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CAN and COULD - Verbe Modale
Noun clauses
may and can for permission and possibility


Illustrative Situations

/. Study these example situations:

1.  Dr Cantor is a heart surgeon. He is operating now. He began at 8 this morning and it is now 4 o'clock.

He has been operating for 8 hours. He has been operating since 8 o'clock.

2.  - Where's Jack?

- He is reading something in the library. He's been reading the whole day.


3.  - How long have you been studying German?

-  For two years

4.   - Since when have you been preparing for your exam, Peter?

-  Since June.

5.   - Is it raining?

-  No, it isn't but the ground is wet.  It has been raining.

6.  You are out of breath. Have you been running?

7.  Jane hasn't come home yet. She's been in the library since 9 o'clock.  (She's still there.)

8.  The students have just left. They have been here for two hours. (They are no longer here.)

9.   I haven't worn this dress since March, (from March till now)

10.  We haven't seen John since he got married.  (From that day to this)

11.  I have lived in Minsk all rny life. =- I was born here, I live here now.

12.  - By the way, how long have you known Mr Morgan?

-  For ten years.

13.  My brother has worked in Greece for the last three years. (He is still there)

Г4. - Since when has he been absent?

-  Since Friday.

//. Listen to the dialogues and learn them.

1.  - It's ten years since we last saw each other. What have you

been doing all this time?

-  Oh, I've got married. I've bought a house. I've changed my job twice.

-  I see. You haven't been wasting your time.

2.  - I'm rather hard up.

-  How long have you been smoking cigarettes?

-   For 20 years.

-  Quite an old habit.

3.  - Have you finished reading your book yet?

-  I've been reading it for weeks, but I haven't finished it yet.

-  When are you going to finish it?

-  Oh, probably next month.

4.  -  What's Bill doing at the moment?

-  He's reading a book.

-  How long has he been reading it?

-  For five hours.

5.  -  What are you doing here?

-  I'm waiting for Elsie

-  Waiting for Elsie?

-  Yes, I've been waiting for her since 5 o'clock.


-  Oh, but she has gone to the pictures.

6.  - Have you been very busy lately?

-  Yes, I have. Extremely busy.

-  Have you been working on your paper?

-  No, I haven't. I've been preparing for a seminar.

7.   - You look tired, Alec. What have you been doing?

-   I've been working in t 828u2010i he garden.

-  You must have a good rest.

8.  Pam:      Eric! Call the waiter again' Eric:       I've been trying to call him.

Pam:      Eric! We've been sitting here for twenty minutes ... and

I'm not going to wait any longer! Eric:      I'm sorry, dear ... but he's talking to that girl. Pam:      Yes, he's been talking to her since we came in. Eric:      Waiter!

Waiter: Yes, sir ... Do you want the bill? Eric:      The bill! We haven't seen the menu yet.

9.  Mr- Baker:   Hello, Mrs Parker  ...  are you  waiting to see

Doctor Savage?

Mrs Parker: Hello, Mrs Baker. Yes, I am.

Mrs Baker:   How long have you been waiting?

Mrs Parker:  I've been waiting since nine o'clock.

Mrs Baker: Ah, you haven't been waiting long. It's only ten past nine now.

Mrs Parker: No, no, I haven't. I've been reading this ma­gazine. It's very interesting. There's an article about operations.

10.  Diane: Hello, Judy.  You've been  sitting  here for  an  hour'

Where's your husband? Judy:    Oh, he's dancing with Mrs Winston Diane: Oh, yes ... he's dancing very well. Has he been dancing

all evening? Judy:    Yes, he has... but he hasn't been  dancing with me.

11.  Jenny:  I've been looking for you. How long have you been

watching TV?

Paul:    I've been sitting here for more than an hour. Jenny: I was lucky to find you here. I want to talk to you.

///. Listen to the texts and answer the questions:

Mr Jenkins is in the boss's office now. The last time he got a rise was two years ago. He wants another one. The boss is asking questions like this:

"How long have you been with us now?" "How long have you had the same job?" "How long have you been earning the same money?"

Questions: Where is Mr Jenkins now? When did he last get a rise? What does he want? What questions is the boss asking him?

One of Tony's friends, Paul, used to be a teacher. He did not earn a very good salary then. Three years ago he got another job in industry and immediately got a very good salary. He has a very good job now. He has been in industry for three years now. He has had a good job for three years and has been earning a good salary all that time.

Questions: What did Paul do three years ago? Why did he chan­ge his job? How long has he been in industry? Has he been earning a good salary all that time?

Tom's brother, Peter, has been back in England for only half an hour. He is waiting to phone Tom, but the woman got to the pho­ne box just a few seconds before he did. That was ten minutes ago. She has been talking for ten minutes and Peter has been waiting that long too.

Questions: How long has Peter been back in England? What is he doing at the moment? When did the woman get to the phone box? How long has Peter been waiting?


