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SIGNALING TECHNIQUES


Where is the connector?

The EOBD connector is required by the Directive to be located within the passenger compartment of the car, within reach of the driver's seat. Tools should not be required to reveal the connector, but it may have a removeable cover over it.

What does the connector look like?

The connector has the following shape:

Diagnostic Connector

Which pins contacts should be present on the connector?

Different pins on the connector are used by different manufacturers. There are 4 pinout combinations within the standard, each of which uses a specific communications protocol. These are listed below:

Protocol

Connector pins used

J1850 VPW

2, 4, 5, and 16, but not 10

ISO 9141-2

4, 5, 7, 15, and 16

J1850 PWM

2, 4, 5, 10, and 16

KWP2000 (ISO14230)

4, 5, 7, 15, and 16

What are each of the pins used for? 18318g616s

The pins are used as follows:

Pin

Use

2

J1850 Bus+

4

Chassis Ground

5

Signal Ground

6

CAN High (J-2284)

7

ISO 9141-2 K Line and ISO/DIS 14230-4

10

J1850 Bus

14

CAN Low (J-2284)

15

ISO 9141-2 L Line and ISO/DIS 14230-4

16

Battery power

Additional pins may be wired on your car - these may be used by manufacturers for other purposes.

Which protocol is used by each manufacturer?

As a rough guide, the protocols are generally found on cars from the following manufacturers:

Protocol

Manufacturers

J1850 VPW

General Motors

J1850 PWM

Ford (and the newer Ford-based Jaguars)

ISO / KWP

Most European and Asian manufacturers

Which of the three OBD-II protocols does my car use?

All cars and light trucks built for sale in the United States after 1996 are required to be OBD-II compliant. The European Union adopted a similar law in 2000 for gasoline-powered vehicles, and in 2003 for cars with diesel engines. 

 

An OBD-II compliant vehicle can use any of the five communication protocols: J1850 PWM and VPW, ISO9141, ISO14230 (also known as Keyword Protocol 2000), and more recently, CAN (ISO15765/SAE J2480). Car manufacturers were not allowed to use CAN until model year 2003,

 

There are two types of diagnostic link connectors (DLCs) defined by SAE J1962 - Type A and Type B, shown in Figures 2 and 3, respectively.  The main difference between the two connectors is in the shape of the alignment tab.

 

Location - According to J1962, Type A DLC "shall be located in the passenger or driver's compartment in the area bounded by the driver's end of the instrument panel to 300 mm (~1 ft) beyond the vehicle centerline, attached to the instrument panel and easy to access from the driver's seat.  The preferred location is between the steering column and the vehicle centerline."

 

 

 

Fig. 1 - J1962 Vehicle Connector, Type A
(courtesy of
SAE)

 

Type B DLC "shall be located in the passenger or driver's compartment in the area bounded by the driver's end of the instrument panel, including the outer side, and an imagined line 750 mm (~2.5 ft) beyond the vehicle centerline.  It shall be attached to the instrument panel and easy to access from the driver's seat or from the Co-drivers seat or from the outside.  The vehicle connector shall be mounted to facilitate mating and unmating." 

 

 

Fig. 2 - J1962 Vehicle Connector, Type B
(courtesy of SAE)

 

As a general rule, you can determine which protocol your vehicle is using by looking at the pinout of the DLC:

 

 

Fig. 3

 

The following table explains how to determine the protocol:


 

Pin 2

Pin 7

Pin 10

Pin 15

Standard

must have

-

must have

-

J1850 PWM

must have

-

-

-

J1850 VPW

-

must have

-

may have*

ISO9141/14230


 

In addition to pins 2, 7, 10, and 15, the connector should have pins 4 (Chassis Ground), 5 (Signal Ground), and 16 (Battery Positive). This means that:

PWM

The connector must have pins 2, 4, 5, 10, and 16

VPW

The connector must have pins 2, 4, 5, and 16, but not 10.

ISO

The connector must have pins 4, 5, 7, and 16. Pin 15 may or may not be present.

List of confirmed OBD-II vehicles

Here, you can find a list of vehicles that were reported as being compatible with ElmScan interfaces by our customers. The fact that a certain vehicle is not listed, does not mean it is not OBD-II compliant, or is not compatible with our scan tools.

Please remember that even though we try our best to make sure the information presented on this page is accurate, we cannot guarantee it - use it at your own risk. The following page has more information regarding OBD-II compliance: How do I know if my car is OBD-II compliant?

Non-US customers please note: some vehicles listed here were sold in the United States, where OBD-II is a requirement for all cars and light trucks since 1996. Outside of USA, often times cars were sold equipped with the less expensive OBD-I system, which is not compatible with ElmScan interfaces. Therefore, please contact your dealer and make sure your car has OBD-II (or "EOBD"), before placing your order.

You may scroll down this page to see all confirmed vehicles, or jump to a specific make:

Acura

Geo

Mazda

Renault

Audi

GMC

Mercedes-Benz

SAAB

BMW

Honda

Mercury

Saturn

Buick

Hyundai

Mini

Seat

Cadillac

Infiniti

Mitsubishi

Skoda

Chevrolet

Isuzu

Nissan

Subaru

Chrysler

Jaguar

Oldsmobile

Suzuki

Citroen

Jeep

Opel

Toyota

Dodge

Kia

Peugeot

Volkswagen

Fiat

Land Rover

Pontiac

Volvo

Ford

 

 

 


 

Vehicles tested with ElmScan family of OBD-II Interfaces:

Make

Model

Year

Protocol

Acura

MDX

2003

ISO

Acura

RSX Type-S

2002

ISO

Audi

A4

1998

ISO

Audi

A4

2001

ISO

Audi

A6

1998

ISO

Audi

Cabriolet

1997

ISO

BMW

316i

2003

ISO

BMW

318ti

1998

ISO

BMW

320

2002

ISO

BMW

323 Ci

2000

ISO

BMW

528i

1997

ISO

BMW

528i

1998

ISO

BMW

528iA (E39)

