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VERBUL

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ALTE DOCUMENTE

MARKETING
ARTICOL POSESIV - PRONUME SEMIINDEPENDENT
Verbe la franceza
verbele engleza
SUBSTANTIVUL - Pluralul substantivelor
Vocabularul activ si vocabularul pasiv
Test- clasa a VII-a -Pronumele si numeralul-

VERBUL

 

Are 3 categorii:

·         to be la toate formele de continuu

·         to have la toate timpurile perfecte

 

PREZENTUL CONTINUU

1.      Desemneaza o actiune ce se desfasoara in momentul vorbirii (in this very moment/now/right now)

Ex: I am speaking now.

 

2.      Se foloseste in descrieri

Ex: The sun is shinning.

 

3.      Cu valoare de viitor cand actiunea depinde de subiect

Ex: I am leaving soon.

 

4.      Pt. actiuni prezente paralele in desfasurare (when, while).

Ex: While I am talking he is sleeping.

 

5.      Pentru actiuni care, desi nu se desfasoara in momentul vorbirii, constituie o rupere de ritm.

Ex: Every day I get up at 7, but on Sunday I am getting up at 9.

 

6.      Pt. actiuni repetate care ma enerveaza

Ex:       She always eats fruits before soup. (constatare obisnuita)

dar

            She is always eating fruits before soup. (enervare)

 

7.      Se formeaza din subiect + verbul to be + verb in "ing". (se conjuga doar "to be")

 

Verbul in "ing" = participiu prezent si are urmatoarele modificari ortografice.:

 

a)      Daca verbul se termina in "e" acesta cade inaintea lui "ing"

Ex: to dance => dancing

 

b)      Verbele terminate in "ie" transforma "ie" in "y"

Ex: to lie => lying

 

c)      verbele terminate in consoana precedata de vocala moale dubleaza consoana finala

Ex: to sit => sitting

 

! Sufixul "ing" nu afecteaza "y" si "i" final al verbului

Ex:       to play => playing

to ski => skiing

 

8.      Interogativul - se formeaza prin inversarea auxiliarului cu subiectul

Ex: Am I sleeping?

 

9.      Negativul - se formeaza prin adaugarea negatiei "not" la verbul "to be"

Ex: I am not drinking.

 

 

PREZENTUL PERFECT

1) desemneaza o actiune trecuta, care fie tocmai s-a incheiat, fie ca se desfasoara intr-un timp deschis, nedeterminat. Spre deosebire de trecut, care desemneaza tot o actiune trecuta, la prezent perfect momentul incheierii actiunii nu trebuie sa fie cunoscut

Ex:       I saw her yesterday. (stiu cand => trecut)

                        dar

            I have seen her lately. (nu stiu cand => prezent perfect)

 

Ex:       Did you see "Gone with the wind"? (nu mai poti sa-l vezi)

            dar

            to study           nu se poate folosi forma continua decat daca precizez anumite                              conditii

            Ex:       NU ! - I have been working all my life. (verb existential = pleonasm)

                        DA - I have been working in this company all my life.

! daca precizez de cate ori s-a desfasurat o actiune, nu mai pot folosi forma continua, pentru ca practic se fragmenteaza actiunea.         

Ex:       Citesc cartea asta de cand am venit (nu stiu de cate ori)

            I have been reading this book since I came.

                                    dar

            Am citit cartea asta de 2 ori de cand am venit.

            I have read this book twice since I came. (am inceput, am terminat, iar am inceput, etc.)

 

Adverbe specifice - sunt de continuitate (since si for)

 

Interogativul si negativul - cu auxiliarul "have"

 

 

TRECUTUL

Timpul trecut are 4 forme:      - simplu (I)

                                                - continuu (II)

                                                - perfect (III)

                                                - perfect continuu (IV)

 

I. Trecutul simplu

Forma:  verbul la forma II

 

1) desemneaza o actiune trecuta, repetata, devenita obisnuinta (in romana corespunde cu perfectul compus)

Ex: I used to visit my grandparents last year.

 

2) desemneaza o actiune la care momentul incheierii ei este bine precizat

 

Adverbe specifice - yesterday, the day before yesterday, 3 days ago, last year / month, the other day, when, etc.

Ex: I visited them yesterday.

 

3) are valoare de prezent la trecerea de la vorbirea directa la vorbirea indirecta

Ex:       She said, "I want to win".

                        devine

            She told me that she wanted to win.

(Virgula are valoare de 2 puncte inainte de cuvintele cuiva si nu exista linie de dialog, ci ghilimelele de sus).

 

Interogativ - Did + (S) + V infinitiv scurt

Ex: Did you watch TV?

 

Negativ - (S) + didn't + V infinitiv scurt

Ex: I didn't watch TV.

