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SUBSTANTIVUL - Pluralul substantivelor


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ALTE DOCUMENTE

Propozitia subordonata circumstantiala conditionala
Adjectivul
Notiuni elementare de sintaxa
Gramatica limba engleza
MODURILE NEPERSONALE SI CONSTRUCTIILE VERBALE
TIMPURILE VERBALE in Engleza
INFINITIV
Vocabularul


SUBSTANTIVUL

Pluralul substantivelor:

1. in general se adauga "s"

Ex: boy - boys

2. subst. terminate in: s, ss, sh, ch, tch, x si z adauga "es"

Ex:           bus - buses

                dress - dresses

                bush - bushes

                church - churches

                match - matches

                box - boxes

                buzz - buzzes

3. subst. terminate in "o" precedate de consoana adauda "es" cu exceptia subst. provenite din limbi straine si a celor din prescurtari

Ex:           tomato - tomatoes

                studio - studios

                fresco - frescos (din italiana)

                piano - pianos

                disco - discos (prescurtare)

! forme duble: "os" si "oes": cargo, buffalo, banjo, motto, volcano, zero

4. subst terminate in "y" precedat de consoana transforma y in "i+es"

Ex: family - families / key - keys

Exceptii: - subst proprii nume de familie la plural (the Kennedys)

- subst compuse (passer-by - passers-by)

5. subst terminate in "f" si "fe" transforma f in "v" si adauga "s"

Ex:                    19319f515t         life - lives

                    19319f515t              leaf - leaves

Exceptii: cliff - cliffs (stanca de mare)

                    19319f515t              roof

                    19319f515t              chief

                    19319f515t              safe

                    19319f515t              belief

                    19319f515t              proof

                    19319f515t              grief (durere psihica)

                    19319f515t              cuff (manseta)

                    19319f515t              gulf (golf)

! forme duble:       "fs" si "ves": scarf, handkerchief, dwarf, hoof (copita), wharf (debarcader)

6. cateva subst modifica vocala interioara:

                man - men

                woman - women

                goose - geese

                tooth - teeth

                foot - feet

                mouse - mice

                louse - lice (paduche)

                die -dice (zaruri)

7. trei subst adauga "en":

                ox - oxen

                child - children

                brother - brothers

    brethren (frati de credinta, comuniune, etc.)

8. subst nationalitati terminate in s, ss, sh, ch, tch si ese au aceeasi forma la sg si la pl:

                Dutch

                Chinese

                French                   (la plural sunt la fel)

                Irish

Swiss

9. cateva subst au aceeasi forma la sg si la pl:

a)       se termina in "s": species, series, means, headquarters, barracks (baraca/baraci)

b)       animale salbatice/pasari/pesti:

deer

sheep

game (doar cand inseamna vanat/vanaturi)

duck (doar cand este rata salbatica)

carp (crap)

trout (pastrav/pastravi)

pike (stiuca/stiuci)

10. subst compuse care au in alcatuire man sau woman ca ultim element il modifica pe acesta la plural:

Ex: policeman - policemen

11. subst compuse care au in alcatuire man, gentleman, lady sau woman ca prim element modifica ambele elemente la plural:

Ex:           lady-doctor - ladies-doctors

                man-singer - men-singers

12. subst compuse care au prepozitie in alcatuire adauga "s" primului element

Ex: lily of the valley - lilies of the valley

13. subst compuse care nu au in alcatuire prepozitie adauga "s" ultimului element

Ex: forget-me-not - forget-me-nots

14. Plurale straine:

                I. din limba latina:

a)       subst terminate in "us" fac plural in "i"

cactus - cacti

                    19319f515t             

b)       subst terminate in "a" fac plural in "ae"

alga - algae

c)       subst terminate in "um" fac plural in "a"

datum - data

d)       subst terminate in "ix" sau "ex" fac plural in "ices"

index - indices

                II. din limba greaca:

a)       subst terminate in "on" fac plural in "a"

phenomenon - phenomena

b)       subst terminate in "is" fac plural in "es"

basis - bases

                III. din limba franceza:

                    19319f515t              plateau - plateaux

Substantive care au doua forme de plural cu doua intelesuri diferite:

die          - dice (zaruri)

                - dies (matrite)

genius   - geniuses (f. destepti)

                - genii (spirite ale raului)   

formula  - formulas (forme de cuvinte)

                    19319f515t              - formulae (formule matem.)

index      - indexes (cuprinsuri)

                - indices (indici matem.)

medium - mediums (mediu paranormal)

                    19319f515t              - media (mass-media)                    19319f515t    

penny     - pennies (mai multe monede de 1 penny)

                - pence (o moneda de mai multi penny)

cloth       - cloths (carpe, metraje)