/. Say how long the action has been going on:

e.g. Ann is looking for a job. She began looking for a job six months ago. Ann has been looking for a job for 6 months.

1. Jane is writing letters. She began writing letters an hour ago. 2. George smokes. He started smoking five years ago. 3. Helen studies French. She began studying French eight months ago. 4. The boys are playing football. They started playing football two hours ago. 5. It is raining. It began raining three hours ago. 6. Helen is preparing for her exam. She began preparing for it two weeks ago.

e.g. Lucy began typing at 9 o'clock. She is still typing. Lucy has been typing since 9 o'clock.

1. Dick started reading that book on Friday. He's still reading it. 2. Helen began translating the text at 10 o'clock. She's still transla­ting it. 3. They began to discuss the plan at 12 o'clock. They are still discussing it. 4. Dick began to watch TV at 6. He's still wat­ching it. 5. Mr Smith began to work for this company last year. He's still working for the company. 6. They began to talk at 12. They are still talking.

//. Answer the questions.  Use "since" or "for": e.g. - Is John still sleeping?  (hours)


-  Yes, he's been sleeping for hours, e.g. - Is Mary still typing?  (two o'clock)

-  Yes, she's been typing since two o'clock.

1, Is Dick still waiting for Lucy? (more than an hour) 2. Is Susan still playing tennis? (ten o'clock) 3. Are they still sitting in the garden? (lunchtime) 4. Is Bill still trying to learn Japanese? (ten years) 5. Are you still living in London? (three years now) 6. Are you still smoking those French cigarettes? (a couple of months) 7. Are you still waiting to see the boss? (ages) 8. Are they still discussing the project? (nine o'clock) 9. Is Mrs Smith still teaching English? (thirty years) 10. Are Helen and Alice still shopping? (morning) 11. Are you still looking for your glasses? (half an hour). 12. Are you still working for the same company? (I left school) 13. Is Bill still swimming? (an hour already)

///. Give additional information:

e.g. Mike is ill.  (for a week) He has been ill for a week.

1. My brother is married, (for two years) 2. I know Steve Baxter, (since I was a child) 3. Nick is absent, (for a week) 4. Jack lives in Bishopton. (since he was born) 5. Helen is in the library, (all day long) 6. Mr Morgan is away, (for two months) 7. Bill is unemployed, (since April) 8. Ann has a bad cold, (for the last few days) 9. My cousin is in the army, (since he was 18) 10. The shop is open, (since 8 o'clock) 11. The Baxters are at the seaside, (the whole month)

IV.  Answer the questions using the words in brackets:

e.g. - When did you last smoke?  (for two years)

-   I haven't smoked for two years.

1. When did it last rain? (for ages) 2. When did they last visit you? (since June) 3. When did you last play tennis? (for a long time). 4. When did you last drive? (for six months) 5. When did she last write to you? (since last summer) 6. When did you last eat ca­viar? (never) 7. When did you last hear from George? (for ages) 8. When did you last go to the theatre? (for months) 9. When did you last see Bob? (since February) 10. When did you last go to Spain? (never)

V.  Complete with "for" or "since":

e.g. Let's visit Aunt Emily.  (Christmas) We haven't visited her since Christmas.

1. Let's invite Harry and Jane to dinner. (March) 2. Let's play cards with the Kents. (weeks) 3. Let's cook a pizza. (Sally and Jack were here) 4. Let's walk round Hyde Park, (years) 5. Let's


watch TV. (last Friday) 6. Let's hear an opera, (months) 7. Let's phone Jeff and Pam.  (two weeks) e.g.  I'm going to clean the car   (three weeks) I haven't cleaned it for three weeks.

1. I'm going to wash the windows, (five weeks) 2. I'm going to make a cake, (your birthday) 3. I'm going to clean my shoes. (Tuesday) 4. I'm going to cook a pudding, (last week) 5. I'm going to paint the bathroom, (three years) 6. I'm going to water the flowers, (three days) 7. I'm going to buy a suit, (two years) 8. I'm going to iron, (last Friday) 9. I'm going to wash the curtains, (your parents stayed with us) 10. I'm going to write to Uncle Jack, (months) 11. I'm going to dust the bookshelves, (last month)

VI.  Give additional information:

e.g. Ann is very tired, (work hard) She has been working hard.

1. Bob has a black eye and Bill has a cut lip. (fight) 2. George has just come from the beach, (lie in the sun) 3. The streets are wet. (rain) 4. Her eyes are red. (cry) 5. My father has just come home, (fish all day long) 6. Mike is having supper, (skate the whole evening) 7. Jane is hot and tired, (play tennis)

VII.  Ask questions:

e.g. Your friend's hands are covered in oil. (you/work on the car) Have you been working on the car?

