1. PRESENT TENSE SIMPLE
1. Habitual actions:
ex. We usually go to work by bus.
2. General truth
ex. Elephants don't fly.
3. Certain actions happening now :
a) with verbs not normally used in the continous
ex. I know what you mean and I belive you're right.
b) in sports commentaries:
ex. Maradona hits that one over the defence line and the ball goes straight into the audience.
c) in stage directions :
ex. Jill enters the room and draws the curtains.Presently the phone rings.
4. Quoting or reporting
ex. I've got a letter from Sue.She says she wants to visit us.
5. Instructions :
ex. Keep this medicine out of the reach of children.
6. Certain future actions :
ex. The exhibition opens on Tuesday next week. ( planned events )
If you do that again,I'll tell your mother ( conditional time )
Give me a call as soon as you arrive. ( time clauses )
2. PRESENT TENSE CONTINUOUS
1. Actions happening at the moment of speaking.
ex. What is going on here ?
2. Temporary actions extended over a period of time
ex. They are not using the back door in winter.
3. Definite actions planned for the near future.
I'm flying to
3. PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE
1. Recently completed actions
ex. We have just finished lunch.
2. Past actions completed in an unspecified time
ex. I have seen that film but I don't mind watching it again.
3. With time expressions
ex. I have plioned her six times this morning.
4. Asking if an action has been completed
ex. Have you finished your dinner yet ?
5. Future actions
ex. I'll give you a call when the meeting has ended.
4. PRESENT PRFECT CONTINUOUS
1. Actions which began in the past and are still continuing
ex. We have been using this road since the war.
2. Actions which began in the past and have only just finished.
ex. My towel is wet ! Have you been using it? There's my pen at
last!I have been looking for it since lunch.
5. PAST TENSE SIMPLE
1. Actions completed at a definite point in the past
ex. They arrived yesterday.
2. Actions completed at a definite point in the past wich is not given but implied or understand as past time
ex. The plane was two hours late. They met
3. Actions which occupied a period of time in the past
ex. I spent my childhoad in a little village in the north.
4. Habitual past actions
ex. We used to drink a lot of beer in our student days.
ex.If we moved abroad life would be easier.
6. PAST TENSE CONTINUOUS
1. Actions that were in progress at a given moment in the past
ex. I was talking a shower when you came in.
2. Continous activitis during a definite period in past
ex. We were playing bridge from 8 p.m. till midnight.
3. Paralbel continous actions and singing to himself all day.
ex. He was digging in the garden and singing to himself all day.
4. Definite future arrangements made in the past
ex. They refused your invitayion because they were leawing for Melbeurne the next morning.
7. PAST PERFECT TENSE
1. Actions completed shortly before a certain point in the past
ex. When I arrivedd the boss had just left.
2. Actions completed in an unspecifed time before a certain point in the past.
ex. I had seen that film but i went with Jill to keep her company.
3. With time expressions
ex. He pushed his wife from the window . He had always wanted to do that. She had given birth to mine girls before Henry was born.
4. Other uses
ex. "She left ten minutes ago ". He told me that she had left ten minutes before.If you had told me,I wouldn't have made that mistake.
8. PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS
1. Actions which contined up to a certain point in the past
ex. He had been trying to start the car before the mechanic arrived.
They had been discussing that questions for two hours when the chairman suddenly closed the meeting.
9. FUTURE TENSE SIMPLE
1. Expectations predictions opinions or assumptions about the future
ex. Don't worry ! She'll come back.I'm sure we'll find him in the office.
2. Habitual future actions
ex. Boys will be boys.
3. With conditionals type I and time clauses.
ex. I'll break his week if he does that again. We'll give you a ring as soon as we know something definite.
4. Intentional actions
ex. What would you like to drink ? I'll have some wine please.
5. Some other uses of will
ex. Will you join us for lunch ?
Will you post this letter for me please? You will do as I tell you
6. Some other uses of shall
ex. Shall I pour you a drink ? Let's go out tonight , shall we ?
Ways of expressing futurity
2.Present Tense Continuous
3.Present Tense Simple
4.the "be going to " form
10. FUTURE TENSE CONTINOUS
1. Actions which will be in progress at a definite time in future
ex. This time tomorrow I'll be taking my written exam in Spanish
2. Actions which will occupy a certain period of time in future
ex. I don't want to invite the thompsons; I'm sure they'll be drinking all might again.
3. Future activities that are understoad as a normal course of action a consequence or as a were fact
ex. Don't cut the onions. You'll be crying
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