                - clothes (imbracaminte)

staff        - staffs (personalul firmei)

                - staves (portative muzicale)

Substantive care au o forma de plural cu mai multe intelesuri:

ash         = scrum (fara pl)

ashes    = cenusa

air           = aer (fara pl)       

airs         = fite, talente

age                    19319f515t       = varsta (fara pl)

ages                    19319f515t     = secole; mult timp

advice                    19319f515t = sfat

advices  = dispozitie de plata

color                    19319f515t     = culoare

colors                    19319f515t   = culori; steag

content   = continut

contents                = continuturi; tabla de materii

compass               = busola

compasses          = busole; compas

cost                    19319f515t      = cost

costs                    19319f515t    = costuri, cheltuieli

custom                  = obicei

customs                = obiceiuri; vama

drawer                   = sertar

drawers = sertare; izmene

drought  = curent de aer

droughts                = curente de aer; joc de dame

damage = stricaciune

damages              = stricaciuni; despagubiri

effect                    19319f515t    = efect

effects                    19319f515t = efecte; imbracaminte

ground                   = pamant (fara pl); motiv

grounds = motive; zat de cafea; loc de joaca pt copii

glass                    19319f515t    = sticla (fara pl); pahar

glasses = pahare; ochelari

letter                    19319f515t     = litera; scrisoare

letters                    19319f515t   = litere; scrisori; literatura

minute                   = minut

minutes = minute; proces verbal

manner  = mod

manners               = moduri; comportament

megrim  = migrena

megrims               = migrene; melancolie

number  = numar

numbers               = numere; versuri; strofa

quarter                   = sfert

quarters = sferturi; cazarma; cantonament

                    19319f515t             

point                    19319f515t     = punct

points                    19319f515t   = puncte, macaz

part                    19319f515t       = parte

parts                    19319f515t     = parti, meleaguri

pain                    19319f515t      = durere

pains                    19319f515t    = dureri; efort

paper                    19319f515t   = hartie (fara pl)

papers                   = documente, acte, lucrari

premise = premiza

premises              = locuinta (sg)

preserve                = dulceata

preserves              = dulceturi; ochelari de protectie

sand                    19319f515t     = nisip

sands                    19319f515t = plaja

spectacle              = spectacol

spectacles            = spectacole; ochelari

scale                    19319f515t    = taler; solz de peste; gama muzicala; scara sociala

scales                    19319f515t = talere; solzi de peste; game muzicale; scari sociale; balanta

spirit                    19319f515t     = duh; D-zeu (abstract)

spirits                    19319f515t   = spirite; bauturi spirtoase; stare de spirit; spirt medicinal

term                    19319f515t      = trimestru; termen

terms                    19319f515t   = trimestre; termene; relatii

water                    19319f515t    = apa (fara pl)

waters                    19319f515t = apa minerala

wood                    19319f515t    = lemn (fara pl)

woods                    19319f515t = padure

work                    19319f515t     = munca

works                    19319f515t   = opere (realizari deosebite); fabrica, mecanism

Substantive defective

1. aspect de sg, inteles de pl, acord in sg:

homework

luck

income

nonsense

merchandise

progress

produce (produs natural (rasina de brad) / spre deosebire de product = produs industrial)

equipment

business

money

news (are forma de pl !!)

advice

information

intelligence

knowledge

furniture

luggage

baggage

rubbish

     +

toate abstractiunile (power, love, hate, thunder, literature)

     +

alimente (butter, milk, meat)

     +

substante, materiale (silk, cotton, tobacco)

etc.

è nu au plural si fac acord la singular

è la substituirea cu pronume primesc "it"

Ex: Where is the money? Give it to me.

ènu pot fi determinate de: a, few, a few, many, every, each, either, neither, other, another, the other, etc. (pentru ca nu pot fi numarate !)

ècand vreau sa sugerez singularul folosesc: a bit of, a piece of, an item of, etc.

Ex:           a flash of lightning

                a crash of thunder

2. aspect de pl, inteles de sg, acord in sg:

- 2 boli:   measles = pojar

                    19319f515t              mumps = oreion

- jocurile terminate in "s":

                    19319f515t              billiards

                    19319f515t              darts (aruncarea la tinta)

                    19319f515t              nine pins (popice)

                    19319f515t              cards

- stiinte si obiecte de studiu (se scriu cu majuscula):

                    19319f515t              Economics

                    19319f515t              Mathematics

                    19319f515t              Physics

                    19319f515t              Statistics

! daca nu se refera la obiecte de studiu (materii), fac acordul la plural si nu se scriu cu majuscula

Ex:           What are your politics about it?

                The statistics for Romania are bad.