2000

ISO

Buick

Century

2002

VPW

Buick

Rivera

1998

VPW

Buick

Skylark

1996

VPW

Cadillac

Deville

2000

VPW

Cadillac

Eldorado

1998

VPW

Chevrolet

Blazer

1995

VPW

Chevrolet

Camaro

1999

VPW

Chevrolet

Camaro SS

2000

VPW

Chevrolet

Camaro Z28

1997

ISO

Chevrolet

Camaro Z28

1997

VPW

Chevrolet

Camaro Z28

1998

VPW

Chevrolet

Caprice

1996

VPW

Chevrolet

Cavalier

1996

VPW

Chevrolet

Cavalier

1998

VPW

Chevrolet

Cavalier Z24

1999

VPW

Chevrolet

Corvette

2000

VPW

Chevrolet

Impala

2000

VPW

Chevrolet

Impala

2002

VPW

Chevrolet

Lumina

1996

VPW

Chevrolet

Malibu

1998

VPW

Chevrolet

S10

2000

VPW

Chevrolet

Silverado

1997

VPW

Chevrolet

Silverado

1998

VPW

Chevrolet

Silverado

1999

VPW

Chevrolet

Silverado

2002

VPW

Chevrolet

Tahoe

1996

VPW

Chevrolet

Venture

1998

VPW

Chrysler

PT Cruiser

2003

VPW

Chrysler

Town & Country Van

1996

ISO

Chrysler

Voyager

1995

ISO

Citroen

Hdi

2000

ISO

Citroen

Xantia Turbo CT

1997

ISO

Citroen

Xsara

1999

ISO

Citroen

Xsara Picasso

2000

ISO

Citroen

Xsara SX 1.6i

2002

ISO

Citroen

Xsara VRT

2000

ISO

Dodge

3500

1996

ISO

Dodge

Caravan

1997

ISO

Dodge

Dakota

2001

ISO

Dodge

Neon

1995

ISO

Dodge

Neon

2002

VPW

Dodge

RAM 1500

1999

ISO

Dodge

RAM 2500

1999

ISO

Dodge

Stratus

1996

ISO

Dodge

Stratus

1997

ISO

Dodge

Stratus R/T

2001

ISO

Fiat

Punto

2000

ISO

Fiat

Punto

2002

ISO

Fiat

Stilo

2002

ISO

Ford

Aerostar

1997

PWM

Ford

Contour

1999

PWM

Ford

E150

2000

PWM

Ford

E350

2000

PWM

Ford

Escort

1998

PWM

Ford

Expedition

1998

PWM

Ford

Explorer

1998

PWM

Ford

Explorer

2000

PWM

Ford

F150

1997

PWM

Ford

F150

2003

PWM

Ford

F150 (truck)

1999

PWM

Ford

F150 (van)

1999

PWM

Ford

F250

2000

PWM

Ford

F250 (Australian)

2002

PWM

Ford

Fiesta

1997

PWM

Ford

Focus

1999

PWM

Ford

Focus

2002

PWM

Ford

Focus (UK)

2001

PWM

Ford

Focus SVT

2002

PWM

Ford

Mustang

1998

PWM

Ford

Mustang

2001

PWM

Ford

Probe

1997

ISO

Ford

Ranger

1995

PWM

Ford

Ranger

1996

PWM

Ford

Ranger

1997

PWM

Ford

Ranger

1998

PWM

Ford

Ranger

2002

PWM

Ford

Ranger 4x4 Pickup

2000

PWM

Ford

Taurus

1996

PWM

Ford

Taurus

2001

PWM

Ford

Thunderbird LX

1997

PWM

Ford

Windstar

1995

PWM

Ford

Windstar

1996

PWM

Ford

Windstar

1997

PWM

Ford

Windstar

1999

PWM

Geo

Metro

1996

ISO

GMC

Jimmy

1999

VPW

GMC

K2500

1997

VPW

GMC

Lumina

2001

VPW

GMC

Yukon

1998

VPW

Honda

Accord

1998

ISO

Honda

Accord

2000

ISO

Honda

Accord

2002

ISO

Honda

Civic

1996

ISO

Honda

Civic

1997

ISO

Honda

Civic

2000

ISO

Honda

Civic

2001

ISO

Honda

Civic

2002

ISO

Honda

Civic Del Sol

1997

ISO

Honda

Civic Type R

2003

ISO

Honda

Odyssey

2002

ISO

Honda

S2000

2000

ISO

Hyundai

Accent

1998

ISO

Hyundai

Accent

2000

ISO

Hyundai

Elantra

1996

ISO

Hyundai

Elantra

2001

ISO

Hyundai

Matrix

2002

ISO

Hyundai

Tiburon

1997

ISO

Infiniti

Q45

1999

ISO

Isuzu

Trooper

1998

VPW

Jaguar

XJ6 (X300) *

1997

ISO

Jeep

Grand Cherokee

1996

ISO

Jeep

Grand Cherokee

1997

ISO

Jeep

Grand Cherokee

1998

ISO

Jeep

Grand Cherokee

1999

ISO

Jeep

Liberty

2002

ISO

Jeep

Liberty

2003

VPW

Kia

Sephia

1999

ISO

Kia

Spectra

2001

ISO

Land Rover

Range Rover

1997

ISO

Mazda

B2300

2002

PWM

Mazda

B2500SE Pickup

2001

PWM

Mazda

B3000

2002

PWM

Mazda

MX-5 (Australian)

2003

ISO

Mazda

MX-5 (Miata)

2003

ISO

Mazda

Protege

2001

ISO

Mazda

Protege 5

2002

ISO

Mazda

Tribute

2002

PWM

Mercedes-Benz

C (W203)

