'dium (Lat. n.

_compen'dium_, that which is weighed, saved, shortened) ; compen'dious

(Lat. adj. _compendio'sus_, brief, succinct); expend'; expen'diture ;

sti'pend (Lat. n. _stipen'dium_, literally, the pay of soldiers);

stipendiary.

PENS: pen'sive, _thoughtful_; pen'sion, _an allowance for past services_

(-eer); com'pensate (-ion); dispense', _to deal out_ (-ary); dispensa'tion;

indispen'sable; expense' (-ive); rec'ompense.

PES. (See page 47.)

161. PET'ERE: pe'to, peti'tum, _to attack, to seek_.

PET: centrip'etal (Lat. n. _cen'trum_, center); compete'; com'petent, _fit,

suitable_; com'petence, _sufficiency_; incom'petent.

PETIT: peti'tion, _a request_ (-er); compet'itor; compet'itive ;

repeti'tion.

Pet'ulant (Fr. adj. _petulant_, fretful); ap'petite (Fr. n. _appetit_), _a

seeking for hunger_; impet'uous (Lat. adj. _impetuo'sus_, vehement);

impetuos'ity; im'petus (Lat. n. _im'petus_, a shock); repeat' (Fr. v.

_repeter_ = Lat. _repet'ere_).

EXERCISE

_Numerous objections_ were _submitted_ against the _innovations_ about to

be _introduced_. The _obnoxious_ articles have been _removed_. The

_nominee_ by his _ludicrous_ speech _neutralized_ all that his friends did

for him. _Part_ of the _apparatus prepared_ for the _occasion_ was damaged

in _transmission_. The _patronage_ of the _nobility_ and _gentry connected_

with the neighborhood was asked. Many _parts_ of the _edifice_ are highly

_ornate_. Christ had _compassion_ on the _multitude_, for they had been a

long time without food. The _petitioner's application_ for a _pension_ was

not _repeated_. How can an _acid_ be _neutralized_? The _renegade_ was

brought to _ignominy_. The _prince_ was travelling _incognito_. The young

lady seems _pensive_ rather than _petulant_. Here is a new _edition_ of the

_novel_, with _annotations_ by the _author_. The _opera_ seems to be well

_patronized_ this winter. Webster had a _compendious mode_ of stating great

truths. What is meant by _centripetal motion_? What is the _difference_

between the _numerator_ and the _denominator_?

162. PLEC'TERE: plec'to, plex'um, _to twist_; PLICA'RE: pli'co,

plica'tum, _and_ plic'itum, _to fold_.

PLEX: com'plex (literally, twisted together); complex'ion; complex'ity;

perplex' (literally, to twist thoroughly--_per_: hence, to puzzle or

embarrass); perplex'ity.

PLIC: ap'plicable (-ity); ap'plicant; ex'plicable.

PLICAT: applica'tion; com'plicate (-ion); du'plicate; im'plicate (-ion);

replica'tion, _an answer in law_; sup'plicate, _to entreat earnestly_;

supplica'tion.

PLICIT: explic'it (literally, out-folded; hence, distinctly stated);

implic'it, _implied_.

Ply (Fr. v. _plier_ = Lat. _plica're_), _to work diligently_; pli'able,

_easily bent_; pli'ant; pli'ancy; accom'plice, _an associate in crime_;

apply' (Old Fr. _applier_ = Lat. _applica're_); appli'ance, _the thing

applied_; comply' (Fr. v. _plier_), _to fold with_: hence, _to conform or

assent_; compli'ance; display' (Old Fr. v. _desployer_, to unfold); doub'le

(Fr. adj. _double_ = Lat. _du'plex_, twofold); du'plex; duplic'ity (Lat. n.

_duplic'itas_, from _du'plex_, double); employ' (Fr. v. _employer_ = Lat.

_implica're_), _to keep at work_; employe; employ'er; employ'ment; exploit'

(Fr. n. _exploit_ = Lat. _explic'itum_, literally, something unfolded, set

forth: hence, a deed, an achievement); imply', literally, _to infold_:

hence _to involve_, _to signify_; mul'tiply (Fr. v. _multiplier_ = Lat.

_mul'tus_ much, many); quad'ruple (Lat. _qua'tuor_, four); reply' (Old Fr.

v. _replier_ = Lat. _replica're_, to answer); sim'ple (Lat. _simplex_, gen.

_simplicis_), _not compounded_, _artless_; sim'pleton (compare It.

_simplicione_, a silly person); simplic'ity (Lat. n. _simplic'itas_);

sim'plify; sup'ple (Fr. adj. _souple_ = Lat. _sup'plex_, bending the knee,

from _sub_ and _plica're_); sup'pliant (literally, bending the knees under,

kneeling down); treb'le (Old Fr. adj. _treble_ = Lat. _tri'plex_,

threefold); trip'le (Lat. _tri'plex_); trip'let, _three lines rhyming

alternately_.

163. PON'ERE: po'no, pos'itum, _to place_.

PON: compo'nent, _forming a compound_; depone', _to bear testimony_;

depo'nent; oppo'nent; postpone' (-ment).

POSIT: posi'tion; pos'itive; pos'itivism, _a system of philosophy_;

pos'itivist, _a believer in the positive philosophy_; ap'posite, _adapted

to_; compos'ite, _compound_; composi'tion; compos'itor; decomposi'tion;

depos'it (-ary, -ion, -ory); deposi'tion, _the giving testimony under

oath_; exposi'tion; expos'itor; imposi'tion; interposi'tion;

juxtaposi'tion; op'posite (-ion); preposi'tion; proposi'tion; supposi'tion;




suppositi'tious; transposi'tion.

Pose (Fr. v. _poser_ = Lat. _pon'ere_), _to bring to a stand by questions_;

post; post'age; post'ure (Fr. n. _posture_ = Lat. _positu'ra_, position);

compose' (Fr. v. _composer_ = Lat. _compon'ere_); compos'ure; com'pound

(Lat. v. _compon'ere_); com'post, _a mixture_, _a manure_; depot' (Fr. n.

_depot_ = Lat. _depos'itum_); dispose' (Fr. v. _disposer_); dispo'sal;

expose' (Fr. v. _exposer_); expos'ure; impose' (Fr. v. _imposer_); im'post,

_a tax placed on imported goods_; impos'tor, _one guilty of fraud_;

impost'ure; interpose'; oppose'; propose'; prov'ost (Old Fr. _provost_,

from Lat _praepos'itus_, placed before, a chief), _the principal of a

college_; pur'pose (Old Fr. n. _purpos_, _propos_ = Lat. _propos'itum_),

_an end set before one_; repose' (Fr. v. _reposer_); suppose' (Fr. v.

_supposer_); transpose' (Fr. v. _transposer_).

164. PORTA'RE: por'to, porta'tum, _to carry_.

PORT: port'able; por'ter (-age); deport'ment; export' (-ation, -er);

im'port (-ance, -ant, -er); pur'port, _design_; report' (-er); support';

insupport'able; transport' (-ation).

Portfo'lio (Lat. n. _fo'lium_, a leaf); portman'teau (Fr. n. _manteau_, a

cloak); importune' (Lat. adj. _importu'nus_, unseasonable); import'unate;

importu'nity; op'portune (Lat. adj. _opportu'nus_, literally, at or before

the port or harbor: hence, seasonable); opportu'nity; inop'portune.

165. POS'SE, _to be able_; Po'tens, poten'tis, _powerful, mighty_.

POSSE: pos'sible (Lat. adj. _possib'ilis_); possibil'ity; impos'sible.

POTENT: po'tent; po'tency; po'tentate; poten'tial; im'potent; omnip'otent

(Lat. adj. _om'nis_, all); plenipoten'tiary (Lat. adj. _ple'nus_, full).

166. PREHEN'DERE: prohen'do, prehen'sum, _to lay hold of, to

seize_.

PREHEND: apprehend'; comprehend'; reprehend'.

PREHENS: prehen'sile; apprehen'sion; apprehen'sive; comprehen'sible;

comprehen'sion; comprehen'sive; reprehen'sible.

Appren'tice (Old Fr. n. _apprentis_, from v. _apprendre_, to learn);

apprise' (Fr. v. _apprendre_, part. _appris_, to inform); comprise' (Fr. v.

_comprendre, compris_), _to include_; en'terprise (Fr. n. _entrepise_,

something undertaken); impreg'nable (Fr. adj. _imprenable_, not to be

taken); pris'on (Fr. n. _prison_); prize (Fr. n. _prise_, something taken,

from _prendre, pris_, to take); reprieve' (Old Fr. v. _repreuver_, to

condemn), _to grant a respite_; repri'sal; surprise'.

167. PREM'ERE: pre'mo, pres'sum, _to press_.

PRESS: press (-ure); compress' (-ible); depress' (-ion); express' (-ion,

-ive); impress' (-ion, -ive, -ment); irrepres'sible; oppress' ('-ion, -ive,

-or); repress' (-ion, -ive); suppress' (-ion).

Print (abbreviated from _imprint_, from Old Fr. v. _preindre_ = Lat.

_prem'ere_); im'print, _the name of the publisher and the title page of a

book_; imprima'tur (Lat. _let it be printed_), originally, _a license to

print a book, the imprint of a publisher_.

168. PRI'MUS, _first_; Prin'ceps, prin'cipis, _chief, original_.

PRIM: prime; pri'mate, _the highest dignitary of a church_; pri'macy;

prim'ary; primer; prime'val (Lat. n. _ae'vum_, an age); prim'itive;

primogen'itor (Lat. n. _gen'itor_, a begetter); primogeniture (Lat. n.

_genitu'ra_, a begetting), _the exclusive right of inheritance which in

English law belongs to the eldest son or daughter_; primor'dial (Lat. v.

_ordi'ri_, to begin), _existing from the beginning_; prim'rose (Lat. n.

_ro'sa_); prin'cess; prince (Fr. n. _prince_ = Lat. _prin'ceps_);

prin'cipal ; prin'ciple.

Pre'mier (Fr. adj. _premier_, first), _the prime minister_; pri'or (Lat.

adj. _prior_, former); pri'oress, _the female superior of a convent_;

pri'ory, _a convent_; prior'ity, _state of being first_; pris'tine (Lat.

adj. _pristi'nus_, primitive), _original, ancient_.

169. PROBA'RE: pro'bo, proba'tum, _to try, to prove_.

PROB: prob'able, _likely, credible_; probabil'ity; improb'able; pro'bate,

_the proof of a will_; proba'tion, _the act of trying_; proba'tioner;

proba'tionary; probe, _to try by an instrument_; prob'ity, _tried

integrity_; approba'tion, _commendation_; rep'robate (adj. literally,

proved against), _base, condemned_.

Prove (Old Fr. _prover_, New Fr. _prouver_ = Lat. _proba're_); proof (Old

Fr. n. _prove_ = Lat. _pro'ba_, proof); approve' (Fr. v. _approuver_ = Lat.

_approba're_); approv'al; disapprove'; improve', (-ment); reprove';

reproof'.

170. PUN'GERE: pun'go, punc'tum, _to prick_; Punc'tum, _a point_.

PUNG: pun'gent; pun'gency; expunge', _to mark out_.

PUNCT: punctil'io (Sp. _punctillo_, from Lat. _punc'tum_, a point), _a nice

point of exactness in conduct_, etc.; punctil'ious; punct'ual (-ity);

punct'uate (-ion); punct'ure; compunc'tion, _remorse_.

Punch (abbreviated from _puncheon_, from Lat. n. _punc'tio_, a pricking),

_an instrument for cutting holes_; point (Fr. n. _pointe_ = Lat.

_punc'tum)_; poign'ant (Fr. part. _poignant_, stinging); pon'iard (Fr. n.

_poignard_), _a small dagger_.

171. PUTA'RE: pu'to, puta'tum, _to think, to prune, to count or reckon_.

PUT: compute' (-able, -ation); depute' (Lat. v. _deputa're_, to allot), _to

empower to act_; dep'uty; dispute' (-ant); indis'putable; impute'

(literally, to reckon in), _to charge_; repute'; disrepute' (-able).

PUTAT: pu'tative, _supposed_; am'putate, _to cut off the limb from an

animal_; deputa'tion; imputa'tion; reputa'tion.

Count (Fr. v. _compter_ = Lat. computa're); account'; discount'; recount'.

172. RAP'ERE: ra'pio, rap'tum, _to seize suddenly, to snatch or hurry

away_.

RAP: rapa'cious (Lat. adj. _ra'pax, rapa'cis_, greedy); rapac'ity; rap'id

(Lat. adj. _rap'idus_, swift); rapid'ity; rap'ids; rap'ine (Lat. n.

_rapi'na_, robbery).

RAPT: rapt, _transported_; rapt'ure (-ous); enrapt'ure; surrepti'tious

(Lat. v. _surrip'ere, surrep'tum_, to take away secretly), _done by

stealth_.

Rav'age (Fr. v. _ravager_ = to lay waste); rav'ish (Fr. v. _ravir_ = Lat.

_rap'ere_).

173. REG'ERE: re'go, rec'tum, _to rule_; Rec'tus, _straight_.

REG: re'gent; re'gency; reg'imen (Lat. n. _reg'imen_, that by which one

guides or governs anything); reg'iment (Lat. n. _regimen'tum_); re'gion

(Lat. _re'gio, regio'nis_, a region); cor'rigible (Lat. v. _corrig'ere_ =

_con_ + _reg'ere_); incor'rigible.

RECT: rec'tify; rec'titude; rec'tor (-ory); correct' (Lat. v. _corrig'ere_

= _con_ + _reg'ere), to remove faults_; direct' (-ion, -or, -ory); erect';

insurrec'tion; resurrec'tion.

Re'gal (Lat. n. _rex, re'gis_, a king); rega'lia; reg'icide (Lat. v.

_caed'ere_, to kill); reg'ular (Lat. n. _reg'ula_, a rule); reg'ulate; realm

(Old Fr. _realme_, from Lat. adj. _rega'lis_, royal); reign (Fr. n. _regne_

= Lat. _reg'num); _corrigen'da (sing. _corrigen'dum_), _things to be

corrected_; dress (Fr. v. _dresser_ = Lat _dirig'ere_); address' (Fr. v.

_adresser_, to direct); redress' (Fr. v. _redresser_ = Lat. _re_ +

_dirig'ere), to rectify, to repair_; source (Fr. n. _source_, from Lat.

_sur'gere_, to spring up); surge; insur'gent (Lat. v. _insur'gere_).

174. RI'VUS, _a river_.

RIV: ri'val (Lat. n. _riva'lis_, one who used a brook in common with

another); ri'valry ; outri'val; riv'ulet (Lat. n. _riv'ulus_, diminutive of

_ri'vus_); derive' (literally, to receive as from a source); deriva'tion;

deriv'ative.

175. ROGA'RE: ro'go, roga'tum, _to ask_.

ROG: ar'rogant, _proud, overbearing_; ar'rogance; prorogue' (Fr. v.

_proroger_ = Lat. _proroga're_).

ROGAT: ab'rogate; _to repeal_; ar'rogate, _to assume_; arroga'tion;

derog'atory, _detracting_; inter'rogate (-ion, -ive, -ory); prerog'ative

(literally, that is asked before others for an opinion: hence, preference),

_exclusive or peculiar right or privilege_; proroga'tion, _prolonga'tion_;

superer'ogate (Lat. _super_ + _eroga're_, to spend or pay out over and

above), _to do more than is necessary_; supereroga'tion.

176. RUM'PERE: rum'po, rup'tum, _to break_.

RUPT: rupt'ure, _to part violently_; abrupt' (-ly, -ness); bank'rupt (It.

n. _banco_, a merchant's place of business); bank'ruptcy; corrupt' (-ible,

-ion); disrup'tion; erup'tion ; interrupt' (-ion); irrup'tion; irrup'tive.

177. SA'CER, sa'cri, _holy_.

SACR: sac'rament (Lat. n. _sacramen'tum_, an oath, a sacred thing); sa'cred

(orignally, past p. of Old Eng. v. _sacre_, to consecrate); sac'rifice

(Lat. v. _fac'ere_, to make); sac'rilege (literally, that steals--properly

gathers, picks up, _leg'ere_--sacred things); sac'ristan (Low Lat.

_sacrista'nus)_, a church officer.

SECR: (in comp.) con'secrate (-ion); des'ecrate (-ion); ex'ecrate (-ion);

ex'ecrable; sacerdo'tal (Lat. n. _sacer'dos, sacerdo'tis_, priest),

_pertaining to the priesthood_.

178. SA'LUS, salu'tis, _health_; Sal'vus, _safe_.

SALUT: sal'utary, _promoting health_; salu'tatory, _giving salutation_;

salute' (-ion).

SALV: sal'vage, _reward for saving goods_; sal'vo, _a volley_; salva'tion.

Safe (through Old Fr. _salf_ or _sauf_); safe'ty; save; sav'ior salu'brious

(Lat. adj. _salu'bris_, health-giving); salu'brity.

179. SCAN'DERE: scan'do (_in comp._ scen'do), scan'dum (_in comp._

scen'sum), _to climb_.

SCEND: ascend' (-ant, -ency); descend' (-ant); condescend' (-ing);

transcend' (-ent) ; transcendental.

SCENS: ascen'sion ; ascent'; condescen'sion.

180. SCRIB'ERE: scri'bo, scrip'tum, _to write_.

SCRIB: ascribe', _to impute to_; circumscribe', _to draw a line around, to

limit_; describe'; inscribe'; prescribe', _to order or appoint_;

pro-scribe' (literally, to write forth), _to interdict_; subscribe';

superscribe'; transcribe'.

SCRIPT: script, _type in imitation of handwriting_; script'ure;

ascrip'tion; con'script, _one taken by lot and enrolled for military

service_; conscrip'tion; descrip'tion; inscrip'tion; man'uscript (see

_manus_); post'script; prescrip'tion; proscription; subscription;

superscrip'tion; tran'script.

Scribe (Fr. n. _scribe_); scrib'ble ; escritoire'.

181. SECA'RE: se'co, sec'tum, _to cut_.

SEC: se'cant (Lat. pres. p. _se'cans_, _secan'tis_), _a line that cuts

another_.

SECT: sect (literally, a body of persons separated from others by peculiar

doctrines); secta'rian (-ism); sec'tion (-al); bisect' (Lat. _bis_, two);

dissect' (-ion); in'sect (literally, an animal whose body is apparently cut

in the middle); insectiv'orous (Lat. v. _vora're_, to feed); intersect'

(-ion); venesec'tion (Lat. n. _vena_, a vein).

Seg'ment (Lat. n. _segmen'tum), a part cut off_.

182. SEDE'RE: se'deo (_in comp._ se'do), ses'sum, _to sit_.

SED: sed'entary (Lat. adj. _sedenta'rius_, accustomed to sit); sed'iment

(Lat. n. _sedimen'tum_, a settling or sinking down); sedimen'tary;

sed'ulous (Lat. adj. _sed'ulus_, sitting close to an employment);

supersede'.

SID: assid'uous; assidu'ity; insid'ious (literally, sitting in wait

against); preside' (literally, to sit before or over); pres'ident;

presidence; reside' (-ence); res'idue; resid'uary; subside'; subsidiary.

SESS: ses'sion (-al); assess' (literally, to sit by or near a person or

thing); assess'ment; assess'or; possess' (Lat. v. _possid'ere, posses'sum_,

to sit upon: hence, to occupy in person, to have or hold); posses'sion;

possess'or; posses'sive; prepossess', _to take possession of beforehand, to

prejudice_.

183. SENTI'RE: sen'tio, sen'sum, _to feel, to think_.

SENT: scent (Old English _sent_), _odor_; sen'tence (Lat. n. _senten'tia_);

senten'tious (Lat. adj. _sententio'sus_, full of thought); sentiment (Fr.

n. _sentiment_); sentimen'tal; assent', _to agree to_; consent' (literally,

to think or feel together), _to acquiesce, to permit_; dissent' (-er);

dissen'tient; presen'timent; resent' (literally, to feel back), _to take

ill_; resent'ment.

SENS: sense (-less, -ation, -ible, -itive); insen'sate; non'sense; sen'sual

(Lat. adj. _sensua'lis_); sen'sualist ; sen'suous.

184. SE'QUI: se'quor, secu'tus, _to follow_.

SEQU: se'quence, _order of succession_; consequent; con'sequence;

consequential; ob'sequies, _formal rites_; obse'quious (literally,

following in the way of another), _meanly condescending_; sub'sequent

(-ly).

SECUT: consec'utive; persecute (-ion, -or); pros'ecute (-ion).

