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PROFESII. SUBSTANTIVUL : GEN SI NUMAR.

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PROFESII. SUBSTANTIVUL : GEN sI NUMĂR.

                                                                                                                               

TEXT CU EXPRIMAREA UNOR PROFESII, A LOCULUI DE MUNCĂ sI A SPECIFICULUI 10510k101k ACTIVITĂŢILOR DESFĂsURATE.

Cititi si traduceti urmatorul dialog.

               

                A.: What's your job?

                B.: I have a part-time job as a nurse in a big hospital. And I'm still studying to become a doctor. I want to cure sick people, you know.

                A.: What about your parents? What is your mother's job?

                B.: She is a French teacher. She also took her degree in English at the University of Bucharest.

                My father is a physician. He has been practising medicine for more than 20 years.

                     May I ask what are your qualifications?

                A.: Well, I do office work. I'm a civil servant.

                B.: Do you have to work overtime?

                A.: From time to time I go off duty late in the evening.

                B.: What are your office hour?

                A.: My office hours are from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m.

Cuvinte si expresii / Words and Phrases

 

                                - What's your job        -  Care este slujba ta ?

                                - A part - time job       - O slujba cu o jumatate de norma.

                                - A full - time job        - O slujba cu norma întreaga

                                - Physician                                 - Doctor

- I work overtime         -  Lucrez peste program

- I go off duty              - Termin programul

- She took her degree - si-a luat licenta

                                - What are your qualifications ? - Ce specializari ai?

                                - Office / Work hours    - Program de lucru

                                - I am on duty                             - Sunt de serviciu

                NOTĂ: Substantivele care exprima profesiile la singular vor fi precedate de articolul nehotarât.

                Exemplu:

                John is a Police Officer.

                Mary  is an engineer.

TEXT ÎN LIMBA  engleza cu termeni specifici utilizati în desfasurarea activitatii lucratorilor de politie.

Cititi si traduceti urmatorul dialog.

                A.: Where do you work ?

                B.: I am a Law Enforcement Official.

                A.: So you work with the Police. Can you tell me anything about the Romanian Police ?

                B.: The Romanian Police work throughout the country. A main responsibility is safety insurance. This duty is, fulfilled in compliance with our country's Constitutional provisions and the European Convention of Human Rights. The efforts made by the Romanian Police are directed towards a higher efficiency, towards making the crime prevention and counteraction activities more diverse and numerous.

                A.: What exactly does your work include?

                B.: It include, responding to calls from the population, maintaing the public order , food and car patrols , investigating different  crimes.

                A.: Thank you for your detailed information.

                B.: You're welcome.

                                                                                VOCABULAR :

                                                                 Law Enforcement Official.            

                                                                To enforce - a aplica

                                                                To fulfil     - a îndeplini

                                                                In compliance with - în concordanta cu

                                                                Prevention - prevenire

                                                                Counteraction activities- activitate de cotracarare

                                                                To counteract              - a contracara

                                                                Provisions                  - prevederi, clause

                               

genul si numarul substantivelor.

                 Genul substantivelor

                 A. Genul masculin / The Masculine Gender

 

                Au genul masculin substantivele care desemneaza fiintele de sex masculine ; aceste substantive se pot înlocui prin pronumele personal  "he"     .

Exemple: boy, man, policeman, father,brather, he-wolf.

Tot de genul masculine sunt si : sun, thunder, wind, anger.

               

                 B. Genul feminin / The Feminine Gender

                               

                Desemneaza fiintele de gen feminin, întruchipând femeia ca fiinta, (stare), nationalitate, profesie.

                Exemple: mother, sister, policewoman,  she-wolf, lioness.

                Tot feminine sunt si: ship, love, kindness, pride, night, car, rain, country (prin personificare)..

                C. Genul neutru / The Neuter Gender

                Desemneaza lucrurile ,tot ceea ce este neînsufletit si nu implica ideea de sex.

                Exemple: room, door, table, window, house,chalk, peace, picture, the river, the storm.

                Tot de genul neutru sunt si animalele inferioare (sau cele mici/si copii mici.

                Exemple : mosquito, mouse, worm, baby, etc.

                D. Genul comun / The Common Gender

               

                Cuprinde substantivele care, în afara unui contex pot fi de ambele sexe/genul masculin sau feminin.

                Într-un context oarecare ele devin fie feminine, fie masculine.

                Exemple: The teacher gave a few more examples, as she/he wanted the pupils to understand the rule.

                Alte substantive de genul comun : doctor, cousin, friend, engineer.

                S-a observat din exemplificarile date, deosebirile fata de limba româna în ceea ce priveste genul substantivelor care desemneaza lucruri în limba engleza, tot ceea ce nu este însufletit este de genul neutru, pe câta vreme în limba româna substantivul poate fi masculine, feminine sau neutru.

An oak (neutru)                           un stejar (masculin)

                A table(neutru)                            o masa (feminine)

                A chair (neutru)                           un scaun (neutru)

                Diferenta de forma între substantivele masculine si cele feminine.

                Substantivele feminine se deosebesc de cele masculine se poate face prin forme / cuvinte diferite.

Ex.

        Boy                          -               girl

        Brother      -              sister

        Uncle                       -               aunt

        Bull                          -               cow

        Policeman -               policewoman

        Mother      -               father

        Son                           -               daughter

PLURALUL SUBSTANTIVELOR

Formarea pluralului substantivelor simple.

1.        Pluralul regulat, se formeaza prin adaugarea consoanei - S la forma de singular. Consoana respectiva se poate pronunta :

-  [S], dupa sunetele [p], [t], [f], [k], [O] :

Cup  cups

Boot boots

Boat  boats

Book books

cliff   cliffs

chief  chiefs

faith  faiths

month               months

lenghth              lenghths

-           [Z], dupa sunetele vocalice si dupa sunetele consonatice sonore [b], [d], [g], [l],[m], [n], [v] :

door                          doors

                spas                          spas

dog                           dogs

job                            jobs

bag                           bags

song                          songs

car                            cars

thing                         things

2.        Substantivele terminate la singular în consoanele suieratoare (s, ss, ch, sh, x) formeaza pluralul prin adaugarea terminatiei - es pronuntata [iz]:

Ex:

bus                                           buses

class                                          classes

church                       churches

watch                                        watches

clash                                         clashes

box                                           boxes

3. Substantivele terminate în - f si - fe transforma consoana f în v, dupa care se adauga - es, respectiv - s, cu pronuntia [vz] :

Ex:

        Wolf                         wolves

        Wife                          wives

        Half                           halves

        Life                           lives

4. Substantivele terminate în vocala - o: Sb + es [i z]

Ex :

        potato                        potatoes

        tomato       tomatoes

        hero                          heroes

        echo                          echoes

Exceptie fac substantivele mai nou intrate în limbaj (neologismele), carora li se adauga doar - S :

Ex :

        piano                         pianos

        photo                        photos

        radio                         radios

        video                         videos

5.        Forme de plural neregulate :

La aceste substantive forma de plural difera de cea de singular prin una sau mai multe litere ; aceste forme sunt, în general, pastrate din engleza veche :

Ex :

                man                          men

                woman      women

tooth                         teeth

foot                           feet

goose                        geese

child                         children


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