2002

ISO

Mercedes-Benz

C200 Kompressor

2003

ISO

Mercedes-Benz

C230

1998

ISO

Mercedes-Benz

C230

2000

ISO

Mercedes-Benz

Class A

2000

ISO

Mercury

Cougar

2000

PWM

Mercury

Grand Marquis

1998

PWM

Mercury

Sable

1996

PWM

Mini

Cooper

2002

ISO

Mitsubishi

Eclipse

1997

ISO

Mitsubishi

Eclipse Spyder

2002

ISO

Mitsubishi

Galant

2003

ISO

Mitsubishi

Lancer

1999

ISO

Mitsubishi

Lancer Evolution

2003

ISO

Mitsubishi

Mirage

1999

ISO

Mitsubishi

Montero

1995

ISO

Nissan

240SX

1996

ISO

Nissan

Altima

1997

ISO

Nissan

Altima

1999

ISO

Nissan

Altima GXE

1997

ISO

Nissan

Frontier

1999

ISO

Nissan

Maxima

1996

ISO

Nissan

Maxima GLE

1999

ISO

Nissan

Micra

2003

ISO

Nissan

Pathfinder

2002

ISO

Nissan

Primera

1999

ISO

Nissan

Sentra

2001

ISO

Nissan

Sentra SE

2000

ISO

Nissan

Sentra SE-R

2002

ISO

Nissan

Sentra SpecV

2003

ISO

Nissan

Terrano

1997

ISO

Oldsmobile

Cutlass Supreme

1996

VPW

Oldsmobile

Intrigue

1999

VPW

Oldsmobile

Silhouette

1998

VPW

Opel

Astra

2001

ISO

Opel

Frontera

1999

ISO

Opel

Omega

2001

ISO

Opel

Vectra

1998

ISO

Opel

Vectra

2001

ISO

Opel

Zafira (diesel)

2002

ISO

Peugeot

106

1998

ISO

Peugeot

106

2003

ISO

Peugeot

206

2003

ISO

Peugeot

206 GTi

2002

ISO

Peugeot

406

2001

ISO

Peugeot

406

2002

ISO

Peugeot

406 HDi

1999

ISO

Pontiac

Aztec

2001

VPW

Pontiac

Bonneville

1997

VPW

Pontiac

Grand Am

1996

VPW

Pontiac

Grand Am

2000

VPW

Pontiac

Grand Prix

2000

VPW

Pontiac

Grand Prix

2001

VPW

Pontiac

Sunfire

1997

VPW

Pontiac

Transport

1998

VPW

Renault

Clio

2001

ISO

Renault

Kangoo

2003

ISO

Renault

Megane

2000

ISO

SAAB

9-3

1999

ISO

SAAB

9000

1998

ISO

SAAB

9000CDE

1996

ISO

Saturn

SL

1996

VPW

Saturn

SL1

1996

VPW

Saturn

SL1

1997

VPW

Seat

Cordoba 1.4 SX

2000

ISO

Skoda

Octavia

2002

ISO

Subaru

Impreza WRX

2002

ISO

Subaru

Impreza WRX

2003

ISO

Subaru

Outback Wagon

2002

ISO

Suzuki

Grand Vitara

2000

ISO

Suzuki

Sidekick

1997

ISO

Suzuki

Vitara

1997

ISO

Toyota

Camry

2002

ISO

Toyota

Celica GT-S

2000

ISO

Toyota

Corolla

1997

VPW

Toyota

Corolla

1998

ISO

Toyota

Corolla

2002

ISO

Toyota

Corolla (European)

2002

ISO

Toyota

RAV4

2001

ISO

Toyota

Sienna LE

1999

ISO

Toyota

Solara

1999

ISO

Toyota

Solara LE

2000

ISO

Toyota

Tacoma

1995

VPW

Toyota

Tacoma

2000

ISO

Toyota

Tacoma

2002

ISO

Toyota

Tundra

2000

ISO

Toyota

Tundra

2001

ISO

Toyota

Tundra

2003

ISO

Toyota

Yaris

2000

ISO

Volkswagen

Beetle

2000

ISO

Volkswagen

Bora

1999

ISO

Volkswagen

Eurovan Camper

1997

ISO

Volkswagen

Golf

1997

ISO

Volkswagen

Golf

1998

ISO

Volkswagen

Golf

2001

ISO

Volkswagen

Golf GL

1996

ISO

Volkswagen

Jetta

1997

ISO

Volkswagen

Jetta

2002

ISO

Volkswagen

Jetta Wagon

2003

ISO

Volkswagen

Passat

1996

ISO

Volkswagen

Passat

1997

ISO

Volkswagen

Passat

1999

ISO

Volkswagen

Passat

2003

ISO

Volkswagen

Sharan

1998

ISO

Volvo

850 T5

1997

ISO

Volvo

850 Turbo

1996

ISO

Volvo

S40

2000

ISO

Volvo

S60

2001

ISO

Volvo

S70

1999

ISO

Volvo

S80 T6

1999

ISO

Volvo

V70

1998

ISO

Volvo

V70 (Sweden)

2000

ISO

Volvo

V70 BiFuel

2002

ISO

ADVANCED VEHICLE TECHNOLOGIES, Inc.
OBD-II Cable Revision Descriptions

Updated: 26 April, 2001


Note that all OBD-II cable versions prior to the adoption of a molded assembly are not documented.  They all preceeded the cables documented here.  Those versions included hand made assemblies using a Delphi Packard connector or a Hypertech adapter and a custom cable.  If more information is needed about one of those "pre-production" cables, contact the factory.
 

Revision A
General release; January, 1998
First production release of fully molded OBD-II cable.
Conductors are 26 AWG.
These cables are easily identified by the fact that the cable is grey and the molded plug is black.
There was only one batch of these cables made.
Only some pins were connected (all pins were populated).  Pins not noted in the table were not connected.
 