Se'quel (Lat. n. _seque'la_, that which follows); sue (Old Fr. v. _suire_,

New Fr. _suivre = se'qui), to follow at law_; suit; suit'able; suit'or;

suite (Fr. n. _suite_), _a train or set_; ensue' (Fr. v. _ensuivre_, to

follow, to result from); pursue' (Fr. v. _poursuivre_, to follow hard, to

chase); pursu'ance; pursu'ant; pursuit'; pur'suivant, _a state messenger_;

ex'ecute (Fr. v. _executer_ = Lat. _ex'sequi_); execu'tion; exec'utor;

exec'utrix.

185. SERVA'RE: ser'vo, serva'tum, _to save, to keep, to bind_.

SERV: conserve'; observe' (-able, -ance); preserve' (-er); reserve';

unreserved'.

SERVAT: conserv'ative; conserv'atory; observ'ation; observ'atory;

preserva'tion; preserv'ative; reserva'tion.

Res'ervoir (Fr. n. _reservoir_ = Lat. _reservato'rium_, a place where

anything is kept in store).

EXERCISE.

The puzzle is _complicated_ and _displays_ much _ingenuity_ on the _part_

of the inventor. A _reply_ may be _explicit_ without showing _duplicity_.

It was urged that the _election_ of _delegates_ be _postponed_. The

_portmanteau_ containing _important_ papers was left at the _merchant's

office_. An _impostor_ is sure to show _opposition_ to the course of

_justice_. Coleridge holds that it is _possible_ to _apprehend_ a truth

without _comprehending_ it. The _bankrupt_ was so _arrogant_ that his

_creditors_ were not _disposed_ to be lenient with him. Most of the

questions _proposed_ by the _rector_ were answered in the _negative_. What

is the origin of the word _derivation_? The _region_ is _described_ as

healthful. The _manuscript_ was _transcribed_ and _subscribed_ by the

_author_. It is _salutary_ to be _rivals_ in all worthy _ambitions_.

186. SIG'NUM, _a sign_.

SIGN: sign; sig'nal (-ize); sig'net; sig'nify; signif'icant; signif'icance;

significa'tion; assign' (Lat. v. _assigna're_, to designate); assignee';

consign' (Lat. v. _consigna're_, to seal) _to intrust to another_;

consign'ment; coun'tersign, _to sign what has already been signed by

another_; design', _to plan_; design'er; des'ignate, _to name_, _to point

out_; designa'tion; en'sign, _the officer who carries the flag of a

regiment_; insig'nia, _badges of office_; resign' (-ation); sig'nature

(Lat. n. _signatu'ra_, a sign or stamp).

187. SIM'ILIS, _like_.

SIMIL: sim'ilar (-ity); sim'i-le, _a formal likening or comparison_;

simil'itude; verisimil'itude (Lat. adj. _ve'rus_, true); dissim'ilar;

assim'ilate; fac-sim'ile (Lat. _v. fac'ere_, to make), an exact copy;

sim'ulate (Lat. v. _simula're_, _simula'tum_, to make like).

Dissimula'tion (Lat. v. _dissimula're_, _dissimula'tum_, to feign);

dissem'ble (Fr. v. _dissembler_ = Lat. _dissimula're_); resem'ble (Fr. v.

_ressembler_).

188. SIS'TERE: sisto, sta'tum, _to cause to stand, to stand_.

SIST: assist' (-ance, -ant); consist' (-ent, -ency); desist'; exist' (for

ex-sist), _to stand out_: hence, _to be, to live_; exist'ence; co-exist';

pre-exist'; insist', _to stand upon, to urge firmly_; persist' (-ent,

-ence); resist' (-ance, -ible); subsist (-ence).

189. SOL'VERE: sol'vo, solu'tum, _to loosen_.

SOLV: solve (-able, -ent, -ency); absolve'; dissolve'; resolve'.

SOLUT: solu'tion; ab'solute (-ion); dis'solute (-ion); res'olute (-ion).

Sol'uble (Lat. adj. _solu'bilis_); solubil'ity.

190. SPEC'ERE _or_ SPIC'ERE: Spe'cio _or_ spi'cio, spec'tum, _to behold_;

Spe'cies, _a kind_.

SPIC: aus'pices (literally, omens drawn from the inspection of birds);

auspi'cious; conspic'uous (Lat. adj. _conspic'uus_, wholly visible);

conspicu'ity; des'picable (Lat. _despicab'ilis_, deserving to be despised);

perspic'uous (Lat. adj. _perspic'uus_, that may be seen through);

perspicu'ity; suspi'cion; suspi'cious.

SPECT: as'pect; cir'cumspect (-ion); expect' (-ant, -ation); inspect'

(-ion, -or); perspec'tive; pros'pect (-ive); prospec'tus (Lat. n.

_prospec'tus_, a view forward); respect' (literally, to look again: hence,

to esteem or regard); respect'able; respect'ful; re'tro-spect (-ive);

suspect'.

SPECIES: spe'cies; spe'cial (-ist, -ity, -ize); spe'cie; spec'ify (-ic,

-ication); spe'cious, _showy_.

Spec'imen (Lat. n. _spec'imen_, a sample); spec'tacle (Lat. n.

_spectac'ulum_, anything presented to view); specta'tor (Lat. n.

_specta'tor_, a beholder); spec'ter (Lat. n. _spec'trum_, an image);

spec'tral; spec'trum (pl. spec'tra), _an image_; spec'troscope (Gr. v.

_skopein_, to view), _an instrument for analysing light_; spec'ulate (Lat.

n. _spec'ula_, a lookout), _to contemplate_, _to traffic for great profit_;

specula'tion; spec'ulative.

191. SPIRA'RE: spi'ro, spira'tum, _to breathe_; Spir'itus, _breath,

spirit_.

SPIR: spir'acle, _a breathing pore_; aspire' (-ant); conspire' (-acy);

expire'; expir'ing; inspire'; perspire'; respire'; transpire'.

SPIRAT: aspira'tion; as'pirate; conspir'ator; inspira'tion; perspira'tion;

respira'tion; respir'atory.

SPIRITUS: spir'it; spir'itual (-ity); spir'ituous.

Sprightly (spright, a contraction of spirit); sprite (a contraction of

spirit).

192. SPONDE'RE: spon'deo, spon'sum, _to promise_.

SPOND: correspond', _to answer one to another_; correspond'ence;

correspond'ent; despond' (literally, to promise away: hence, to give up, to

despond); despond'ency; respond'.

SPONS: spon'sor, _a surety_; response' (-ible, -ibility, -ive);

irrespon'sible.

Spouse (Old Fr. n. _espous_, _espouse_ = Lat. _spon'sus_, _spon'sa_);

espouse' (Old Fr. v. _espouser_ = Lat. _sponsa're_, to betroth, from

_spondere_).

193. STA'RE: sto, sta'tum (_in comp._ sti'tum, _to stand; pres. part._

stans, stan'tis, _standing_); SIS'TERE: sis'to, sta'tum, _to

cause to stand_; STATU'ERE: stat'uo, statu'tum, _to station,

to fix, to place_.

STANT: cir'cumstance (from part. _circumstans'_, _circumstan'tis_, through

Lat. n. _circumstan'tia_, Fr. _circonstance_), _the condition of things

surrounding or attending an event_; circumstan'tial; circumstan'tiate;

con'stant; con'stancy ; dis'tant (literally, standing asunder: hence,

remote, reserved); dis'tance; ex'tant; in'stant; instanta'neous;

transubstan'tiate, _to change to another substance_.

STAT: state; sta'tion (-ary, -er, -ery); state'ly; state'ment; states'man;

stat'ue (-ary); stat'ure.

STIT: supersti'tion (literally, a standing over, as if awe-struck);

supersti'tious.

STATUT: stat'ute (-ory).

STITU: con'stitute (literally, to set or station together: hence, to

establish, to make); constitu'tion (-al); constituent; constit'uency;

des'titute (literally, put from or away: hence, forsaken, in want of);

in'stitute (literally, to place into: hence, to found, to commence);

restitu'tion; sub'stitute (-ion).

Sta'ble; (Lat. adj. _stab'ilis_, standing firmly); stab'lish; estab'lish

(-ment); stay, literally, _to keep standing_; ar'mistice (Lat. n. _ar'ma_,

arms), _a temporary stand-still of war_; arrest' (Old Fr. _arrester_ = Lat.

_ad_ + _restare_, to stay back, to remain); contrast' (Lat. _contra_ +

_sta're_, to stand against); inter'stice; ob'stacle; ob'stinate; sol'stice

(Lat. n. _sol_, the sun).

194. STRIN'GERE: strin'go, stric'tum, _to bind; to draw tight_.

STRING: strin'gent; astrin'gent; astrin'gency.

STRICT: strict (-ness, -ure); dis'trict, _a defined portion of a country_;

restrict' (-ion).

Strain (Old Fr. _straindre_ = Lat. _strin'gere_); constrain'; dis-train';

restrain'; restraint'.

195. STRU'ERE: stru'o, struc'tum, _to build, to place in order_.

STRUCT: struct'ure; construct' (-ion, -ive); destruct'ible; destruc'tion;

instruct' (-ion,-ive,-or); obstruct'(-ion); superstruct'ure.

Con'strue; destroy'; in'strument (Lat. n. _instrumen'tum_);

instrumental'ity.

196. SU'MERE: su'mo, sump'tum, _to take_; Sump'tus, _cost, expense_.

SUM: assume'; consume' (-er); presume'; resume'.

SUMPT: sumpt'uous (Lat. adj. _sumptuo'sus_, expensive); sumpt'uary,

_relating to expense_; assumption; consumption; consump'tive; presump'tion;

presump'tive; presump'tuous.

197. TAN'GERE: tan'go, tac'tum, _to touch_.

TANG: tan'gent, _a straight line which touches a circle or curve_;

tan'gible.

TACT: tact, _peculiar faculty or skill_; con'tact; intact'.

Attain' (Fr. v. _attaindre_, to reach); attain'able; conta'gion,

_communication of disease by contact or touch_; contam'inate, _to defile,

to infect_; contig'uous; contin'gent.

TEMPUS. (See page 48.)

198. TEN'DERE: ten'do, ten'sum _or_ ten'tum, _to stretch_.

TEND: tend, _to aim at, take care of_; tend'ency; attend' (-ance, -ant);

contend'; distend'; extend'; intend' (literally, to stretch to), _to

purpose, to design_; portend' (literally, to stretch forward), _to presage,

to betoken_; pretend' (literally, to stretch forth), _to affect, feel_;

subtend', _to extend under_; superintend' (-ence, -ent).

TENS: tense (adj.), _stretched_; ten'sion; intense' (-ify); osten'sible

(Lat. v. _osten'dere_, to stretch out or spread before one), _apparent_;

pretense'.

TENT: tent, literally, _a shelter of stretched canvas_; tentac'ula, _the

feelers of certain animals_; atten'tion; atten'tive; conten'tion;

conten'tious; extent'; intent' (-ion); ostenta'tion; ostenta'tious;

por'tent, _an ill omen_.

199. TENE'RE: ten'eo, ten'tum, _to hold_; _French_ Tenir (_radical_ tain),

_to hold_.

TEN: ten'able; ten'ant, _one who holds property under another_; ten'antry;

ten'ement; ten'et (Lat. _tenet_, literally, "he holds"), _a doctrine held

as true_; ten'ure.

TIN (in compos.): ab'stinent; ab'stinence; continent; incon'tinent;

per'tinent; imper'tinent.

TENT: content' (-ment); contents'; discontent'; deten'tion; reten'tion;

reten'tive; sus'tenance.

TAIN: abstain'; appertain'; contain'; detain'; entertain' (-ment);

pertain'; retain' (-er); sustain'.

Tena'cious (Lat. adj. _te'nax, tena'cis_, holding firmly); tenac'ity;

appur'tenance, _that which belongs to something else_; contin'ue (Fr. v.

_continuer_ = Lat. _contine're_); contin'ual; contin'uance; continua'tion;

continu'ity; discontin'ue; coun'tenance (literally, the contents of a body:

hence, of a face); lieuten'ant (Fr. n. _lieu_, a place); maintain' (Fr. n.

_main_, the hand), literally, _to hold by the hand_: hence, _to support, to

uphold_; main'tenance; pertina'cious; pertinac'ity; ret'inue, _a train of

attendants_.

200. TER'RA, _the earth_.

TERR: ter'race (Fr. n. _terrasse_); terra'queous (Lat. n. _a'qua_, water);

terres'trial; ter'ritory (-al); ter'rier, _a small dog that goes into the

ground after burrowing animals_; Mediterra'nean (Lat. n. _me'dius_,

middle); subterra'nean.

Inter, _to put in the earth, to bury_; inter'ment; disinter'.

201. TES'TIS, _a witness_.

TEST: tes'tify; attest' (-ation); contest'; detest' (-able); protest'

(-ation, -ant); prot'estantism.

Tes'tament (Lat. n. _testamen'tum_, a will); testamen'tary; testa'tor;

tes'timony (-al); intes'tate, _not having left a will_.

202. TOR'QUERE: tor'queo, tor'tum, _to twist_.

TORT: tort'ure; contort' (-ion); distort' (-ion); extort' (-ion, -ionate);

retort'.

Tor'tuous (Lat. adj. _tortuo'sus_, very twisted); tortuos'ity; torment'

(Lat. n. _tormen'tum_, extreme pain).

203. TRA'HERE: tra'ho, trac'tum, _to draw_; _Fr._ Trair, _past part._

Trait.

TRACT: tract (-able, -ile, -ion); ab'stract (-ion); attract' (-ion, -ive);

contract' (-ile, -or); detract'; distract'; extract' (-ion, -or);

protract'; retract' (-ion); subtract' (-ion).

Trace (Fr. n. _trace_); track (Old Fr. n. _trac_); train; trait; treat

(-ise, -ment, -y).

204. TRIBU'ERE: trib'uo, tribu'tum, _to allot, to give_.

TRIBUT: trib'ute (-ary); attrib'ute; contribute (-ion); distrib'ute (-ion,

-ive); retribu'tion; retrib'utive.

205. TRU'DERE: tru'do, tru'sum, _to thrust_.

TRUD: detrude', _to thrust down_; extrude'; intrude' (-er); obtrude';

protrude'.

TRUS: abstruse' (literally, thrust away: hence, difficult to be

understood); intru'sion; intru'sive; obtru'sive; protru'sion.

206. TU'ERE: tu'eor, tu'itus _or_ tu'tus, _to watch_.

TUIT: tui'tion, _instruction_; intui'tion, _the act or power of the mind by

which it at once perceives the truth of a thing without argument_;

intu'itive.

TUT: tu'tor; tuto'rial; tu'torage.

207. UN'DA, _a wave_.

UND: abun'dance, literally, condition of overflowing--(_abunda're_, to

overflow); abun'dant; superabundant; inun'date (-ion); redun'dant

(literally, running back or over: hence, exceeding what is necessary);

redundance; redun'dancy.

Un'dulate (Lat. n. _un'dula_, a little wave); undula'tion; un'dulatory;

abound'; superabound'; redound' (Old Fr. v. _redonder_ = Lat. _redunda're_,

to roll back as a wave or flood).

208. U'TI: u'tor, u'sus, _to use_.

UT: uten'sil (Lat. n. _uten'sile_, something that may be used); util'ity

(Lat. n. _util'itas_, usefulness); u'tilize.

US: use (-able, -age, -ful, -less); us'ual (Lat. adj. _usua'lis_, of

frequent use); u'sury, _illegal interest paid for the use of money_;

u'surer; abuse' (-ive); disabuse'.

209. VAD'ERE: va'do, va'sum, _to go_.

VAD: evade'; invade'; pervade'.

VAS: eva'sion; inva'sion; perva'sive.

210. VALE'RE: valeo, vali'tum, _to be strong, to be of value_; Val'idus,

_strong_; Va'le, _farewell_.

VAL: valedic'tory, _bidding farewell_; valetudina'rian (Lat. n.

_valetu'do_, state of health), _a person in ill-health_; val'iant, _brave_,

_heroic_; val'or (-ous); val'ue (-able, -ation, -ator); convales'cent,

_regaining health_; equiv'alent (Lat. adj. _e'quus_, equal); prev'alent,

_very common or general_; prevalence.

VAIL: (Fr. radical): avail' (-able); prevail'.

VALID: val'id; valid'ity; in'valid.

211. VENI'RE: ve'nio, ven'tum, _to come, to go_.

VENT: vent'ure, literally, _something gone upon_; vent'uresome; ad'vent;

adventi'tious, _accidental, casual_; advent'ure (-ous); circumvent';

contraven'tion; con'vent, _a monastery, a nunnery_; conven'ticle, _a place

of assembly_; conven'tion (-al); event'(-ful); event'ual; invent'

(literally, to come upon), _to find out, to contrive_; inven'tion;

invent'ive; invent'or; interven'tion; peradvent'ure; prevent' (-ion, -ive).

Av'enue (Fr. n. _avenue_, an approach to); contravene'; convene';

conven'ient (Lat. pres. part, _conve'niens, convenien'tis_, literally,

coming together), _suitable_; conven'ience; cov'enant _an agreement between

two parties_; intervene'; rev'enue; supervene', _to come upon, to happen_.

212. VER'BUM, _a word_.

VERB: verb (-al, -ally, -ose, -osity); ad'verb; prov'erb.

Verba'tim (Lat. adv. _verba'tim_, word for word); ver'biage (Fr. n.

_verbiage_, wordiness).

213. VER'TERE: ver'to, ver'sum, _to turn_.

VERT: advert'; inadver'tent (literally, not turning the mind to),

_heedless_; ad'vertise, _to turn public attention to_; adver'tisement;

animadvert' (Lat. n. _an'imus_, the mind), _to turn the mind to, to

censure_; avert'; controvert', _to oppose_; convert', _to change into

another form or state_; divert'; invert', literally, _to turn the outside

in_; pervert', _to turn from the true purpose_; retrovert'; revert';

subvert'.

VERS: adverse' (-ary, -ity); animadver'sion; anniver'sary, _the yearly_

(Lat. n. _an'nus_, a year) _celebration of an event_; averse', _having a

dislike to_; aver'sion; con'troversy; converse' (-ant, -ation);

conver'sion; diverse' (-ify, -ion, -ity); ob'verse; perverse' (-ity);

retrover'sion; reverse' (-al, -ion); subver'sion; subversive;

tergiversa'tion (Lat. n. _ter'gum_, the back), _a subterfuge_; transverse',

_lying or being across_; u'niverse (Lat. adj. _u'nus_, one), _the system of

created things_; univer'sal (-ist); univer'sity, _a universal school in

which are taught all branches of learning_.

Verse (Lat. n. _ver'sus_, a furrow), _a line in poetry_; ver'sify;

versifica'tion; ver'sion, _that which is turned from one language into

another, a statement_; ver'satile (Lat. adj. _versat'ilis_, turning with

ease); vertex (pl. ver'tices), _the summit_; vertical; vertebra (pl.

ver'tebrae); ver'tebrate; ver'tigo; vor'tex (Lat. n. _vor'tex_, a

whirlpool); divorce' (Fr. n. _divorce), a separation_.

214. VE'RUS, _true_; Ve'rax, vera'cis, _veracious_.

VER: ver'dict (Lat. n. _dic'tum_, a saying), _the decision of a jury_;

ver'ify, _to prove to be true; _verifica'tion; ver'ity (Lat. n. _ver'itas_,

truth); ver'itable; verisim'ilar, _truth-like_; verisimil'itude; aver', _to

declare truer_; aver'ment; ver'ily; ver'y.

VERAC: v'era'cious; verac'ity.

215. VI'A, _a way_.

VIA: vi'aduct (Lat. v. _du'cere, duc'tum_, to lead); viat'icum (Lat. n.

_viat'icum_, literally, traveling money), _the sacrament administered to a

dying person_; de'viate (-ion); de'vious; ob'viate, _to meet in the way, to

remove_; ob'vious; per'vious, _affording a passage through_; imper'vious.

Voy'age (Fr. n. _voyage_); convoy', _to escort_; en'voy (Fr. v. _envoyer_,

to send), _one sent on a special mission_; triv'ial (Lat. n. _triv'ium_, a

cross road), _trifling_; trivial'ity.

216. VIDE'RE: vi'deo, vi'sum, _to see_.

VID: ev'ident, _clearly seen; _ev'idence; invid'ious, literally, _looking

against_: hence, _likely to provoke envy_; provide', _to look out for, to

supply_; prov'idence; prov'ident.

VIS: vis'ible; vis'ion (-ary); advise'; advis'able, _expedient_;

im'provise, _to compose and recite without premeditation_; provis'ion;

revise' (-al, -ion); supervis'ion; supervis'or.