1. You have just arrived to meet your friend who is waiting for you. (you/wait long) 2. Your sister has come home and brought a new blouse, (you/shop) 3. Your friend comes in. His face and hands are very dirty, (what/you/do) 4. Your sister is out of breath, (you/run) 5. You see a little boy. His eyes are red and watery, (you/cry) e.g. I'm looking for a job.

How long have you been looking for a job?

1. I'm waiting for Peter. 2. She does two jobs. 3. I am learning Greek. 4. They are travelling about Europe. 5. My brother is fishing. 6. Jack is a journalist. He writes for "Washington Post". 7. John is a business man in Madrid. He exports Spanish antiques, e.g. It is raining.

Since when has it been raining?

1. It is snowing. 2. They are writing a test paper. 3. Mrs Johnson is a teacher. She teaches art 4. Jill is a student. She studies French. 5. Jane is working in the laboratory. 6. Mike collects stamps. 7. I'm still packing. 8. She is taking her exams.


VIII.  Say how long the action has been in progress: .. .

e.g. Bill Parks is in his lorry. He got into it at 9 and it's 12 now.

He has (he's) been in his lorry for 3 hours. He has been driving for 3 hours.

1. Sam went into the library 2 hours ago and got a book called "Great Jokes". He is still there. 2. Tony caught a bad cold 2 weeks ago. He immediately went to bed. He is still there. He coughs a lot. 3. Jane came into the office at 9. It is 11 now. She is working. 4. Peter and Mary walked onto the station platform half an hour ago. They are waiting for a train. 5. The heart surgeon went into the operating theatre 8 hours ago. He is still there. 6. Eric and all the other students are in the lecture hall. They are doing a test. It started 2 hours ago.

IX.  Make up short dialogues using the prompts:

e.g. you/married

-  How long have you been married?

-  For twenty years, e.g.    Jeff/in Italy

-  Since when has Jeff been in Italy?

-  Since last autumn.

1. Ann/on holiday 2. Dick/have a car 3. you/know Steve Baxter 4. Mary/have flue 5. Mr Smith/be away 7. you/have this job. 8. Bob/study Spanish. 9. Fred/in Washington 10. Alec/live in Moscow 11. Kate/be absent 12. Betsy/at the seaside.

X. Change the sentences. Do it as in the example:

e.g. I was at school with Jim.

I have not seen Jim since I was at school with him. 1. George talked to Jim on Wednesday. 2. Judy visited Jim in Scotland. 3. The Hunts had to meet Jim at the airport. 4. Sheila studied French with Jim. 5. We forgot to invite Jim to the party. 6. I left Jim at the hotel. 7. Pam played tennis with Jim,

X/. Answer the questions:

1. Since when haven't you seen your friend? 2. Have long have you known your best friend? 3. Since when haven't you heard from your relatives? 4. Since when have you lived in Minsk? 5. How long have you been married? 6 Since when haven't you visited the museums in Minsk? 7. Since when haven't you been at the cinema? 8. Since when haven't you been in Moscow? 9. Since when have you had your car? 9. How long have you worked for your firm?

42                        .  

XII. Respond to the I allowing statements:            "л

e.g   David hasn't heard the news.  (Roger)

I wonder whether Roger has heard the news. 1. Peter has seen the film. (John) 2. Jack has written to her. (Ann) 3. Lucy has passed the exam. (Betty) 4. Mike has never been abroad.  (Victor)  5   Steve hasn't got today's newspaper.  (Sarn)

6. Mary hasn't done the exercise. (Bob) 7. Nick hasn't brought his records.  (Helen) 8. Jim hasn't bought a car yet. (Steve)

e.g   Sue is absent.

I wonder how long she has been absent. 1. Kate is ill. 2. Dick is in China. 3. Dick knows Helen. 4. Johnny is swimming. 5. Kitty is lying in the sun. 6. Mary is sleeping.

7.  Paul and Roger are playing chess. 8. Sam is waiting for you.


/.   Listen  to  the  conversations,  ask   and  answer   questions, role-play the conversations.

1. Jill:      I'm going to wash the windows. I haven't washed them

for two months. Steve:  And  I'm going to clean the car.  I haven't cleaned it

since your birthday. Jill:       I'd like go to the theatre this weekend. We haven't been

to the theatre since "Hamlet". Steve:  And would you like to go to a disco on Saturday? We

haven't been to a disco since New Year.

Jill:      No, I don't want to go to a disco. I'd prefer to go to the cinema. But at the moment I want to do the housework. Would you like to help me? Steve:   Not really. I'd like a drink.

Questions: What is Jill going to do today? How long hasn't she washed the windows? And what is Steve going to do? Since when hasn't he cleaned his car? Since when haven't the Baxters been to the theatre? Does Jill want to go to a disco? What is she going to do now? 2. Doctor: What is the problem, Mr Jones?