DA-15S pin #

J1962 Signal Description

OBD-II pin #

2

J1850 Bus +

2

3

 

3

4

chassis ground

4

connector shell

shield drain wire

4

5

signal ground

5

6

 

6

7

K-line of ISO 9141

7

10

J1850 Bus -

10

11

 

11

13

V-Battery +  unswitched

16

15

L-line of ISO 9141

15

Revision B
General release; September, 1998
Fully molded OBD-II cable.  Cable is black and molded connectors are black.
Conductors are 22 AWG.
 

DA-15S pin #

J1962 Signal Description

OBD-II pin #

1

 

1

2

J1850 Bus +

2

3

 

3

4

chassis ground

4

connector shell

shield drain wire

4

5

signal ground

5

6

CAN_H of J2284

6

7

K-line
of ISO 9141 and ISO 14230

7

8

 

8

9

 

9

10

J1850 Bus -

10

11

 

11

12

 

12

13

V-Battery +  unswitched

16

14

CAN_L of J2284

14

15

L-line
of ISO 9141 and ISO 14230

15

no connection

 

13

Revision C
General Release; November, 1999
Changed all conductors from 22 AWG to 24 AWG.
Pin connections same as listed for Revision B.
 

Revision D
General Release; April, 2001
Removed drain wire (overall foil shield) connection to DA-15S metal shell.
The metal shell of the DA-15S connector is left floating.
This is done to prevent an inadvertent ground connection between the vehicle ground and the host computer ground.
(Models affected:  AVT-921, AVT-931, and AVT-512.)
 

DA-15S pin #

J1962 Signal Description

OBD-II pin #

1

 

1

2

J1850 Bus +

2

3

 

3

4

chassis ground

4

no connection

shield drain wire

4

5

signal ground

5

6

CAN_H of J2284

6

7

K-line
of ISO 9141 and ISO 14230

7

8

 

8

9

 

9

10

J1850 Bus -

10

11

 

11

12

 

12

13

V-Battery +  unswitched

16

14

CAN_L of J2284

14

15

L-line
of ISO 9141 and ISO 14230

15

no connection

 

13

no connection
to connector
metal shell.

 

 


ADVANCED VEHICLE TECHNOLOGIES, Inc.Undisplayed Graphic
Data sheet 059, June 1997

AVT-716 - Triple Interface (J1850 VPW, PWM and ISO 9141)

Vehicle Networks
As the use of electronics in automobiles increases so do the requirements for communications among the various processors and modules as well as engineering test and diagnostic equipment. Federal law requires that vehicles support any of three communications standards at the diagnostic connector (known as OBD-II). The three standards are: J1850 VPW, J1850 PWM, and ISO 9141-2. Complicating the use of these in-vehicle networks is that none are compatible with the others.

The AVT Solution
The AVT-716 Triple Interface is a single unit solution to communicating with these three network standards. It is an easy to use interface that solves the problem of connecting to and communicating with an OBD-II equipped vehicle or network module. The AVT-716 Triple Interface supports all three of the standards (J1850 VPW, PWM, and ISO 9141-2). The user selects the desired mode of operation via a software command (simultaneous operations are not permitted). Operational mode changes may be accomplished at will and without restrictions.

The Triple Interface is available housed in an enclosure or as an OEM module. Also offered is Controller software and an OBD-II compatible cable (for direct vehicle connection).

The AVT-716 Controller Software
. The AVT-716 Controller software can operate in command mode which permits operator introduction of network messages onto the selected network. This mode permits the testing of node interactions to specific message sequences and other user defined test scenarios. Commands can be entered individually or downloaded via a batch file.

. A network monitor mode permits the capture and display of bus traffic. Options to timetag and log the data to a file ensures an historical record of network activity for later analysis. The disk logging function is limited only by the amount of available disk space.

. The Controller software was designed to support engineering uses (testing, data acquisition, etc.). One Controller feature is the 'Auto-Respond' function. The operator specifies a 'match string' and a response file. Every received network message is compared to the match string. If a match is found, the next line of the response file is immediately transmitted.

. The AVT-716 Controller runs on PC-AT machines under MS-Windows 3.1x. A 66 MHz 80486 with 8 MB of memory and at least 2 MB of disk space is the minimum recommended host.

The AVT-716 Hardware
The AVT-716 Hardware Interface unit provides an isolated electrical interface between a host computer and the three networks (J1850 VPW, PWM, and ISO 9141). It performs the necessary protocol conversions and all required communication translations allowing a user with a PC to communicate with a vehicle or module.

SAE standard J1850 specifies a Variable Pulse Width (VPW) version with a bit rate of 10.4 kbits/sec. and a Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) version with a bit rate of 41.6 kbits/sec. ISO standard 9141-2 specifies a data rate of 10.4 kbits/sec. The AVT-716 was designed to communicate with all three of these protocols. Additionally, the AVT-716 supports transmit and receive operations in VPW mode at 4 times the normal rate. (Operations at 4X speed in VPW mode may be required for some GM Class 2 modes.)

The architecture of the AVT-716 is compliant with the Ford Motor Standard Corporate Protocol (SCP).

The AVT-716 was designed to be connected directly to the subject vehicle and the host computer. Power for the AVT-716 is provided by the vehicle through the OBD-II connector. The AVT-716 communicates with the host computer via either an RS-232 or RS-422 serial interface. The interface and baud rate (four baud rates are available) are selected by configuring four jumpers. Optical isolation is used on the AVT-716 to electrically isolate the host computer from the subject vehicle at the serial interface.

The AVT-716 Interface consists of two printed circuit boards (mated together, back to back). Board #1 consists of the microcontroller, ROM, RAM, serial controller, operation indicators, and real time clock. Board #2 functions include the optically isolated serial interface to the host computer, the three network interfaces, and the regulated power supply.

