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Adjectivul

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ARTICOL POSESIV - PRONUME SEMIINDEPENDENT
Articolul
IRREGULAR VERBS
vorbirea indirecta
FIsĂ DE LUCRU PRONUMELE PERSONAL
Verbe conjugate
Mesele zilei
FONETICA
SUBSTANTIVUL
Prezentul continuu se formeaza cu \"to be\"

Adjectivul

3.1. Forma adjectivului




Adjectivele sunt invariabile. Ele nu îsi schimba forma în functie de gen sau numar.

Ex.: A hot potato, some hot potatoes.

Pentru a sublinia sau accentua sensul unui adjectiv se pot folosi very, really:

Ex.: A very hot potato, some really hot potatoes.

3.2. Pozitia adjectivului

De obicei adjectivul se aseaza în fata substantivului determinat:

Ex.: A good movie.

Dupa verbe auxiliare ca to be, to become, to seem, to look, to taste, to appear, to feel, to keep, to make, to smell, to sound, to turn, etc:

Ex.: The movie is good.

You seem upset.

This cheese tastes different.

Dupa substantiv în expresii fixe:

Ex.: the Princess Royal, the President elect, the court martial

Câteva adjective, ca de exemplu chief, main, poor (=unfortunate) stau numai în fata substantivului determinat:

Ex.: This is the main purpose of the meeting.

That poor woman was living in a garage.

Altele pot sta numai dupa un verb auxiliar: asleep, upset, awake, afraid, alike, alive, alone, annoyed, ill, well, sorry

Ex.: He's asleep.

I'm alone.

Unele adjective îsi schimba sensul în functie de pozitia pe care o ocupa. Adjectivele involved, present, concerned au sens diferit daca sunt plasate în fata substantivului sau dupa acesta.

Ex.: These are the people involved / concerned. (the people who have something to do with the matter)

They had an involved discussion on the matter. (detailed, complex)

I am a concerned mother. (worried, anxious)

The list of the students present is outside, on the door. (students who were there)

The present status of the matter requires urgent attention. (current)

3.3. Functiile adjectivului

Adjectivul ne spune mai multe despre calitatile substantivul determinat. Adjectivele pot exprima:

Sentimente sau calitati:

Ex.: They make an original couple.

She is a single mother.

Nationalitatea sau originea:

Ex.: Ricardo is Spanish. His mother is Argentinean and his father is Canadian.

I bought him a Swiss watch for Christmas.

Diferite caracteristici ale unui obiect:

Ex.: The table is long.

The steel tray was a gift.

Vârsta:

Ex.: My hat is too old. I will buy another one.

He is still very young, almost a boy.

Dimensiuni, marime si masuri:

Ex.: "Gone with the Wind" is a very long film.

That boy is too tall.

Culoarea:

Ex.: I have a red jacket to go with my new white skirt.

Materie / material:

Ex.: He wore a cotton shirt.

It was a silver tray, not a steel tray.

Forma:

Ex.: A rectangular envelope.

A round table.

Judecati, pareri sau opinii:

Ex.: Grammar is fascinating.

The show was entertaining.

3.4. Ordinea adjectivelor

Atunci când se folosesc doua sau mai multe adjective pentru a descrie acelasi substantiv, ordinea lor depinde de functiile acestora. Exista mai multe variante, dar cea mai obisnuita ordine este: Value/opinion, Size, Age/Temperature, Shape, Colour, Origin, Material

Value/opinion delicious, lovely, charming

Size small, huge, tiny

Age/Temperature old, hot, young, little

Shape round, square, rectangular

Colour red, blonde, black

Origin Swedish, Victorian, Chinese

Material plastic, wooden, silver

Exemple:

a green round plastic bucket

an elegant little French clock

a small round wooden table

3.5. Gradele de comparatie ale adjectivelor

3.5.1. Formarea comparativului si superlativului

Exista trei grade de comparatie ale adjectivelor: pozitiv (înalt), comparativ (mai înalt), superlativ (cel mai înalt). În limba engleza, comparativul si superlativul se formeaza astfel:

Numar de silabe (Pozitiv) Comparativ Superlativ

o silaba + -er + -est

tall taller tallest

Adjectivele formate dintr-o silaba [consoana + o vocala + consoana] vor dubla consoana finala:

fat fatter fattest

big bigger biggest

sad sadder saddest

doua silabe + -er SAU more + adj + -est SAU most + adj

+ Adjectivele terminate în: -y, -ly, -ow

+ Adjectivele terminate în: -le, -er sau -ure

+ Urmatoarele adjective: handsome, polite, pleasant, common, quiet

happy happier/ more happy happiest/ most happy

yellow yellower/ more yellow yellowest/ most yellow

simple simpler/ more simple simplest/ most simple

tender tenderer/ more tender tenderest/ most tender



Daca nu esti sigur, foloseste more + adj SAU most + adj.

Nota: Adjectivele terminate în -y ca de exemplu happy, pretty, busy, sunny, lucky etc. vor înlocui -y cu -ier sau -iest la forma comparativa si superlativa:

busy busier busiest

trei sau mai multe silabe more + adj most + adj

important more important most important

expensive more expensive most expensive

Exemple:

a. A cat is fast, a tiger is faster but a cheetah is the fastest.

b. A car is heavy, a truck is heavier, but a train is the heaviest.

c. A park bench is comfortable, a restaurant chair is more comfortable, but a sofa is the most comfortable.

3.5.2. Forme neregulate

Urmatoarele adjective au forme de comparativ si superlativ total neregulate:

Pozitiv Comparativ Superlativ

good better best

bad worse worst

little less least

old older / elder oldest / eldest

much / many more most

far further / farther furthest / farthest

3.5.3. Comparatia adjectivelor

the + superlative

Ex.: This is the oldest theater in London.

comparative + than - pentru a compara diferentele dintre doua obiecte, evenimente sau fiinte:

Ex.: He makes fewer mistakes than you do.

Thailand is sunnier than Norway.

Albert is more intelligent than Arthur.

as + adjective + as - constructie folosita pentru a compara oameni, locuri, fiinte, evenimete sau obiecte, între care nu exista diferente:

Ex.: Peter is 24 years old. John is 24 years old. Peter is as old as John.

Ramona is as happy as Raphael.

A tiger is as dangerous as a lion.

not as + adjective + as - putem arata diferentele dintre doua substantive folosind contructia not so/as ...as:

Ex.: Mont Blanc is not as high as Mount Everest.

Norway is not as sunny as Thailand

1. Scrie comparativul si superlativul urmatoarelor adjective: happy, brave, busy, clever, dry, bad, fat, many, beautiful, difficult, exciting, far, good.

2. Completeaza cu as, the sau than, dupa caz:

- What about this one?

- It's better ____ the one we saw in Harrods.

- It's bigger ____ the one in our local shop.

- But it's more expensive ____ the others.

- Do we want one ____ big ___ that?

- Yes, ____ bigger, ____ better. Let's buy it. It's ____ best we've seen so far.

3. Completeaza spatiile libere cu forma de comparativ sau superlativ a adjectivelor din paranteza (adauga si than acolo unde este cazul):

The 8 o'clock train is much (fast) ____ the 7.30 one. Of course it is (crowded) _____ the 7.30 train and the tickets are (expensive) _____. You get (cheap) _____ fares before 8 o'clock. Still, it's the (quick) _____ way of getting to Bath, unless you want to fly, and getting to the airport is much (difficult) ____ getting to the station.

-------- ----- ------ -------- ----- ------ -----------;;;;----- ----- --------------

Lectia 4: Adverbul

Adverbele sunt cuvinte care ne spun mai multe despre cum , unde, când, cât de frecvent sau în ce masura are loc o actiune.

