Documente online.
Username / Parola inexistente
  Zona de administrare documente. Fisierele tale  
Am uitat parola x Creaza cont nou
  Home Exploreaza




§1. Ability: can, could, be able to


We use can to say that someone has the ability or opportunity to do something. The negative of can is cannot (contraction: can't).

Can you swim?

He can play the guitar.

It's nice today. We can sit in the garden.

I can't open this bottle.

Can usually expresses the idea that something is pos­sible because certain characteristics or conditions exist. Can combines the ideas of possibility and ability.

Tom is strong. He can lift that heavy box. (It

is possible for Tom to lift that box because

he is strong.)

I can play the piano. I've taken lessons for

many years. (It is possible for me to play the

piano because I have acquired that ability.)

That race car can go very fast. (It is possible

for that car to go fast because of its special


Can you meet me tomorrow evening? (Is it

possible for you to meet me? Will you be free?)

We can use be able to instead of can eg Are you able to swim? but can is more common.

Could and was/were able to

We can use could to say that someone had the general ability to do something in the past.

I could swim when I was 4 years old.

My sister could talk when she was 15 months


We also use was/were able to with this meaning. I was able to swim when I was 4 years old.

But when we want to say that someone had the ability to do something, and that they did it in a particular situation, we must use was/were able to (could is not possible).

Even though I'd hurt my leg, I was able to swim back to the boat. (Not: ... I could swim

back ...)

The manager wasn't in the office for very long, but we were able to speak to him for a few minutes. (Not: we could ayeak to him ...)

We can use managed to (+ infinitive) or succeeded in (+ -ing form) instead of was/were able to in this meaning.

Even though I'd hurt my leg, I managed to swim back to the boat/I succeeded in swim­ming back to the boat.

We normally use managed to or succeeded in when the action was difficult to do.

There is an exception with the verbs of perception see, hear, smell, taste, feel, and some verbs of thinking eg understand, remember. We use could

with these verbs when we actually did these things in particular situations.

We could see a man in the garden.

I could hear a noise outside my bedroom door.

We use could not (contraction: couldn't) for both general ability and particular situations.

My grandmother couldn't dance.

He tried very hard, but he couldn't swim back

to the boat.

Could have ...

We use could have + past participle to say that someone had the ability or the opportunity to do something in the past but did not do it.

You could have helped me. Why didn't you? I could have gone to China on holiday last year, but I decided not to.

Expressing ability in other forms: be able to

Can has no infinitive, -ing form or participles. So, when necessary, we make these forms with be able to.

I'd like to be able to play the piano. (We cannot say I'd like to can play  ... ) In the future, people will be able to live on other planets. (We cannot say ... people will can live ... )

She enjoys being able to speak foreign langua­ges. (We cannot say Ghe enjoys canning ...) I've been able to drive since I was 18. (We cannot say I've could ...)

Possibility: can

We use can to talk about 'theoretical possibility'.

You can ski on the hills. (= It is possible to ski, i.e. circumstances permit: there is enough snow. )

Anyone can learn to swim. (= It is possible for anyone to learn to swim.)

We can't bathe here on account of the sharks. (It isn't safe.)

Can you get to the top of the mountain in one day? (Is it possible?)

In this use,  can often has a similar meaning to 'sometimes'.

My brother can be very nice. (= My brother is sometimes very nice.) The Straits of Dover can be very rough. (= It is possible for the Straits to be rough; this sometimes happens.)

We use could to talk about theoretical possibility in the past.

My brother could be really horrible when he was a child.


/. Supply can, can't, could, couldn't, was/were able to, managed to. Alternatives are possible.

I. A good 1500-metre runner ... run the race in under four minutes. 2. Bill is so unfit he ... run at all."3. Our baby is

- only nine months and he ... already stand up. 4. When I was younger, I... speak Italian much better than I... now. 5. He ... draw or paint at all when he was a boy, but now he's a famous artist. 6. ... she speak German very well? - No, she ... speak German at all. 7. After weeks of training, I ... swim a length of the baths underwater. 8. It took a long time, but in the end Tony ... save enough to buy his own hi-fi. 9. Did you buy any fresh fish in the market? - No, I ... get any. 10. For days the rescuers looked for the lost climbers in the snow. On the fourth day they saw them and ... reach them without too much trouble..

II. Rewrite these sentences using can, can't, could or couldn't.

1. Do you see that man over there? 2. I smell something burning. 3.1 understood what he said. 4. Did you understand what he said? 5. I don't see anyone. 6. I didn't understand

what he said. 7. I don't remember his name. 8. Did you hear any noise at night? 9. Do you see a bird in that tree?