3. aspect de pl, inteles de pl (in romaneste de sg !!!), acord de pl:

Aceste substantive nu au forma de sg.

a) substantive imbracaminte formate din doua parti identice:

trousers

jeans

pants (pantaloni)

panties (chiloti)

overalls (salopeta)

shorts (pant scurti)

b) instrumente si unelte formate din doua structuri identice:

                compasses (compas)

                scissors (foarfeca)

                tweezers (penseta)

                tongs (cleste)

                pliers (patent)

c) o boala si o stare de spirit:

                hysterics (isterie)

                blues (melancolie)

d) denumiri geografice, tari formate din mai multe state:

                the United States of America

                the Carpatians

e) subst provenite din verbe + "ings":

                surroundings

                earnings

                savings

ènu au forma de sg, ele fac acordul in pl

èla substituirea cu pronume primesc "they"

Ex: Where are the tongs? Give them to me.

è nu pot fi determinate de: a, few, a few, many, every, each, either, neither, other, another, the other, etc. (pentru ca nu pot fi numarate !)

èdaca vreau sa sugerez sg, folosesc "a pair of "

4. aspect de sg, inteles de pl, acord la pl:

                people

                public

poultry

police

cattle (vite)

youth (tineret)

clergy (cler = mai multi membri ai bisericii)

horse (cand are sensul de cavalerie)

èacordul este la plural

Ex: The police are searching for the thief.

Substantivele colective

Sunt subst care au 2 forme de acord cu verbul:

-          in sg cand se refera la subst ca la un intreg

-          in pl cand se refera la elementele componente luate una cate una

Ex:           1) My family is at home (if you go there you find someone)

                2) My family are at home (each member of the family is present)

Subst colective                    19319f515t                     19319f515t                     19319f515t                     19319f515t        Animale

class                    19319f515t                    crew                    19319f515t                     19319f515t                     19319f515t               herd (cireada)                    19319f515t   

group                    19319f515t                   audience                    19319f515t                     19319f515t                     19319f515t       flock (turma)

team                    19319f515t                     19319f515t party (partid)                    19319f515t                     19319f515t                    swarm (roi)

family                    19319f515t                   press                    19319f515t                     19319f515t                     19319f515t             flight (stol)

committee                    19319f515t           government                    19319f515t                     19319f515t                     19319f515t shoal (banc)

council                    19319f515t                 board

jury                    19319f515t                     19319f515t     cabinet

army                    19319f515t                     19319f515t mob (multime)

navy                    19319f515t                     19319f515t   band

! 2 sau mai multe subst legate prin inteles care formeaza o entitate fac acordul cu verbul in singular

Ex:           1) My neighbor and friend is here (este vorba despre aceeasi persoana)

                2) Ten days is enough for a holiday (este vorba de perioada)

! substantivul number si alte subst care definesc o multime (cantitate) fac acord in sg daca sunt precedate de "the" si in pl daca sunt precedate de "a"

Ex:           1) A number of cars are in the street.

                2) The number of cars is sufficient.

! dupa each, every, either, neither, urmeaza subst numarabil la sg, iar in constructiile either...or (atat. cat si.)

neither...nor (nici...nici..), acordul cu verbul se face dupa ultimul element

Ex:           1) Either the boy or the girl is here.

                2) Neither you nor I am right.

! substantivele life, soul, mind, heart vor apare in forma de plural cand determina un subst ca "people"

Ex:           in romaneste:       Soldatii si-au dat viata (la sg) pentru tara.

                in engleza:            The soldiers have given their lives (la pl) for the country.

Genitivul substantivelor

Este de 2 feluri:    1) sintetic (saxon)

                    19319f515t                     19319f515t           2) analitic (prepozitional)

1)       Genitivul sintetic:        posesor + 's + obiect posedat

Utilizare:

1)       posesorul este subst propriu:

Carmen's car

2)       posesorul este subst comun fiinta:

the girl's car

3)       denumiri geografice:

Romania's economy

4)       animale (animale mari):

the dog's house

5)       substantiv colectiv:

the company's success

6)       abstractiuni:

liberty's defense

7)       corpuri celeste:

the sun's rays

8)       personificari:

the wind's voice

9)       pronume nehotarat:

somebody's wish

10)   diviziuni (de timp de ex.):

yesterday's newspaper

11)   expresii consacrate:

the God's sake

! daca subst proprii se termina in "s", punem doar apostroful:

Ex: Dickens' novels - dar se citeste ca si cum ar fi adaugat "es": (dichensiz)

! daca avem 2 sau mai multi posesori ai aceluiasi obiect intre care exista o relatie de rudenie, punem 's doar ultimului:

Ex:           1) the girl and the boy's father (sunt frati, au acelasi tata)

                2) the girl's and the boy's fathers (nu sunt frati)

! nu se mai pune obiectul posedat 

- daca a mai fost mentionat anterior

Ex: My mother's car is blue and my father's is white.