Mr Jones: Well, for the last three days I've had a pain at the bottom of my back. It begins here and goes down into my leg.

Doctor:       How long have you had it in your leg? Mr Jones: Since last Friday, I think.

Doctor: Have you lifted anything very heavy or taken any unusual exercises?


Mr Jones:  I don't think so. I've played tennis every week for years. I've never had any problems before.

3.  Judith:  You've been reading that newspaper for the last hour.

I hate when you read it at breakfast.

Peter: Yes, and you've been watching me the whole time. And you know it's a very important time of the day for me. I need to relax before I begin the day's work.

Judith: Oh, but think of me. I've been leading the back of your morning newspaper for ten years now and I'd like some­one to talk to!

4.  Mother:       What on earth have you been doing? You are cove-

red in ink. Your clothes are ruined. Little boy: We've been playing Cowboys ard Indians. Mother:       You mean you've been throwing ink around. What's

ink got to do with cowboys? Little boy: Well, I've been playing with a water pistol and my

ammunition was ink.

//. Listen to the text. Ask and answer questions on the text. Retell the text.

I have just received a letter from my brother Tim. He's in Australia. He has been there for six months. Tim is an engineer. He is working for a big firm and he has already visited a great number of different places in Australia. He has just bought an Australian car and has gone to Alice Springs, a small town in the centre of Australia. He will soon visit Darwin. From there he will fly to Perth. My brother has never been abroad before, so he is finding this trip very exciting.

Self check

/. Translate into English:

1. Виктор только что вернулся из Лондона. Я не видел его с прошлого года. 2. Сколько времени ты женат? - Три года. 3. Ты когда-нибудь читал английские книги в оригинале? - Нет. Я ичучаю английский язык только полгода. 4. Где ты был' Я жду тебя с пяти часов. 5. Чем ты сейчас занимаешься? - Я уже два часа печатаю. 6. Я давно не вижу твою сестру.- Она уже целый месяц находится в Крыму. 7. Кто взял мой словарь? Я уже полча­са ищу его. 8. Я устал. Целый день я работал в саду 9 Сколько времени ты готовишься к экзаменам? - Уже месяц. 10. Роберта нет сегодня на занятиях Он уже две недели болеет. 11. Как давно ты занимаешься коллекционированием марок? - Десять лет. 12 Чем ты занимался все это время? - Смотрел телеви­зор. 13. Ты давно здесь сидишь? - С десяти часов. 14. Мой


брат в Москве. Он не пишет мне уже целый месяц. 15. Я не встре­чаю Павла с тех пор, как мы сдали последний экзамен. 16. Сту­денты только что ушли. Они находились здесь весь день.


/. Study these example situations:

\.  Ann's clothes an  covered in paint   She has been painting the ceiling.  (We are interested in the action.)

2.  The ceiling was white. Now it's blue. She has painted the ceiling. (We are interested in the result, not the action )

3.  Tom's hands are very dirty. He has been repairing the car. The car is going again now. Tom has repaired it.

4.  You've been smoking too much recently. You should smoke less. Somebody has smoked all my cigarettes. The packet is empty.

5.  Ann has been writing letters all day. She has written ten letters today.

//. Listen to the conversations and learn them:

1.  Bank Manager: Come in. You're Mr Carson, aren't you? Please

sit down.

Mr Carson:         Thank you.

Bank Manager: What can I do for you, Mr Carson? Mr Carson:         Well, I want to borrow some money. Bank Manager: What for? Mr Carson:         I want to buy a car. I've been saving for two


Bank Manager: Ah, how much have you saved? Mr Carson:         I've saved about two thousand pounds.

2.  Judith:       What are you reading?

Maureen:   "The Godfather". It's about Mafia in America. John

told me to read it. Judith:       It's a very long book. Maureen:   I know. I've been reading it for a month, and I haven't

finished it yet!

Judith:       How many pages have you read? Maureen-  About 400. I don't like long books. Judith:       Neither do I.

3.   Karen:       Hello, Jenny. Are you still working? It's time for


Jenny: I know. But I haven't finished these letters yet. They're important. Mr Power wants them this after­noon.

Karen:        How long have you been typing?


Jenny:         Since nine o'clock. I didn't stop for coffee. Karen:         How many have you done? Jenny:         Most of them. There are only two left.

Karen:         Well, do them after lunch. Jenny:         No. I'll do them now. Karen.         О. К. See you this afternoon. 4. Attendant:  Petrol, sir?

Motorist:    Please ... fill it up.

Attendant: Which grade?

Motorist:    Four star. It's nearly empty. I've been driving all


Attendant: Oh, how far have you driven? Motorist:    About 400 miles. I've driven from Scotland. Attendant: Oh, that's a long way. Shall I check the oil and

water? Motorist:    Please

///. Listen to the texts and answer the questions:

1. Peter came back to England a month ago. He has been staying with Tom and Susan since then. He has been looking for a job for a month   but has not found one yet. "Some employers don't like people with long hair". Tom says. "Perhaps you'd better get a


Questions: When did Peter come back to England? How long has he been staying with Tom and Susan? How long has he been looking for a job? Has he found one yet?

