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ADVANCED CONVERTERS FOR FUEL CELL POWER SYSTEMS

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ADVANCED CONVERTERS FOR FUEL CELL POWER SYSTEMS





Adriana FLORESCU, Dan Alexandru STOICHESCU, Alina OPREA

University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest

Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunications and Information Technology

Department of Applied Electronics and Information Engineering


Abstract - DC-DC converters for fuel cell power system are usualy bi-directional and have complicated circuits, needing many devices and switching configurations. This article presents the most advanced and new converter suitable for many applications (including FCHEVs applications), including both the DC/DC converter and DC/AC inverter. It proves that high efficiences, low costs and future developments in fuel cell power systems can and will be achieved with simple, ingenious, widespread converters.

Keywords - Fuel cell (FC), PWM inverter, boosted PWM inverter, Z-source inverter, hibrid electrical vehicle (HEV).



1. INTRODUCTION

Fig. 1. A comparison of electrical system efficiencies between a fuel cell system and other

conventional energy conversion systems


Typical PEM fuel cell polarization curve

Fig.2. Overview of fuel cell types, parameters and possible 17217c224r application domains

Fig.3. Basic fuel cell power systems

Fig.4. Block diagram of fuel cell power system for stationary applications


Fig.5. Block diagram of fuel cell power system for mobile applications



Fig.6. Block diagram of fuel cell power system for portable applications

Fig.4 represents the block diagram of a fuel cell power system for stationary applications, such as household applications. The main disadvantage of fuel cells is that they produce a low DC output

voltage with a wide range variation (fig.2) so an indirect DC/DC converter is connected in order to increase it. Multiple-stage power conversions including isolation are needed. A three phase inverter is placed at DC-DC converter's output in order to supply different types of loads. Fig. 5 represents the block diagram of a fuel cell power system for mobile applications such as hybrid vehicular applications. Besides the DC/DC converter and the traction inverter, the secondary battery guarantees the load leveling, assuring braking energy recovery and good performances in the transient operations. It also supplies with energy the air compressor, the hydrogen circulation pump and the cooling pump for inverter/motor etc. Fig.6 represents the block diagram of a fuel cell power system for portable applications such as laptops, cell phones or PDAs. It is similar to the block diagram in fig.4 excepting the inverter that is missing, taking account of the DC load. Isolation may be or may be not needed.

Fig.7. Fuel cell power system with traditional PWM inverter supplied by a bidirectional DC/DC converter


Fig.8. Fuel cell power system with DC/DC boosted PWM inverter supplied by a bidirectional DC/DC converter: a) block diagram of DC/DC Boost converter; b) detail of DC/DC Boost converter


Fig.9. Fuel cell power system with Z-source inverter supplied by a bidirectional DC/DC converter


Fig. 10. Calculated efficiency of inverters

Fig. 11. Inverter efficiency calculated using Mitsubishi average loss simulation software


V. C. Regep, E. Mamut, "Stand For The Experimental Study Of Pem Fuel Cells", Rom. Journ. Phys., Vol. 51, Nos. 1-2, P. 41-48, Bucharest, 2006

[2] C. Liu A. Ridenour, J.S. Lai, "Modeling and Control of a Novel Six-Leg Three-Phase High-Power Converter for Low Voltage Fuel Cell Applications", IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 21, No. 5, pp. 1292-1300, Sept. 2006

[3] H.J. Chiu, and Li-Wei Lin, "A Bidirectional DC-DC Converter for Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Driving System", IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 21, No. 4, pp. 950-958, July 2006

M. Tekin, D. Hissel, M. C.Péra J. M. Kauffmann, , "Energy-Management Strategy for Embedded Fuel-Cell Systems Using Fuzzy Logic", IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 54, No. 1, pp. 595-603, Febr. 2007

[5] C. Liu, and J.S. Lai, "Low Frequency Current Ripple Reduction Technique With Active Control in a Fuel Cell Power System With Inverter Load", IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 1429-1436, July 2007

F. Z. Peng, M. Shen, K. Holland, "Application of Z-Source Inverter for Traction Drive of Fuel Cell-Battery Hybrid Electric Vehicles", IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 22, No. 3, pp. 1054-1061, May 2007.

[7] M. Shen, A. Joseph, J. Wang, F. Z. Peng, D. J. Adams, "Comparison of Traditional Inverters and Z-Source Inverter for Fuel Cell Vehicles", IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 1453-1463, July 2007.



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