- sau daca e unul din substantivele:

shop

store

church

cathedral

house                    19319f515t (lista nu este limitativa)

Ex: Let's go to the butcher's (in loc de butcher's shop)

! daca posesorul este la plural, punem doar apostrof fara s:

                boys' toys

Exceptie fac subst care nu fac plural in "s":

people's respect

children's toys

2)       Genitivul analitic:        obiect posedat + of + posesor

Utilizare:

1)       pt lucruri

the door of the room

2)       anumite denumiri geografice:

the city of London

3)       susbt provenite din adjective:

the needs of the poor

4)       apozitie:

Tom, a friend of my manager

5)       insecte, pasari mici:

the wings of the fly

6)       cand vrem sa subliniem un subst propriu:

Let's talk about the wars of Napoleon

7)       cand subst e precedat de un determinant:

this book of my friend

! nu poate sa lipseasca nici un element, iar la plural are aceeasi forma

Combinatii sintetic - analitic ("dubla posesie")

a) combinatie din 3:            analitic + sintetic

Ex: masina prietenului fratelui meu - the car of my brother's friend

b) combinatie din 4:            sintetic + analitic + sintetic

Ex: masina prietenului fratelui varului tau - the friend's car of your cousin's brother

Genul substantivelor

In general, substantivele in limba engleza nu au gen.

Totusi, avem:

1)       man - woman

Ex: policeman - policewoman

2)       male - female

Ex: male student - female student

3)       girl - boy

Ex: girlfriend - boyfriend

4)       forme distincte

Ex: mother - father

wife - husband    (generic = spouse)

grandmother - grandfather

son - daughter

sister - brother

uncle - aunt

nephew - niece

bachelor - spinster (celibatara)

munk - nun (calugar/calugarita)

lad - lass (fecior/fetiscana)

wizard - witch (vrajitor/vrajitoare)

tutor - governess

tailor - seamstress (cusator/cusatoreasa)

earl - countess (conte/contesa)

king - queen

gentleman - lady

5)       se formeaza niste feminine si prin adaugarea sufixului "ess":

Ex:           actor - actress

                master - mistress

                waiter - waitress (chelner/chelnerita)

Exceptie: hero - heroine

6)       doua substantive fac masculinul din feminin:

Ex:           widow - widower (vaduva/vaduv)

                bride - bridegroom (mireasa/mire)

               

7)       subst provenite din limbi straine isi fac genul cf limbii din care provin:

signor - signora

don - donna

protégé - protegee

fiancé - fiancée

8)       pt animale:

a)       he - she:

he-elephant - she-elephant

b)       male - female:

male-frog - female-frog

c)       prin adaugare de sufix "ess":

lion - lioness; tiger - tigress

d)       cu forme distincte pt animale:

                fox (vulpoi) - vixen (vulpe)

                    19319f515t      mare (iapa) - stallion (armasar)                    19319f515t    generic = horse

                    19319f515t                     19319f515t   Jack-ass (magar) - Jenny-ass (magarita)

                    19319f515t                     19319f515t   cow (vaca) - ox (bou) sau bull (bou de prasila)

                    19319f515t                     19319f515t   she-goat (capra) - he-goat (tap)

                    19319f515t                     19319f515t   ram (berbec) - ewe (oaie)                    19319f515t               generic = sheep

                    19319f515t                     19319f515t   rabbit (iepure de casa) - doe-rabbit (iepuroaica)

                    19319f515t                     19319f515t   bee (albina) - drone (albin)

                    19319f515t                     19319f515t   saw (scroafa) - swine (porc) sau boar (vier; porc mistret)

                    19319f515t                     19319f515t   tom cat (pisoi) - tib cat (pisica)

                    19319f515t                     19319f515t   dog (caine) - bitch (catea)

                    19319f515t                     19319f515t   hen (gaina) - cock (cocos)

                    19319f515t                     19319f515t   Turkey-hen (curca) - Turkey-cock (curcan)

                    19319f515t                     19319f515t   goose (gasca) - gander (gascan)

                    19319f515t                     19319f515t   duck (rata) - drake (ratoi)

                    19319f515t                     19319f515t   deer (caprioara) - stag (cerb)

                    19319f515t                     19319f515t   hart (ciuta) - roe (ciutan)

! daca subst are categorie de gen, primeste pronumele corespunzator genului

Ex: My brother has a mare. She is black.


Document Info


Accesari: 19676
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