View (Fr. v. _voir_, to see, _vu_, seen); review'; in'terview; vis'age (Fr.

n. _visage_, the countenance); vis'it (-ant, -or, -ation); vis'or, _part of

a helmet perforated to see through; _vis'ta (It. n. _vista_, sight), _a

prospect as seen through an avenue of trees _; advice'; en'vy (Fr. n.

_envie_ = Lat. _invid'ia_, from _invide're_, to see against); in'voice (It.

n. _avviso_, notice), _a priced list of goods_; peruse' (Lat. v.

_pervide're, pervi'sum_, to look through); provi'so, _a stipulation_;

pru'dent (Lat. adj. _pru'dens _from _prov'idens_); pru'dence; purvey', _to

look out for in the way of buying provisions_; purvey'or; survey' (-or).

217. VIN'CERE: vin'co, vic'tum, _to conquer_.

VINC: vin'cible; invin'cible; convince'; evince', _to show clearly_

VICT: vic'tor; vic'tory (-ous); convict', _to prove guilty of crime_;

evict', _to dispossess_; evic'tion.

Vanquish (Fr. v. _vaincre, vaincu_ = Lat. _vin'cere_); prov'ince (Fr. n.

_province_ = Lat. _provin'cia_, literally, a conquered country).

218. VOCA'RE: vo'co, voca'tum, _to call_; Vox, vo'cis, _the voice_.

VOCAT: voca'tion, literally, _calling, occupation_; voc'ative, _the case of

a noun in which the subject is called, or addressed_; ad'vocate _to plead

for_; convoca'tion, _an assembly, a meeting_; equivocate (Lat. adj.

_e'quus_, equal), _to use words of doubtful meaning_; equivoca'tion;

evoca'tion, _act of calling forth_; invoca'tion; provoca'tion;

provo'cative; revoca'tion.

VOC: vo'cable (Lat. n. _vocab'ulum_, that which is sounded with the voice),

_a word_; vocab'ulary; vo'cal (-ist, -ize); vociferate, _to cry with a loud

voice_; ad'vocacy, _a pleading for, a defense_; irrev'ocable.

Voice (Fr. n. _voix_ = Lat. _vox), sound uttered by the mouth_; vouch, _to

call out, or affirm strongly_; vow'el (Fr. n. _vouelle_, a voice-sound);

advow'son, _right of perpetual calling to a benefice_; convoke', _to call

together_; evoke'; invoke'; revoke'.

219. VOL'VERE: vol'vo, volu'tum, _to roll_.

VOLV: circumvolve'; convolve', _to roll together_; devolve'; evolve';

involve'; revolve' (-ion, -ionist).

VOLUT: circumvolu'tion; evolu'tion; revolution (-ary, -ist, -ize).

Vol'ume (Lat. n. _volu'men_, a roll, or inscribed parchment sheet rolled

up), _a single book_; volute', _a kind of rolled or spiral scroll_;

vol'uble, literally, _rolling easily_: hence, _having great fluency of

speech_; convol'vulus, _a genus of twining plants_; revolt'.

220. VUL'GUS, _the common people_.

VULG: vul'gar; vul'garism; vulgar'ity; vul'gate, _a Latin version of the

Scriptures_.

Divulge', _to make known something before kept secret_; divulge'ment;

promulgate (-ion).

PART III.--THE GREEK ELEMENT.

I.--GREEK PREFIXES.

PREFIX SIGNIFICATION. EXAMPLE. DEFINITION

a- = _without_; a-pathy state of being _without_

an- _not_ an-omalous feeling.

_not_ similar.

amphi- = _around_; amphi-theater place for seeing all

_both_ amphi-bious _around_.

living in _both_ land and

water.

ana- = _back_, ana-logy reasoning _back_.

_throughout_ ana-lysis loosening _throughout_.

anti- = _against_; anti-pathy a feeling _against_.

ant- _opposite_ ant-arctic _opposite_ the Arctic.

apo- = _away_; apo-stle one sent _out_.

ap- _out_ ap-helion _away_ from the sun.

cata- = _down_ or cata-ract a rushing _down_.

cat- _against_ cat-arrh a flowing _down_.

dia- = _through_ or dia-meter measure _through_ the

_across_ dia-logue center.

speaking _across_ (from

one another).

dis- = _two_, dis-syllable word of _two_ syllables.

di- _double_ di-lemma a _double_ assumption.

dys- = _ill_ dys-pepsia _ill_ digestion.

ec- = _out of_ ec-centric _out of_ the center.

ex- ex-odies an _outgoing_.

Note--EX- is used before a root beginning with a vowel.

en- = _in_ or en-ergy power _in_ one.

em- _on_ em-phasis stress _on_.

epi- = _upon_; epi-dermis skin _upon_ skin.

ep- _for_ ep-hemeral lasting _for_ a day.

Note--EP- is used before a root beginning with a vowel or a _h_ aspirate

eu- = _well_ or eu-phonic sounding _well_.

ev- _good_ ev-angel _good_ news.

hemi- = _half_ hemi-sphere _half_ a sphere

hyper- = _over_ or hyper-critical _over_-critical.

_beyond_ hyper-borean _beyond_ the North.

hypo- = _under_ hypo-thesis a placing _under_ (= Lat.

supposition.)

meta- = _beyond_; meta-physics science _beyond_ physics.

met- _transference_ met-onymy _transference_ of name.

para- = _by the_ par-helion mock sun _by the side of_

par- _side of_ the real.

peri- = around peri-meter the measure _around_

anything.

pro- = before pro-gramme something written

_before_.

pros- = to pros-elyte one coming _to_ a new

religion.

syn- _with_ syn-thesis placing _together_.

sy- = or sy-stem part _with_ part.

syl- _together_ syl-lable letters taken _together_.

sym- sym-pathy feeling _together_.

NOTE.--The form SY- is used before _s_; SYL- before _l_, SYM- before _b, p_

or _m_.

II.--GREEK ALPHABET.

[Greek: A a] a _Alpha._

[Greek: B b *] b _Beta._

[Greek: G g] g _Gamma._

[Greek: D d] d _Delta._

[Greek: E e] e as in _met_ _Epsilon._

[Greek: Z z] z _Zeta._

[Greek: E e] e as in _me_ _Eta._

[Greek: Th th *] th _Theta._

[Greek: I i] i _Iota_

[Greek: K k] k _Kappa._

[Greek: L l] l _Lambda._

[Greek: M m] m _Mu._

[Greek: N n] n _Nu._

[Greek: X x] x _Xi._

[Greek: O o] o as in _not_ _Omicron._

[Greek: P p *] p _Pi_

[Greek: R r] r _Rho._

[Greek: S s, s] final s _Sigma._

[Greek: T t] t _Tau._

[Greek: U u] u, or y _Upsilon._

[Greek: Ph ph] ph _Phi._

[Greek: Ch ch] ch _Chi._

[Greek: Ps ps] ps _Psi._

[Greek: O o] o as in _no_ _Omega._

Pronunciation of Greek Words.

_Gamma_ has always the hard sound of _g_, as in _give_.

_Kappa_ is represented by _c_ in English words, although in Greek it has

but one sound, that of our _k_.

_Upsilon_ is represented by _y_ in English words; in Greek it has always

the sound of _u_ in mute.

_Chi_ is represented in English by _ch_ having the sound of _k_; as in

_chronic_.

In Greek words, as in Latin, there are always as many syllables as there

are vowels and diphthongs.

An inverted comma placed over a letter denotes that the sound of our _h_

precedes that letter.

GREEK ROOTS AND ENGLISH DERIVATIVES.

DIVISION I.--PRINCIPAL GREEK ROOTS.

1. A'ER, _the air_.

A'ERATE, _to combine with air; to mix with carbonic acid_.

A-E'RIAL, _belonging to the air_.

A'ERIFORM, _having the form of air_.

A'EROLITE (Gr. n. _lith'os_, a stone), _a meteoric stone_.

A'ERONAUT (Gr. n. _nau'tes_, a sailor), _a balloonist_.

AEROSTA'TION, _aerial navigation_.

AIR, _the atmosphere; a melody; the bearing of a person_.

AIR'Y, _open to the air; gay, sprightly_.

2. AG'EIN, _to lead_.

APAGO'GE, _a leading away; an indirect argument_

DEM'AGOGUE (Gr. n. _de'mos_, the people), _a misleader of the people_.

PARAGO'GE (literally, a leading or extension beyond), _the addition of a

letter or syllable to the end of a word_.

PED'AGOGUE (Gr. n. _pais_, a child), _a schoolmaster; a pedantic person_..

SYN'AGOGUE, _a Jewish place of worship_.

3. A'GON, a contest.

AG'ONY, _extreme pain_.

AG'ONIZE, _to be in agony_.

ANTAG'ONISM, _direct opposition_.

ANTAG'ONIST, _or_ ANTAGONIS'TIC, _contending against_.

4. ANG'ELLEIN, _to bring tidings_; ANG'ELLOS, _a messenger_.

AN'GEL, _a spiritual messenger_.

ANGEL'IC, _relating to an angel_.

ARCHAN'GEL (Gr. prefix _archi-_, chief), _an angel of the highest order_.

EVAN'GEL (Gr. prefix _eu_, well), _good tidings; the gospel_.

EVAN'GELIST, _one of the writers of the four gospels_.

5. AR'CHE, _beginning, government, chief_.

AN'ARCHY, _want of government_.

AR'CHITECT (Gr. n. _tek'ton_, workman), literally, _a chief builder, one

who devises plans for buildings_.

AR'CHIVES, _records_.

HEP'TARCHY (Gr. _hepta_, seven), _a sevenfold government_.

HI'ERARCHY (Gr. adj. _hi'eros_, sacred), _dominion in sacred things; a

sacred body of rulers_.

MON'ARCH (Gr. adj. _mon'os_, alone), _one who rules alone, a sovereign_.

MON'ARCHY, _government by one person, a kingdom_.

OLIGARCHY (Gr. adj. _ol'igos_, few), _government by a few, an aristocracy_.

PA'TRIARCH (Gr. n. _pat'er_, a father), _the father and ruler of a family_.

PATRIAR'CHAL, _relating to patriarchs_.

6. AS'TRON, _a star_.

AS'TERISK, _a mark like a star (*) used to refer to a note, and sometimes

to mark an omission of words_.

AS'TEROID (Gr. adj. _ei'dos_, like), _one of the numerous small planets

between Mars and Jupiter_.

AS'TRAL, _belonging to the stars_.

ASTROL'OGY, _the pretended science of foretelling events by the stars_.

ASTRON'OMY (Gr. n. _nom'os_, a law), _the science that treats of the

stars_.

ASTRON'OMER, _one skilled in astronomy_.

DISAS'TER, _calamity, misfortune_.

DISAS'TROUS, _unlucky; calamitous_.

7. AU'TOS, _one's self_.

AUTOBIOG'RAPHY (Gr. n. _bi'os_, life, _graph'ein_, to write), _the life of

a person written by himself_.

AU'TOCRAT (Gr. n. _krat'os_, power), _an absolute ruler_.

AUTOCRAT'IC, _like an autocrat_.

AU'TOGRAPH, _one's own handwriting_.

AUTOM'ATON (Gr. _mema'otes_, striving after), _a self-acting machine_.

AUTHEN'TIC, _genuine, true_.

AUTHENTIC'ITY, _genuineness_.

8. BAL'LEIN, _to throw or cast_.

EM'BLEM, _a representation; a type_.

EMBLEMAT'ICAL, _containing an emblem_.

HYPER'BOLE, _a figure of speech which represents things greater or less

than they are_.

PAR'ABLE, _a story which illustrates some fact or doctrine_.

PARAB'OLA, _one of the conic sections_.

PROB'LEM, _a question proposed for solution_.

SYM'BOL, _a sign; a representation_.

SYMBOLICAL, _representing by signs_.

9. BAP'TEIN, _to wash, to dip_.

BAP'TISM, _a Christian sacrament, in the observance of which the individual

is sprinkled with or immersed in water_.

BAPTIZE', _to sprinkle with or immerse in water_.

BAPTISMAL, _pertaining to baptism: as baptismal vows_.

BAP'TIST, _one who approves only of baptism by immersion_.

ANABAP'TIST, _one who believes that only adults should be baptized_.

CATABAP'TIST, _one opposed to baptism_.

PEDOBAP'TISM (Gr. _pais_, _paidos_, a child), _infant baptism_.

10. CHRON'OS, time.

CHRON'IC, _lasting a long time_; _periodical_.

CHRON'ICLE, _a record of events in the order of time_; _a history recording

facts in order of time_.

CHRONOL'OGY, _the science of computing the dates of past events_.

CHRONOM'ETER (Gr. n. _me'tron_, a measure), _an instrument for measuring

time_.

ANACH'RONISM, _an error in computing time_.

SYN'CHRONAL, SYN'CHRONOUS, _existing at the same time_.

11. GRAM'MA, _a letter_

GRAM'MAR, _the science of language_.

GRAMMA'RIAN, _one skilled in or who teaches grammar_.

GRAMMAT'ICAL, _according to the rules of grammar_.

AN'AGRAM, _the change of one word into another by transposing the letters_.

DI'AGRAM, _a writing or drawing made for illustration_.

EP'IGRAM, _a short poem ending with a witty thought_.

MON'OGRAM (Gr. adj. _mon'os_, alone), _a character composed of several

letters interwoven_.

PRO'GRAMME, _order of any entertainment_.

TEL'EGRAM (Gr. _te'le_, at a distance), _a message sent by telegraph_.

12. GRAPH'EIN, _to write_.

GRAPH'IC, _well delineated; giving vivid description_.

AU'TOGRAPH. See _au'tos_.

BIOG'RAPHY (Gr. n. _bi'os_, life), _the history of a life_.

CALIG'RAPHY (Gr. adj. _kal'os_, beautiful), _beautiful writing_.

GEOG'RAPHY (Gr. n. _ge_, the earth), _a description of the earth_.

HISTORIOG'RAPHER (Gr. n. _histo'ria_, history), _one appointed to write

history_.

HOL'OGRAPH (Gr. adj. _hol'os_, whole), _a deed or will wholly written by

the grantor or testator_.

LEXICOG'RAPHER (Gr. n. _lex'icon_, a dictionary), _the compiler of a

dictionary_.

LITH'OGRAPH (Gr. n. _lith'os_, a stone), _an impression of a drawing made

on stone_.

LITHOG'RAPHY, _the art of writing on and taking impressions from stone_.

ORTHOG'RAPHY (Gr. adj. _or'thos_, correct), _the correct spelling of

words_.

PHO'NOGRAPH (Gr. n. _pho'ne_, sound), _an instrument for the mechanical

registration and reproduction of audible sounds_.

PHONOG'RAPHY, _a system of short hand; the art of constructing or of using

the phonograph_.

PHOTOG'RAPHY (Gr. n. _phos, phot'os_, light), _the art of producing

pictures by light_.

STENOG'RAPHY (Gr. adj. _sten'os_, narrow), _the art of writing in

short-hand_.

TEL'EGRAPH (Gr. _te'le_, at a distance), _an apparatus for conveying

intelligence to a distance by means of electricity_.

TOPOG'RAPHY (Gr. n. _top'os_, a place), _the description of a particular

place_.

TYPOGRAPHY (Gr. n. _tu'pos_, a type), _the art or operation of printing_.

13. HOD'OS, _a way_.

EP'ISODE, _an incidental story introduced into a poem or narrative_.

EX'ODUS, _departure from a place; the second book of the Old Testament_.

METH'OD, _order, system, way, manner_.

METH'ODIST, _the followers of John Wesley_. (The name has reference to the

strictness of the rules of this sect of Christians).

PE'RIOD (Gr. n. _period'os_, a passage round), _the time in which anything

is performed; a kind of sentence; a punctuation mark_.

SYN'OD, _a meeting of ecclesiastics_.

14. HU'DOR, _water_.

HY'DRA, _a water-snake; a fabulous monster serpent slain by Hercules_.

HYDRAN'GEA, _a genus of plants remarkable for their absorption of water_.

HY'DRANT, _a water-plug_.

HYDRAU'LIC (Gr. n. _au'los_, a pipe), _relating to the motion of water

through pipes; worked by water_.

HYDRAU'LICS, _the science which treats of fluids in motion_.

HYDROCEPH'ALUS (Gr. n. _keph'ale_, the head), _dropsy of the head_.

HY'DROGEN (Gr. v. _gen'ein_, to beget), _a gas which with oxygen produces

water_.

HYDROG'RAPHY, _the art of maritime surveying and mapping_.

HYDROP'ATHY (Gr. n. _path'os_, feeling), _the water-cure_.

HYDROPHO'BIA (Gr. n. _phob'os_, fear), literally, _dread of water; canine

madness_.

HY'DROPSY, _a collection of water in the body_. ("Dropsy" is a contraction

of _hydropsy_).

HYDROSTAT'ICS, _the science which treats of fluids at rest_.

15. KRAT'OS, _rule, government, strength_.

ARISTOC'RACY (Gr. adj. _aris'tos_, best), _government by nobles_.

ARIS'TOCRAT, _one who favors aristocracy_.

AU'TOCRAT. See _au'tos_.

DEMOC'RACY (Gr. n. _de'mos_, the people), _government by the people_.

DEM'OCRAT, _one who upholds democracy; in the United States, a member of

the democratic party_.

THEOC'RACY, _government of a state by divine direction, as the ancient

Jewish state_.

16. LOG'OS, _speech, ratio, description, science_.

LOG'IC, _the science and art of reasoning_.

LOGI'CIAN, _one skilled in logic_.

LOG'ARITHMS (Gr. n. _arith'mos_, number), _a class of numbers that abridge

arithmetical calculations_.

ANAL'OGY, _a resemblance of ratios_.

AP'OLOGUE, _a moral fable_.

APOL'OGY, _a defense, an excuse_.

CAT'ALOGUE, _a list of names in order_.

CHRONOL'OGY. (See _chronos_.)

CONCHOL'OGY (Gr. n. _kon'chos_, a shell), _the science of shells_.

DEC'ALOGUE (Gr. _dek'a_, ten), _the ten commandments_.

DOXOL'OGY (Gr. n. _doxa_, glory), _a hymn expressing glory to God_.

EC'LOGUE, _a pastoral poem_.

ENTOMOL'OGY (Gr. n. _ento'ma_, insects, and v. _tem'nein_, to cut), _the

natural history of insects_.

EP'ILOGUE, _a short poem or speech at the end of a play_.

ETYMOL'OGY (Gr. _et'umon_, true source), _a part of grammar; the science of

the derivation of words_.

EU'LOGY, _praise, commendation_.

GENEAL'OGY (Gr. n. _gen'os_, birth), _history of the descent of families_.

GEOL'OGY (Gr. n. _ge_, the earth), _the science which treats of the

internal structure of the earth_.

MINERAL'OGY, _the science of minerals_.

MYTHOL'OGY (Gr. n. _mu'thos_, a fable), _a system or science of fables_.

ORNITHOL'OGY (Gr. n. _or'nis, or'nithos_, a bird), _the natural history of

birds_.

PATHOL'OGY (Gr. n. _path'os_, suffering), _that part of medicine which

treats of the causes and nature of diseases_.

PHILOL'OGY (Gr. _phil'os_, loving, fond of), _the science which treats of

languages_.

PHRENOL'OGY (Gr. n. _phren_, the mind), _the art of reading the mind from

the form of the skull_.

PHYSIOL'OGY (Gr. n. _phu'sis_, nature), _the science which treats of the

organism of plants and animals_.

PRO'LOGUE, _verses recited as introductory to a play_.

PSYCHOL'OGY (Gr. n. _psu'che_, the soul), _mental philosophy; doctrine of

man's spiritual nature_.

SYL'LOGISM, _a form of reasoning consisting of three propositions_.

TAUTOL'OGY (Gr. _tau'to_, the same), _a repetition of the same idea in

different words_.

TECHNOL'OGY (Gr. n. _tech'ne_, art), _a description of the arts_.

THEOL'OGY. See _theos_.

TOXICOL'OGY (Gr. n. _tox'icon_, poison) _the science which treats of

poisons and their effects_.

ZOOL'OGY (Gr. n. _zo'on_, an animal), _that part of natural history which

treats of animals_.

17. MET'RON _a measure_.

ME'TER, _arrangement of poetical feet; a measure of length_.

MET'RIC, _denoting measurement_.

MET'RICAL, _pertaining to meter_.

ANEMOM'ETER (Gr. n. _an'emos_, the wind), _an instrument measuring the

force and velocity of the wind_.

BAROM'ETER (Gr. n. _ba'ros_, weight), _an instrument that indicates changes

in the weather_.

DIAM'ETER, _measure through anything_.

GEOM'ETRY (Gr. n. _ge_, the earth), _a branch of mathematics_.