 

 

II. Trecutul continuu

Corespunde imperfectului in romana (vorbeam, scriam, citeam)

 

Forma:            was / were + V-ing

 

1) desemneaza o actiune trecuta ce se desfasoara intr-un anumit moment bine definit sau intr-un moment trecut raportat momentului vorbirii (ieri pe vremea asta = this time yesterday)

Ex: I was writing this time yesterday / yesterday at 5 o'clock.

 

2) se foloseste in descrierile pe trecut

Ex: That day the wind was blowing hard.

 

! pentru naratiune se foloseste trecutul simplu.

Ex: The child got the ball and put it into the box.

 

3) desemneaza actiunile trecute paralele in desfasurare (cu "when" si "while")

Ex: While I was talking, you came.

 

4) desemneaza o actiune trecuta, repetata, care ma enerva

Ex: He was always asking me to help him!

 

Interogativul si negativul - prin auxiliarul "to be"

Ex: Was I dancing when you came?

 

 

III. Trecutul perfect

Corespunde in romana cu mai mult ca perfectul (cantasem, vorbisem, citisem).

 

Forma:            had + verb III

 

1) desemneaza o actiune trecuta, incheiata inaintea unei alte actiuni trecute

Ex:       O vazusem inainte sa plece = (inainte am vazut-o si dupa aceea a plecat)

            I had seen her before she left.

 

2) desemneaza o actiune trecuta, incheiata inaintea unui moment trecut

Ex:       O vazusem inainte de 1989.

            I had seen her before 1989.

 

3) este specifica constructiilor cu hardly, barely, scarcely, no sooner, mai ales in inversie.

Ex:       I had met her before she left.

                        cu inversie devine

            Hardly had I met her when she left.

 

Adv specifice - after, before, hardly, barely, scarcely, just, already, by the time, for, since

Ex: I had just invited her to dinner when you arrived.

 

Interogativul si negativul - cu auxiliarul "had"

 

 

IV. Trecut perfect continuu

Forma:            had + been + V-ing

 

Desemneaza o actiune trecuta desfasurata necontenit si incheiata inaintea unei alte actiuni trecute sau al unui moment trecut

Ex: I had been waiting for you 2 hours before you came.

 

Adverbe specifice - for, since, after si before

 

! nu se foloseste decat cu verbe durative, are caracter subiectiv doar cand actiunea are o specificatie de genul

Ex: I had been living in this house for 5 years before we moved.

 

! daca precizez de cate ori s-a desfasurat o actiune, nu se mai poate folosi forma continua

 

Interogativul si negativul - cu auxiliarul "had"

 

 

 

VIITORUL

 

Viitorul simplu

Forma:            shall (I sg, pl) / will + V infinitiv scurt  (in SUA - will la toate persoanele)  

Prescurtare: 'll

Ex: You'll be home soon.

 

1) desemneaza o actiune viitoare ce se va desfasura intr-un moment bine definit

Adverbe specifice - tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, next ., the following .

 

2) desemneaza o actiune viitoare desfasurata in mod repetat, devenita obisnuinta

Adverbe specifice - always, usually, often

Ex: I shall always think of you.

 

! daca in propozitia principala am viitor, in secundara nu pot avea decat prezent. Acest prezent poate sa fie:

           

a) simplu - daca depinde de un program

            Ex: I shall come when the train arrives.

 

            b) continuu - daca depinde de subiect

            Ex: I shall come when I am finding the ticket.

 

            c) prezent perfect - cand actiunea este anterioara momentului viitor

            Ex: I shall come when I have saved enough money.

 

! propozitiile secundara introduse prin temporale (when, while, before, after, as soon as, till, until, etc.) si if, nu pot sa contina viitor si contin prezent.

 

Interogativul - prin inversia auxiliarului shall / will

Ex: Will you take this car?

 

Negativul -       shall + not = shan't

                        will + not = won't

 

 

Viitorul continuu

Forma:            shall / will + be + V-ing

 

1) desemneaza o actiune viitoare ce se va desfasura intr-un moment viitor raportat momentului vorbirii sau intr-un moment viitor raportat momentului precizat (tomorrow this time / tomorrow between 3 and 5).

 

2) actiuni viitoare in desfasurare (paralele) - when, while

Ex: While I'm watching TV you will be sleeping.

 

! atentie, nu pot avea viitor in ambele (when si while nu permit viitor)

 

Interogativul si negativul - cu auxiliarul viitor "shall / will"

 

 

Viitorul de intentie

Forma:            to be going to + V infinitiv scurt       

(se conjuga doar verbul "to be")

 

1) desemneaza intentia (am de gand sa, intentionez sa), o actiune viitoare ce urmeaza sa aiba loc intr-un moment viitor apropiat

Ex: I think it's going to rain.