4.1. Functia adverbelor

Astfel, adverbele determina în general verbe:

Ex.: The bus moved slowly. (cum?)

I am going home tomorrow. (când?)

Adverbele pot determina si adjective: You look absolutely fabulous!

Sau alte adverbe: She played the violin extremely well. You're speaking too quietly.

Sau chiar propozitii intregi: Perhaps we'll see you again next year.

4.2. Forma adverbelor

4.2.1. Adverbele se formeaza de cele mai multe ori prin adaugarea unui -ly la forma de singular a adjectivului:

Adjectiv Adverb

(Adjectiv + ly) Exemple

careful carefully He carefully picked up a tie.

quick quickly Time goes quickly.

slow slowly He walked slowly to the door.

Modificari ortografice:

Daca adjectivul se termina in -y, acesta se va inlocui cu -i + -ly.

Ex.: easy - easily, angry - angrily, lucky - luckily

Când avem un -le terminal (-able, -ible, -le), dispare -e si este inlocuit cu -y.

Ex.: probable - probably, terrible - terribly, gentle - gently



Adjectivele terminate in -ic adauga -ally.

Ex.: basic - basically, economic - economically, tragic - tragically

Exceptie: public - publicly

Forme neregulate

Ex.: true - truly, due - duly, whole - wholly

4.2.2. Unele adverbe au aceeasi forma ca si adjectivele:

Ex.: early, fast, hard, high, late, near, straight, wrong

Compara:

This is a hard exercise. (adjectiv)

He works hard. (adverb)

We saw many high buildings. (adjectiv)

The bird flew high in the sky. (adverb)

4.2.3. Unor adjective le corespund doua forme adverbiale, care au sensuri diferite:

Adjectiv Forme adverbiale Exemple

deep 1. deep

2. deeply He looked deep into her eyes. (adanc)

She is deeply in love. (profund, pâna peste cap)

direct 1. direct

2. directly You can dial New York direct. (în mod direct)

He went there directly. (direct, fara întârziere)

first 1. first

2. firstly My mother came in first, then my brothers and sisters. (întâi)

Firstly, I would like to welcome you here. (în primul rând)

Alte exemple: hard, light, just, last, late, most, near, prett, right, round, short, wrong.

Well / Good

Well este adverbul care corespunde formei adjectivale good.

They are good swimmers.

They swim well.

She is a good pianist.

She plays the piano well.

4.3. Gradele de comparatie ale adverbelor

Adverbele formeaza comparativul si superlativul la fel ca si adjectivele (vezi: 3.5. Gradele de comparatie ale adjectivelor):

Adauga -er pentru comparativ si -est pentru superlativ la adverbele dintr-o singura silaba: hard - harder - hardest

Adauga more pentru comparativ si most pentru superlativ la adverbele formate din doua sau mai multe silabe si la cele terminate in -ly: seriously - more seriously - most seriously

Unele adverbe au forme neregulate la comparativ si superlativ: badly - worse - worst, little - less - least, well - better - best, much - more - most

De retinut! Uneori most poate avea sensul de very:

We were most grateful for your help.

I am most impressed by this application.

4.4. Clasificarea adverbelor

Adverbe de mod

Adverbe de loc si directie

Adverbe de timp, durata si frecventa

Adverbe de probabilitate

Adverbe de grad

4.4.1. Adverbe de mod

Adverbele de mod ne arata cum, in ce mod are loc o actiune. Ele se aseaza in propozitie dupa verb sau dupa complementul acestuia.

Exemple:

He swims well. (dupa verb)

He ran... rapidly, slowly, quickly.

She spoke... softly, loudly, aggressively.

James coughed loudly to attract her attention.

He plays the flute beautifully. (dupa complement)

He ate the chocolate cake greedily.

1. Adverbul de mod nu se aseaza între verb si complement:

Incorect: He ate greedily the chocolate cake.