HEXAM'ETER (Gr. _hex_, six), _a line of six poetic feet_.

HYDROM'ETER (Gr. n. _hu'dor_, water), _an instrument for determining the

specific gravities of liquids_.

HYGROM'ETER (Gr. adj. _hu'gros_, wet), _an instrument for measuring the

degree of moisture of the atmosphere_.

PENTAM'ETER (Gr. _pen'te_, five), _a line of five poetic feet_.

PERIM'ETER, _the external boundary of a body or figure_.

SYM'METRY, _the proportion or harmony of parts_.

THERMOM'ETER (Gr. adj. _ther'mos_, warm), _an instrument for measuring the

heat of bodies_.

TRIGONOM'ETRY (Gr. n. _trigo'non_, a triangle), _a branch of mathematics_.

18. MON'OS, _sole, alone_.

MON'ACHISM, _the condition of monks; a monastic life_.

MON'AD, _something ultimate and indivisible_.

MON'ASTERY, _a house of religious retirement_.

MONK (Gr. n. _mon'achos_), _a religious recluse_.

MONOG'AMY (Gr. n. _gam'os_, MARRIAGE), _the marriage of one wife only_.

MON'OLOGUE (Gr. n. _log'os_), _a speech uttered by a person alone_.

MONOMA'NIA (Gr. n. _ma'nia_, madness), _madness confined to one subject_.

MONOP'OLY (Gr. v. pol'ein, to sell), _the sole power of selling anything_.

MONOSYL'LABLE, _a word of one syllable_.

MON'OTHEISM (Gr. n. _the'os_, God), _the belief in the existence of only

one God_.

MON'OTONE, _uniformity of tone_.

MONOT'ONY, _sameness of sound; want of variety_.

19. O'DE, _a song_.

ODE, _a lyric poem_.

MEL'ODY (Gr. n. _mel'os_, a song), _an agreeable succession of musical

sounds_.

PAR'ODY, _the alteration of the works of an author to another subject_.

PROS'ODY, _the study of versification_.

PSAL'MODY, _the practice of singing psalms_.

TRAG'EDY (Gr. n. _trag'os_, a goat[9]), _a dramatic representation of a sad

or calamitous event_.

EXERCISE.

The _periods_ of _astronomy_ go far beyond any _chronology_. The

_phonograph_ and the _telegraph_ are both American inventions. By the aid

of a _diagram_ the _problem_ was readily solved. Dr. Holmes, the _Autocrat_

of the Breakfast Table, has written many _parodies_. In the struggle

between _monarchy_ and _democracy_ Mexico has often been in a state of

_anarchy_. His _antagonist_ suffered great _agony_ from the _disaster_ that

occurred. The _eulogy_ pronounced on the great _zooelogist_ Agassiz was well

deserved. What is the _etymological_ distinction between _geography_ and

_geology_? The _aeronaut_ took with him a _barometer_, a _thermometer_, and

a _chronometer_. I owe you an _apology_ for not better knowing your

_genealogy. Typography_ has been well called "the art preservative of all

the arts." Who is called the great American _lexicographer? Tautology_ is

to be avoided by all who make any pretence to _grammar_. One may be a

_democrat_ without being a _demagogue_. You cannot be an _architect_

without knowing _geometry. Zoology_ shows that there is great _symmetry_ in

the structure of animals. The pretensions of _astrology_ are now dissipated

into thin _air_. Many persons skilled in _physiology_ do not believe in

hydropathy. Longfellow's "Evangeline" is written in _hexameter_, and

Milton's "Paradise Lost" in _pentameter_.

20. ON'OMA, _a name_.

ANON'YMOUS, _without a name_.

METON'YMY, _a rhetorical figure in which one word is put for another_.

ON'OMATOPOE'IA, _the forming of words whose sound suggests the sense_.

PARON'YMOUS, _of like derivation_.

PATRONYM'IC (Gr. n. _pat'er_, a father), _a name derived from a parent or

ancestor_.

PSEU'DONYM (Gr. adj. _pseu'des_, false), _a fictitious name_.

SYN'ONYM, _a word having the same meaning as another in the same language_.

21. PAN, PANTOS, _all; whole_.

PANACE'A (Gr. v. _ak'eomai_, I cure), _a universal cure_.

PAN'CREAS (Gr. n. _kre'as_, flesh), _a fleshy gland situated at the bottom

of the stomach_.

PAN'DECT, _a treatise which combines the whole of any science_.

PANEGYR'IC (Gr. n. _ag'ora_, an assembly), _an oration in praise of some

person or event_.

PAN'OPLY (Gr. n. _hop'la_, armor), _a complete suit of armor_.

PANORA'MA (Gr. n. _hor'ama_, a sight or view), _a large picture gradually

unrolled before an assembly_.

PAN'THEISM (Gr. n. _the'os_, God), _the doctrine that nature is God_.

PAN'THEON, _a temple dedicated to all the gods_.

PAN'TOMIME, _a scene or representation in dumb show_.

22. PA'THOS, _suffering, feeling_.

PATHET'IC, _affecting the emotions_.

PATHOL'OGY, _the science of diseases_.

ALLOP'ATHY, _a mode of medical practice_.

ANTIP'ATHY, _dislike, aversion_.

AP'ATHY, _want of feeling_.

HOMEOP'ATHY, _a mode of medical practice_.

HYDROP'ATHY. See _hudor_.

SYM'PATHY, _fellow-feeling_.

23. PHIL'OS, _a friend, a lover_.

PHILADEL'PHIA (Gr. n. _adel'phos_, a brother), literally, _the city of

brotherly love_.

PHILANTHROPY (Gr. n. _anthro'pos_, a man), _love of mankind_.

PHILHARMON'IC (Gr. n. _harmo'nia_, harmony), _loving harmony or music_.

PHILOS'OPHY (Gr. n. _sophi'a_, wisdom), _the general laws or principles

belonging to any department of knowledge_.

PHILOS'OPHER, _one versed in philosophy or science_.

PHILOSOPH'IC, PHILOSOPH'ICAL, _relating to philosophy_.

24. PHA'NEIN, _to cause to appear_; PHANTA'SIA, _an image, an idea_.

DIAPH'ANOUS, _translucent_.

EPIPH'ANY, _the festival commemorative of the manifestation of Christ by

the star of Bethlehem_.

FAN'CY, _a pleasing image; a conceit or whim_.

FAN'CIFUL, _full of fancy; abounding in wild images_.

FANTA'SIA, _a musical composition avowedly not governed by the ordinary

musical rules_.

PHAN'TOM, _a specter, an apparation_.

PHASE, _an appearance_.

PHENOM'ENON, _anything presented to the senses by experiment or

observation; an unusual appearance_.

SYC'OPHANT (Gr. n. _sukon_, a fig, and, literally, an informer against

stealers of figs), _a mean flatterer_.

25. PHO'NE, _a sound_.

PHONET'IC, PHON'IC _according to sound_.

EU'PHONY, _an agreeable sound of words_.

SYM'PHONY, _harmony of mingled sounds; a musical composition for a full

band of instruments_.

26. PHOS, PHOTOS, _light_.

PHOS'PHORUS (Gr. v. _pherein_, to bear), _a substance resembling wax,

highly inflammable, and luminous in the dark_.

PHOS'PHATE, _a salt of phosphoric acid_.

PHOSPHORES'CENT, _luminous in the dark_.

PHOSPHOR'IC, _relating to or obtained from phosphorus_.

PHOTOG'RAPHY. See _graphein_.

27. PHU'SIS, _nature_.

PHYS'IC, _medicines_.

PHYS'ICAL, _natural; material; relating to the body_.

PHYSI'CIAN, _one skilled in the art of healing_.

PHYS'ICIST, _a student of nature_.

PHYS'ICS, _natural philosophy_.

PHYSIOG'NOMY (Gr. n. _gno'mon_, a judge), _the art of discerning the

character of the mind from the features of the face; the particular cast of

features or countenance_.

PHYSIOL'OGY. See _logos_.

METAPHYS'ICS, literally, _after or beyond physics_; hence, _the science of

mind_.

METAPHYSI'CIAN, _one versed in metaphysics_.

28. POL'IS, _a city_.

POLICE', _the body of officers employed to secure the good order of a

city_.

POL'ICY, _the art or manner of governing a nation or conducting public

affairs; prudence_.

POL'ITIC, _wise, expedient_.

POLIT'ICAL, _relating to politics_.

POLITI'CIAN, _one devoted to politics_.

POL'ITICS, _the art or science of government; struggle of parties_.

POL'ITY, _the constitution of civil government_.

ACROP'OLIS (Gr. adj. _ak'ros_, high), _a citadel_.

COSMOP'OLITE (Gr. n. _kos'mos_, the world), _a citizen of the world_.

METROP'OLIS (Gr. n. _me'ter_, a mother), _the chief city of a country_.

NECROP'OLIS (Gr. adj. _nek'ros_, dead), _a burial-place; a city of the

dead_.

29. RHE'O, _I flow, I speak_.

RHET'ORIC, _the art of composition; the science of oratory_.

RHETORI'CIAN, _one skilled in rhetoric_.

RHEU'MATISM, _a disease of the limbs_ (so called because the ancients

supposed it to arise from a deflection of the humors).

RES'IN, _a gum which flows from certain trees_.

CATARRH', _a discharge of fluid from the nose caused by cold in the head_.

DIARRHOE'A, _purging_.

HEM'ORRHAGE (Gr. n. _haima_, blood), _a flowing of blood_.

30. SKOP'EIN, _to see, to watch_.

SCOPE, _space, aim, intention_.

BISH'OP (Gr. n. _epis'kopos_, overseer), _a clergyman who has charge of a

diocese_.

EPIS'COPACY, _church government by bishops_.

EPIS'COPAL, _relating to episcopacy_.

KALEI'DOSCOPE (Gr. adj. _kal'os_, beautiful), _an optical instrument in

which we see an endless variety of beautiful patterns by simple change of

position_.

MI'CROSCOPE (Gr. adj. _mik'ros_, small), _an instrument for examining small

objects_.

MICROS'COPIST, _one skilled in the use of the microscope_.

STETH'OSCOPE (Gr. n. _steth'os_, the breast), _an instrument for examining

the state of the chest by sound_.

TEL'ESCOPE (Gr. _te'le_, afar off), _an instrument for viewing objects far

off_.

31. TAK'TOS, _arranged_; TAX'IS, _arrangement_.

TAC'TICS, _the evolution, maneuvers, etc., of military and naval forces_;

_the science or art which relates to these_.

TACTI'CIAN, _one skilled in tactics_.

SYN'TAX, _the arrangement of words into sentences_.

SYNTAC'TICAL, _relating to syntax_.

TAX'IDERMY (Gr. n. _der'ma_, skin), _the art of preparing and arranging the

skins of animals in their natural appearance_.

TAX'IDERMIST, _one skilled in taxidermy_.

32. TECH'NE, _art_.

TECH'NICAL, _relating to an art or profession_.

TECHNICAL'ITY, _a technical expression_; _that which is technical_.

TECHNOL'OGY, _a treatise on or description of the arts_.

TECHNOL'OGIST, _one skilled in technology_.

POLYTECH'NIC (Gr. adj. _pol'us_, many), _comprising many arts_.

PYR'OTECHNY (Gr. n. _pur_, fire), _the art of making fireworks_.

33. THE'OS, _God_.

THE'ISM, _belief in the existence of a God_.

THEO'CRACY. (See _kratos_.)

THEO'LOGY. (See _logos_.)

APOTHEO'SIS, _glorification, deification_.

A'THEISM, _disbelief in the existence of God_.

A'THEIST, _one who does not believe in the existence of God_.

ENTHU'SIASM, _heat of imagination_; _ardent zeal_.

PAN'THEISM. (See _pan_.)

POL'YTHEISM (Gr. adj. _polus_, many), _the doctrine of a plurality of

Gods_.

34. TITH'ENI, _to place, to set_.

THEME, _a subject set forth for discussion_.

THE'SIS, _a proposition set forth for discussion_.

ANATH'EMA, _an ecclesiastical curse_.

ANTITHESIS, _opposition or contrast in words or deeds_.

HYPOTH'ESIS, _a supposition_.

PAREN'THESIS, _something inserted in a sentence which is complete without

it_.

SYN'THESIS, _a putting together, as opposed to analysis_.

35. TON'OS, _tension, tone_.

TONE, _tension, vigor, sound_.

TON'IC, adj. _increasing tension or vigor_; n. _a medicine which increases

strength_.

TUNE, _a series of musical notes on a particular key_.

ATTUNE', _to make musical_; _to make one sound agree with another_.

BAR'YTONE (Gr. adj. _ba'rus_, heavy), _a male voice_.

DIATON'IC, _proceeding by tones and semitones_.

IN'TONATE, _to sound; to modulate the voice_.

INTONE', _to give forth a slow, protracted sound_.

SEM'ITONE, _half a tone_.

REVIEW EXERCISE ON GREEK DERIVATIVES.

1. Derivation of "antithesis"?--Compose an example of an antithesis.--Point

out the antithesis in the following:--

"The prodigal robs his heir; the miser robs himself."

"A wit with dunces and a dunce with wits."

"Though deep, yet clear, though gentle, yet not dull,

Strong without rage, without o'erflowing, full."

2. Derivation of "hypothesis."--Give an adjective formed from this

noun.--What Latin derivative corresponds literally to "hypothesis"? _Ans.

Supposition_.--Show this. _Ans._ Supposition is composed of sub = hypo

(under), and position (from _ponere_, to place) = thesis, a placing--What

adjective from "supposition" would correspond to "hypothetical"? _Ans.

Supposititious._

3. Derivation of "parenthesis"?--Compose a parenthetical sentence.

4. What is the opposite of "synthesis"?--Give the distinction _Ans.

Analysis_ is taking apart, _synthesis_ is putting together--What adjective

is derived from the noun "synthesis"?

5. What adjective is formed from "demagogue"? _Ans. Demagogic_ or

_demagogical_--Define it--Compose a sentence containing the word

"demagogue". MODEL: "Aaron Burr, to gain popularity, practiced the arts of

a _demagogue_."

6. What adjective is formed from "pedagogue"? _Ans. Pedagogic_--What would

the "_pedagogic_ art" mean?--Is "pedagogue" usually employed in a

complimentary sense?--Give a synonym of "pedagogue" in its literal sense.

7. Derivation of "anarchy"?--Compose a sentence containing this word.

MODEL: "Many of the South American States have long been cursed by

_anarchy_."

8. What adjective is formed from "monarchy"? _Ans. Monarchical_--Define

it.--Can you mention a country at present ruled by a monarchical

government?--What is the ruler of a monarchy called?

9. Compose a sentence containing the word "oligarchy". MODEL: "During the

Middle Ages some of the Italian republics, as Genoa and Venice, were under

the rule of an _oligarchy_."

10. From what root is "democracy" derived?--What adjective is formed from

"democracy"?--Is Russia at present a _democracy_?--Can you mention any

ancient governments that for a time were democracies?

11. What adjective is formed fiom "aristocracy"?--What noun will denote one

who believes in aristocracy? _Ans. Aristocrat_--What does "aristocrat"

ordinarily mean? _Ans._ A proud or haughty person who holds himself above

the common people.

12. What is the etymology of "thermometer"?

13. Illustrate the meaning of "chronometer" by using it in a sentence.

14. What adjective is formed from "diameter"? _Ans. Diametrical_--What

adverb is formed from "diametrical"?--What is meant by the expression

"_diametrically_ opposed"?

15. What science was the forerunner of astronomy? _Ans. Astrology_--Give

the derivative of this word.--What word denotes one who is skilled in

astronomy?--Form an adjective from "astronomy."--Compose a sentence

containing the word "astronomy." MODEL: "The three great founders of

_astronomy_ are Copernicus, Kepler, and Newton."

16. From what root is "telescope" derived?--Combine and define telescop +

ic.--Compose a sentence using the word "telescope."

17. From what root is "microscope" derived?--Combine and define microscop +

ic.--What single word denotes microscopic animals? _Ans.

Animalculae_.--Compose a sentence containing the word "microscope." MODEL:

"As the telescope reveals the infinitely distant, so the _microscope_

reveals the infinitely little."

18. Compose a sentence containing the word "antipathy." MODEL: "That we

sometimes have antipathies which we cannot explain is well illustrated in

the lines:

'The reason why I cannot tell,

I do not like you, Dr. Fell.'"

19. What adjective is formed from "apathy"?

20. Derivation of "sympathy"?--Give a synonym of this Greek derivative.

_Ans. Compassion_.--Show why they are literal synonyms. _Ans._ Sym = con or

com, and pathy = passion; hence, compassion = sympathy.--Give an English

derivative expressing the same thing. _Ans. Fellow-feeling._

21. From what two roots is "autocrat" derived?--Form an adjective from

"autocrat."--Who is the present "autocrat of all the Russias"?--Could the

Queen of England be called an _autocrat_?--Why not?

22. Compose a sentence containing the word "autograph." MODEL: "There are

only two or three _autographs_ of Shakespeare in existence."

23. Derivation of "automaton"?--Illustrate the signification of the word by

a sentence.

24. What word would denote a remedy for "all the ills that flesh is heir

to"?--Compose a sentence containing the word "panacea."

25. Derivation of "panoply"?--In the following sentence is "panoply" used

in a literal or a figurative sense? "We had need to take the Christian

_panoply_, to put on the whole armor of God."

26. From what two roots is "pantheism" derived?--What word is used to

denote one who believes in pantheism?

27. Can you mention an ancient religion in which there were many

gods?--Each divinity might have its own temple; but what name would

designate a temple dedicated to _all_ the gods?

28. Give an adjective formed from the word "panorama."--Compose a sentence

using the word "panorama."

29. What is the derivative of "eulogy"?--Illustrate its meaning by a

sentence.--Form an adjective from "eulogy."

30. What is the etymology of "pseudonym"?--Give an example of a pseudonym.

DIVISION II.--ADDITIONAL GREEK ROOTS AND THEIR

DERIVATIVES.

ACH'OS, _pain_--ache, headache.

AINIG'MA, _a riddle_--enigma.

AK'ME, _a point_--acme.

AKOU'EIN, _to hear_--acoustics.

AK'ROS, _high_--_acropolis (polis)._

ALLEL'ON, _each other_--parallel, parallelogram.

AN'ER, _a man_--Andrew, Alexander.

AN'THOS, _a flower_--anther, anthology, polyanthus.

ANTHRO'POS, _a man_--anthropology, anthropophagi, misanthrope,

philanthropist, philanthropy.

ARK'TOS, _a bear_--arctic, antarctic.

AR'GOS, _idle_--lethargy, lethargic.

ARIS'TOS, _best_--aristocrat _(kratos)_, aristocracy, aristocratic.

ARITH'MOS, _number_--arithmetic, arithmetician, logarithm, logarithmic.

ARO'MA, _spice, odor_--aromatic.

ARTE'RIA, _a bloodvessel_--artery, arterial.

ASK'EIN, _to discipline_--ascetic, asceticism.

ASPHAL'TOS, _pitch_--asphalt.

ATH'LOS, _a contest_--athlete, athletic.

AT'MOS, _vapor, smoke_--atmosphere, atmospheric.

AU'LOS, _a pipe_--hydraulic.

BAL'SAMON, _balsam_--balm, embalm.

BA'ROS, _weight_--barometer, barytes.

BA'SIS, _the bottom_--base, baseless, basement, basis.

BIB'LION, _a book_--bible, biblical.

BI'OS, _life_--biography, biology.

BO'TANE, _a plant_--botanic, botanical, botanist, botany.

BRON'CHOS, _the throat_--bronchial, bronchitis.

BUS'SOS, _bottom_--abyss.

CHA'LUPS, _steel_--chalybeate.

CHARAS'SEIN, _to stamp_--character, characterize, characteristic.

CHA'RIS, _grace_--eucharist.

CHEIR, _the hand_--surgeon (short for _chirurgeon_), surgical.

CHLO'ROS, _green_--chloride, chlorine

CHOL'E, _bile_--choler, cholera, choleraic, melancholy.

CHOR'DE, _a string_--chord, cord, cordage.

CHRIS'TOS, _anointed_--chrism, Christ, Christian, Christmas, Christendom,

antichrist.

CHRO'MA, _color_--chromatic, chrome, chromic, chromotype, achromatic.

CHRU'SOS, _gold_--chrysalis, chrysolite.

CHU'LOS, _the milky juice formed by digestion_--chyle, chylifaction.

CHU'MOS, _juice_--chyme, chemist, chemistry, alchemy, alchemist.

DAI'MON, _a spirit_--demon, demoniac, demonology.

DE'MOS, _the people_--demagogue, democracy, democrat, endemic, epidemic.