2.  Julia is going to meet her boyfriend. She has been waiting for the bus for some time but it has not come yet. She is going to be late again if it does not come soon. A taxi has just come round the corner. Perhaps she had better take it.

Questions: What is Julia going to do? What is she doing now? How long? What is going to happen if the bus does not come soon? What has just happened? What had she better do?


/. Complete the situations. Do it as in the example: e.g. Tom is reading a book. He started reading two hours ago and he is on page 53. He has been reading for two hours. He has read 53 pages

so far.

I. Captain Hay is a "million-mile" pilot. He started flying 20 years ago. 2. It is a 3-mile walk from Bob's house to the city-centre He started an hour ago and he has just reached it.


3. Laura started the washing-machine up an hour ago. There are now 30 clean shirts in the basket. 4. You are just finishing the 5 th and last page of homework. You sat down at the writing-desk 2 hours ago. 5. The tourist came into the old town an hour ago. He is leaving now with 60 new photographs. 6. The typist started an hour ago. Six letters are ready now. 7. Bill is smoking. When he started smoking there were 20 cigarettes in the packet He's smo­king his last cigarette.

//. Ask questions:

e.g. - I've been picking pears.

-  How many have you picked?

e.g. - He's been making a lot of money.

-  How much has he made?

1. I've been planting apple trees. 2. I've been making cakes. 3. He's been writing letters. 4. I've been saving money. 5. I've been ironing shirts. 6. Ann's been losing weight. 7. Sue has been washing blankets. 8. He's been selling tea. 9. He's been collecting stamps. 10. I've been cutting sandwiches. 11. Mary's been sending out invitations. 12. I've been taking photographs.

///. Make up sentences using the prompts:

e.g.:  I've been ...  for         ..., but I haven't... yet.                              since

a)  Prompt: job/three weeks

Response: I've been looking for a job for three weeks, but I haven't found one yet.

b)   Prompt: the bus/9 o'clock

Response: I've been waiting for the bus since 9 o'clock, but it hasn't come yet.

1. my homework/half an hour 2. the train/twenty minutes 3. the concert/7.30 4. the postman/8 o'clock 5. this book/2 weeks 6. Eng­lish/18 months 7. this letter/6 o'clock 8. pop records/20 minutes 9. a sports car/last Christmas


/. Listen to the conversations. Ask and answer questions. Role-play the conversations.

1. Steve: Hello, Pam. What are you all doing?

Pam: Oh, hello, Steve. What a surprise! Jeff's outside. He's cleaning the car. In fact he has been cleaning it for over an hour, but he hasn't finished yet.

Steve: And where are the children? Well, I can hear what Ka­te's doing.


Pam: Yes, she's been practising the violin s'nce after lunch. And Mark's in the garden. He has been painting the fence all afternoon. He hates it. He has only painted half of it.

Steve: And what are you doing, Pam?

Pam: Well, nothing at the moment but I've been reading a new novel by Margaret Drabble. I haven't finished it yet, but it's very interesting. I can recommend it. In fact I've read all her novels. She's my favourite author. And what's Jill doing? Steve: She's busy. In fact she's been working all day. She has

to prepare a test for tomorrow. Pam:    Well, how about a nice cup of coffee? 2. Brian: Oh, hello. I've been in the library. Steve:  And what have you been doing there? Brian:  I've been reading a book about education in England for

our lesson tomorrow. I'm going home now. Steve:   It has been raining again, but it's stopped now. Brian: Well, I've got an umbrella in my briefcase, in case it

starts again. What are you doing now? Steve:   I'm waiting for Mike. I have been waiting for over ten

minutes. Oh, look. There he is now.

Mike:   Hello, sorry I'm a bit late. I've done some shopping. Have you been waiting long?

Self check

/. Use the Present Perfect or the Present Perfect Continuous: 1 Look! Somebody (break) the window. 2. I wonder if John (forget) my number. I (expect) him to call for the past two hours 3 You look very upset. What (happen)? 4. You (not, finish) that book yet? You (read) it for more than a week. 5. The meat must be nearly ready. I (cook) it for nearly an hour. 6. What you do) for the last two hours? - I (sit) here working at this problem. 7 I (lose) my key. Can you help me look for it? 8. You look tired. You (work) hard? 9. My brother is an actor. He (appear) in seve­ral films 10. Hello! I (clean) the windows. So far I (clean) five о them and there are two more to do. 11. Sorry! I'm late.- That s all right I (not, wait) long.