III.  Supply suitable forms of be able to in these sentences.

1. Our teacher says we ... speak English fluently in a few months. 2. I've been trying for hours, but so far I (not) ... get through on the phone. 3. If he had asked me earlier, I ... help him. 4. I'm sure she would have helped you if she ... 5. I think I ... play tennis better after a bit of practice. 6. You ... ski when you go to Geneva. 7. It's nice ... go to the opera. 8. He has managed to live in England for years without ... speak English. 9. I'm practising hard because I want to ... pass my driving test first time. 10. If I ... sing, I would have loved to be an opera singer. 11. It's been a quiet day, I ... get some work done.

IV. Fill the following spaces, using can for present, could for past and shall/will be able for future. There is no need to use other able forms in this section. Put to where necessary before the infinitives.

1. ... you stand on your head? - I ... when I was at school but I (not) ... now. 2. When I've passed my driving test I ... hire a car from our local garage. 3. At the end of the month the Post Office will send him an enormous telephone bill which he (not) ... pay. 4. I (not) ... remember the address. - ... (not) you even remember the street? 5. When the fog lifts we ... see where we are. 6. You've put too much in your rucksack; you never ... carry all that. 7. When I was a child I (not) ... understand adults, and now that I am an adult I (not)... understand children. 8. When you have taken your degree you ... work as an interpreter? 9. Don't try to look at all the pictures in the gallery. Otherwise when you get home you (not) ... remember any of them. 10. When I first went to Spain I... read Spanish but I (not) ... speak it. 11. ... you type? - Yes, I... type but I (not)... do shorthand. 12. I'm locked in. I (not) ... get out! - ... you (not) squeeze between the bars? - No! I ... ; I'm too fat.

V. Complete the sentences using could or was/were able to.

Sometimes either form is possible,

1. He was very strong; he ... ski all day and dance all night.

2.  The car plunged into the river. The driver ... get out but the passengers were drowned. 3. I was a long way from the stage. I ... see all right but I (not) ... hear very well. 4. We ... borrow umbrellas, so we didn't get wet. 5. ... you walk or did they have to carry you? 6. I had no key so I (not) ... lock the door. 7. I knew the town so I ... advise him where to go. 8. When the garage had repaired our car we ... continue our journey. 9. At five years old he ... read quite well. 10. When I arrived everyone was asleep. Fortunately I ... wake my sister and she let me in. 11. The swimmer was very tired but he ... reach the shore before he collapsed. 12. The police were suspicious at first but I... convince them that we were innocent. 13. We ... put out the fire before much damage was done. 14. My daughter ... walk when she was only 11 months old. 15.1 ... finish all the work you wanted me to do yesterday. 16. ... you speak French before you went to live in Paris? - I (not) ... speak it very well. 17. They were talking quite loudly. I ... hear everything they said. 18. I looked everywhere for the book but I (not) ... find it. 19. He had hurt his leg, so he (not) ... walk very well. 20. She wasn't at home when I phoned but I ... contact her at the office. 21.1 looked very carefully and I... see a figure in the distance. 22. They didn't have any tomatoes in the first shop I went to, but I... get some in the next shop. 23. The boy fell into the river but fortunately we ... rescue him. 24. Did you persuade them? - Yes. It was difficult but we ... persuade them. 25. Did they find your house? - Yes. It took them a long time but they ... find it. 26. He (not) ... come to the meeting last week. He was sick.

VI. Complete the sentences using can or could where possible. If can or could is not possible, use a form of be able to.

1. When Robert was younger he ... run quite fast. 2. Look! You ... see the mountains from this window. 3. How long ...

you ... play the guitar? 4. Look! I ... lift this chair with one hand. 5. I'm sorry but I (not) ... come to the party on Saturday. 6. I (not) ... sleep very well recently. 7. Tom ... drive but he hasn't got a car. 8. I can't understand Martin. I ... never... understand him. 9. I used ... stand on my head but I can't do it now. 10. Ask Ann about your problem. I think she ... help you. 11. Did you win the match? - Yes. It wasn't easy but I ... win it. 12. I (not) ... swim very far these days but ten years ago I ... swim from one side of the lake to the other. 13. I ... read a book by moonlight but I (not) ... read in sunlight. 14. Where are the keys? I (not) ... find them last night. 15. The theatre seats were awful. We (not) ... see the stage. 16. The show is very popular but luckily I ... get two seats for Saturday. 17. My car broke down and I (not) ... drive it for a week. 18. The exam was easy. I ... do all the questions. 19. It's nice ... sleep on Sundays. 20. After the accident he (not) ... smell or taste anything. 21.1 lost all my money but fortunately I... borrow some from my friends. 22. When Lynn was younger she (not) ... afford to buy a camera, but she has a good job now, and she ... afford several cameras. 23. By the way, ... you ... find that tie you borrowed last night? - Uh ... no. If I (not) ... find it, I'll buy you a new one. OK? - It was my favourite tie. - I know, Dad. I've looked everywhere, and I (not) ... find it. But I'll keep looking. 24. If they (not) ... fix the car today, they can fix it tomorrow. 25. Mr Wilson is taking a course in Computer Programming. At the moment he (not) ... write complicated programs, but soon he ... write them quite well. 26. Julie is taking a typing course. She knows she ... pass her secretarial exams next year unless she improves her typing speed. She's doing well, and soon she ... type 60 words a minute.