DEN'DRON, _a tree_--dendrology, rhododendron.

DER'MA, _the skin_--epidermis.

DES'POTES, _a ruler_--despot, despotic, despotism.

DIAI'TA, _manner of life_--diet, dietary, dietetic.

DIDO'NI, _to give_--dose, antidote, anecdote.

DOG'MA, _an opinion_--dogma, dogmatic, dogmatize, dogmatism.

DOX'A, _an opinion, glory_--doxology, heterodox, orthodox, paradox.

DRAM'A, _a stage-play_--drama, dramatic, dramatist.

DROM'OS, _a course_--dromedary, hippodrome.

DRUS, _an oak_--dryad.

DUNA'THAI, _to be able_--dynamics, dynamical, dynasty.

DUS, _ill, wrong_--dysentery (_entera_, the bowels), dyspepsia (_peptein_,

to digest).

EKKLE'SIA, _the church_--ecclesiastes, ecclesiastic, ecclesiastical.

E'CHEIN, _to sound_--echo, catechise, catechism, catechumen.

EKLEI'PEIN, _to fail_--eclipse, ecliptic.

ELEK'TRON, _amber_--electric, electricity, electrify, electrotype.

EM'EIN, _to vomit_--emetic.

EP'OS, _a word_--epic, orthoepy.

ER'EMOS, _desert, solitary_--hermit, hermitage.

ER'GON, _a work_--energy, energetic, surgeon (_cheir_, the hand).

ETH'NOS, _a nation_--ethnic, ethnical, ethnography, ethnology.

ETH'OS, _custom, manner_--ethics, ethical.

EU, _good, well_--eulogy, eulogize, euphony, evangelical.

GAM'OS, _marriage_--bigamy, polygamy, misogamist.

GAS'TER, _the stomach_--gastric, gastronomy.

GE, _the earth_--geography, geology, geological, geometry, George, apogee,

perigee.

GEN'NAEIN, _to produce_--genealogy, genesis, heterogeneous, homogeneous,

hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen.

GIGNOS'KEIN, _to know_--diagnosis, diagnostic, prognosticate.

GLOS'SA, GLOT'TA, _the tongue_--glossary, glottis, polyglot.

GLU'PHEIN, _to carve_--hieroglyphics.

GNO'MON, _an indicator_--gnomon, physiognomy (_phusis_).

GO'NIA, _a corner_--diagonal, heptagon, hexagon, octagon, trigonometry.

GUM'NOS, _naked_--gymnasium, gymnast, gymnastics.

HAI'REIN, _to take or choose_--heresy, heretic, heretical.

HARMO'NIA, _a fitting together_--harmony, harmonious, harmonize, harmonium.

HEK'ATON, _a hundred_--hecatomb.

HE'LIOS, _the sun_--heliotrope, aphelion, perihelion.

HE'MERA, _a day_--ephemeral.

HEP'TA, _seven_--heptagon, heptarchy.

HE'ROS, _a hero_--hero, heroic, heroine, heroism.

HET'EROS, _another, unlike_--heterodox, heterodoxy, heterogeneous.

HEX, _six_--hexagon, hexangular.

HI'EROS, _sacred_--hierarchy, hieroglyphics (_glyphein_, to carve).

HIP'POS, _a horse_--hippodrome, hippopotamus, Philip, philippic.

HOL'OS, _all_--holocaust, holograph, catholic, catholicity.

HOM'OS, _like, the same_--homogeneous (_gennaein_, to produce).

HOR'OS, _a boundary_--horizon, aphorism.

HU'MEN, _the god of marriage_--hymeneal.

HUM'NOS, _a song of praise_--hymn, hymnal, hynmology.

ICH'THUS, _a fish_--ichthyology.

ID'EA, _a form or pattern_--idea, ideal.

ID'IOS, _peculiar_--idiom, idiosyncrasy, idiot, idiotic.

IS'OS, _equal_--isothermal.

KAI'EIN, _to burn_--caustic, cauterize, holocaust (_holos_, whole).

KA'KOS, _bad_--cacophony.

KA'LOS, _beautiful_--caligraphy, calotype, kaleidoscope (_skopein_).

KAL'UPTEIN, _to conceal_--apocalypse.

KAN'ON, _a rule_--canon, canonical, canonize.

KAR'DIA, _the heart_--cardiac, pericardium.

KEN'OS, _empty_--cenotaph.

KEPH'ALE, _the head_--acephalous, hydrocephalus (_hydor_).

KER'AS, _a horn_--rhinoceros.

KLE'ROS, _a portion_--clergy, clerical, clerk, clerkship.

KLI'MAX, _a ladder_--climax.

KLI'NEIN, _to bend_--clinical, recline.

KO'MOS, _a merry feast_--comedy, (_ode_), comedian, comic, encomium.

KO'NEIN, _to serve_--deacon, deaconship, diaconal, diaconate.

KO'NOS, Lat. CONUS, _a cone_--cone, conic, conical, coniferous, coniform.

KOP'TEIN, _to cut_--coppice, copse, syncope.

KOS'MOS, _the world_--cosmography, cosmopolitan.

KRI'TES, _a judge_--crisis, criterion, critic, critical, criticism,

hypocrite.

KRUP'TEIN, _to conceal_--crypt, apocrypha.

KRUSTAL'LOS, _ice_--crystal, crystallize.

KUK'LOS, _a circle_--cycle, encyclical, cyclops, cyclades, encyclopedia.

KULIN'DROS, _a roller_--cylinder.

LAM'BANEIN, _to take_--syllable, dissyllable, polysyllable.

LAM'PEIN, _to shine_--lamp.

LA'OS, _the people_--layman, laity.

LATREI'A, _worship_--idolatry, heliolatry.

LITH'OS, _a stone_--litharge, lithograph, aerolite.

LU'EIN, _to loosen_--analysis, paralysis, paralytic, palsy.

MAN'IA, _madness_--mania, maniac.

MAR'TUR, _a witness_--martyr, martyrdom, martyrology.

MEL'AS, _black_--melancholy, Melanesia.

ME'TER, _a mother_--metropolis.

MIK'ROS, _small_--microcosm, microscope, microscopic.

MI'MOS, _an imitator_--mimic, mimicry, pantomime.

MOR'PHE, _shape_--amorphous, metamorphosis.

MU'RIAS, _ten thousand_--myriad.

MU'THOS, _a fable_--myth, mythology.

NAR'KE, _torpor_--narcissus, narcotic.

NAUS, _a ship_--nausea, nauseate, nautical, nautilus, aeronaut.

NEK'ROS, _dead_--necropolis.

NE'SOS, _an island_--Polynesia.

NOM'OS, _a law_--astronomy, Deuteronomy, economy (_oikos_, a house),

economic.

OL'IGOS, _few_--oligarchy (_arche_).

OR'PHANOS, _deserted_--orphan, orphanage.

OR'THOS, _right, straight_--orthodox, orthoepy, orthography.

PAIDEI'A, _instruction_--cyclopaedia.

PAIS, _a child_--pedagogue, pedant, pedantic, pedobaptist.

PAP'AS, Lat. PAPA, _a father_--papacy, pope, popedom, popery.

PARADEI'SOS, _a pleasant garden_--paradise.

PAT'EIN, _to walk_--peripatetic.

PEN'TE, _five_--pentagon, pentecost.

PET'RA, _a rock_--Peter, petrescent, petrify, petroleum, saltpeter.

PHOB'OS, _fear_--hydrophobia (_hudor_, water).

PHRA'SIS, _speech_--phrase, phraseology, paraphrase.

PHREN, _the mind_--phrenology, frantic, frenzy.

PHU'TON, _a plant_--zoophyte.

PLA'NAEIN, _to wander_--planet, planetary.

PLAS'SEIN, _to mould_--plaster, plastic.

PLEU'RA, _the side_--pleurisy.

PNEU'MA, _breath_, _spirit_--pneumatic.

PO'LEIN, _to sell_--bibliopolist, monopoly, monopolize.

POL'US, _many_--polygamy, polyglot, polysyllable, polytechnic.

POR'OS, _a passage_--pore, porosity, porous, emporium.

POT'AMOS, _a river_--hippopotamus.

POUS, _the foot_--antipodes, polypus, tripod.

PRAS'SEIN, _to do_--practice, practical, practitioner, impracticable.

PRESBU'TEROS, _elder_--presbytery, presbyterian, presbyterianism.

PRO'TOS, _first_--protomartyr.

PSAL'LEIN, _to touch_, _to sing_--psalm, psalmist, psalmody, psalter.

PUR, _fire_--pyramid, pyrotechny.

RHIN, _the nose_--rhinoceros.

RHOD'ON, _a rose _--rhododendron.

SARX, _flesh_--sarcasm, sarcastic, sarcophagus.

SCHED'E, _a sheet_--schedule.

SCHE'MA, _a plan_--scheme.

SCHIS'MA, _a division_--schism, schismatic.

SIT'OS, _corn_--parasite, parasitical.

SKAN'DALON, _disgrace_--scandal, scandalous, scandalize, slander,

slanderous.

SKEPTES'THAI, _to consider_--sceptic, sceptical, scepticism.

SKEP'TRON, _an emblem of office_--scepter.

SOPH'IA, _wisdom_--sophist, sophistry, philosopher (_philos_), philosophy.

SPHAI'RA, _a globe_--sphere, spherical, spheroid, hemisphere.

STAL'AEIN, _to drop_--stalactite, stalagmite.

STEL'LEIN, _to send_--apostle, apostolic, epistle, epistolary.

STEN'OS, _narrow_--stenography.

STHEN'OS, _strength_--calisthenics.

STIG'MA, _a mark_--stigma, stigmatize.

STRAT'OS, _an army_--stratagem, strategy, strategist.

STROPH'E, _a turning_--apostrophe, catastrophe.

TA'PHOS, _a tomb_--epitaph, cenotaph.

TAU'TO, _the same_--tautology.

TEK'TON, _a builder_--architect.

TE'LE, _far off_--telegraph, telescope.

TEM'NEIN, _to cut_--atom, anatomy, anatomist.

TET'RA, _four_--tetragon, tetrarch.

THER'ME, _heat_--thermal.

THRON'OS, _a throne_--throne, enthrone.

TOP'OS, _a place_--topography.

TREP'EIN, _to turn_--trope, tropic, tropical, heliotrope.

TU'POS, _a stamp_--type, typography, prototype.

TURAN'NOS, _a ruler_--tyrant, tyrannical, tyrannize, tyranny.

ZEIN, _to boil_--zeal, zealous.

ZEPHU'ROS, _the west wind_--zephyr.

ZO'ON, _an animal_--zodiac, zoology, zoological, zooephyte.

PART IV.--THE ANGLO-SAXON ELEMENT.

I.--ANGLO-SAXON PREFIXES.

A--(corrupted from A.-S. _on_) signifies _in_, _on_, _at_: as abed, aboard,

aside, aback; and gives the adverbial form to adjectives, as in aloud,

aboard.

BE--gives a transitive signification, as in bespeak. It is sometimes

intensive, as in bestir, and converts an adjective into a verb, as in

bedim. _Be_, as a form of _by_, also denotes proximity, as in beside: as

bystander.

FOR[10]--means privation, or opposition: as forbear, forbid, forget.

FORE--_before_: as foretell, forebode.

MIS--_error_, _wrongness_: as mistake, misstate, misinform.

N--has a negative signification, as in many languages: thus, never,

neither, none.

OFF--from offspring.

OUT--_beyond_: as outdo, outlaw.

OVER--_above_: as overhang, overflow, overturn.

TO--in to-day, to-morrow.

UN--_not_, _the reverse_: as, unskilled, unlearned.

UNDER--_beneath_: as undermine.

WITH--_against_ (German _wider_): as withstand.

II.--ANGLO-SAXON SUFFIXES.

AR, ARD, ER, YER, STER[11]--signifying _agent_ or _doer_; as in beggar,

drunkard, beginner, lawyer, spinster. _Er_ forms verbs of adjectives, as

lower, from low, and also forms the comparatives of adjectives.

ESS, as in songstress, is borrowed from the French.

DOM, SHIP, RIC, WIC--from _dom_, judgment; _ship_, shape or condition;

_ric_, _rice_, power; _wic_, a dwelling--signify state, condition, quality,

etc., as in kingdom, friendship, bishopric, Berwick.

EL, KIN (= _chen_, German), LET (from French), LING, OCK--have a

_diminutive_ effect, as in manikin, streamlet, youngling, hillock,

cockerel.

EN--adjective termination, as wooden, from wood; it also converts

adjectives into verbs, as deepen from deep.

FOLD--from _fealdan_, to fold; a numeral termination, like _ple_, from the

Latin _plico_, I fold.

FUL--full; truthful.

HOOD, NESS--of uncertain derivation, signify state, etc., as in priesthood,

righteousness.

ISH--_isc_ (Saxon), _isch_ (German), denotes a quality; like rakish,

knavish, churlish, Danish. _Ish_ is also employed as a

diminutive--blackish.

LESS--_loss_: as penniless, hopeless.

LIKE and LY--_like_; _lic_ (A.-S.): as warlike, manly.

SOME--_sum_ (A.-S.), _sam_ (German), lonesome, handsome.

TEEN--ten, as in fourteen.

TY--from _tig_ (A.-S ), ten; _zig_ (German), as in six-_ty_. _Teen_ adds

ten--_ty_ multiplies by ten.

WARD--_weard_, _waerts_ (German), _versus_ (Latin), against, direction,

towards; downward, eastward.

WISE--_wisa_, manner; likewise.

Y--_ig_, an adjective termination; _dreorig_ (A.-S.), dreary.

ANGLO-SAXON ROOTS AND ENGLISH DERIVATIVES.



The pronunciation of Anglo-Saxon is much nearer to that of modern German or

the Continental pronunciation of Latin than of modern English.

The letters of the alphabet wanting in Anglo-Saxon are: _j_, _k_, _q_, _v_,

and _z_. _K_ is commonly represented by _c_; thus, _cyning_ (king) is

pronounced _kining_; _cyrtel_, _kirtle_; _qu_ is represented by _cw_, as

_cwic_, _quick_; _cwen_, _queen_; _cwellan_, to _quell_; _th_ is

represented by two peculiar characters, one of which in its reduced form

resembles _y_, as in _ye olden times_, where _ye_ should be pronounced

_the_, and not _ye_, as is often ignorantly done.

Long vowels should be carefully distinguished from short vowels. Long

vowels are _a_ as _far_, _ae_ as in _fare_, _e_ as in _they_, _i_ as in

_pique_, _o_ as in _bone_, _u_ as in _rule_, _y_ as in _i_ (nearly). Short

vowels are _a_ as in _fast_, _ae_ as in _man_, _e_ as in _men_, _i_ as in

_pin_, _o_ as in _God_, _u_ as in _full_, _y_ as in _i_ (nearly).

In the diphthongs _ea_, _eo_, and _ie_, the first element receives the

stress; the second is pronounced very lightly.

There are no silent letters in Anglo-Saxon as in modern English. The vowel

of every syllable is pronounced, and in difficult combinations of

consonants, as in _hlud_, loud, _cniht_, knight, _cnif_, knife, each

consonant has its distinct sound.

_E_ before _a_ and _o_ has the sound of _y_ as a consonant; _i_ before _e_

and _u_ has the same sound: thus, _Earl_ = _yarl_; _eow_ = _you_; _iett_ =

_yett_; and _iugoth_ = _yugoth_, youth.

AC, _an oak_--oak, oaken.

ACSIAN, _to inquire_--ask.

AECER, _a field_--acre, acreage.

AER, _before_--early, ere, erelong, erst.

AFT, _hind-part_--after, abaft.

AGAN, _to have_--owe, own, owner, ought, disown.

ARISAN, _to arise_--raise, rise, rouse.

BACAN, _to bake_--baker, bakery, bakehouse, batch.

BAEC, _back_--backbite, backslide, backward, aback.

BAELG, _a bag_.

BALD, _bold, brave_--bold, boldness.

BANA, _death_--bane, baneful, henbane.

BANC, _a bank or raised place_--bank, banker, bankrupt, bankruptcy, bench,

embankment.

BEACNIAN, _to beckon_--beck, beckon, beacon.

BELLAN, _to roar_--bawl, bellow.

BEORGAN, _to protect_--borough, borrow, burgh, burglar, burrow, harbinger,

harbor, berth.

BEORHT, _bright_--bright.

BERAN, _to bear, to bring forth_--barrow, bear, bier, birth.

BIDAN, _to wait_--abide.

BIDDAN, _to pray_, _to bid_--bid, bidding, bead, beadsman, beadle, forbid,

unbidden.

BINDAN, _to bind_--band, bond, bondage, bundle.

BLAEC, _pale_--bleach, bleacher, bleak, bleakness.

BLAWAN, _to blow_--blade, bladder, blast, blaze, blazon, blister, blossom,

blow, blush, bluster.

BLETSIAN, _to bless_--bless, blessing.

BRAD, _broad_--broad, breadth, board, aboard.

BRECAN, _to break_--bray (_to pound_), breach, breaker, breakfast, brink,

broken.

BREOST, _the breast_--breast, breastplate, breastwork, abreast.

BREOWAN, _to brew_--brew, brewer, brewery.

BRUCAN, _to use_--broker, brokerage, brook (_to endure_).

BUAN, _to cultivate_--boor, boorish, neighbor, neighborhood.

BUGAN, _to bow or bend_--bay, bight, bough, bow, buxom, elbow.

BYLDAN, _to design_, _to make_--build, builder, building.

BYRNAN, _to burn_--brand, brandish, brandy, brimstone, brown, brunt,

auburn, firebrand.

CAELAN, _to cool_--chill, chilblain.

CEAPIAN, _to buy_--cheap, cheapen, cheapness, chaffer, chapman.

CENNAN, _to produce_--kin, kind, kindness, kindred, akin, mankind.

CEORL, _a churl_--carle, churlish.

CLAENE, _clean_--clean, cleanly, cleanliness, cleanse, unclean.

CLATH, _cloth_--clothe, clothier, clothing, clad, unclad.

CLEOFAN, _to cleave_; CLIFIAN, _to adhere_--cleaver, cliff, clover, club.

CNAFA, _a boy_--knave, knavery.

CNAWAN, _to know_--knowledge, acknowledge, foreknow, unknown.

CNYLL, _a loud noise_--knell.

CNYTTAN, _to knit_--knitting, knot, knotty, net, network.

CRACIAN, _to crack_; CEARCIAN, _to creak_--crack, crackle, creak, cricket,

croak, screech, shriek.

CUMAN, _to come_--comely, comeliness, become, overcome, welcome.

CUNNAN, _to know_, _to be powerful_--can, con, cunning, keen.

CWELLAN, _to slay_--kill, quell.

DAEG, _a day_--dawn, daylight, day-star, daisy = day's eye.

DAEL, _a part_--deal, dole, ordeal.

DEMAN, _to think_--deem.

DEOR, _a wild animal_--deer.

DEORE, _dusky or black_--dark, darken, darkly, darkness.

DIC, _a dyke_--dig, ditch, ditcher.

DISC, _a plate_--desk, disc, dish.

DOM, _judgment_--doom, doomsday.

DON, _to do_--doer, deed, undo.

DRAGAN, _to draw_--drag, draggle, drain, draught, draughtsman, draw, dray.

DRIFAN, _to drive_--drift, driver, drove.

DRIGAN, _to dry_--drysalter, drought, drug (originally _dried plants_),

druggist.

DRINCAN, _to suck in_--drench, drink, drunk, drunkard, drunken.

DRYPAN, _to drip or drop_--drip, drop, droop, dribble, drivel.

DWINAN, _to pine_--dwindle, dwine.

DYN, _a noise_--din, dun.

EAGE, _the eye_--eye, eyeball, eye-bright, eyelid.

EALD, _old_--alderman, earl.

EFEN, _just_--even, evenness.

ERIAN, _to plough_, _to ear_--earth, earthy, earthquake.

FAEGER, _bright_--fair, fairness.

FAER, _fear_--fearful, fearless.

FARAN, _to go_--fare, farewell, ferry, ford, seafaring, wayfarer.

FEDAN, _to feed_--feed, feeder, fodder, food, father, fatherly.

FEOND, _an enemy_--fiend, fiendish.

FLEOGAN, _to fly_--flag, flake, fledge, flee, flicker, flight.

FLEOTAN, _to float_--float, fleet.

FLOWAN, _to flow_--flood, flow.

FOLGIAN, _to go after_--follow.

FON, _to seize _--fang, finger.

FOT, _the foot_--foot, fetter, fetlock.

FREON, _to love_--free, freedom, friend, friendship.

FRETAN, _to gnaw_--fret, fretful.

FUGEL, _a bird_--fowl, fowler, fowling-piece.