The AVT-716 is available housed in a rugged polycarbonate enclosure or as an OEM module (circuit boards only). The Controller software and an OBD-II compatible cable (permitting direct vehicle connection) are also available.

All AVT equipment is warranted for one year from date of purchase. Free software and firmware upgrades are available for one year from date of purchase. Prompt telephone technical support is always available.

Undisplayed Graphic

Specifications

Size: 4.0 x 5.6 x 1.4 in. (OEM module), 5.2 x 6.8 x 2.3 in. (enclosure).
Weight: 18 ounces (7 oz. OEM only).
Voltage: +8 to +25 VDC (from vehicle).
Power: 2 watts (nominal).
Host interface: RS-232 or RS-422 (jumper selectable).
Host baud rate: 9.6, 19.2, 38.4, 57.6 kbaud (jumper selectable).
Connectors: DE-9S and DA-15P.
Microcontroller: MC68332 @ 16 MHz (Motorola).


Site Map

OBD-2.com Home

On-Board Diagnostics related books and standards

Book listings and reviews on OBD2 and related subjects at Amazon.com

Instructional Books

Getting to Know OBD II
Intoductory overview of operation and trouble shooting.


Understanding Automotive Electronics 5th Edition
Excellent introduction to control and instrumentation systems.


Vehicle Electronic Systems and Fault Diagnosis
Introductory overview


Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems
Good educational text book, includes cd-rom and quiz book


Principles of Electricity & Electronics for the Automotive Technician
Good introduction to electronics and trouble shooting


Auto Fundamentals
Popular training book, many manufacturer pictures and data


Car Smarts: An Easy-to-Use Guide to Understanding Your Car and Communicating with Your Mechanic


Total Car Care for the Clueless : A Manual for Car Owners


Performance

Modern Engine Tuning


Custom Auto Electronics and Auto Electrical Reference Manual


1001 High Performance Tech Tips


Auto Math Handbook : Calculations, Formulas, Equations and Theory for Automotive Enthusiasts


Engineering Books

Bosch Automotive Hand Book 5th Edition
Enginnering reference book, definitions, tables, conversions


Bosch Automotive Electrics and Electronics 3rd Edition
Technical Instruction Reference Book


Automotive Electronics Handbook 1999 edition
Includes vehicle mulitiplexing, displays and intelligence. Manufacture references.


In Vehicle Networks
Papers on CAN, LIN, J1850 timing, prioritization, and body networks


On-and Off Board Diagnostics
Papers on misfire, knock, neural networks, catalyst monitoring, obd3


Multiplexing and Networking
Papers on modeling, simulation, data reduction, J1850, J1939, TTP, VAN and ACP protocols


Electronic Engine Controls 1999: Neural Networks, Diagnostic and Electronic Hardware and Controls
other topics include Ionic current detection and A/F control


Automotive Microcontrollers 1998
Includes J1850 bus, TTP (time-triggered protocol), displays and diagnostics.


Electronic Engines Controls 1998: Diagnostics and Controls
Design and development of diagnostics and supporting tools


SAE On-Board Diagnostics for Light and Medium Duty Vehicles Standards Manual 1999
This book contains all mandated codes, data values, assigned addresses, and protocols


Search Listings

automotive mechanics
automotive electronics
automotive diagnostics
automotive controls
automotive multiplexing

Alex C. Peper dba Car Code
obd-2.com
ACP32G Vehicle Network Gateway Smart Client Chips

  • Direct connection to SAEJ1850 and IS0 vehicle networks using serial rs232
  • Fast 1 byte request 2 byte return at 19200 baud.
  • Internal byte timing, collision detection, arbitration, filtering, error detection, header formation ,check sum and CRC calculation.
  • Power up auto log-in, single 5 Volt supply, watchdog timer, 2 wire rs232.
  • Continuious run mode, or one shot send and receive.
  • Uses open source SAEJ1979 data, custom programming available.
  • Optimized for telematics, flight event recorders, hand held devices, dash instruments, control and data log.
  • $32 quanity one. $22 quanity 25+
  • ACPGI for ISO. ACPGV for VPW. ACPGP for PWM. -0 for continuious send. -1 for one shot.
  • ACPGV and ACPGP or 18 pin. ACPGI is 8 pin with internal oscillator.

description
The ACP32G is a smart gateway device for communication using rs232 to the vehicle protocol. The chip eliminates the burden of calculating and sending headers, checksums, CRC, address, keyword initiation sequence, time out request, arbitration, collision, error detection, byte times and signal formation Only 1 rs232 ID byte is needed to define data request and a 2 byte rs232 data is returned and the requested ID byte.

Operation: ACPGI-0 Continuious send ISO-9141-2 to rs232 Transciever.
At power up a continuiously send log in sequence for ISO 9141-2 initialization is started and repeated until connection established. Default data request ID 4 or other is continuiously made to prevent time out. If correct ISO-9141-2 response is recieved from vehicle, then the requested ID and 2 byte data value is returned at rs232 19200 baud. The gateway program then delays the ISO-9141-2 minimum time betwen responses of 55 ms. at which time a rs232 1 byte request can be made to change the ISO-9141-2 data recieved. If no rs232 request is received the last rs232 request or default will be sent in a continuious run mode until the next rs232 input request. Upon ISO-9141-2 error or no response within 50 ms the gateway program will perform the SAE error protocol routine, if this fails the ISO-9141-2 initiation sequence will be restarted. Upon device software crash the initiation sequence will be restarted in 288 ms. At power down communication will stop.