VII. Substitute could for the italicized verbs if possible.

1. We had a good time yesterday. We went to the zoo. The children enjoyed themselves very much. They saw polar bears and elephants. (No substitution of 'could' is possible.) 2. When I lived in St. Louis, I went to the zoo whenever I wanted to,

but now I live in a small town and the nearest zoo is a long way away. ('/ could go' can be used instead of 'I went' to give the idea of 'used to be able to.') 3. Usually I don't have much time to watch TV, but last night I watched the news while I was eating dinner. I  heard the news about the political situation in my country. 4. When I lived at home with my parents, I watched TV every day if I wanted to, but now while I'm going to school, I live in a small apartment and don't have a television set. 5. When I worked as a secretary, I was able to type 60 words a minute without making a mistake. My typing skills aren't nearly as good now. 6. Yesterday I typed these reports for my boss. I don't type very well, but I was able to finish the reports without making too many mistakes. 7. When I went to my favourite fishing hole last Saturday, I caught two fish. I brought them home and cooked them for dinner. 8. When I was a child, the river that flows through our town had plenty of fish. My mother used to go fishing two or three times a week. Usually she caught enough for our dinner within an hour or so. 9. Last night Mark and I had an argument about politics. Finally, I managed to convince him that I was right. 10. My grandfather was a merchant all his life. He knew how to make a sale by using psychology. He was able to convince anyone to buy anything whether they needed it or not. 11. The game we went to yesterday was exciting. The other team played good defence, but my favourite player managed to score two goals. 12. When I ran into Mrs Forks yesterday, I recognized her even though I hadn't seen her for years.

VIII. Complete the sentences with could and the verb in parentheses if possible. If the use of could is not possible, provide any other appropriate completion.

1. When I was younger, I ... up late without getting sleepy, but now I always go to bed early, (stay) 2. Last night we ... to a restaurant. The food was delicious, (go) 3. The teacher gave the students plenty of time for the test yesterday. All of them ... it before the time was up. (complete) 4. I was

tired, but I ... my work before I went to bed last night, (finish) 5. Last night I ... TV for a couple of hours. Then I studied, (watch) 6. I like to ride my bicycle. I ... it to work when we lived on First Street but now I can't. Now I have to drive because we live too far away, (ride) 7. Susan ... her bicycle to work yesterday instead of walking, (ride) 8. The picnic yesterday was a lot of fun. All of us ... it a lot. (enjoy) 9. After years of devoted work, Mr Bailey finally ... a raise in salary last April, (get) 10. I ... long distances when I was a teenager, (swim) 11. I had to put together my daughter's tricycle. It came from the factory unassembled. It was a struggle and took me a long time, but in the end I ... it together, (get).

IX.  Respond using can or can't.

Example Is it possible to buy sweets at Buckingham


No, you can't buy sweets at Buckingham Palace. Example. Is it possible to go to the top of the Post Office


Yes, you can go to the top of the Post Office


1.   Is it possible to buy sweets at Buckingham Palace?

2.   Is it possible to go to the top of the Post Office Tower?

3.   Is it possible to have clothes washed at the hairdresser's?

4.   Is it possible to put all your clothes in a handbag?

5.   Is it possible to go by train from London to Bristol?

6.   Is it possible to swim in a boat?

7.   Is it possible to swim when the tide is in?

8.   Is it possible to book seats at the theatre?

9.   Is it possible to have clothes made at the launderette?

10. Is it possible to get medicine at the newsagent's?

X.  Complete the sentences using can or could and the verbs in the box. Use each verb only once.

grow         be     make    reach     live     survive     cross

Example   Tigers can be dangerous.

1.  Elephants ... for up to 70 years.

2.  Temperatures near the South Pole ... minus 43 degrees centigrade.

3.  A hundred years ago ships ... the Atlantic in 10 days.

4. Camels ... for up to 17 weeks in the desert without water.

5.  Dinosaurs ... up to 5 meters long.

6.  Anyone ... mistakes.

XI.  Rewrite these sentences with can or could be.

1.  The sea is often rough in the harbour.

2. She is bad tempered at times.

3.  She was often rude when she was a girl.

4.  It is often cold here in winter.

5.  He was often helpful when he wanted to be.

6.  He was often naughty when he was a boy.

7.  Winter here is often really cold.

XII. After their climb, Stephen and his friends were all very hungry, hot, tired, thirsty, and happy. Use could with items in the box to complete their exclamations:

drink 8 bottles of lemonade sleep for 24 hours look at them all day

eat a kilo of rice melt

Stephen:      I'm so hungry I could eat a kilo of rice! Julie:          I'm not hungry, but I'm so thirsty ...