           

! nu se poate folosi cu verbul "to go" si "to come", ci cu "to leave" si "to return"

 

Interogativul si negativul - cu auxiliarul "to be"

 

 

 

Viitorul apropiat

Desemneaza o actiune viitoare ce se va desfasura datorita unei porunci, ordin, rugaminte, sau intr-un moment imediat urmator.

 

Are 2 forme:    a) to be to + V infinitiv scurt (folosit pt ordine, comenzi)

                        Ex: You are to read the book before midnight.

b) to be about to + V infinitiv scurt (= a fi pe punctul de a)

Ex: He is about to cry.

 

Interogativul si negativul - cu auxiliarul "to be"

 

 

Viitorul in trecut

Forma:            should / would + V infinitiv scurt

 

Este un timp sintetic care nu poate sa apara in propozitia principala, ci in secundara atunci cand in propozitia principala am un verb la timpul trecut si vreau sa sugerez o actiune ulterioara acelui moment trecut.

Ex:       I-am spus ca ma voi duce la film.

               (trecut)        viitor (in rom)

 

            I told her that I should go to the movie.



 

! daca actiunea ce urmeaza sa se desfasoare in propozitia secundara are durata, voi folosi forma continua => should / would + be + V-ing   

Ex: I told him that I should be waiting for him.

 

Celelalte forme de viitor in trecut (viitor de intentie in trecut / viitor apropiat in trecut) apar cand am un verb la trecut in principala, iar in secundara trebuie sa sugerez o actiune ulterioara. In acest caz verbul "to be" apare la trecut.

Ex:       I-am spus ca am de gand sa cumpar masina.

            I told him that I was going to buy the car.

 

 

Viitorul perfect

Forma:            shall / will + have + verb III

 

Este o actiune viitoare desfasurata intr-un moment viitor anterior inceput.

Ex:       Pana la sfarsitul anului voi fi invatat toate verbele. (incep sa invat mai de mult si pana la momentul viitor de reper, actiunea va fi terminata).

I shall have learned all the verbs by the end of the year.

 

! daca exista actiune cu desfasurare necontenita, folosesc o forma continua

            shall / will + have + been + V-ing

Ex:       Te voi fi asteptat 2 ore pana la sfarsitul zilei.

            I shall have been waiting for you 2 hours by the end of the day.

 

Viitorul perfect si viitorul perfect continuu nu se folosesc decat in vorbire (nu le intalnim in TOEFL decat la listening !!!)

Interogativul si negativul - cu auxiliarul

CONDITIONALUL

 

Are 3 forme:    1) viitor (conditie reala, posibil de realizat in viitor)

 

In principala     - conditional viitor (shall / will + V inf scurt)

In secundara   - prezent simplu (daca depinde de un program)

                        Ex: I shall come if the plane lands on time.

                        - prezent continuu (daca actiunea depinde de mine)

                        Ex: I shall come if I am desiring this.

                        - prezent perfect (daca actiunea este anterioara)

                        Ex: I shall come if I have done my homework.

 

Acest conditional corespunde regulii de la viitor (viitor in principala - prezent in secundara), diferenta constand in faptul ca am conjunctia "if".

 

                        2) prezent (actiune ireala, dar posibil de realizat in prezent sau viitor)

 

In principala     - conditional prezent (should / would + V inf scurt)

In secundara   - subjonctiv trecut / trecut simplu

                        (diferenta subj - trecut este ca "to be" are la subj. forma identica were)                                Ex:       As veni daca as avea timp.

I should come if I had time.

 

Daca as fi in locul tau as citi cartea.

If I were you I should read the book.

 

                        3) trecut (actiune ireala si imposibil de realizat, tine de un moment trecut)

           

In principala     - conditional perfect (should / would + have + V III)

In secundara   - subjonctiv trecut perfect / trecut perfect

                        Ex:       M-as fi dus acolo daca as fi stiut adresa.

                                    I should have gone there if I had known the address.

 ! "if" poate fi omis pentru cazurile 2 si 3. Omisiunea se face prin aducerea propozitiei secundare in fata si inversia subiectului cu predicatul.

 

Pentru conditionalul 2:

I should go there if I had time.

devine

Had I time should I go there.

 

Pentru conditionalul 3:

I should have gone there if I had known the address.

            devine

Had I known the address I should have gone there.

 

! daca in conditionalul 2 nu am un verb auxiliar sau modal care sa poata face inversia cu subiectul, ma voi folosi de "should".

Ex:       I should go there if I knew the address.

                        devine

            Should I know the address, I should go there.

! (este singura data cand avem 2 de "should")

 

If poate fi inlocuit prin alte expresii ca:

unless

but for

in case

so long as

providing that

provided that

supposing that

suppose that

 

unless (=daca nu) - se foloseste pt propozitii negative

Ex:       I shouldn't go there if I didn't know the address.

