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SUBSTANTIVUL - Pluralul substantivelor

Gramatica












ALTE DOCUMENTE

Propozitia subordonata circumstantiala conditionala
Adjectivul
Notiuni elementare de sintaxa
Gramatica limba engleza
MODURILE NEPERSONALE SI CONSTRUCTIILE VERBALE
TIMPURILE VERBALE in Engleza
INFINITIV
Vocabularul

SUBSTANTIVUL

Pluralul substantivelor:



in general se adauga "s"

Ex: boy - boys

subst. terminate in: s, ss, sh, ch, tch, x si z adauga "es"

Ex:  bus - buses

dress - dresses

bush - bushes

church - churches

match - matches

box - boxes

buzz - buzzes

subst. terminate in "o" precedate de consoana adauda "es" cu exceptia subst. provenite din limbi straine si a celor din prescurtari

Ex:  tomato - tomatoes

studio - studios

fresco - frescos (din italiana)

piano - pianos

disco - discos (prescurtare)

forme duble: "os" si "oes": cargo, buffalo, banjo, motto, volcano, zero

subst terminate in "y" precedat de consoana transforma y in "i+es"

Ex: family - families / key - keys

Exceptii: - subst proprii nume de familie la plural (the Kennedys)

- subst compuse (passer-by - passers-by)

subst terminate in "f" si "fe" transforma f in "v" si adauga "s"

Ex:  life - lives

  leaf - leaves

Exceptii: cliff - cliffs (stanca de mare)

roof

  chief

  safe

  belief

  proof

  grief (durere psihica)

  cuff (manseta)

  gulf (golf)

forme duble: "fs" si "ves": scarf, handkerchief, dwarf, hoof (copita), wharf (debarcader)

cateva subst modifica vocala interioara:

man - men

woman - women

goose - geese

tooth - teeth

foot - feet

mouse - mice

louse - lice (paduche)

die -dice (zaruri)

trei subst adauga "en":

ox - oxen

child - children

brother - brothers

brethren (frati de credinta, comuniune, etc.)

subst nationalitati terminate in s, ss, sh, ch, tch si ese au aceeasi forma la sg si la pl:

Dutch

Chinese

French (la plural sunt la fel)

Irish

Swiss

cateva subst au aceeasi forma la sg si la pl:

a)       se termina in "s": species, series, means, headquarters, barracks (baraca/baraci)

b)       animale salbatice/pasari/pesti:

deer

sheep

game (doar cand inseamna vanat/vanaturi)

duck (doar cand este rata salbatica)

carp (crap)

trout (pastrav/pastravi)

pike (stiuca/stiuci)

subst compuse care au in alcatuire man sau woman ca ultim element il modifica pe acesta la plural:

Ex: policeman - policemen

subst compuse care au in alcatuire man, gentleman, lady sau woman ca prim element modifica ambele elemente la plural:

Ex: lady-doctor - ladies-doctors

man-singer - men-singers

subst compuse care au prepozitie in alcatuire adauga "s" primului element

Ex: lily of the valley - lilies of the valley

subst compuse care nu au in alcatuire prepozitie adauga "s" ultimului element

Ex: forget-me-not - forget-me-nots

Plurale straine:

I. din limba latina:

a)       subst terminate in "us" fac plural in "i"

cactus - cacti

 

b)       subst terminate in "a" fac plural in "ae"

alga - algae

c)       subst terminate in "um" fac plural in "a"

datum - data

d)       subst terminate in "ix" sau "ex" fac plural in "ices"

index - indices

II. din limba greaca:

a)       subst terminate in "on" fac plural in "a"

phenomenon - phenomena

b)       subst terminate in "is" fac plural in "es"

basis - bases

III. din limba franceza:

plateau - plateaux

Substantive care au doua forme de plural cu doua intelesuri diferite:

die - dice (zaruri)

- dies (matrite)

genius - geniuses (f. destepti)

- genii (spirite ale raului)

formula - formulas (forme de cuvinte)