John:          I didn't sleep well last night. I'm so tired ...

Anne:         Me too. And the weather needs to be cooler to

climb mountains - I'm so hot ... Julie:           The mountains are so beautiful, though. I ...

Later, Julie wrote a postcard to her parents, and described how everyone had felt:

Stephen was so hungry he could have eaten a kilo of rice.

Continue her letter, writing the other sentences in the same way:

I wasn't hungry, but I was so thirsty I .... John and Anne were so tired they ... , and Anne was so hot she ... . The mountains were so beautiful, though. I ....

XIII. Write the most appropriate 'wish' for the people in the sentences below, using the words in the table:


the instructions


my key


a new car

I wish I/ we could...






a job

1.  Someone on a diet: 'I wish I could eat cakes.'

2. Someone locked out of their house:'_________________'

3. Students taking an English exam:'__________________'

4. Someone whose car won't start:'____________________'

5. An unemployed person:'___________________________'

6. Some people who have just bought a new computer:'____'

XIV. Paraphrase using 'be able to' instead of 'can'.

Example-.   If I hadn't done well at school, I couldn't have gone to university.

If I hadn't done well at school, I wouldn't have been able to go to university.

1.  If I hadn't done well at school, I couldn't have gone to university.

2.  Even if I hadn't gone to university, I could have worked for this firm.

3.  If I hadn't won a scholarship, my parents couldn't have afforded to send me.

4.  If my parents had had more money, I could have stayed for three more years.

5.  If my brother had worked harder, he could have gone to university too.

6.  If John hadn't given Mary so many presents, he could have bought a car.

7. If he had bought a car, he could have taken his friends to Italy in it.

8. If I hadn't studied hard, I couldn't have passed my exams.

XV. Robert Wells is 52 years old. Sometimes he feels that he has wasted his life.

Read about Robert. Replace the words in italics with could have ... , as in the example.

Example:   When Robert was 26 he had the chance to get married, but he decided not to. When Robert was 26 he could have got married, but he decided not to.

1.  Robert had the ability to go to university, but he didn't want to go.

2. He had the intelligence to pass his final exams at school, but he didn't take them.

3.  A lot of people thought he   had the ability to be a professional footballer when he was younger, but he didn't try.

4.  He had the opportunity to start his own business once, but he didn't want to.

5.  He had the chance to emigrate to Australia a few years ago, but he decided not to.

XVI. Write could (have), managed to or an appropriate form of able to in each gap.

1. What's forty-eight divided by eight? I ... never ... to do sums in my head. 2. ... drive has changed my whole life. Now I can go wherever I want without having to worry about public transport. 3. I had a row with Sheila last night about nuclear arms. I... understand the point she was trying to make, but I still didn't agree. 4. A girl was drowning, but I jumped in and ... save her. I ... swim since I was six. 5. The view was breathtaking. You ... see right across the valley to the hills in the distance. 6. Why don't you stop

smoking? You ... do it if you tried. 7. Anna's operation was very successful. The doctors say she ... walk again in a few weeks. 8. I'm learning Russian because I want ... talk to people when I go there next year. 9. We didn't go out last night. We ... (go) to the cinema but we decided to stay at home. 10. If I ... sing as well as you, I would join the opera. 11. I had my last vacation in July. If I'd had enough money, I ... (go) to Florida.

XVII.  Complete these sentences using an appropriate form of could or be able to (sometimes both are possible).

When I was at school I ... (speak) German quite well, but last week I met a German at a party and I ... (not understand) a word he said. He spoke a little English and he ... (tell) me that he was staying in England only for a few days. He was a nice man and I would have invited him home if I ... (understand) him better. He didn't look German, in fact he ... (be) English from his appearance. He invited me to Germany next summer and I would go if I ... (afford) it. Mary speaks German and she ... (come) with me if I went. My boss said that I ... (take) my holiday in June if I wanted to. After the party my car wouldn't start, but the German gentleman was staying near where I live so he ... (take) me home in his car. Then, when I got home, I found I didn't have a key, but the kitchen window was open so I ... (climb) in.