FUL, _unclean_--filth, filthy, foul, fulsome.

FULLIAN, _to whiten_--full (_to scour and thicken cloth in a mill_),

fuller, fuller's-earth.

FYR, _fire_--fiery, fireworks, bonfire.

GABBAN, _to mock_--gabble, gibe, gibberish, jabber.

GALAN, _to sing_--nightingale.

GANGAN, _to go_--gang, gangway.

GAST, _a ghost_--gas, ghastly, ghost, ghostly, aghast.

GEARD, _an enclosure _--garden, orchard, yard.

GEOTAN, _to pour_--gush, gut.

GEREFA, _a governor_--grieve (_an overseer_), sheriff, sheriffdom.

GETAN, _to get_--get, beget, begotten, forget, forgetful.

GIFAN, _to give_--give, gift, forgive, forgiveness, misgive, unforgiven.

GLOWAN, _to glow_--glow, glowing.

GOD, _good_--gospel, gossip.

GRAES, _grass_--grass, graze, grazier.

GRAFAN, _to dig_--grave, graver, graft, groove, grove, grub, engrave.

GRAPIAN, _to grapple_; GRIPAN, _to gripe_; GROPIAN, _to grope_--grapple,

grapnel, gripe, grope, group, grovel.

GREOT, _dust_--gritty, groats.

GROWAN, _to grow_--grow, growth.

GRUND, _the ground_--ground, groundless, groundsel, groundwork.

HABBAN, _to have_--have, haft, behave, behavior, misbehave.

HAEGE, _a hedge_--haw, hawthorn.

HAEL, _sound_, _whole_--hail, hale, heal, health, healthful, healthy, holy,

holiness, whole, wholesome.

HAM, _a dwelling_--hamlet, home, homely, homeliness.

HANGIAN, _to hang_--hang, hanger, hinge, unhinge, overhang.

HAT, _heat_--heat, heater, hot.

HEALDAN, _to hold_--halt, halter, hilt, hold, behold, uphold, upholsterer,

withhold.

HEARD, _hard_--harden, hardihood, hardship, hardware, hardy.

HEBBAN, _to lift_--heap, heave, heaven, heavy, upheaval.

HEDAN, _to heed_--heed, heedful, heedfulness, heedless, heedlessness.

HEORTE, _the heart_--hearten, heartless, hearty, heartburn, heart's-ease,

dishearten.

HLAF, _bread_--loaf.

HLEAPAN, _to leap_--leap, overleap, elope, elopement.

HOL, _a hole_--hole, hold (_of a ship_), hollow, hollowness.

HRISTLAN, _to make quick sounds_--rustle, rustling.

HUNTIAN, _to rush_--hunt, hunter, huntsman.

HUS, _house_--housewife, husband, hustings.

HWEORFAN, _to turn_--swerve, wharf.

HYRAN, _to hear_--hear, hearer, hearsay.

LAEDAN, _to lead_--lead, leader, loadstar, loadstone, mislead.

LAEFAN, _to leave_--left, eleven, twelve.

LAERAN, _to teach_--learn, learner, learning, lore, unlearned.

LANG, _long_--long, length, lengthen, lengthy, linger.

LECGAN, _to lay_--lay, layer, lair, law, lawful, lawless, lea, ledge,

ledger, lie, low, lowly, outlaw.

LEOFIAN, LYBBAN, _to live_--live, lively, livelihood, livelong, alive,

outlive.

LEOHT, _light_--lighten, lightsome, lighthouse, enlighten.

LIC, _like_--like, likely, likelihood, likeness, likewise, unlike.

LOCIAN, _to stretch forward_--look.

LOMA, _utensils_, _furniture_--loom, hand-loom, power-loom.

LOSIAN, _to lose_--lose, loser, loss.

LUF, _love_; LUFIAN, _to love_--lover, lovely, loveliness, lief, beloved,

unlovely.

LYFAN, _to permit_--leave (_permission_), belief, believe, believer,

misbelieve.

LYFT, _the air_--loft, lofty, aloft.

MACIAN, _to make_--make, maker, match, matchless, mate, inmate.

MAENGAN, _to mix_--among, mingle, commingle, intermingle, mongrel.

MAGAN, _to be able_--may, might, mighty, main, mainland, dismay.

MEARC, _a boundary_--mark, marksman, marches, remark.

METAN, _to measure_--meet, meeting, meet (_fit_), meetness.

MUND, _a defence_--mound.

MURNAN, _to murmur_--mourn, mourner, mournful.

MYND, _the mind_--mind, mindful, mindfulness, remind.

NAES, _a nose_--naze, ness.

NAMA, _a name_--name, nameless, namesake, misname.

NEAD, _need_--need, needful, needless, needs, needy.

NEAH, _nigh_--near, next, neighbor.

NIHT, _night_--night, nightfall, nightless, nightmare, nightshade.

OGA, _dread_--ugly, ugliness.

PAETH, _a path_--pathless, pathway, footpath.

PLEGAN, _to exercise_, _to sport_--play, player, playful, playmate.

RAECAN, _to reach_--reach, overreach, rack, rack-rent.

RAEDAN, _to read_--read, readable, reader, reading, riddle.

READ, _red_--red, redden, ruddy.

REAFIAN, _to seize_--bereave, bereavement, raven, ravenous, rive, rob,

robber, robbery, rove, rover.

RECAN, _to heed_--reck, reckless, recklessness, reckon, reckoning.

RIDAN, _to ride_--ride, rider, road, roadster, roadstead.

RINNAN, _to run_--run, runner, runaway, outrun.

RIPAN, _to reap_--reap, reaper, ripe, ripen, ripeness, unripe.

RUH, _rough_--rough, roughness.

SAEGAN, _to say_--say, saying, hearsay, unsay.

SAR, _painful_--sore, soreness, sorrow, sorrowful, sorry.

SCACAN, _to shake_--shake, shaky, shock, shocking.

SCEADAN, _to shade_--shade, shady, shadow, shed (_a covered enclosure_).

SCEDAN, _to scatter_, _to shed_--shed (_to spill_), watershed.

SCEOFAN, _to push_--shove, shovel, scuffle, shuffle, sheaf.

SCEOTAN, _to shoot_--shoot, shot, sheet, shut, shutter, shuttle, overshoot,

undershot, upshot.

SCERAN, _to cut_--scar, scarf, score, share, sharp, shear, sheriff, shire.

SCINAN, _to shine_--sheen, outshine, moonshine, sunshine.

SCREOPAN, _to creak_--scrape, scraper, swap, scrap-book.

SCROB, _a bush_--shrub, shrubbery.

SCYPPAN, _to form_--shape, shapeless, landscape.

SELLAN, _to give_--sale, sell, sold.

SEON, _to see_--see, seer, sight, foresee, oversee, unsightly, gaze.

SETTAN, _to set_; SITTAN, _to sit_--set, setter, settle, settler,

settlement, set, beset, onset, outset, upset.

SIDE, _side_--side, sideboard, aside, beside, inside, outside, upside.

SINGAN, _to sing_--sing, singer, song.

SLAEC, _slack_--slack, slackness, slow, sloth, slothful, sluggard, sluggish.

SLEAN, _to slay_--slay, slaughter, sledge (_a heavy hammer_).

SLIDAN, _to slide_--slide, sled, sledge.

SLIPAN, _to glide_--slip, slipper, slippery, slipshod.

SMITAN, _to smite_--smite, smiter, smith, smithy.

SNICAN, _to creep_--snake, sneak.

SOCC, _a shoe_--sock, socket.

SOFT, _soft_--soften, softly, softness.

SOTH, _true_--sooth, soothsayer.

SPECAN, _to speak_--speak, speaker, speech, bespeak.

SPELL, _a message_--spell (_discourse_), gospel.

SPINNAN, _to spin_--spinner, spider.

STAN, _a stone_--stony, stoneware.

STANDAN, _to stand_--standard, understand, understanding, withstand.

STEALL, _a place_--stall, forestall, install, pedestal.

STEORFAN, _to die_--starve, starvation, starveling.

STICIAN, _to stick_--stake, stick, stickle, stickleback, sting, stitch,

stock, stockade, stocking.

STIGAN, _to ascend_--stair, staircase, stile, stirrup, sty.

STRECCAN, _to stretch_--stretch, stretcher, straight, straighten,

straightness, outstretch, overstretch.

STYRAN, _to steer_--steer, steerage, steersman, stern (_the hind part of a

ship_), astern.

STYRIAN, _to stir_--stir, bestir.

SUR, _sour_--sour, sourish, sourness, sorrel, surly, surliness.

SWERIAN, _to swear_--swear, swearer, forswear, answer, unanswered.

SWET, _sweet_--sweet, sweetbread, sweeten, sweetmeat, sweetness.

TAECAN, _to show, to teach_--teach, teachable, teacher.

TELLAN, _to count_--tell, teller, tale, talk, talkative, foretell.

THINCAN, _to seem_; pret. thuh-te, _methinks_, _methought_.

THRINGAN, _to press_--throng.

THYR, _dry_--thirst, thirsty.

TREOWE, _true_--true, truth, truthful, truism, trust, trustee, trustworthy,

trusty.

TWA, _two_--twice, twine, twist, between, entwine.

TYRNAN, _to turn_--turn, turner, turncoat, turnkey, turnpike, overturn,

return, upturn.

WACAN, _to awake_--wake, wakeful, waken, wait, watch, watchful,

watchfulness, watchman.

WARNIAN, _to defend_, _to beware_--warn, warning, warrant, wary, weir,

aware, beware.

WEARM, _glowing_--warm, warmth.

WEGAN, _to move_--wag, waggle, wain, wave, way, wayfarer, weigh, weight,

weighty.

WEORDH, _worth_--worth, worthy, worship, worshipper, unworthy.

WERIAN, _to cover_--wear, wearable, weary, wearisome.

WINNAN, _to labor_--win, won.

WITAN, _to know_--wise, wisdom, wizard, wit, witness, witty.

WRINGAN, _to twist_--wrangle, wrench, wriggle, wring, wrinkle.

WRITHAN, _to twist_--wrath, wrathful, wroth, wreath, wreathe, wry, wryneck,

wrong.

WUNIAN, _to dwell_--wont, wonted.

WYRM, _a worm, a serpent_--worm.

Specimens of Anglo-Saxon, and the same literally

translated into Modern English.

_EXTRACT FROM CAEDMON'S PARAPHRASE._

_Caedmon: died about 680._

Nu we sceolan herian | Now we shall praise

heofon-rices weard, | the guardian of heaven,

metodes mihte, | the might of the creator,

and his mod-ge-thonc, | and his mind's thought,

wera wuldor-faeder! | the glory-father of men!

swa he wundra ge-hwaes, | how he of all wonders,

ece dryhten, | the eternal lord,

oord onstealde. | formed the beginning.

He aerest ge-sceop | He first created

ylda bearnum | for the children of men

heofon to hrofe, | heaven as a roof,

halig scyppend! | the holy creator!

tha middan-geard | them the world

mon-cynnes weard, | the guardian of mankind

ece dryhten, | the eternal lord,

aefter teode, | produced afterwards,

firum foldan, | the earth for men,

frea aelmihtig! | the almighty master!

_PASSAGE REPEATED BY BEDE ON HIS DEATH-BED._

_Bede: died 735._

For tham ned-fere | Before the necessary journey

neni wirtheth | no one becomes

thances suotera | more prudent in thought

thonne him thearf sy, | than is needful to him,

to ge-hicgeune | to search out

er his heonon-gange | before his going hence

hwet his gaste | what to his spirit

godes othe yveles | of good or of evil

efter deathe heonon | after his death hence

demed weorthe. | will be judged.

_EXTRACT FROM THE SAXON CHRONICLE--Tenth Century._

Tha feng AElfred AEthelwulfing to | Then took Alfred, son of Ethelwulf

West-Seaxna rice; and thaes ymb aenne | to the West Saxon's kingdom; and

monath gefeaht AElfred cyning with | that after one month fought Alfred

ealne thone here lytle werode aet | king against all the army with a

Wiltoune, and hine lange on daeg | little band at Wilton, and them long

geflymde, and tha Deniscan ahton | during the day routed and then the

wael-stowe geweald. And thaes geares | Danes obtained of the battle-field

wurdon nigon folcgefeoht gefohten | possession. And this year were nine

with thone here on tham cyne-rice be | great battles fought with the army

suthan Temese, butan tham the him | in the kingdom to the south of the

AElfred, and ealdormen, and cyninges | Thames, besides those in which

thegnas oft rada onridon the man na | Alfred, and the alder-men, and the

ne rimde. And thaes geares waeron | king's thanes oft inrode--against

of-slegene nigon eorlas, and an | which one nothing accounted. And

cyning; and thy geare namon | this year were slain nine earls and

West-Seaxan frith with thone here. | one king; and this year made the

| West-Saxons peace with the army.

_EXTRACT FROM THE SAXON GOSPELS--Eleventh Century._

LUCAE, Cap. I. v. 5-10. | LUKE, Chap. I. v. 5-10.

|

5. On Herodes dagum Iudea cyninges, | 5. In the days of Herod the king of

waes sum sacerd on naman Zacharias, of| Judea, there was a certain priest by

Abian tune: and his wif waes of | name Zacharias, of the course of

Aarones dohtrum, and hyre nama waes | Abia: and his wife was of the

Elizabeth. | daughters of Aaron, and her name was

| Elizabeth.

6. Sothlice hig waeron butu rihtwise | 6. And they were both righteous

beforan Gode, gangende on eallum his | before God, walking in all the

bebodum and rihtwisnessum, butan | commandments and ordinances of the

wrohte. | Lord without blame.

7. And hig naefdon nan bearn, fortham | 7. And they had no child, because

the Elizabeth waes unberende; and hig | that Elizabeth was barren; and they

on heora dagum butu forth-eodon. | in her days were both of great age.

8. Sothlice waes geworden tha | 8. And it befell that when Zacharias

Zacharias hys sacerdhades breac on | should do the office of the

his gewrixles endebyrdnesse beforan | priesthood in the order of his

Gode, | course before God,

9. AEfter gewunan thaes sacerdhades | 9. After the custom of the

hlotes, he eode that he his offrunge | priesthood he went forth by lot, to

sette, tha he on Godes tempel eode. | burn incense when he into God's

| temple went.

10. Eall werod thaes folces waes ute | 10. And all the multitude of the

gebiddende on thaere offrunge timan. | people were without praying at the

| time of incense.

_THE LORD'S PRAYER._

Faeder ure, thu the eart on heofenum; | Father our, thou who art in heaven;

si thin nama gehalgod; to-becume thin| be thine name hallowed; let come

rice; geweordhe thin willa on | thine kingdom; let be done thine

eorthan, swa swa on heofenum. Urne ge| will on earth, so as in the heavens.

daeghwamlican hlaf syle us to-daeg; and| Our also daily bread give thou us

forgyf us ure gyltas, swa swa we | to-day; and forgive thou to us our

forgidfadh urum gyltendum; and ne | debts, so as we forgive our debtors;

gelaede thu us on costnunge, ac alys | and not lead thou us into

us of yfle, etc. | temptations, but deliver thou us

| from evil, etc.

SPECIMENS OF SEMI-SAXON AND EARLY ENGLISH.

_EXTRACT FROM THE BRUT OF LAYAMON--About 1180._

He nom tha Englisca boc | He took the English book

Tha makede Seint Beda; | That Saint Bede made;

An other he nom on Latin, | Another he took in Latin,

Tha makede Seinte Albin, | That Saint Albin made,

And the feire Austin, | And the fair Austin,

The fulluht broute hider in. | That baptism brought hither in.

Boc he nom the thridde, | The third book he took,

Leide ther amidden, | _And_ laid there in midst,

Tha makede a Frenchis clerc, | That made a French clerk,

Wace was ihoten, | Wace was _he_ called,

The wel couthe writen, | That well could write,

And he hoc yef thare aethelen | And he it gave to the noble

Allienor, the wes Henries quene, | Eleanor, that was Henry's Queen,

Thes heyes kinges. | The high king's.

_EXTRACT FROM A CHARTER OF HENRY III.--1258._

Henry, thurg Gode's fultome, King on | Henry, through God's support, King

Engleneloande, Lhoaverd on Yrloand, | of England, Lord of Ireland, Duke of

Duk on Norman, on Acquitain, Earl on | Normandy, of Acquitain, Earl of

Anjou, send I greting, to alle hise | Anjou, sends greeting to all his

holde, ilaerde and ilewede on | subjects, learned and unlearned, of

Huntindonnschiere. Thaet witen ge wel | Huntingdonshire. This know ye well

alle, haet we willen and unnen thaet | all, that we will and grant what our

ure raedesmen alle, other the moare | counsellors all, or the more part of

del of heom, thaet beoth ichosen thurg| them, that be chosen through us and

us and thurg thaet loandes-folk on ure| through the landfolk of our kingdom,

kineriche, habbith idon, and schullen| have done, and shall do, to the

don in the worthnes of God, and ure | honor of God, and our allegiance,

treowthe, for the freme of the | for the good of the land, etc.

loande, etc. |

Anglo-Saxon Element in Modern English.

That the young student may be made aware of the extent of the employment of

Anglo-Saxon in our present language, and that he may have some clue to

direct him to a knowledge of the Saxon words, the following extracts,

embracing a great proportion of these words, are submitted to his

attention. The words not Teutonic are marked in _Italics_.

MILTON.

Of man's first _disobedience_, and the _fruit_

Of that forbidden tree, whose _mortal taste_

Brought death into the world, and all our woe,

With loss of _Eden_, till one greater man

_Restore_ us and _regain_ the blissful seat--

Sing, heavenly _Muse_.

With thee _conversing_, I forget all time,

All _seasons_, and their _change_; all _please_ alike.

Sweet is the breath of morn, her rising sweet,

With _charm_ of earliest birds; _pleasant_ the sun

When first on this _delightful_ land he spreads

His _orient_ beams on _herb_, tree, _fruit_, and _flower_,

Glistering with dew; _fragrant_ the _fertile_ earth,

After soft showers; and sweet the coming on

Of _grateful_ evening mild; then _silent_ night

With this her _solemn_ bird, and this fair moon,

And these the _gems_ of heaven, her starry _train_.

SHAKESPEARE.

To be, or not to be, that is the _question_;

Whether 't is _nobler_ in the mind to _suffer_

The stings and arrows of _outrageous fortune_,

Or to take _arms_ against a sea of _troubles_,

And, by _opposing_, end them? To die, to sleep;

No more;--and by a sleep to say we end

The heart_ache_ and the thousand _natural_ shocks

That flesh is _heir_ to! 't were a _consummation_

_Devoutly_ to be wished. To die; to sleep;

To sleep?--_perchance_ to dream!

All the world's a _stage_,

And all the men and women _merely_ players.

They have their _exits_ and their _entrances_,

And one man in his time plays many _parts_;

His _acts_ being seven _ages_. At first the _infant_,

Mewling and puking in his _nurse's arms_.

And then the whining _school_-boy, with his _satchel_

And shining morning _face_, creeping like snail

Unwillingly to _school_. And then the lover,

Sighing like _furnace_, with a woeful _ballad_

Made to his _mistress'_ eyebrow. Then a _soldier_,

Full of _strange_ oaths, and bearded like the _pard_,

_Jealous_ in _honour_, _sudden_ and quick in _quarrel_;

Seeking the bubble _reputation_

Even in the _cannon's_ mouth.

TRANSLATION OF THE BIBLE.

In the beginning God _created_ the heaven and the earth. And the earth was

without _form_, and _void_; and darkness was upon the _face_ of the deep:

and the _Spirit_ of God _moved_ upon the _face_ of the waters. And God

said, Let there be light; and there was light. And God saw the light, that

it was good; and God _divided_ the light from the darkness. And God called

the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And the evening and the

morning were the first day.--_Genesis_ i. 1-6.

And it came to _pass_, that when _Isaac_ was old, and his eyes were dim, so

that he could not see, he called _Esau_, his eldest son, and said unto him,

My son. And he said unto him, Behold, here am I. And he said, Behold now, I

am old, I know not the day of my death. Now therefore take, I _pray_ thee,

thy weapons, thy _quiver_ and thy bow, and go out to the field, and take me

some _venison_; and make me _savoury_ meat, such as I love, and bring it to

me, that I may eat; that my soul may bless thee before I die. And _Rebekah_

heard when _Isaac_ spake to _Esau_ his son. And _Esau_ went to the field to

hunt for _venison_, and to bring it. And _Rebekah_ spake unto _Jacob_ her

son, saying, Behold, I heard thy father speak unto _Esau_ thy brother,

saying, Bring me _venison_, and make me _savoury_ meat, that I may eat, and

bless thee before the Lord before my death.--_Genesis_ xxvii. 1-7.