- formulae (formule matem.)

index  - indexes (cuprinsuri)

- indices (indici matem.)

medium  - mediums (mediu paranormal)

  - media (mass-media)

penny - pennies (mai multe monede de 1 penny)

- pence (o moneda de mai multi penny)

cloth - cloths (carpe, metraje)

- clothes (imbracaminte)

staff - staffs (personalul firmei)

- staves (portative muzicale)



Substantive care au o forma de plural cu mai multe intelesuri:

ash  = scrum (fara pl)

ashes = cenusa

air = aer (fara pl)

airs = fite, talente

age = varsta (fara pl)

ages = secole; mult timp

advice = sfat

advices = dispozitie de plata

color = culoare

colors = culori; steag

content = continut

contents = continuturi; tabla de materii

compass  = busola

compasses  = busole; compas

cost  = cost

costs  = costuri, cheltuieli

custom  = obicei

customs  = obiceiuri; vama

drawer  = sertar

drawers = sertare; izmene

drought = curent de aer

droughts = curente de aer; joc de dame

damage = stricaciune

damages = stricaciuni; despagubiri

effect = efect

effects = efecte; imbracaminte

ground = pamant (fara pl); motiv

grounds = motive; zat de cafea; loc de joaca pt copii

glass = sticla (fara pl); pahar

glasses = pahare; ochelari

letter = litera; scrisoare

letters = litere; scrisori; literatura

minute = minut

minutes = minute; proces verbal

manner = mod

manners = moduri; comportament

megrim = migrena

megrims = migrene; melancolie

number  = numar

numbers  = numere; versuri; strofa

quarter = sfert

quarters = sferturi; cazarma; cantonament

point = punct

points = puncte, macaz

part = parte

parts = parti, meleaguri

pain = durere

pains = dureri; efort

paper = hartie (fara pl)

papers = documente, acte, lucrari

premise = premiza

premises = locuinta (sg)

preserve = dulceata

preserves = dulceturi; ochelari de protectie

sand  = nisip

sands  = plaja

spectacle = spectacol

spectacles = spectacole; ochelari

scale = taler; solz de peste; gama muzicala; scara sociala

scales = talere; solzi de peste; game muzicale; scari sociale; balanta

spirit = duh; D-zeu (abstract)

spirits = spirite; bauturi spirtoase; stare de spirit; spirt medicinal

term = trimestru; termen

terms = trimestre; termene; relatii

water = apa (fara pl)

waters  = apa minerala

wood  = lemn (fara pl)

woods  = padure

work  = munca

works  = opere (realizari deosebite); fabrica, mecanism

Substantive defective

1. aspect de sg, inteles de pl, acord in sg:

homework

luck

income

nonsense

merchandise

progress

produce (produs natural (rasina de brad) / spre deosebire de product = produs industrial)

equipment

business

money

news (are forma de pl !!)

advice

information

intelligence

knowledge

furniture

luggage

baggage

rubbish

+

toate abstractiunile (power, love, hate, thunder, literature)

alimente (butter, milk, meat)

+

substante, materiale (silk, cotton, tobacco)

etc.

nu au plural si fac acord la singular

la substituirea cu pronume primesc "it"

Ex: Where is the money? Give it to me.

nu pot fi determinate de: a, few, a few, many, every, each, either, neither, other, another, the other, etc. (pentru ca nu pot fi numarate !)

cand vreau sa sugerez singularul folosesc: a bit of, a piece of, an item of, etc.

Ex:   a flash of lightning

a crash of thunder

aspect de pl, inteles de sg, acord in sg:

- 2 boli:  measles = pojar

  mumps = oreion

- jocurile terminate in "s":

  billiards

darts (aruncarea la tinta)

nine pins (popice)

  cards

- stiinte si obiecte de studiu (se scriu cu majuscula):

Economics

  Mathematics




  Physics

  Statistics

daca nu se refera la obiecte de studiu (materii), fac acordul la plural si nu se scriu cu majuscula

Ex:   What are your politics about it?