Corect: He ate the chocolate cake greedily.

2. Pozitia adverbului în propozitie este foarte importanta mai ales atunci când exista mai multe verbe în propozitie. Daca adverbul este asezat dupa o propozitie, atunci acesta modifica întregul sens exprimat în propozitie.

Observa diferentele de sens în functie de locul adverbului în propozitie:

He quietly asked me to leave the house. (= cererea lui a fost facuta în liniste)

He asked me to leave the house quietly. (= plecarea a fost facuta în liniste)

4.4.2. Adverbe de loc si directie

Ne arata unde are loc actiunea verbului. Se aseaza in general dupa verbul principal sau complementul sau.

Exemple:

Dupa verb:

I looked everywhere.

John looked ...away, up, down, around...

I'm going ...home, out, back...

Dupa complement:

They built a house nearby.

She took the child outside.

A. Here / there. Cu verbe de miscare, here exprima ideea de înspre/ cu / împreuna cu vorbitorul, iar there contrariul, departe, fara participarea vorbitorului:

Ex.: Come here (= spre mine)

It's in here (= vino impreuna cu mine sa vezi)

Put it there (= departe de mine)

It's in there (= du-te singur sa vezi)

Expresii cu here/ there: down here, down there, over here, over there, under here, under there, up here, up there.

B. Adverbele de loc terminate în -wards - exprima ideea de miscare într-o anumita directie:

Ex.: backwards, forwards, downwards, upwards, inwards, outwards, northwards, southwards, eastwards, westwards, homewards, onwards.

Cats don't usually walk backwards.

The ship sailed westwards.

De retinut! Towards este prepozitie, nu adverb, astfel încât va fi întotdeauna urmat de un substantiv sau pronume:

Ex.: He walked towards the car. She ran towards me.

C. Adverbe care exprima atât locul cât si directia: ahead, abroad, overseas, uphill, downhill, sideways, indoors, outdoors.

4.4.3. Adverbe de timp, durata si frecventa

Arata cand a avut loc o actiune dar si durata sau frecventa actiunii.

Ex.:

Când: today, yesterday, later, now, last year

Durata, pentru cât timp: all day, not long, for a while, since last year



Cât de frecvent: sometimes, frequently, never, often, yearly

De obicei, adverbele de timp se aseaza la sfârsitul propozitiei sau emfatic, la începutul ei:

Ex.: One of my children wrote to me yesterday.

Later the boy understood the story.

Adverbele care indica durata se aseaza la sfarsitul propozitiei:

Ex.: She stayed in the house all day.

My mother lived in France for a year.

De retinut! For este intotdeauna urmat de o expresie de durata: for three days, for a week, for several years, for two centuries.

Since este intotdeauna urmat expresia unui moment punctual în timp: since Monday, since 1997, since the last war.

Adverbele de frecventa exprima frecventa unei actiuni si se aseaza de obicei in fata verbului principal, dar dupa verbele auxiliare (cum ar fi be, have, may, must):

I often eat vegetarian food. (in fata verbului principal)

You must always fasten your seat belt. (dupa verbul auxiliar must)

I have never forgotten my first kiss. (dupa verbul auxiliar have si in fata verbului principal forgotten)

Unele adverbe de frecventa exprima regularitatea incidentei unei actiuni si se plaseaza la sfarsitul prepozitiei:

This magazine is published monthly.

He visits his mother once a week.

Adverbe de fecventa: frequently, generally, normally, occasionally, often, regularly, sometimes, usually.

De retinut! Yet se foloseste in propozitii interogative sau negative:

Have you finished your work yet? No, not yet.

They haven't met him yet.

Still exprima ideea de continuitate. Se foloseste in propozitii pozitive sau interogative.

I am still hungry.

Do you still work for the BBC?