THOMSON.

These as they _change_, Almighty Father! these

Are but the _varied_ God. The _rolling_ year

Is full of thee. Forth in the _pleasing_ spring

Thy _beauty_ walks, thy _tenderness_ and love.

Wide flush the fields; the softening _air_ is _balm_;

_Echo_ the _mountains round_; the _forest_ smiles;

And every _sense_ and every heart is _joy_.

Then comes thy _glory_ in the summer months,

With light and heat _refulgent_. Then thy sun

Shoots full _perfection_ through the swelling year.

ADDISON.

I was yesterday, about sunset, walking in the open fields, till the night

_insensibly_ fell upon me. I at first _amused_ myself with all the richness

and _variety_ of _colours_ which _appeared_ in the western _parts_ of

heaven. In _proportion_ as they _faded_ away and went out, _several_ stars

and _planets appeared_, one after another, till the whole _firmament_ was

in a glow. The blueness of the _ether_ was _exceedingly_ heightened and

enlivened by the _season_ of the year.

YOUNG.

Let _Indians_, and the _gay_, like _Indians_, fond

Of feathered _fopperies_, the sun _adore_:

Darkness has more _divinity_ for me;

It strikes thought inward; it drives back the soul

To settle on herself, our _point supreme_.

There lies our _theater_: there sits our _judge_.

Darkness the _curtain_ drops o'er life's dull _scene_:

'T is the kind hand of _Providence_ stretched out

'Twixt man and _vanity_; 't is _reason's reign_,

And _virtue's_ too; these _tutelary_ shades

Are man's _asylum_ from the _tainted_ throng.

Night is the good man's friend, and guardian too.

It no less _rescues virtue_, than _inspires_.

SWIFT.

Wisdom is a fox, who, after long hunting, will at last _cost_ you the

_pains_ to dig out. 'T is a cheese, which by how much the richer has the

thicker, homelier, and the _coarser coat_; and whereof, to a _judicious

palate_, the _maggots_ are the best. 'Tis a _sack posset_, wherein the

deeper you go on you will find it sweeter. But then, lastly, 'tis a nut,

which, unless you choose with _judgment_, may _cost_ you a tooth, and _pay_

you with nothing but a worm.

HUME.

The _beauties_ of her _person_ and _graces_ of her _air combined_ to make

her the most _amiable_ of women; and the _charms_ of her _address_ and

_conversation aided_ the _impression_ which her lovely _figure_ made on the

heart of all beholders. _Ambitious_ and _active_ in her _temper_, yet

_inclined_ to _cheerfulness_ and _society_; of a lofty _spirit_, _constant_

and even _vehement_ in her _purpose_, yet _politic, gentle_, and _affable_,

in her _demeanor_, she _seemed_ to _par_take only so much of the _male

virtues_ as to _render_ her _estimable_, without _relinquishing_ those soft

_graces_ which _compose_ the _proper ornament_ of her _sex_.

GIBBON.

In the _second century_ of the _Christian era_, the _empire_ of _Rome

comprehended_ the fairest _part_ of the earth, and the most _civilized

portion_ of mankind. The _frontiers_ of that _extensive monarchy_ were

guarded by _ancient renown_, and _disciplined valour_. The _gentle_ but

_powerful influence_ of laws and _manners_ had _gradually cemented_ the

_union_ of the _provinces_. Their _peaceful inhabitants enjoyed_ and

_abused_ the _advantages_ of wealth and _luxury_. The _image_ of a free

_constitution_ was _preserved_ with _decent reverence_.

JOHNSON.

Of _genius_, that _power_ which _constitutes_ a _poet_; that _quality_

without which _judgment_ is cold, and knowledge is _inert_; that _energy_

which _collects_, _combines_, _amplifies_, and _animates_; the

_superiority_ must, with some _hesitation_, be _allowed_ to Dryden. It is

not to be _inferred_ that of this _poetical vigor Pope_ had only a little,

_because_ Dryden had more; for every other writer since Milton must give

_place_ to _Pope_; and even of Dryden it must be said, that if he has

brighter _paragraphs_, he has not better _poems_.

BYRON.

_Ancient_ of days! _august Athena!_ where,

Where are thy men of might--thy _grand_ in soul?

Gone--glimmering through the dream of things that were.

First in the race that led to _Glory's goal_,

They won, and _passed_ away. Is this the whole?

A _school_-boy's tale--the wonder of an _hour_!

The warrior's-weapon and the _sophist's stole_

Are sought in _vain_, and o'er each _mouldering_ tower,

Dim with the mist of years, gray flits the shade of _power_.

SIR WALTER SCOTT.

The way was long, the wind was cold,

The _Minstrel_ was _infirm_ and old;

His withered cheek and _tresses_ gray

_Seemed_ to have known a better day;

The harp, his _sole remaining joy_,

Was carried by an _orphan_ boy.

The last of all the bards was he

Who sung of border _chivalry_;

For, well-a-day! their _dale_ was fled;

His _tune_ful brethren all were dead;

And he, _neglected_ and _oppressed_,

Wished to be with them and at rest.

WORDSWORTH.

Ah! little doth the young one dream,

When full of play and childish cares,

What _power_ is in his wildest scream,

Heard by his mother unawares!

He knows it not, he cannot guess;

Years to a mother bring _distress_;

But do not make her love the less.

My son, if thou be _humbled_, _poor_,

Hopeless of _honor_ and of _gain_,

Oh! do not dread thy mother's door;

Think not of me with _grief_ and _pain_.

I now can see with better eyes;

And worldly _grandeur_ I _despise_,

And _Fortune_ with her gifts and lies.

TENNYSON.

Not wholly in the busy world, nor _quite_

Beyond it, blooms the garden that I love.

News from the humming _city_ comes to it

In _sound_ of _funeral_ or of _marriage_ bells;

And sitting muffled in dark leaves you hear

The windy clanging of the winter clock;

Although between it and the garden lies

A _league_ of grass, washed by a slow broad stream,

That, stirred with _languid pulses_ of the oar,

Waves all its lazy _lilies_, and creeps on,

Barge laden, to three _arches_ of a bridge,

_Crowned_ with the _minster-towers_.

PART V.--MISCELLANEOUS DERIVATIVES.

I.--WORDS DERIVED FROM THE NAMES OF PERSONS.

1.--NOUNS.

AT'LAS, _a collection of maps bound together_: "Atlas," a fabled giant who,

according to the Greek notion bore the earth upon his shoulders.

ACAD'EMY, _a superior grade school, a society of learned men_: "Academus,"

a Greek in whose garden near Athens Plato taught.

AMMO'NIA, _the pungent matter of smelling salts_: "Jupiter Ammon," near

whose temple in Libya it was originally obtained.

BAC'CHANAL, _one who indulges in drunken revels_: "Bacchus," the god of

wine.

BOW'IE KNIFE, _an American weapon_: Colonel "Bowie," the inventor.

BRAGGADO'CIO, _a vain boaster_: "Braggadochio," a boastful character in

Spenser's Faery Queen.

BUD'DHISM, _a wide-spread Asiatic religion_: "Buddha," a Hindoo sage who

lived about 1000 B.C.

CAL'VINISM, _the doctrines of Calvin_: "Calvin," a Swiss theologian of the

16th century.

CAMEL'LIA, _a genus of evergreen shrubs_: "Camelli," a Spaniard who brought

them from Asia.

CICERO'NE (sis e-ro'ne or chi che-ro'-ne), _a guide_: "Cicero," the Roman

orator.

CINCHO'NA, _Peruvian bark_: Countess "Cinchona," wife of a Spanish governor

of Peru (17th century). By means of this medicine she was cured of an

intermittent fever, and after her return to Spain she aided in the

diffusion of the remedy.

DAGUERRE'OTYPE, _a picture produced on a metal plate_: "Daguerre," the

inventor (1789-1851).

DAHL'IA, _a garden plant_: "Dahl," a Swedish botanist.

DUNCE, _a dull, slow-witted person_: "Duns Scotus," a subtle philosopher of

the 13th century. His method of reasoning was very popular in the schools

during the Middle Ages, and a very skillful hair-splitter was called a

Dunse; but at last, through the influence of the antagonists of the

philosopher, the word passed into a term of reproach.

EP'ICURE, _one fond of good living_: "Epicurus," a Greek philosopher who

was said to teach that pleasure is the chief good.

FAH'RENHEIT, _a thermometer that marks the freezing-point of water at_ 32 deg.

(which is different from both the centigrade and the Reaumur thermometer):

"Fahrenheit," the inventor.

FUCHSIA (fu'si-a), _a genus of flowering plants_: "Leonard Fuchs," a German

botanist of the 16th century.

GAL'VANISM, _a branch of the science of electricity_: "Galvani," an Italian

physician, its discoverer.

GEN'TIAN, _a medicinal root_: "Gentian," king of Illyria, who is said to

have first experienced the virtues of the plant.

GOB'ELIN, _a rich tapestry_: "Jehan Gobeelen," a Flemish dyer.

GUILLOTINE', _an instrument for beheading_: "Guillotin," who invented and

brought it into use at the time of the French Revolution, last century.

HY'GIENE, _the principles and rules of health_: "Hygeia," the goddess of

health in classical mythology.

JES'UIT, _a member of the Society of Jesus, formed by Ignatius Loyola in_

1534: "Jesus."

LYNCH, _to punish without the usual forms of law_: said to be from "Lynch,"

a Virginia farmer, who took the law into his own hands.

MACAD'AMIZE, _to cover a road with small broken stones_: "Macadam," the

inventor.

MAGNO'LIA, _a species of trees found in the southern parts of the United

States_: "Magnol," a French botanist.

MEN'TOR, _a faithful monitor_: "Mentor," the counselor of Telemachus.

MOR'PHIA, _the narcotic principle of opium_: "Morpheus," the god of sleep.

NE'GUS, _a mixture of wine, water, and sugar_: Colonel "Negus," who

introduced its use in the time of Queen Anne.

OR'RERY, _an apparatus for showing the motions, etc., of the heavenly

bodies_: the Earl of "Orrery," for whom one of the first was made.

PALLA'DIUM, _something that affords effectual defense, protection, and

safety_: Greek "palla'dion," an image of "Pallas Athene," which was kept

hidden and secret, and was revered as a pledge of the safety of the town

where it was lodged.

PAN'IC, _a sudden fright_: "Pan," the god of shepherds, who is said to have

caused alarm by his wild screams and appearance.

PE'ONY, _a plant of the genus_ PAEONIA, _having beautiful showy flowers_:

"Paeon," its discoverer.

PET'REL, _an ocean bird_: diminutive of Peter, probably so called in

allusion to "St. Peter's" walking on the sea.

PHA'ETON, _an open carriage_: "Phaethon," the fabled son of Phoebus or the

Sun, whose chariot he attempted to drive.

PINCH'BECK, _an alloy of copper and zinc resembling gold_: said to be from

one "Pinchbeck," the inventor.

QUAS'SIA, _a bitter wood used as a tonic_: "Quassy," a negro who discovered

its qualities.

RODOMONTADE', _vainbluster_: "Rodomonte," a boasting hero who figures in

Ariosto's poem of the _Orlando Furioso_.

SILHOUETTE (sil oo et'), _the outline of an object filled in with black

color_: "Silhouette" (see Webster).

TAN'TALIZE, _to torment or tease_: "Tantalus," according to the poets, an

ancient king of Phrygia, who was made to stand up to the chin in water with

fruit hanging over his head, but from whom both receded when he wished to

partake.

TYPHOON', _a violent hurricane which occurs in the Chinese seas_: "Typhon,"

a fabled giant who was taught to produce them.

VOLCA'NO, _a burning mountain_: "Vulcan," the god of fire.

2.--ADJECTIVES.

AMER'ICAN, _relating to America_: from "Amerigo (Latin, _Americus_)

Vespucci"--contemporary of Columbus.

A'RIAN, _relating to Arius_: a theologian of the 4th century who denied the

divinity of Christ.

ARISTOTE'LIAN, _relating to the deductive method of reasoning set forth by

Aristotle_: a Greek philosopher of the 4th century B.C.

ARMIN'IAN, _relating to Arminius_: a Dutch theologian of the 16th century,

who opposed the doctrines of Calvin.

BACO'NIAN, _relating to the inductive method of reasoning set forth by

Bacon_: an English philosopher of the 17th century.

CARTE'SIAN, _relating to the philosophy of Descartes_: a French philosopher

of the 17th century.

CE'REAL, _relating to grain_: from "Ceres"--the Roman goddess of corn and

tillage.

COPER'NICAN, _relating to Copernicus_: a German philosopher of the 16th

century, who taught the theory of the solar system now received, and called

the _Copernican system_.

ELIZ'ABETHAN, _relating to the times of Queen Elizabeth of England_:

(1558-1603).

EO'LIAN, _relating to the wind_: from "AEolus"--the god of the winds in

classic mythology.

ERAS'TIAN, _relating to Erastus_:--a German theologian of the 16th century,

who maintained that the Church is wholly dependent on the State for support

or authority.

ESCULA'PIAN, _relating to the healing art_: from "Esculapius"--the god of

the healing art among the Greeks.

GOR'DIAN, _intricate, complicated, difficult_: from "Gordius"--king of

Phrygia who tied a knot which could not be untied.

HERCULE'AN, _very large and strong_: from "Hercules"--a hero of antiquity

celebrated for his strength.

HERMET'IC, _relating to Hermes_--the fabled inventor of alchemy; adv.,

HERMETICALLY, _in a perfectly close manner_.

HUDIBRAS'TIC, _in the manner of the satirical poem called Hudibras_, by

Samuel Butler (1612-1680).

JO'VIAL, _gay, merry_: from "Jupiter" (Jovis),--the planet of that name

having in the Middle Ages been supposed to make those who were born under

it of a joyous temper.

LINNAE'AN, _relating to Linnaeus_--the celebrated Swedish botanist.

LU'THERAN, _relating to the doctrines of Luther_--a German religious

teacher of the 16th century.

MACHIAVEL'IAN, _cunning and sinister in politics_: from "Machiaveli"--an

Italian writer of the 15th century.

MERCU'RIAL, _active, sprightly_--having the qualities fabled to belong to

the god "Mercury."

MOSA'IC, _relating to Moses, his writings or his time_.

NEWTO'NIAN, _relating to Sir Isaac Newton and his philosophy_.

PINDAR'IC, _after the style and manner of Pindar_--a lyric poet of Greece.

PLATON'IC, _relating to the opinions or the school of Plato_,--a

philosopher of Greece, in the 4th century B.C.

PLUTON'IC, _relating to the interior of the earth, or to the Plutonic

theory in geology of the formation of certain rocks by fire_: from

"Pluto"--in classic mythology, the god of the infernal regions.

PROCRUS'TEAN, _relating to or resembling the mode of torture employed by

Procrustes_--a celebrated highwayman of ancient Attica, who tied his

victims upon an iron bed, and, as the case required, either stretched out

or cut off their legs to adapt them to its length.

PROME'THEAN, _relating to Prometheus_--a god fabled by the ancient poets to

have formed men from clay and to have given them life by means of fire

stolen from heaven, at which Jupiter, being angry, sent Mercury to bind him

to Mount Caucasus, and place a vulture to prey upon his liver.

QUIXOT'IC, _absolutely romantic, like Don Quixote_--described by Cervantes,

a Spanish writer of the 16th century.

SATUR'NIAN, _distinguished for purity, integrity, and simplicity_; _golden,

happy_: from "Saturn"--one of the gods of antiquity whose age or reign,

from the mildness and wisdom of his government, was called the _golden

age_.

SOCRAT'IC, _relating to the philosophy or the method of teaching of

Socrates_--the celebrated philosopher of Greece (468-399 B.C.).

STENTO'RIAN, _very loud or powerful, resembling the voice of Stentor_--a

Greek herald, spoken of by Homer, having a very loud voice.

THES'PIAN, _relating to tragic action_: from "Thespis"--the founder of the

Greek drama.

TITAN'IC, _enormous in size and strength_: from the "Titans"--fabled giants

in classic mythology.

UTO'PIAN, _ideal, fanciful, chimerical_: from "Utopia"--an imaginary

island, represented by Sir Thomas More, in a work called "Utopia," as

enjoying the greatest perfection in politics laws, and society.

VOLTA'IC, _relating to voltaism or voltaic electricity_: from "Volta"--who

first devised apparatus for developing electric currents by chemical

action.

II.--WORDS DERIVED FROM THE NAMES OF PLACES.

AG'ATE, _a precious stone_: "Achates," a river in Sicily where it is found.

AL'ABASTER, _a variety of soft marble_: "Alabastrum," in Egypt, where it is

found.

AR'RAS, _tapestry_: "Arras," in France, where it is manufactured.

ARTE'SIAN, _applied to wells made by boring into the earth till the

instrument reaches water which flows from internal pressure_: "Artois"

(anciently called Artesium), in France, where many of such wells have been

made.

AT'TIC, _marked by such qualities as characterized the Athenians, as

delicate wit, purity of style, elegance, etc._: "Attica," the country of

the Athenians.

BAN'TAM, _a small domestic fowl_: "Bantam," in Java, whence it was brought.

BARB, _a Barbary horse_: "Barbary," in Africa.

BAY'ONET, _a dagger fixed on the end of a musket_: "Bayonne," in France,

where it was invented, in 1679.

BEDLAM, _a lunatic asylum_: "Bethlehem," a monastery in London, afterwards

used as an asylum for lunatics.

BUR'GUNDY, _a French wine_: "Burgundy," where it is made.

CAL'ICO, _a kind of cotton cloth_: "Calicut," in India, where it was first

manufactured.

CANA'RY, _a wine and a bird_: the "Canary" Islands.

CAN'TER, _an easy gallop_: "Canterbury," in allusion to the easy pace at

which the pilgrims used to ride thither.

CAR'RONADE, _a short cannon_: "Carron," in Scotland, where it was first

made.

CASH'MERE, _a rich shawl, from the wool of the Thibet goat_: "Cashmere,"

the country where first made.

CHALCED'ONY, _a variety of uncrystalized quartz_: "Chalcedon," in Asia

Minor, where obtained.

CHAMPAGNE', _a wine_: "Champagne," in France, where produced.

CHER'RY, _a red stoned fruit_: "Cerasus" (now Kheresoun), in Pontus, Asia

Minor, whence the tree was imported into Italy.

CHEST'NUT, _a fruit_: "Castanea," in Macedonia, whence it was introduced

into Europe.

COG'NAC, _a kind of French brandy_: "Cognac," in France, where extensively

made.

COP'PER, _a metal_: "Cyprus," once celebrated for its rich mines of the

metal.

CORD'WAINER, _a worker in cordwain, or cordovan, a Spanish leather_:

"Cordova," in Spain.

CURACOA', _a liquor or cordial flavored with orange peel_: the island of

"Curacoa," where it was first made.

CUR'RANT, _a small dried grape_: "Corinth," in Greece, of which "currant"

is a corruption.

DAM'ASK, _figured linen or silk_: "Damascus," in Syria, where first made.

DAM'SON, _a small black plum_: (shortened from "Damascene") Damascus.

DELF, _a kind of earthenware_: "Delft," in Holland, where it was orignally

made.

DI'APER, _a figured linen cloth, used for towels, napkins, etc._: "Ypres,"

in Flanders, where originally manufactured.

DIM'ITY, _a figured cotton cloth_: "Damietta," in Egypt.

GAMBOGE', _a yellow resin used as a paint_: "Cambodia, where it is

obtained.

GING'HAM, _cotton cloth, made of yarn dyed before woven_: "Guincamp," in

France, where it was first made.

GUIN'EA, _an English gold coin of the value of twenty-one shillings_:

"Guinea," whence the gold was obtained out of which it was first struck.

GYP'SY, _one of a wandering race_: old English "Gyptian," from "Egypt,"

whence the race was supposed to have originated.

HOL'LAND, _a kind of linen cloth_: "Holland," where first made.

HOL'LANDS, _a spirit flavored with juniper berries_: "Holland," where it is

extensively produced..

IN'DIGO, _a blue dye_: "India".

JAL'AP, _a cathartic medicine_: "Jalapa," in Mexico, whence it was first

imported in 1610.

JET, _a mineral used for ornament_: "Gagates," a river in Asia Minor,

whence it was obtained.

LAN'DAU, LAN'DAULET, _a kind of carriage opening at the top_: "Landau," a

town in Germany.

MADEI'RA, _a wine_: "Madeira," where produced.

MAGNE'SIA, _a primitive earth_: "Magnesia," in Thessaly.

MAG'NET, _the loadstone, or Magnesian stone_.

MALM'SEY, _a wine_: "Malvasia," in the Morea.