//. Translate into English:

1 Целый вечер я печатаю Я уже напечатала десять страниц. 2 Мы пишем контрольную работу уже 45 минут. Некоторые сту­денты уже закончили ее. 3. Ты давно ждешь меня?-Нет я только что пришел. 4 Чем вы занимались сегодня утром? - <^а-


жали деревья в саду.- Сколько деревьев вы посадили? - Семь. 5. Я перевожу статью уже два часа, но еще не перевела ее.


Illustrative Situations

1.  Patrick Connor was born in Dublin. He lived there until he was 18. He went to India for five years. Then he spent another five years in Canada. Five years ago he came to London where he is living now.

He lived in Dublin for 18 years. Then he lived in India for five years and in Canada for 5 years. He has been living in London for the last five years.

Questions: Where was Patrick born? How long did he live in India and Canada? Where is he now? How long has he been in London?

2.  Two people are waiting at the bus-stop. It is 9 30. They are waiting for the 9.10 bus. One person is very angry. "This bus is ne­ver on time!" he says.

"I've been wating for it for twenty minutes now. Yesterday I waited half an hour for it!"

Questions: What are the people doing? How late is the bus? What does one of the people say? How long has the man been wai­ting for the bus? How long did he wait for it yesterday?


/. Notice the change in form as the situation changes:

Situation: Mary got to the station at 9. The train came at 10. She waited for an hour.

Situation: Peter got to the station at 9. It is 12 now and the train hasn't come yet. He has been waiting for 3 hours.

1. Mary got a job in the bank 5 years ago. She left the job last week. 2. Tom got a job in the bank 10 years ago. He's still there.

3.  I started teaching 6 years ago. As you can see I'm still a teacher.

4. My grandfather became a teacher at 20. He was still one when he died 40 years later. 5. Betty opened the book at 6. She put it down again at 12. 6. Peter opened that book 6 hours ago and he hasn't closed it yet! 7. My brother started coughing at this time last year. He still has the cough. 8. The baby started crying and stopped an hour later.


//. Respond to the following^ statements:

e.g. 1 last smoked a cigarette a month ago.

You haven't smoked a cigarette for a month, e.g. They last came to see us at Christmas.

They haven't come to see us since Christmas. 1. I last played football ten years ago. 2. He last ate at 6 o'clock this morning. 3. We last had a holiday three years ago. 4. John saw Mary on Monday morning. 5. I last had a bath a week ago. 5. Mr Fox last wrote to me in February. 6.1 last won a race five years ago. 7. We last went to the theatre 3 months ago. 8. I last called Mike on Tuesday. 9. I last rode a bicycle ten years ago.

///. Ask questions with "how long" and "when":

e.g.  It is raining.

How long has it been raining? When did it start raining?

1. Ann is learning Italian. 2. Paul is preparing for his exam. 3. The Johnsons are travelling around France. 4. Bill is doing his homework. 5. Bob and Alice are married. 6. Mr Morgan is in Mos­cow on business. 7. It is snowing. 8. Lucy is swimming. IV. Ask and answer questions using the prompts:

e.g. write to Peter/ages

When did you last write to Peter?

Oh, I haven't written to him for ages, e.g. see Tom/January

When did you last see Tom?

I haven't seen him since January.

1. drive a car/two years 2. shave/summer 3. speak to Bill/we quarrelled 4. hear from Nick/October 5. fly by plane/ages 6. catch a fish/weeks 7. eat out/my birthday 8. discuss the matter/a month 9. take part in a competition/I was at school 10. sleep well/months

V. Complete the utterances: e.g. I know Tom. I first met him six months ago. I have... .

I have known Tom for six months.

It started raining at 2 o'clock. It has... .

It has been raining since 2 o'clock.

1. Tom's ill. He became ill three days ago. He has.....2. We have

been married for five years. We got.....3. Jim has a beard. He grew

it ten years ago. He has.....4. Paul has been in France for 3 weeks.

He went.....5. He has had his car since February. He bought .... 6.

Dick last wrote to me a month ago. He hasn't ..... 7. Kate came

to the university at 9. She has.....8. It started snowing at II. It has

..... 9. I have been collecting stamps for ten years. I began .....



/. Listen to the conversations. Ask and answer questions. Role-play the conversations:

1.  Jill-   How's Pam? I haven't seen her in town lately.

Jeff: Oh, she's fine. She has been very busy. Last week she started an office job, only for summer months. She has never worked in an office before, so it's difficult for her. She has only been there a week, but she has already learnt a lot about office life.

2.  Mike:      Have you seen my new tie, Mum? Mother: Which new tie?

Mike: The red one I bought in London a couple of weeks ago. I wore it to the dinner party at the Dawsoiis' place on Saturday and I haven't worn it or seen it since.

Mother: No, I don't think I've seen it this week, but have you looked for it properly? I expect you threw it carelessly into the back of the wardrobe after the party - the way you usually do.