The statistics for Romania are bad.

3. aspect de pl, inteles de pl (in romaneste de sg !!!), acord de pl:

Aceste substantive nu au forma de sg.

a) substantive imbracaminte formate din doua parti identice:

trousers

jeans

pants (pantaloni)

panties (chiloti)

overalls (salopeta)

shorts (pant scurti)

b) instrumente si unelte formate din doua structuri identice:

compasses (compas)

scissors (foarfeca)

tweezers (penseta)

tongs (cleste)

pliers (patent)

c) o boala si o stare de spirit:

hysterics (isterie)

blues (melancolie)

d) denumiri geografice, tari formate din mai multe state:

the United States of America

the Carpatians

e) subst provenite din verbe + "ings":

surroundings

earnings

savings

nu au forma de sg, ele fac acordul in pl

la substituirea cu pronume primesc "they"

Ex: Where are the tongs? Give them to me.

nu pot fi determinate de: a, few, a few, many, every, each, either, neither, other, another, the other, etc. (pentru ca nu pot fi numarate !)

daca vreau sa sugerez sg, folosesc "a pair of "

aspect de sg, inteles de pl, acord la pl:

people

public

poultry

police

cattle (vite)

youth (tineret)

clergy (cler = mai multi membri ai bisericii)

horse (cand are sensul de cavalerie)

acordul este la plural

Ex: The police are searching for the thief.

Substantivele colective

Sunt subst care au 2 forme de acord cu verbul:

in sg cand se refera la subst ca la un intreg

in pl cand se refera la elementele componente luate una cate una

Ex: 1) My family is at home (if you go there you find someone)

2) My family are at home (each member of the family is present)

Subst colective  Animale

class  crew  herd (cireada)

group  audience  flock (turma)

team  party (partid) swarm (roi)

family  press  flight (stol)

committee  government  shoal (banc)

council  board

jury  cabinet

army  mob (multime)

navy  band

2 sau mai multe subst legate prin inteles care formeaza o entitate fac acordul cu verbul in singular

Ex:  1) My neighbor and friend is here (este vorba despre aceeasi persoana)

2) Ten days is enough for a holiday (este vorba de perioada)

substantivul number si alte subst care definesc o multime (cantitate) fac acord in sg daca sunt precedate de "the" si in pl daca sunt precedate de "a"

Ex:  1) A number of cars are in the street.

2) The number of cars is sufficient.

dupa each, every, either, neither, urmeaza subst numarabil la sg, iar in constructiile either...or (atat. cat si.)

neither...nor (nici...nici..), acordul cu verbul se face dupa ultimul element

Ex:  1) Either the boy or the girl is here.

2) Neither you nor I am right.

substantivele life, soul, mind, heart vor apare in forma de plural cand determina un subst ca "people"

Ex: in romaneste: Soldatii si-au dat viata (la sg) pentru tara.

in engleza: The soldiers have given their lives (la pl) for the country.

Genitivul substantivelor

Este de 2 feluri:  1) sintetic (saxon)

  2) analitic (prepozitional)

Genitivul sintetic: posesor + 's + obiect posedat

Utilizare:

posesorul este subst propriu:

Carmen's car

posesorul este subst comun fiinta:

the girl's car

denumiri geografice:

Romania's economy

animale (animale mari):

the dog's house

substantiv colectiv:

the company's success

abstractiuni:

liberty's defense

corpuri celeste:

the sun's rays

personificari:

the wind's voice

pronume nehotarat:

somebody's wish

diviziuni (de timp de ex.):

yesterday's newspaper

expresii consacrate:



the God's sake

daca subst proprii se termina in "s", punem doar apostroful:

Ex: Dickens' novels - dar se citeste ca si cum ar fi adaugat "es": (dichensiz)

daca avem 2 sau mai multi posesori ai aceluiasi obiect intre care exista o relatie de rudenie, punem 's doar ultimului:

Ex:  1) the girl and the boy's father (sunt frati, au acelasi tata)

2) the girl's and the boy's fathers (nu sunt frati)

nu se mai pune obiectul posedat 

- daca a mai fost mentionat anterior

Ex: My mother's car is blue and my father's is white.