MAR'SALA, _a wine_: "Marsala," in Sicily.

MEAN'DER, _to flow in a winding course_: "Meander," a winding river in Asia

Minor.

MIL'LINER, _one who makes ladies' bonnets, etc._: "Milan," in Italy.

MOROC'CO, _a fine kind of leather_: "Morocco," in Africa, where it was

originally made.

NANKEEN', _a buff-colored cloth_: "Nankin," in China, where first made.

PHEAS'ANT, _a bird whose flesh is highly valued as food_: "Phasis," a river

in Asia Minor, whence it was brought to Europe.

PIS'TOL, _a small hand gun_: "Pistoja," in Italy, where first made.

PORT, _a wine_: "Oporto," in Portugal, whence extensively shipped.

SARDINE', _a small Mediterranean fish, of the herring family_: "Sardinia"

around whose coasts the fish abounds.

SAUTERNE', _a wine_: "Sauterne," in France, where produced.

SHER'RY, _a wine_: "Xeres," in Spain, where it is largely manufactured.

SPAN'IEL, _a dog of remarkable sagacity_: "Hispaniola," now Hayti, where

originally found.

TAR'IFF, _a list of duties or customs to be paid on goods imported or

exported_: from an Arabic word, _tarif_, information.

TO'PAZ, _a precious stone_: "Topazos," an island in the Red Sea, where it

is found.

TRIP'OLI, _a fine grained earth used in polishing stones_: "Tripoli," in

Africa, where originally obtained.

TURQUOIS', _a bluish-green stone_: "Turkey," whence it was originally

brought.

WORST'ED, _well-twisted yarn, spun of long-staple wool_: "Worsted," a

village in Norfolk, England, where first made.

III.--ETYMOLOGY OF WORDS USED IN THE PRINCIPAL

SCHOOL STUDIES.

1.--TERMS IN GEOGRAPHY.

ANTARC'TIC: Gr. _anti_, opposite, and _arktos_, a bear. See _arctic_.

ARCHIPEL'AGO: Gr. _archi_, chief, and _pelagos_, sea, originally applied to

the AEgean Sea, which is studded with numerous islands.

ARC'TIC: Gr. _arktikos_, from _arktos_, a bear and a northern constellation

so called.

ATLAN'TIC: Lat. _Atlanticus_, from "Atlas," a fabled Titan who was

condemned to bear heaven on his head and hands.

AX'IS: Lat. _axis_, an axletree.

BAR'BAROUS: Gr. _barbaros_, foreign.

BAY: Fr. _baie_, from Lat. _baia_, an inlet.

CAN'CER: Lat. _cancer_, a crab (the name of one of the signs of the

zodiac).

CAPE: Fr. _cap_, from Lat. _caput_, head.

CAP'ITAL: Lat. _capitalis_, from _caput_, head.

CAP'RICORN: Lat. _caper_, goat, and _cornu_, horn (the name of one of the

signs of the zodiac).

CAR'DINAL: adj Lat. _cardinalis_, from _cardo, cardinis_, a hinge.

CHAN'NEL: Lat. _canalis_, from _canna_, a reed or pipe.

CIR'CLE: Lat. _circus_, from Gr. _kirkos_, a ring.

CIRCUM'FERENCE: Lat. _circum_, around, and _ferre_, to bear.

CIT'Y: Fr. _cite_, from Lat. _civitas_, a state or community.

CIV'ILIZED: Lat. _civilis_, pertaining to an organized community.

CLI'MATE: Gr. _klima, klimatos_, slope, the supposed slope of the earth

from the Equator to the poles.

COAST: Old Fr. _coste_ (New Fr. _cote_), from Lat. _costa_, rib, side.

CON'FLUENCE: Lat. _con_, together, and _fluere_, to flow.

CON'TINENT: Lat. _con_, together, and _tenere_, to hold.

CON'TOUR: Lat. _con_, together, and _tornus_, a lathe.

COUN'TY: Fr. _comte_, from Lat. _comitatus_, governed by a count.

DEGREE': Lat. _de_, and _gradus_, a step

DIAM'ETER: Gr. _dia_, through, and _metron_, measure.

EQUA'TOR: Lat. _equus_, equal.

ES'TUARY: Lat. _aestuare_, to boil up, or be furious, the reference being to

the commotion made by the meeting of a river-current and the tide.

FRIG'ID: Lat. _frigidus_, from _frigere_, to be cold.

GEOG'RAPHY: Gr. _ge_, the earth, and _graphe_, a description.

GLOBE: Lat. _globus_, a round body.

GULF: Fr. _golfe_, from Gr. _kolpos_, bosom, bay.

HAR'BOR: Anglo-Saxon, _hereberga_, from _beorgan_, to shelter.

HEM'ISPHERE: Gr. _hemi_, half, and _sphaira_, sphere.

HORI'ZON: Gr. _horizein_, to bound.

IN'DIAN (ocean): India.

ISTH'MUS: Gr. _isthmos_, a neck.

LAKE: Lat. _lacus_, a lake.

LAT'ITUDE: Lat. _latitudo_, from _latus_, broad.

LON'GITUDE: Lat. _longitudo_, from _longus_, long.

MERID'IAN: Lat. _meridies_ (= _medius_, middle, and _dies_, day), noon.

METROP'OLIS: Gr. _meter_, mother, and _polis_, city.

MON'ARCHY: Gr. _monarches_, from _monos_, alone, and _archein_, to rule.

MOUN'TAIN: Fr. _montagne_, from Lat. _mons_, _montis_, a mountain.

OB'LATE: Lat. _oblatus_ (_ob_ and past part. of _ferre_, to bring), brought

forward.

O'CEAN: Gr. _okeanus_, from _okus_, rapid, and _nacin_, to flow.

PACIF'IC: Lat. _pacificus_, from _pax_, _pacis_, peace, and _facere_, to

make.

PAR'ALLEL: Gr. _para_, beside, and _allelon_, of one another.

PENIN'SULA: Lat. _penes_, almost, and _insula_, island.

PHYS'ICAL: Gr. _physis_ (_phusis_), nature.

PLAIN: Lat. _planus_, flat.

PLANE: Lat. _planus_, flat.

POLE: Gr. _polos_, a pivot.

POLIT'ICAL: Gr. _polis_, a city or state.

PROM'ONTORY: Lat. _pro_, before, and _mons_, _montis_, a mountain.

RELIEF': Fr. _relever_, from Lat. _relevare_, to raise.

REPUB'LIC: Lat. _res_, an affair, and _publica_, public: that is, a

_commonwealth_.

RIV'ER: Fr. _riviere_, from Lat. _ripa_, a shore or bank.

SAV'AGE: Fr. _sauvage_, from Lat. _silva_, a wood.

SEA: Anglo-Saxon, _sae_, the sea.

SOCI'ETY: Lat. _societas_, from _socius_, a companion.

2.--TERMS IN GRAMMAR.

AD'JECTIVE, Lat. _adjectivus_, from _ad_ and _jacere_, to add to: _a word

joined to a noun or pronoun to limit or describe its meaning_.

AD'JUNCT, Lat. _adjunctus_, from _ad_ and _jungere_, to join to: _a

modifier or subordinate element of a sentence_.

AD'VERB, Lat. _adverbium_, from _ad_, to, and _verbum_, word, verb: _a word

used to modify the meaning of a verb, an adjective, or another adverb_.

ANAL'YSIS, Gr. _analusis_, from _ana_ and _luein_, to unloose, to resolve

into its elements: _the separation of a sentence into its constituent

elements_.

ANTECE'DENT, Lat. _antecedens_, pres. part. of _antecedere_, to go before:

_the noun or pronoun represented by a relative pronoun_.

APPOSI'TION, Lat. _appositio_, from _ad_, to, and _ponere_, to place

beside: _the state of two nouns put in the same case without a connecting

word between them_.

AR'TICLE, Lat. _articulus_, a little joint: _one of the three words_, a,

an, _or_ the.

AUXIL'IARY, Lat. _auxiliaris_, from _auxilium_, help, aid: _a verb used to

assist in conjugating other verbs_.

CASE, Lat. _casus_, from _cadere_, to fall, to happen: _a grammatical form

denoting the relation of a noun or pronoun to some other word in the

sentence_.

CLAUSE, Lat. _claudere_, _clausum_, to shut: _a dependent proposition

introduced by a connective_.

COMPAR'ISON, Lat. _comparatio_, from _comparare_, to liken to: _a variation

in the form of an adjective or adverb to express degrees of quantity or

quality_.

COM'PLEMENT, Lat. _complementum_, from _con_ and _plere_, to fill fully:

_the word or words required to complete the predication of a transitive

verb_.

COM'PLEX (sentence), Lat. _complexus_, from _con_ and _plectere_, to twist

around: _a sentence consisting of one independent proposition and one or

more clauses_.

COM'POUND (sentence), Lat. _componere_ (= _con_ and _ponere_), to put

together: _a sentence consisting of two or more independent propositions_.

CONJUGA'TION, Lat. _conjugatio_, from _con_ and _jugare_, to join together:

_the systematic arrangement of a verb according to its various grammatical

forms_.

CONJUNCTION, Lat. _conjunctio_, from _con_ and _jungere_, to join together:

_a word used to connect sentences or the elements of sentences_.

DECLEN'SION, Lat. _declinatio_, from _declinare_, to lean or incline: _the

process of giving in regular order the cases and numbers of a noun or

pronoun_.

ELLIP'SIS, Gr. _elleipsis_, a leaving or defect: _the omission of a word or

words necessary to complete the grammatical structure of the sentence_.

ETYMOL'OGY, Gr. _etumologia_, from _etumon_, the true literal sense of a

word, and _logos_, a discourse: _that division of grammar which treats of

the classification and grammatical forms of words_.

FEM'ININE (gender), Lat. _femininus_, from _femina_, woman: _the gender of

a noun denoting a person of the female sex_.

GEN'DER, Lat. _genus_, _generis_, kind: _a grammatical form expressing the

sex or non-sex of an object named by a noun_.

GRAM'MAR, Gr. _gramma_, a letter, through Fr. _grammaire_: the science of

language.

IMPER'ATIVE (mood), Lat. _imperativus_, from _imperare_, to command: _the

mood of a verb used in the statement of a command or request_.

INDIC'ATIVE (mood), Lat. _indicativus_, from _indicare_, to proclaim: _the

mood of a verb used in the statement of a fact, or of a matter taken as a

fact_.

INFLEC'TION, Lat. _inflexio_, from _inflectere_, to bend in: _a change in

the ending of a word_.

INTERJEC'TION, Lat. _interjectio_, from _inter_ and _jacere_, to throw

between: _a word which expresses an emotion, but which does not enter into

the construction of the sentence_.

INTRAN'SITIVE (verb), Lat. _intransitivus_ = _in_, not, and _transitivus_,

from _trans_ and _ire_, _itum_, to go beyond: _a verb that denotes a state

or condition, or an action not terminating on an object_.

MAS'CULINE (gender), Lat. _masculus_, male: _the gender of a noun

describing a person of the male sex_.

MODE. See _mood_.

MOOD, Lat. _modus_, through Fr. _mode_, manner: _a grammatical form

denoting the style of predication_.

NEU'TER (gender), Lat. _neuter_, neither: _the gender of a noun denoting an

object without life_.

NOM'INATIVE (case), Lat. _nominativus_, from _nomen_, a name: _that form

which a noun has when it is the subject of a verb_.

NOUN, Lat. _nomen_, a name, through Fr. _nom_: _a name-word, the name of

anything_.

NUM'BER, Lat. _numerus_, through Fr. _nombre_, number: _a grammatical form

expressing one or more than one of the objects named by a noun or pronoun_.

OB'JECT, Lat. _ob_ and _jacere_, to set before: _that toward which an

activity is directed or is considered to be directed_.

OBJEC'TIVE (case), Lat. _objectivus_, from _ob_ and _jacere_: _the case

which follows a transitive verb or a preposition_.

PARSE, Lat. _pars_, a part: _to point out the several parts of speech in a

sentence and their relation to one another_.

PAR'TICIPLE, Lat. _participium_, from _pars_, part, and _capere_, to take,

to share: _a verbal adjective, a word which shares or participates in the

nature both of the verb and of the adjective_.

PER'SON, Lat. _persona_, the part taken by a performer: _a grammatical form

which shows whether the speaker is meant, the person spoken to, or the

person spoken of_.

PHRASE, Gr. _phrasis_, a brief expression, from _phrazein_, to speak: _a

combination of related words forming an element of a sentence_.

PLE'ONASM, Gr. _pleonasmos_, from _pleion_, more: _the use of more words to

express an idea than are necessary_.

PLU'RAL (number), Lat. _pluralis_, from _plus_, _pluris_, more: _the number

which designates more than one_.

POSSESS'IVE (case), Lat. _possessivus_, from _possidere_, to own: _that

form which a noun or pronoun has in order to denote ownership or

possession_.

POTEN'TIAL (mood), Lat. _potens_, _potentis_, being able: _the mood of a

verb used in the statement of something possible or contingent_.

PREDICATE, Lat. _praedicatum_, from _prae_ and _dicare_, to proclaim: _the

word or words in a proposition which express what is affirmed of the

subject_.

PREPOSI'TION, Lat. _praepositio_, from _prae_ and _ponere_, to put before: _a

connective word expressing a relation of meaning between a noun or pronoun

and some other word_.

PRO'NOUN, Lat. _pronomen_, from _pro_, for, and _nomen_, a noun: _a word

used instead of a noun._

PROP'OSITION, Lat. _propositio_, from _proponere_ (_pro_ and _ponere_), to

put forth: _the combination of a subject with a predicate_.

REL'ATIVE (pronoun), Lat. _relativus_, from _re_ and _ferre_, _latus_, to

bear back: _a pronoun that refers to an antecedent noun or pronoun_.

SEN'TENCE, Lat. _sententia_, from _sentire_, to think: _a combination of

words expressing a complete thought_.

SIM'PLE (sentence), Lat. _simplex_, from _sine_, without, and _plica_,

fold: _a sentence having but one subject and one predicate_.

SUB'JECT, Lat. _subjectus_, from _sub_ and _jacere_, to place under: _that

of which something is predicated_.

SUBJUNC'TIVE (mood), Lat. _subjunctivus_, from _sub_ and _jungere_, to

subjoin: _the mood used in the statement of something merely thought of_.

SYN'TAX, Gr. _suntaxis_, from _sun_, together, and _taxis_, arrangement:

_that division of grammar which treats of the relations of words in

sentences_.

TENSE, Lat. _tempus_, time, through Fr. _temps_: _a grammatical form of the

verb denoting the time of the action or event_.

TRAN'SITIVE, Lat. _transitivus_, from _trans_ and _ire_, _itum_, to pass

over: _a verb that denotes an action terminating on some object_.

VERB, Lat. _verbum_, a word: _a word that predicates action or being_.

VOICE, Lat. _vox_, _vocis_, voice, through Fr. _voix_: _a grammatical form

of the transitive verb, expressing whether the subject names the actor or

the recipient of the action_.

3.--TERMS IN ARITHMETIC.

ADDI'TION, Lat. _additio_, from _addere_, to add.

AL'IQUOT, Lat. _aliquot_, some.

ARITH'METIC, Gr. adj. _arithmetike_, numerical, from n. _arithmos_, number.

AVOIRDUPOIS', Fr. _avoir du pois_, to have [a fixed or standard] weight.

CANCELLA'TION, Lat. _cancellatio_, from _cancellare_, to make like a

lattice (_cancelli_), to strike or cross out.

CENT, Lat. _centum_, a hundred.

CI'PHER, Arabic _sifrun_, empty, zero.

CUBE, Gr. _kubos_, a cubical die.

DEC'IMAL, Lat. _decimus_, tenth, from _decem_, ten.

DENOM'INATOR, Lat. _denominare_, from _de_ and _nominare_ (_nomen_, a

name), to call by name.

DIG'IT, Lat. _digitus_, a finger.

DIV'IDEND, Lat. _dividendus_, to be divided, from _dividere_, to divide.

DIVIS'ION, Lat. _divisio_, from _dividere_, to divide.

DIVI'SOR, Sp. _divisor_, that which divides, from Lat. _dividere_, to

divide.

DOL'LAR, Ger. _thaler_, an abbreviation of _Joachimsthaler_, i.e. a piece

of money first coined, about 1518, in the valley (_thal_) of _St. Joachim_,

in Bohemia.

EQUA'TION, Lat. _aequatio_, from _aequus_, equal.

EXPO'NENT, Lat. _exponens_, pres. part. of _exponere_, to set forth (= _ex_

and _ponere_).

FAC'TOR, Lat. _factor_, that which does something, from _facere_, _factum_,

to do or make.

FIG'URE, Lat. _figura_, shape, from _fingere_, to form or shape.

FRAC'TION, Lat. _fractio_, from _frangere_, to break.

IN'TEGER, Lat. _integer_, untouched, whole.

IN'TEREST, Lat. _interest_ = it interests, is of interest (3d per. sing.

pres. indic. of _interesse_, to be between, to be of importance).

MIN'UEND, Lat. _minuendus_, to be diminished, from _minuere_, to lessen.

MUL'TIPLE, Lat. _multiplex_, from _multus_, much, and _plicare_, to fold.

MUL'TIPLY, MULTIPLICATION, etc. See _multiple_.

NAUGHT, Anglo-Sax. _nawhit_, from _ne_, not, and _awiht_ or _auht_, aught,

anything.

NOTA'TION, Lat. _notatio_, from _notare_, to mark (_nota_, a mark).

NUMERA'TION, Lat. _numeratio_, from _numerus_, a number.

QUO'TIENT, Lat. _quoties_, how often, how many times, from _quot_, how

many.

SUBTRACTION, Lat. _subtractio_, from _sub_ and _trahere_, to draw from

under.

U'NIT, Lat. _unus_, one.

ZE'RO, Arabic _cifrun_, empty, cipher.

* * * * *

NOTES.

[1] To teachers who are unacquainted with the original _Word-Analysis_, the

following extract from the Preface to that work may not be out of place:--

"The treatment of the Latin derivatives in Part II. presents a new and

important feature, to wit: the systematic analysis of the structure and

organism of derivative words, together with the statement of their primary

meaning in such form that the pupil inevitably perceives its relation with

the root, and in fact _makes_ its primary meaning by the very process of

analyzing the word into its primitive and its modifying prefix or suffix.

It presents, also, a marked improvement in the method of approaching the

definition,--a method by which the definition is seen to _grow out of_ the

primary meaning, and by which the analytic faculty of the pupil is

exercised in tracing the transition from the primary meaning to the

secondary and figurative meanings,--thus converting what is ordinarily a

matter of rote into an agreeable exercise of the thinking faculty. Another

point of novelty in the method of treatment is presented in the copious

practical exercises on the _use of words_. The experienced instructor very

well knows that pupils may memorize endless lists of terms and definitions

without having any realization of the actual living power of words. Such a

realization can only be gained by _using_ the word,--by turning it over in

a variety of ways, and by throwing upon it the side-lights of its synonym

and contrasted word. The method of thus utilizing English derivatives gives

a study which possesses at once _simplicity_ and _fruitfulness_,--the two

desiderata of an instrument of elementary discipline."

[2] "Etymology," Greek _et'umon_, the true literal sense of a word

according to its derivation, and _log'os_, a discourse.

[3] "Vocabulary," Latin _vocabula'rium_, a stock of words; from _vox,

vocis_, a voice, a word.

[4] By the _Low_ German languages are meant those spoken in the low, flat

countries of North Germany, along the coast of the North Sea (as Dutch, the

language of Holland); and they are so called in contradistinction to _High_

German, or German proper.

[5] For the full definition, reference should be had to a dictionary; but

in the present exercise the literal or etymological signification may

suffice.

[6] _Fen'do_, _fen'dere_, is used in Latin only in composition.

[7] Another mode of spelling _defense_.

[8] From _pass_ and _over_, a feast of the Jews instituted to commemorate

the providential escape of the Jews to Egypt, when God, smiting the

first-born of the Egyptians _passed over_ the houses of the Israelites,

which were marked with the blood of the paschal lamb.

[9] For the explanation of the etymology see Webster's _Unabridged_.

[10] _For_ is different from _fore_, and corresponds to the German _ver_,

different from _vor_.

_A_, _be_, _for_, _ge_, are often indifferently prefixed to verbs,

especially to perfect tenses and perfect participles, as well as to verbal

nouns.--BOSWORTH.

[11] _Ster_ was the Anglo-Saxon feminine termination. Females once

conducted the work of brewing, baking, etc., hence brewster, baxter; these

words were afterwards applied to men when they undertook the same work.

_Ster_ is now used in depreciating, as in trickster, youngster.

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