Mike:      I've looked for it everywhere.

Mother: You probably wore it when you went out with Janet on Friday.

Mike: Ah! I remember now. It was a bit hot and I took my tie off in the car on the way home. I suppose it's still on the shelf under the dashboard. Thanks, Mum.

Self check

/.  Use the proper tense forms:

1. Mr Clark (work) in a bank for 15 years. Then he gave it up. 2. Mary lives in Dublin. She (live) there all her life. 3. Bob and Alice are married. They (be) married for 20 years. 4. When we (be) on holiday the weather (be) awful. 5. The weather (be) very nice recently, don't you think? 6. I don't know Carol's husband. 1 never (meet) him. 7. Yesterday I met my school mate. We (speak) about our school years for an hour. 8. How's your son getting on at school? - I don't really know. I (not, speak) to the teachers for some time.

//. Translate into English:

1. Вчера мы с Аней договорились пойти в кино. Я прождала ее полчаса у кинотеатра, но она не пришла. Я не знаю, что с ней слу­чилось. 2. Когда ты в последний раз видел Роберта? - Я не видел его уже две недели. 3. Как долго ты женат? - Я женился


три   года   назад.   4.   Где   ты   отдыхал   прошлым   .четом? - На

Кавказе.__Сколько времени ты там пробыл?  - Около месяца

5. Вчера я вернулся домой с работы в 6 часов, отдохнул около часа, а затем пошел навестить друга. 6. Где ключ? Я ишу его уже полчага. 7. Ты давно здесь находишься? - Я пришел сюда час назад.__ТЫ встретил Николая? - Да, мы поговорили с ним ми­нут десять, и он ' шел. 8. Сколько времени у тебя этот автомо­биль? __Пять лет 9. Сколько времени вы живете в Минске? -

С 1978 года.


/ listen to the conversations. Ask and answer questions. Role-play the conversations. 1.  Steve: What have you been doing?

Jill       I've been preparing lessons for tomorrow, but I've fini­shed now. What have you been doing?

Steve: I've been watching a very interesting programme on television about education in China. It's just finished. Jill:      Oh, dear, then I've missed it. I thought it was on tomor­row, not today. That was Pam on the phone ten minutes ago. She's been sewing new curtains all the evening, and Jeff's been painting radiators. Apparently they've been working hard all the week. By the way, have you 4             put the car in the garage?

Steve: Yes, why? Has it been raining again? Situation: You had a very busy day at the office and stayed there later than usual. You are home at last. Your wife wants to know what kept you late. You ask what she and the kids have been


2. Carol Fenton:  I'm Carol Fenton. I'm Mrs Hunt's sister. This evening my sister's family is coming to celebrate my nephew's birthday. I've planned a small par­ty but Simon doesn't know about it yet. It's a surprise.  I'm very excited. 1 haven't seen Sa­rah's family for five years. My husband and I are from Bristol but we haven't lived there for eight years. Many of our friends still live in Bristol. Next month we're going there to visit my hus­band's family. We're staying at his brother's house. All my relatives are going, too. 3. Mr Fenton:    Someone's at the door, Carol. Mrs Fenton:   Is everything ready?

Mr Fenton:    Yes, dear, everything's fine. Answer the door. Mrs Fenton:  Hello! I'm so happy to see you. Come in!


Mrs Hun't:      Carol, you look'very well.

Mrs Fenton: Thank you, Sarah .. you look very well, too And the children ... they're both so tall!

Mrs Hunt:      Well ... you haven't seen them for five years.

Mr Hunt:       Sarah, you've forgotten to introduce Sheila.

Mrs Hunt: I'm very sorry. Carol, we've brought a friend with us. This is Sheila Morgan. She hasn't visited Lon­don before.

Mrs Fenton:  Hello, Sheila.

Sheila:           How do you do, Mrs Fenton?

Mrs Fenton: Please call me Carol. Now sit down everyone. I've made some tea. It's in the kitchen. Can Jane help me?

Mrs Hunt:      Of course she can.

4.  Mrs Fenton: How long have you been here?

Mrs Hunt: We've been here since Sunday. Today's Wednes­day ... we've been here for three days.

Mrs Fenton:  And what have you seen since Sunday?

Mrs Hunt: We've been very busy but we haven't seen very many things. London's so big! We've seen some of the sights and we've shopped in Oxford Street.

Mrs Fenton:  And have you bought anything?

Mrs Hunt: I've seen a few nice things but I haven't bought anything yet.

Mrs Fenton: I'm going to Oxfort Street on Friday. Come with me. I know the good shops.

5.  Mrs Hunt:     How are your sons? Mrs Fenton:   Tim's living with us.

Mrs Hunt:       Has he finished University yet?