Operation: ACPGI-1 one shot ISO-9141-2 to rs232 Transciever.
At power up a continuiously send log in sequence for ISO 9141-2 initialization is started and repeated until connection established. A ID 1 or other data request is continuiously made every 2 seconds to prevent time out. If correct ISO-9141-2 response is recieved from vehicle, then the requested ID and 2 byte data value is returned at rs232 19200 baud. 1 byte request can be made to change the ISO-9141-2 data recieved. If no rs232 request is received within 2 seconds the time out data request will be made until the next rs232 input request. Upon ISO-9141-2 error or no response within 50 ms the gateway program will perform the SAE error protocol routine, if this fails the ISO-9141-2 initiation sequence will be restarted. Upon device software crash the initiation sequence will be restarted in 288 ms. At power down communication will stop.

Operation: ACPGV-0 or ACPGP Continuious send VPW or PWM to rs232 Transciever.
At power up a continuiously send log in sequence for VPW or PWM initialization is started and repeated until connection established. Default data request ID 4 or other is continuiously made to prevent any diagnostic time out. If correct VPW or PWM response is recieved from vehicle, then the requested ID and 2 byte data value is returned at rs232 19200 baud. The gateway program then delays a minimum time betwen responses of 30-200 ms. at which time a rs232 1 byte request can be made to change the data recieved. If no rs232 request is received the last rs232 request or default will be sent in a continuious run mode until the next rs232 input request. Upon vehecle network error or no response within 30-200 ms the gateway program will perform the SAE error protocol routine, if this fails the VPW or PWM initiation sequence will be restarted. Upon device software crash the initiation sequence will be restarted in 288 ms. At power down communication will stop.

specifications

Pin Description ACPGI
1 5 volt
2 auxillary input or output
3 ISO output
4 ISO input internal pull-up 
5 rs232 input Schmitt trigger
6 auxillary input or output
7 rs232 output  
8 ground
 (other pin outs available) 

communication ACPGI

rs232  19200 baud 1 stop no parity
ISO 9141-2 10400 baud 1 stop no parity
ISO 9141-2 10400 baud 1 stop odd parity
ISO 9141-2  5 baud 1 stop no parity

timing ACPGI-0

232 in xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx
232 out xxxxxxxx
ISO in xxxxxxxx
ISO out xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx

typical times ACPGI

t0 ISO initiation log in 2340ms
t1 ISO message transmit 50ms
t2 IS0 message receive 60ms
t3 IS0 response to ISO request 35ms
t4 IS0 delay before ISO request 55ms
t5 acquistion (sum t1 thru t4) 200ms  
t6 SAE delay before log in 300ms
t7 watch dog time-out 288ms

error times

previous transception  400ms = 2*t5
no response to requested PID 2840ms = t6+t0+t5 
terminated or not possible 7920ms = 3*(t0+t6)
software or firmware crash 3128ms = t6+t0+t5+t7  

typical operation ACPGI-0
With power applied to pin 1 the ISO log in initiation sequence will begin and repeat until response is received. A internal default data value will be requested such as load Parameter Indentification (PID) number 04 hexidecimal. Upon response the return data bytes will be parsed and then output as rs232 2 byte unscaled value. The default PID will be sent until a rs232 1 byte PID input is received during period t4 of duration 55ms begining at end of last rs232 output. The new PID value will then be transceived until another rs232 input. If the network does not respond to a request within 50 ms the request will be resent. If no response to 2nd request the log in will be repeated and the default PID will be sent upon correct log in.

SAE J1979 mode 01 continuious data

Request Return
PID DESC byte 1 byte 2
00 PID supported(01-20) xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx
01 Number of DTC xxxxxxx-
01 MIL ON -------1 
01 MIL OFF -------0
01 Misfire support -------x
01 Fuel support ------x-
01 Component support -----0--
01 Reserved ----x---
01 Misfire status ---x----
01 Fuel status --x-----
01 Component status -x------
01 Reserved status  0-------
02
03 open loop 1-------
03 closed loop -1------
03 open loop driving --1-----
03 open loop fault ---1----
03 closed loop fault ----1---
03 reserved -----0--
03 reserved ------0-
03 reserved -------0 
04 load % b/255*100
05 coolant temp. F (b-40)*1.8+32 
06 short fuel trim b/128*100-100 
07 long fuel trim 1 b/128*100-100
08 short fuel trim 2 b/128*100-100
09 long fuel trim 2  b/128*100-100 
0A fuel pres. psi b*3*0.14504 
0B intake pres. inHg b*0.29613
0C engine rpm (b<<8+b2)/4  
0D vehicle speed mph b*0.6214
0E ignition time (b-128)*0.5  
0F intake air F (b-40)*1.8+32 
10 air flow 1b/min (b<<8+b2)*0.132275 
11 throttle % b/255*100
12 air upstream cat 1-------
12 air downstream cat -1------
12 air off --1-----
12 air reserved ---00000
13 O2 location 11 1xxxxxxx
13 O2 location 12 x1xxxxxx
13 O2 location 13 xx1xxxxx
13 O2 location 14 xxx1xxxx
13 O2 location 21 xxxx1xxx
13 O2 location 22 xxxxx1xx
13 O2 location 23 xxxxxx1x
13 O2 location 24 xxxxxxx1
14 shrt fuel trim 11 b/128*100-100 
14 shrt fuel trim NA 11111111
14 O2 V 11 b*0.005 
15 shrt fuel trim 12 b/128*100-100 
15 shrt fuel trim NA 11111111
15 O2 V 12 b*0.005
16 shrt fuel trim 13 b/128*100-100 
16 shrt fuel trim NA 11111111
16 O2 V 13 b*0.005
17 shrt fuel trim 14 b/128*100-100 
17 shrt fuel trim NA 11111111
17 O2 V 14 b*0.005
18 shrt fuel trim 21 b/128*100-100 
18 shrt fuel trim NA 11111111
18 O2 V 21 b*0.005
19 shrt fuel trim 22 b/128*100-100 
19 shrt fuel trim NA 11111111
19 O2 V 22 b*0.005
1A shrt fuel trim 23 b/128*100-100 
1A shrt fuel trim NA 11111111
1A O2 V 23 b*0.005
1B shrt fuel trim 24 b/128*100-100 
1B shrt fuel trim NA 11111111
1B O2 V 24 b*0.005 
1C OBDII CARB 10000000
1C OBD Fed 01000000
1C OBDII and OBD 11100000
1C OBD I 00100000
1C None 00110000
1D O2 location 11 1xxxxxxx
1D O2 location 12 x1xxxxxx
1D O2 location 21 xx1xxxxx
1D O2 location 22 xxx1xxxx
1D O2 location 31 xxxx1xxx
1D O2 location 32 xxxxx1xx
1D O2 location 41 xxxxxx1x
1D O2 location 42 xxxxxxx1
1E Power take off On 0-------
1E Power take off Off 1-------
1E Auxil input Reserved -0000000