Ordinea adverbelor de timp

Daca este nevoie de mai multe adverbe de timp in aceeasi propozitie ordinea lor va fi:

Ordinea Exemple

1: adverbe de durata

2: adverbe de frecventa

3: adverbe de timp 1 + 2 : I work (1) for five hours (2) every day.

2 + 3 : The magazine was published (2) weekly (3) last year.

1 + 3 : I was abroad (1) for two months (3) last year.

1 + 2 + 3 : She worked in a hospital (1) for two days (2) every week (3) last year.

4.4.4. Adverbe de siguranta si probabilitate

Acestea exprima cat de sigur este vorbitorul de actiunea sau evenimentul pe care il relateaza: certainly, definitely, probably, undoubtedly, surely, maybe, obviously, perhaps, possibly, really. Se aseaza in propozitie intre verbul auxiliar si verbul principal.

Ex.: He has certainly forgotten the meeting.

Pentru o formulare emfatica sau o reliefare a afirmatiilor, se aseaza în debutul frazei:

Ex.: Undoubtedly, Winston Churchill was a great politician.

De retinut! Surely asezat la inceputul propozitiei inseamna ca vorbitorul este convins de adevarul unei afirmatii, dar incearca sa obtina o confirmare: Surely you've got a bicycle?

4.4.5. Adverbe de grad

Aceastea exprima intensitatea sau gradul de indeplinire a actiunii unui verb, adjectiv sau adverb: almost, nearly, quite, just, too, enough, hardly, scarcely, completely, very, extremely.

Locul lor in propozitie este fie in fata adjectivului sau adverbului pe care il determina, fie in fata verbului principal:

Ex.: The water was extremely cold.

He was just leaving.

She has almost finished.

Enough, very, too

Enough inseamna "pana la punctul necesar pentru a..." si se plaseaza dupa adjectiv sau adverb:

Is your coffee hot enough? (adjectiv)

He didn't work hard enough. (adverb)

Too = "mai mult decat este necesar pentru..." si se aseaza in fata adjectivului sau adverbului:

This coffee is too hot. (adjective)

He works too hard. (adverb)

Very intareste sensul unui adjectiv sau adverb si se aseaza in fata acestora:

The girl was very beautiful. (adjectiv)

He worked very quickly. (adverb)

De retinut! Exista o diferenta importanta intre too si very:

Very exprima un fapt: He speaks very quickly.

Too sugereaza existenta unei probleme: He speaks too quickly (for me to understand).

Alte adverbe asemanatoare lui very: extremely, especially, particularly, pretty, rather, quite, fairly, rather, not especially, not particularly.

1. Alege adjectivul sau adverbul din paranteza pentru a completa corect fiecare pereche de propozitii:

a. It's an ___ question. You should be able to answer it quite ___. (easy/ easily)

b. I can type a bit but I'm very ___ . I'm afraid I can only type very ___. (slow/ slowly)

c. Mr Robbins shouted ___ at the children. The children made Mr Robbins very ___. (angry/ angrily)

d. Mary sang ___ at the concert last night. She sang a ____ song at the concert last night. (beautiful/ beautifully)

e. What was wrong with Bill? He looked very ___ . Bill shook his head ___. (sad/ sadly)

2. Completeaza urmatoarele propozitii cu ago, since, sau for:

a. Columbus discovered America about six hundred years ___.

b. Ghana has been an independent country ___ 1957.

c. Russia has been a republic ___ over seventy years.

d. Oxford has been a center of learning ___ more than a thousand years.

e. Most British universities were founded less than fifty years ___.

3. Completeaza urmatoarele propozitii cu: still, yet, already, any longer, any more.

a. John doesn't live in London ___ . He's moved to Bristol.

b. The children haven't gone to bed ___ . They're ___ watching television.

c. - Is Anne ___ here? - No, she has ___ left.

d. Becky hasn't gone to university ___. She's ____ at school.

e. Have you started your new job ___ or are you ___ working in London?

f. Thanks for your help. I won't trouble you ___.



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