XVIII.  Translate from Russian into English.

1. Я думаю, что вы смогли бы уговорить его, если бы попы­тались. - Я попытаюсь. 2. Несмотря на шторм, он смог доплыть до берега. 3. Он сможет свободно говорить по-фран­цузски, если проведет пару лет в Париже. 4. Когда я был молодым, я мог пройти 30 километров в день. 5. Почему ты не сказал мне раньше? - Я бы мог купить эту книгу в Лондоне. 6. Хорошо, если бы ты мог пойти с нами. - К сожалению, не могу. 7. Вы сможете отвезти меня завтра в аэропорт? - Конечно. 8. Эту книгу можно купить в любом

магазине. 9. Я смогу перевести эту статью, если ты дашь мне хороший словарь. 10. Погода была хорошая, и мы могли гулять в парке каждое утро. 11. Погода сегодня хорошая, и мы могли бы погулять. 12. Жаль, что брата нет дома. Он бы смог помочь тебе. 13. Она много занималась, и ей уда­лось сдать экзамен. 14. Ты смог починить телевизор вче­ра? - Нет, я попытаюсь сделать это сегодня. 15. Если бы ты попросил меня, я бы смог помочь тебе. Я был тогда свободен. 16. Мы смогли перевезти все товары в течение десяти дней. 17. Когда он приехал в Лондон, он мог вести переговоры с фирмами без переводчика. 18. Он сказал, что не сможет дать ответ, пока не обдумает вопрос как следу­ет. 19. Я мог бы прийти пораньше, если нужно. 20. Было так темно, что мы ничего не видели. 21. Ты не сможешь ,, перевести название, не прочитав всей статьи. 22. Хотя пи­лот был тяжело ранен, он смог объяснить, что произошло. 23. Ребенок сможет ходить через несколько недель. 24. Я не могу заплатить вам сегодня. Вы можете подождать до завтра? 25. С тех пор, как произошел несчастный случай, он не выходит из дома. 26. Вы могли бы вести дела само- стоятельно? 27. Он сказал, что потерял паспорт и не мог выехать из страны. 28. Я бы мог одолжить тебе денег. По­чему ты не попросил у меня? 29. Зима здесь бывает очень холодной. 30. Мы смогли достать билеты на матч вчера. 31. Мы не смогли вчера достать билеты на матч. 32. Он бывал очень капризным, когда был ребенком. 33. Он смог вас встретить? - Да, но он не смог отвезти нас в гостини­цу. 34. Это можно и нужно сделать. 35. Боже мой! Тебя могли убить.

XIX. Study and practise the following texts. Report the conversations. Speak about your skills and achievements.

1. Sarah: Well, there are a lot of things I can't do! I can't draw and I can't drive a car, but I want to have lessons. I can ... I can type and I can use a word processor, because I have one at work and I use it all the time. What about sports? Mm. Well, I certainly can't ski, but I'm quite good at tennis,

yes, I can play tennis. Well, I usually win when I play with my friends. And I can swim, of course. And I can cook. I think I'm a very good, well, no, just good ... a good cook! Now, then ... lan­guages. I can speak French and German, I don't know any Italian at all, and I know about five words in Spanish - adios, manana, paella - no, I can't speak Spanish! And I can't play any musical instruments, not the piano, the guitar, or anything.

2.  Miss Conrad, the new music teacher, wants to start a school orchestra.

Miss Conrad: Well now ... what instruments can you play?

Kevin, can you play the piano? Kevin:           No, I can't.

Miss Conrad: Well, what about the recorder? Kevin:           Yes, I can play the recorder.

Mark:            I can play the recorder too, Miss Conrad.

Miss Conrad: Good! Kevin:           My friend Barbara's away today, but she's

very good at music.

Miss Conrad: Oh! Can she play the piano? Kevin:           Yes she can.

Miss Conrad: That's great! Now we need a guitar and a


3.  Mr Horn:        Miss Abe? Keiko:            Yes.

Mr Horn:        Please come in. I'm Bruce Horn, Director of


Keiko:            I'm pleased to meet you.

Mr Horn:       Please sit down. Keiko:            Thank you.

Mr Horn:        So, you want to be a secretary at United Bank.

Can you tell me a little about yourself? Keiko:            Well, I'm 19 years old. I was born in Japan,

and I came here about a year ago. And I'm

studying English and Business at school.

Mr Horn:       You can speak English very well.

Keiko:           Thank you.

Mr Horn:       Do you have any hobbies or special skills?

Keiko:           I like to read, and I like to swim.

Mr Horn:       Can you use a computer?

Keiko:           No, I can't, but I'd like to learn about com­puters.

Mr Horn:       But you can type, can't you?

Keiko:            Oh, yes. I can type about sixty words a minute.

4.  Susan:           It's really great here in this lake. The water's

so warm. And it's so clean. I can see the bot­tom. It's quite deep. David:           Susan! Be careful. I know you can swim but

you shouldn't swim out too far in such cold

water. Susan:           Don't worry about me. I can swim for miles

without getting tired. David:           All right then, but I'm getting out. I can't

swim as fast as you and I can't stand being

beaten by a girl!

5.  Olga:             Were you able to fix the lawn mower? Eddie:           No, so I couldn't mow the lawn. Olga:             Ouch!

Eddie:           What's the matter? Did you hurt yourself?

Olga:             I cut myself.

Eddie:           Do you want some help?

Olga:             No, I'm all right. I can finish it myself. Why

don't you help your sister clean the living room? There are records and books everywhere.