Mrs Fenton:  Yes, he has.  He's  worked  here in  London  for

eighteen months. Mrs Hunt:     What does he do? Mrs Fenton: He works  in  an export company. He's worked

there since January. Mrs Hunt:     And what does Chris do' Mrs Fenton: He works in Dad's company in Bristol.

6.  Torn. Is everything ready?

Sue:   No, I haven't bought the melon yet.

Tom: Are there any sandwiches?

Sue:   Yes .. well ... no. I've bought the bread but I haven't made

the sandwiches yet Tom: Have you made the pies? Sue:   No, I haven't made them yet. Tom:  Is the wine here? Sue:   No, it hasn't arrived and the shop's closed now.


Situation: You've come to Moscow on business.1 You've got accomodation at the Minsk hotel. You are sharing the room with another person who came to Moscow 2 days ago. You introduce yourself and have a talk with your neighbour.

Self check

/. Use the proper tense forms.

1. It still (rain) when I (come) in just now. It (rain) all mor­ning. 2. I (sit) here waiting for you for nearly an hour. I already (drink) four whiskies. 3. What you (do) all this time? I (not, see) you for weeks. 4. They (not, work) for several days now. They (be) too ill. 5. It (not, ram) for a month now. The grass is very dry. 6. I (go) to this pub every evening for the last ten years. 7. Peter (write) letters since two o'clock. He already (write) five letters.

8.  I (sleep) for the last two hours and 1 (not, wake) up properly yet.

9.  I (buy) a new tie last week, but I (not, wear) it yet. 10. He alrea­dy (see) that film. He (see) it when he (be) in London. 11. When you (meet) Mr Smith?" "I (meet) him the day before yesterday." 12. "You ever (speak) to him?" "Yes. I (speak) to him before the party." 13. Peter (live) in Greece for the last three years. He (live) in Africa before he (go) to Greece. 14. I just (have) my lunch. 1 (fi­nish) eating five minutes ago. 15. I (make) five mistakes so far to­day. Yesterday I only (make) three mistakes altogether. 16. I never (play) rugby in my life, but I (play) football when I (be) at school 17. I (not, hear) from Kate since she (go) abroad. 18. On Sunday 1 was at the beach. I (lie) in the sun for two hours. 19. "You ever (tra­vel) by sea?" "Yes, I (go) to Batumi by sea last year." 20. "What a lovely old village Overton is! You (live) here long?" - "I (live) he­re all my life. I (be born) in Overton." "You (be) to other countri­es^" "Yes, I (go) to France two years ago." 21. "Hello, Mr Thomp­son. Glad to see you in London. How long you (be) here?" "Oh, only a few days. I   (arrive)  here on Monday." "Is it your first visit to London?" "No, I  (be) here several times before." "You (see)   many places of interest  in London?"  "Yes, quite a lot." 22   Charles   and  Barbara  Williams   (live)   at  a  village  called Harpole. They only (live) there for a few weeks. They (arrive) on 28 August and they quickly (arrange) the furniture in their new house.  They   (not,  make)   many   friends   yet,  but  they   (think) that they soon will. The neighbours (be) very kind so far, and Mr

--   Williams (invite) some of them to a party he ^hold) next week. His friends from London and Oxford (corne) to the party.

The Williams family (live)  in London before they (come) to Harpole. Mr Williams (not, like) living in London.

While he (visit) some friends in Southampton last year, he (meet) a company director who (offer) him a job. Mrs Williams (want) to stay in London, but when they (arrive) in the village, the sun (shine) and she (begin) to enjoy her country surroundings. 23. Jack (look) at his watch for the twentieth time. Suddenly Jill (arrive). "I (wait) for over an hour", he (say) angrily. "You never come on time." "Oh, is that so?" Jill answered. "You (be) here at 2.30?" Jack (go) red. "Well", he (say), "I (get) here five minutes late myself, but you (not, be) here." "I (come) here at exactly 2.30", Jill said, "and (wait) for five minutes, but you (not, come)." "What you (do) since then?" Jack (ask). "I just (be) to the hairdresser's", Jill answered brightly.

//. Translate into English:

1.  - Вас ждет мистер Смит.

-  Он долго ждет?

-  Около двадцати минут.

-   Пусть войдет.

2.  - Где письма? Я хочу отправить их сегодня.

- Секретарь только что их принесла. Она печатала целый день.

3.  - Могу я поговорить с мистером Вороновым?

-  Боюсь, что нет. Он только что вышел.

4.  - Давай сходим  в кино. Мы  не были  в кино уже целую


-  Хорошая идея. Николай говорит, что он видел интересный детектив    в    кинотеатре    «Москва».    Хочешь    посмот­реть его?

-  Да, я очень люблю детективы.

5.  - Когда ты закончил институт?

-  В 1975 году.

-  Сколько времени ты работаешь на этом заводе?

-   Пять лет.

-   Где ты работал раньше?

-   В научно-исследовательском институте.

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