- sau daca e unul din substantivele:

shop

store

church

cathedral

house  (lista nu este limitativa)

Ex: Let's go to the butcher's (in loc de butcher's shop)

daca posesorul este la plural, punem doar apostrof fara s:

boys' toys

Exceptie fac subst care nu fac plural in "s":

people's respect

children's toys

Genitivul analitic: obiect posedat + of + posesor

Utilizare:

pt lucruri

the door of the room

anumite denumiri geografice:

the city of London

susbt provenite din adjective:

the needs of the poor

apozitie:

Tom, a friend of my manager

insecte, pasari mici:

the wings of the fly

cand vrem sa subliniem un subst propriu:

Let's talk about the wars of Napoleon

cand subst e precedat de un determinant:

this book of my friend

nu poate sa lipseasca nici un element, iar la plural are aceeasi forma

Combinatii sintetic - analitic ("dubla posesie")

a) combinatie din 3:  analitic + sintetic

Ex: masina prietenului fratelui meu - the car of my brother's friend

b) combinatie din 4:  sintetic + analitic + sintetic

Ex: masina prietenului fratelui varului tau - the friend's car of your cousin's brother

Genul substantivelor

In general, substantivele in limba engleza nu au gen.

Totusi, avem:

man - woman

Ex: policeman - policewoman

male - female

Ex: male student - female student

girl - boy

Ex: girlfriend - boyfriend

forme distincte

Ex: mother - father

wife - husband  (generic = spouse)

grandmother - grandfather

son - daughter

sister - brother

uncle - aunt

nephew - niece

bachelor - spinster (celibatara)

munk - nun (calugar/calugarita)

lad - lass (fecior/fetiscana)

wizard - witch (vrajitor/vrajitoare)

tutor - governess

tailor - seamstress (cusator/cusatoreasa)

earl - countess (conte/contesa)

king - queen

gentleman - lady

se formeaza niste feminine si prin adaugarea sufixului "ess":

Ex:  actor - actress

master - mistress

waiter - waitress (chelner/chelnerita)

Exceptie: hero - heroine

doua substantive fac masculinul din feminin:

Ex:  widow - widower (vaduva/vaduv)

bride - bridegroom (mireasa/mire)

subst provenite din limbi straine isi fac genul cf limbii din care provin:

signor - signora

don - donna

protégé - protegee

fiancé - fiancée

pt animale:

a)       he - she:

he-elephant - she-elephant

b)       male - female:

male-frog - female-frog

c)       prin adaugare de sufix "ess":

lion - lioness; tiger - tigress

d)       cu forme distincte pt animale:

fox (vulpoi) - vixen (vulpe)

mare (iapa) - stallion (armasar) generic = horse

  Jack-ass (magar) - Jenny-ass (magarita)

  cow (vaca) - ox (bou) sau bull (bou de prasila)

she-goat (capra) - he-goat (tap)

  ram (berbec) - ewe (oaie) generic = sheep

  rabbit (iepure de casa) - doe-rabbit (iepuroaica)

bee (albina) - drone (albin)

  saw (scroafa) - swine (porc) sau boar (vier; porc mistret)

  tom cat (pisoi) - tib cat (pisica)

  dog (caine) - bitch (catea)

  hen (gaina) - cock (cocos)

  Turkey-hen (curca) - Turkey-cock (curcan)

  goose (gasca) - gander (gascan)

  duck (rata) - drake (ratoi)

  deer (caprioara) - stag (cerb)

  hart (ciuta) - roe (ciutan)

daca subst are categorie de gen, primeste pronumele corespunzator genului

Ex: My brother has a mare. She is black.



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