Eddie:           Those are all Isabel's things. Anyway, she

doesn't want help.

Olga:             Well, check with your father. I think he's rea-

dy to paint the kitchen, and it's too big for him to paint alone.

Eddie:           Do I have to?

Olga:             Yes, you have to. He won't be able to do it

by himself. It'll take too long.

6. Mrs Jones: I hear your grandchildren and Mrs Tailor's boys had a narrow escape* at the beach last Sunday, Mrs Smith.

Mrs Smith: Yes, those little bays are so dangerous. They could easily have been drowned.

Mrs Jones: You only have to take your eyes off children for a moment, don't you?

Mrs Smith: That's right... We never dreamed anything like that could happen.

Mrs Jones: It was lucky you were able to find that man with the motor-boat, wasn't it?

Mrs Smith: Yes, and it was lucky that young Tommy is such a good swimmer for his age too.

Mrs Jones:     Just think! If anything ever happened, one would never be able to forgive oneself. One would have it on one's conscience for the rest of one's life, wouldn't one?

Mrs Smith: Yes, but you can't watch them every single minute of the day, can you?

Mrs Jones: But one has to try, if one takes one's res­ponsibilities as a parent seriously, don't you think?

* Note-, to have a narrow escape - едва избежать опасности, быть на волосок (от смерти и т.п.)

XX. Complete the sentences with couldn't or was able to.

Retell the text.

Petra was flying a helicopter over the Peruvian jungle when suddenly there was a huge storm. She ... bring the helicopter under control and seconds later the helicopter crashed to the ground. Petra fell 5,000 metres. Luckily she was strapped to her seat. That is how she ... survive the fall. Rescue parties searched the jungle for several days, but they ... find either Petra or the helicopter. Even radar equipment... find her. The jungle was so dense that the rescuers ... see through the trees. Petra knew that she ... survive for long without water. She

... find a river because she had been on a survival training course. She realized that she ... defend herself against wild animals, so she built a shelter. At first Petra ... find any food that was safe to eat. She had studied botany at Univer­sity, so she ... to recognize the poisonous plants. She ... to find enough to eat for several days at a time.

A. Work with a partner. In a short paragraph, write what you think happened to Petra next. Use couldn't, was able to and managed to, like this:

Petra was bitten by a dangerous insect. She was very ill and she couldn't move for two days. She was hungry and exhausted. Luckily she managed to find some plants and some fruit to eat. When she felt better she decided to light a large fire. Petra was able to send smoke signals and final­ly ...

B.  Take turns to read your paragraph to the class.

XXI. Complete the account of the climb with could/couldn't wherever possible - otherwise use was/were able to. Retell the text.

Stephen and Julie were spending a few days camping with some friends in Snowdonia. On a climb, there was a difficult section. Stephen has long arms and ... climb this easily, but Julie is not so tall and ... reach the hold. In the end, she ... reach it by standing on her friend's shoulders. 'Never mind,' he said. 'I ... get up this bit the first time I tried.' The rest of the climb was easier, and they ... reach the top by 12 o'clock. It was warm and sunny, and they ... see the whole of Snowdonia.

A. Have you ever had any experience of this sort? Could you tell about it?

XXII. Put in suitable forms which express ability. Retell the text.

The journey to Western Papua had been very hard. We ... make much progress in the heavy rain. After two months' journey, we ... see smoke in the distance and knew we must be near a village. There was a boiling river in front of us, but we ... cross it by using a rope bridge we had brought with us. At last we approached the village and wondered how we ... communicate with the chief. None of us ... speak the local language. Soon, a young, dignified and smiling man approached us.'... you speak English?' I asked hopefully. 'Of course,' the young man replied. 'I was educated at Oxford University. I'm Chief Naga. Welcome to my village!'

§2. Permission: can, could, may, might, be allowed to

Asking for permission

We use  can, could, may and  might to ask for

permission, depending on the situation.

1.  Can is the commonest and most informal: Can I borrow your umbrella (please)?

2.  Could is more polite than can: Could I borrow your umbrella (please)?

3.  May is more formal, more respectful than can and could: May I borrow your umbrella (please)?

4.  Might is the most polite but the least common: Might I borrow your umbrella (please)?

5.  We can add possibly and use the expressions like Do you think and  I wonder if to make requests even more polite:

Can/Could/May/Might I possibly borrow your


Do you think I could/Do you think I might

(possibly) borrow your umbrella?

I wonder if I could/I wonder if I might

(possibly) borrow your umbrella?

Giving and refusing permission

We use can or may to give permission (but not could or might). May is formal and not often used in speech.

You can wait in my office if you like. Could I borrow your calculator? - Of course you can. You may watch TV for as long as you like.

To refuse permission we use the negative forms.

I'm sorry, but you can't picnic here. Members may not bring more than two visi­tors into the club.