Notes:
preliminary data
current release no collision detect resend, watchdog timer = 2304ms
data return of 3 bytes: pid request and 2 data bytes
request byte 122 returns mode 02 pid 02 trouble code
request byte 144 clears DTC
DOS development terminal program with timer for continuious send and ISO
Development board box, connectors and cables $92 (includes one chip, assembled and tested)

revision 1.0
Copyright 1999-2001 Alex C. Peper. All Rights Reserved.
References:
Reprinted with permission from SAE J1930, J1962, J1978, J1979, J2012, J2190, J1850, J2178 1997-1999 Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc.
California Air Resource Board
Equipment and Tool Institute
International Standards Organization
United States Code of Federal Regulations

SOFTWARE/HARDWARE LICENSE AGREEMENT

1. Definitions
a.)"Software" shall mean all machine readable code, documentation, schematics, data, image, help and all other files related to the computer program. The software existing on disk, electronically transfered, embedded, in ROM or in other forms of record. Registerd software is used with hardware defined in 1b.

Software name: Alex C. Peper OBD-2 ISO 9141-2, VPW or PWM to rs232 smart client written by Alex C. Peper

b.) "Hardware" shall mean a physical communication circuit device that transceives data on network.

Hardware device name: Alex C. Peper OBD-2 ACPGI ACPGV or ACPGP programmed and external circuit design by Alex C. Peper

c.) "Registered" shall mean a software and hardware combination purchased from Alex C.Peper

2. License
The software and or hardware is licensed to you by Alex C. Peper. You will own the media on which the above software files is recorded, but the author Alex C. Peper retains ownership, copyright, title, and exclusively reserves all rights to the software. The software is not in the public domain. The software and or hardware and any copies which this License authorizes you to make or subject to this License. You are not granted any rights to patents, tradenames,copyrights, trade marks franchises, or licenses rather registered our unregistered in respect of the software/hardware.

3. Permitted Uses and Restrictions This license allows you to install and use the software/hardware on a single network at a time. The license does not allow the software to exist on more than one computer at a time. Copies of software from one computer to another over a network or other means are not allowed. You can not distribute the software/hardware or any copy. You can not replicate and reproduce the hardware/software.

THE SOFTWARE/HARDWARE IS NOT INTENDED FOR USE IN OPERATION OF MOTOR VEHICLES, AIRCRAFT, MASS TRANSENT, LIFE SUPPORT,NUCLEAR, CHEMICAL AND OTHER FACILITIES AND OR MACHINES WHERE IN WHICH CASE THE USE, FAILURE OR MISUSE OF THE SOFTWARE/HARDWARE COULD LEAD TO DEATH, PERSONAL INJURY OR PHYSICAL AND ENVIRNOMENTAL DAMAGE AND OR VIOLATE ANY ENVIRNOMENTAL, SAFETY, TRANSPORTATION OR OTHER LAWS AND REGUALTIONS

You may not decompile, reverse engineer, disassemble, modify, rent, lease, loan, sublicense, create derivative works of the software/hardware or any copy in whole or in part. Your rights under this license will terminate automatically without notice from Alex C. Peper if you fail to comply with any term(s) of the License.

THE SOFTWARE/HARDWARE IS NOT INTENDED TO BE USED AS A DEFEAT DEVICE OF ANY DIAGNOSTIC SYSTEM OR CONTROL SYSTEM. IT IS USER RESPONSIBILITY TO OBTAIN ANY CERTIFICATION, RECERTIFICATION OR NEW CLASSIFICATIONS PERTAINING TO USE.

4. Limited warranty If software was obtained in a physical chip ROM medium it is warrant to be free of defects for 30 days from original purchase. Your exclusive remedy will be to receive a chip replacement. The hardware/software has a warranty of 30 days from orginal purchase to communicate with vehicle. Your exclusive remedy is to return hardware/software with vehicle model year, manufacturer, model name and vehicle identification number for replacement or refund at Alex C. Peper option.

5. Disclaimer of Liability You expressly acknowledge and agree that use of Alex C. Peper hardware and or software is at your sole risk. Alex C. Peper does not warrant that the functions contained in the hardware/software will meet your requirements, or that the hardware/software will be error free or that defects will be corrected. Alex C. Peper does not warrant or make any representations regarding the use or the results of the use of the hardware/software or related documentation in terms of there correctness, spelling accuracy, reliability, or precision and year 2000 date problems.

The hardware is not warrant: a) any physical damage, or operation beyond or at maximum operating specifications as defined in chip manufacturer documentation. b) leads, pin, and case. c) transportation, shipping or insurance costs. d) any repairs, except those authorized by Alex C. Peper e)damage or failure caused by or attributable to abuse, accident, misuse, improper or abnormal useage, failure to follow instructions, improper installation or maintenance, electrostatic disharge, alteration, lightining, water, humidity, corrisive envirnoments, emmersion in liquids, or acts of God.