            I shouldn't go there unless I knew the address.

 

but for - se foloseste atunci cand in propozitia secundara am verbul "to be" cu valoare de predicat verbal la sensul negativ (il y a). But for nu se poate folosi decat pentru conditionalul 2 si 3.

Ex condit. 2:    I should go for a walk if it weren't for the rain.

                                                             pred verbal neg

                        But for the rain, I should go for a walk.

 

Ex condit. 3:    I should have invited them if it hadn't been their choice.

pred verbal neg

                        But for their chioce, I should have invited them.

 

in case - se foloseste numai cu conditional viitor

Ex:       I shall return if I find the ticket.

            In case I find the ticket I shall return.

 

 

 

so / as long as - se foloseste cand sugerez ideea de restrictionare

Ex:       I shall give you the book if you take care of it.

            So /as long as you take care of the book, I shall give it to you.

 

providing that / provided that - tot pentru restrictie

 

supposing that / suppose that - (presupunand ca)

 

 

 

SUBJONCTIVUL

Subjonctivul are 2 forme:        - sintetic (1)     a) prezent

                                                                        b) trecut (simplu si perfect)

                                                - analitic (2)

 

1.a) Subjonctivul sintetic prezent

Identic ca forma cu infinitivul scurt; foarte folosit in engleza americana

 

1) se foloseste in urari

Ex:       May all your dreams come true.

            Long live the Queen.

 

2) la injuraturi

Ex:       Damn you!

            Curse this rain!

            God bless you!

 

3) in propozitii secundare introduse prin "that" daca in principala am o dorinta, o obligatie, o necesitate:

to suggest

to recommend

to order

to demand

to urge

Ex: I urged that she sit down.

 

4) in propozitii care contin urmatoare;e expresii impersonale:

it is necessary

it is essential

it is important

Ex: It is impossible that he arrive in time.

 

1.b) Subjonctivul sintetic trecut

Simplu

Este forma a II-a a verbului, numai ca verbul "to be" are mereu forma "were".

Utilizare:

1) in propozitiile conditionalului 2

Ex: I should take it if I were you.

 

2) dupa verbul "wish"

Ex: I wish you were here.

3) dupa constructiile

it's time

it's high time

as if

as though

even if

even though

would rather

would sooner

suppose that

Ex:       It's time you went there.

            I would rather didn't go there.

            I talk as if I didn't know you.

 

Perfect

Identic ca forma cu trecutul perfect (had + verb III)

 

Utilizare:

1) in conditionalul 3

Ex: You would have invited them if you had found enough space.

 

2) dupa verbul "wish" atunci cand actiunea este trecuta si regretata (sensul propozitiei trebuie se fie negativ)

Ex: I wish I hadn't said that.

 

 

2. Subjonctivul analitic

Se formeaza dintr-un verb modal (should / would / might / could) + V infinitiv scurt. El a luat oarecum locul subjonctivului sintetic prezent; este intalnit atat in propozitia principala, cat si in cea secundara.

 

Forma    shall + V infinitiv scurt

- se foloseste in principala cu sensul de "vrei?"

Ex: Shall I help you? (sa te ajut?)

             

- se foloseste in secundara cu sensul de "trebuie"

Ex: I have decided that they shall help her.

 

Forma    should + V infinitiv scurt

- se foloseste in principala cu sensul de "daca e necesar"

Ex: Why should you come so early?

             

- se foloseste in secundara dupa:

a) expresiile impersonale:

it is important

it is necessary

it is essential

Ex: It is necessary that you should understand the problem.

b) in propozitiile care contin constructiile:

for fear that (de teama ca)

lest (ca sa nu)

in case

Ex: I got up early lest I should miss the train.

c) cu urmatoarele verbe:

to demand

to command

to suggest

to recommend

to request

to insist

Ex: I insisted that you should learn this lesson.

d) atunci cand sunt introduse de:

            although

            whatever

            though

Ex: Whatever she should say don't interrupt her.

 

Forma    may / might + V infinitiv scurt

1) se foloseste cand se exprima o urare

Ex: May your dreams come true!

2) in subjonctive introduse prin:

            it is likely

            it is probable

            it is possible

Ex: It is possible that they might invite us to dinner.

 

3) in propozitii introduse prin:

            so that

that

in order that

Ex: I put the perfume in front of you so that you might smell it.

 

Forma    would + V infinitiv scurt

- se foloseste dupa "wish"

Ex: I wish you would call on you. (to call on = a vizita)

 

Forma    could + V infinitiv scurt

- se foloseste pentru a exprima o certitudine

Ex: We studied a lot so that we could pass TOEFL.

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