We can also use must not.

Bicycles may not (OR must not) be left here.

Talking about permission

We sometimes talk about rules made by someone else. To do this we use can, could and be allowed to. We use can to talk about the present or the future, and we use could for the past:

Present: Each passenger can take one bag onto the plane.

Future:     I can't have another day off tomorrow.

Past:         Years ago you could park your car any-


We can also use be allowed to:

Present:   Passengers are allowed to take one bag

onto the plane. Future:    Will I be allowed to record the interview

on tape?

Past: We weren't allowed to feed the animals at the zoo yesterday.

For a general permission in the past we use either could or was/were allowed to:

I could always stay (OR I was allowed to stay) up late as a child.

But we cannot use could when we mean that an action really happened at a time in the past.

I was allowed to leave work early yesterday. (Not: I could leave ...)

This is like the difference between could and was/ were able to.

Compare questions with may and be allowed to:

May I take a photo of you?

(Asking for permission: 'Will you allow it?')

Are we allowed to take photos?

(Asking about permission: 'What is the rule?')


I. Study and practise the following dialogues.

1.   - Could I go home early, Steve? I don't feel very well.

- Yes, of course. What's the matter?

- I feel dizzy.

2.   - Can I see my sister, doctor?

- I'm afraid you can't. She's being examined by the professor now.

3.   - Could I borrow your car tonight?

- Actually, I need it myself. Sorry.

4.   - May I take this book?

-  No, please don't. I haven't finished it yet.

5.   - Might I use your bicycle?

- No, I'm afraid not. Sorry.

6.   - Could I possibly use your phone?

- Sure.

7.   - Can (May) I come in for a moment?

-  Please do.

8.   - I wonder if I might take the day off?

-  No, sorry. You ought to finish the report.

9.   - Could I have a look at your magazine?

- Yes, of course.

10. - Do you think I could close the window?

- Please do,

11.  - Could I possibly borrow your bike for half an hour?

-  Of course you can.

12.  - Can I go swimming now?

- Please don't.

13.  - May I bring a friend with me this afternoon?

-  Sure.

14.  - Can I stay here for a while?

- Certainly.

15.  - Can I speak to Emily?

-  I'm afraid you can't. She's out.

II. Ask for permission using the words in the box.

May I sit Do you think I could close Could I have Can I try May I come Can I borrow

in? a look at your magazine? this on? here? your bike for half an hour? the window?

III. Rephrase these notices to give or refuse permission. Begin each sentence with 'You ...'

1.     Thank you for not smoking. You may not smoke.

2.     No camping or picnicking_________________________

3.     Fishing strictly forbidden__________________________

4.     Campers welcome________________________________

5.     Private-Keep Out________________________________

6.     No parking_____________________________________

7.     Do not lean out of the window_____________________

8.     Leave your litter here____________________________

9.     No stopping____________________________________

10.   Do not walk on the grass___________________________

11.   Do not feed the animals__________________________

IV.  Write formal versions, with may (not), of:

1.  You can't take dogs into this restaurant. Dogs may not be taken into this restaurant.

2.  Children under 12 can't enter unless they're with a grown­up.

Children under 12________________enter unless accom­panied by an adult.

3.  Sorry, we can't sell alcoholic drinks to anyone under 18.

We regret that alcoholic drinks______________sold to

anyone under 18.

4. You can only book a court if you're a member of the tennis club.

Courts__________only____________by members of

the tennis club.

5.  Don't smoke in the classrooms! Students________________.

VI. Ask a classmate a polite question. Use may I, could I, or can I.

Example.   (...) has a book. You want to see it for a minute.

STUDENT A: May/Could/Can I (please) see your book for

a minute?

STUDENT B: Of course./Sure./ etc. STUDENT A: Thank you./Thanks.

1.    (...) has a dictionary. You want to see it for a minute.

2.    (...) has a pen. You want to use it for a minute.

3.    (...) has a calculator. You want to borrow it.

4.    (...) has a camera. You want to see it for a minute.

5.    You want to see something that a classmate has.

6.    You want to use something that a classmate has.

7.    You want to borrow something that a classmate has.

8.    You are at a restaurant. (...) is your waiter/waitress. You have finished your meal. You want the check.

9.    You are at (...)'s house. You want to use the phone.

10.  You are speaking to one of your teachers. You want to leave class early today.

11.  You are visiting a friend and you want to make yourself some coffee.

12.  You are visiting an acquaintance and want to use the lavatory.

13.  You are visiting a friend and want to borrow his new car.

VII.  Put an appropriate verb in its correct form into each gap. The verbs are can, could, to be able.

The forms are positive and negative.