6. Limitation of Liability IN NO EVENT WILL ALEX C. PEPER BE LIABLE FOR ANY COMPUTER DAMAGE, VEHICLE DAMAGE, PERSONAL INJURY, DEATH, FINES, LAW SUITS, PROSECUTION, LOST PROFITS, LOST DATA, INCORRECT DATA, ENVIRNOMENTAL DAMAGE, GOVERNMENT,LAW AND REGULATORY VIOLATIONS OR ANY OTHER INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES THAT RESULT FROM USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE SOFTWARE AND OR HARDWARE. Some jurisdictions do not allow the limitation of incidental or consequential damages, in all cases Alex C. Peper total liability to you for all damages will not exceed $1.00 US

7. Termination You may terminate the License at any time by destroying the software and returning the hardware. Alex C. Peper may terminate license.

8. Export Law Assurances By using the software/hardware you represent and warrant that you are not located in, under control of, or a national resident of a US embargoed country, on the Us Treasury Department list of specially Designated Nationals or on the US Department of Commerce's Table of Denial Orders. The software uses international standard open source code and does not use any manufacturer specific decryption.

9. Government End Users If the software/hardware is supplied to US government, the software/hardware is classified as "restricted computer software" as defined in FAR 52.227-19

10. Governing Law and Severability This Agreement shall be governed by the laws of the country where the delivery is made to the orginal customer.

If for any reason a court of competent jurisdiction finds any provision, or portion thereof, to be unenforceable, the remainder of this License shall continue in full force and effect.

11. Agreement You acknowledge that you have read this agreement, understand it, and agree to be bound by its terms and conditions. Neither party shall be bound by any statement or representation not contained in this agreement. No change in this agreement is effective unless written and signed by authorized representatives of each party. By applying a potential difference to any pin or pad of hardware/software you agree to accept the terms of this agreement.

Glossary of Terms

AFC - Air Flow Control

ALDL - Assembly Line Diagnostic Link. Former name for GM (only) Data Link Connector, the connector socket into which the scan tool plug is inserted; sometimes used to refer to any pre-OBD II signals

CAN - Controller Area Network

CARB - California Air Resources Board

CFI - Central Fuel Injection (a.k.a. Throttle Body Fuel Injection TBI)

CFI - Continuous Fuel Injection

CO - Carbon Monoxide

DLC - Data Link Connector

Driving Cycle - A specific sequence of start-up, warm-up and driving tasks that tests all OBD II functions

DTC - Diagnostic Trouble Code

ECM - Engine Control Module - usually the main on-board computer controlling emissions and engine operation

EEC - Electronic Engine Control

EEPROM or E2PROM - Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory

EFI - Electronic Fuel Injection

EGR - Exhaust Gas Recirculation

EMR - Electronic Module Retard

EPA - Environmental Protection Agency. Federal agency. Office of Mobile Sources is the branch concerned with auto emissions.

ESC - Electronic Spark Control

EST - Electronic Spark Timing

Fuel Trim - Engine computer function that keeps the air/fuel mixture as close to the ideal 14.7:1 stoichiometric ratio as possible

HC - Hydrocarbons

HEI - High Energy Ignition

HO2S - Heated Oxygen Sensor

ISO9141 - International Standards Organization OBD II communication mode, used by Chrysler and most foreign cars. One of three hardware layers defined by OBD II

ISO14230 - See Keyword Protocol 2000

J1850PWM - (Pulse Width Modulated) SAE-established OBD II communication standard used by Ford domestic cars and light trucks. One of three hardware layers defined by OBD II

J1850VPW - (Variable Pulse Width Modulated) SAE-established OBD II communication standard used by GM cars and light trucks. One of three hardware layers defined by OBD II

J1962 - SAE-established standard for the connector plug layout used for all OBD II scan tools

J1978 - SAE-established standard for OBD II scan tools

J1979 - SAE-established standard for diagnostic test modes

J2012 - SAE-established standard accepted by EPA as the standard test report language for emission tests

KWP2000 - (Keyword Protocol 2000) SAE-established OBD II communication standard used by some import cars. One of five hardware layers defined by OBD II

MAF - Mass Air Flow

MAP - Manifold Absolute Pressure

MAT - Manifold Air Temperature

MIL - Malfunction Indicator Light. The "Check Engine Light" on your dash.

NOx - Oxides of Nitrogen

O2 - Oxygen

OBD - On-Board Diagnostics

OBD II or OBD II - Updated On-Board Diagnostics standard effective in cars sold in the US after 1-1-96

Parameters - Readings on scan tools representing functions measured by OBD II and proprietary readings

PCM - Powertrain Control Module, the on-board computer that controls engine and drive train

PCV - Positive Crankcase Ventilation

Proprietary Readings - Parameters shown by on-board computers which are not required by OBD II, but included by manufacturer to assist in trouble-shooting specific vehicles.

PTC - Pending Trouble Code

RPM - Revolutions Per Minute

SAE - Society of Automotive Engineers, professional organization that set the standards that EPA adopted for OBD and OBD II

Scan Tool - Computer based read-out equipment to display OBD II parameters

SES - Service Engine Soon dash light, not referred to as MIL

SFI - Sequential Fuel Injection

Stoichiometric (Stoy'-kee-o-metric) Ratio - Theoretical perfect combustion ratio of 1 part gas to 14.7 parts air

TBI - Throttle Body Injection

TPI - Tuned Port Injection

TPS - Throttle Position Sensor

VAC - Vacuum

VCM - Vehicle Control Module, the on-board computer that oversees engine management, transmission operation, anti-lock brakes and other functions not directly related to emissions control

VIN - Vehicle Identification Number

VSS - Vehicle Speed Sensor

WOT - Wide Open Throttle

 

2003 B&B Electronics


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