1. In my country you ... get married when you are 16. 2. Women ... vote in England until 1922. 3. Last night I... get into my house because I had forgotten my key. 4. I phoned the Gas Board because I thought I ... smell gas, which is very dangerous. 5. 'Hello. Is that the dentist? ... I make an appointment to see you, please?' 6. I'm learning car mechanics because I want... to service my own car. It costs a fortune if you send it to the garage. 7. Many night animals ... see very

well, but they have a highly developed sense of smell. 8. If you ... do this exercise, you're very clever!

VIII. Read the instructions below. Say what they mean, using not allowed to or allowed to.

   You're not allowed to take more than one piece of hand luggage.


1.  No more than one piece of hand luggage.

2.  Passengers may check in at any British Airways desk. 2. No passengers beyond this point without a boarding card.


4.  No smoking in the toilets.

5.  Passengers may smoke in rows 16-20.

6.  No pipes or cigars.

IX.  Read about legal ages in Britain.


These are the legal ages when you are allowed to do


in Britain.

drive a car


ride a moped


buy cigarettes                                             ;


vote in elections


join the army


get married with your parents' permission


get married without your parents' permission


In pairs, ask and answer about Britain.

A: When are you allowed to drive a car?

B: (You're allowed to drive a car) when you're seventeen.

A: What about a moped?

B: You're not allowed to ride a moped until you are sixteen.

Now ask and answer about your country.

X. Make rules for the places or situations. Example   I. In a library (X) eat or drink

1. You're not allowed to eat or drink in a library.

2.  In a restaurant (X) wear beach clothes

3.  In a petrol station (X) light a cigarette

4.  In a theatre (X) smoke

5.  On a motorway (X) cycle

6.  On a motorway (X) drive over 120 kmph

XL Read about Ranjit, a sixteen-year-old Indian girl, who talks about growing up in England.

'My parents are devoted Sikhs. They are very strict. I am not allowed to go out at night with either a boy or a girlfriend. That's not because I'm not old enough, it's because of our religion. Eventually my parents will choose a husband for me. My parents don't mind if I wear English clothes but I am not allowed to cut my hair short, or wear it loose. And of course I'm not allowed either to smoke cigarettes or to drink alcohol. So I can't go into pubs or anything like that.'

A. About you

Were your parents very strict when you were younger or were you allowed to do what you wanted? What things were you not allowed to do?

XII. Complete the sentences using could or was/were allowed to. Sometimes either form is possible.

1. Andrew ... leave school early yesterday because he wasn't feeling well. 2. Until the 19th century, people ... travel freely between most countries without a passport. 3. Sue's children ... watch the film on TV last night. 4. Her son has to wear a uniform in his new school, but in his old school he ... wear whatever he liked. 5.1... see him for a few moments yesterday. 6. I ... borrow my parents' car last night. 7. When I was 18, I ... borrow my parents' car whenever I wanted to.

XIII.  Translate from Russian into English.

1.  Вчера детям разрешили не идти в школу из-за погоды.

2.  Вы можете пользоваться моей библиотекой. 3. Доктор, мне можно купаться в море? - Да, но только не купайтесь слишком долго. 4. Вы можете взять любую из этих книг. 5. Здесь нельзя переходить улицу. Это очень опасно. 6. Можно мне задать вопрос? - Конечно, только не знаю, смогу ли я на него ответить. 7. Врач сказал, что я могу позвонить ему после 5.00. 8. Скажите ей, что она может прислать мне телеграмму, если понадобится моя помощь. 9. Можно мне взять ваш словарь? - Боюсь, что нет. Он мне нужен са­мой. 10. Я думаю, что вам разрешат пользоваться лабо­раторией. 11. Вам разрешается пользоваться словарем? 12. Ему только что разрешили пойти домой после того как он провел три часа в полицейском участке. 13. Можно ли детям пойти на каток? - Нет, уже слишком поздно. 14. Спроси тренера, можно ли нам осмотреть спортивный зал. 15. Мож­но мне уйти с урока пораньше? - А в чем дело? - У меня болеет мать. - Конечно, можешь уйти прямо сейчас. 16. Могу я взглянуть на твое сочинение? - Боюсь, что нет. Я еще не закончил его. 17. Он спросил, можно ли ему оставить у вас книгу. 18. После аварии ему не разрешается водить маши­ну. 19. Босс сказал, что я могу пользоваться его телефо­ном. 20. У меня была виза, и мне разрешили пересечь гра­ницу. 21. Когда он был ребенком, ему разрешалось делать все, что ему захочется. 22. Можно им прийти навестить вас? 23. Здесь курить не разрешается. 24. Нельзя перегова­риваться во время контрольной работы.

XIV.  Study and practise.

1. Driver:         Excuse me. Can I park here for five minutes

while I wait for a friend?

Traffic warden: No, I'm afraid you can't. These double yellow lines mean that no parking is allowed. But if you drive round the corner you can park there for thirty minutes without any problems.

2.  Customer:         I'd like to join the library. Librarian:         Could you fill this form in, please? Customer:        All right. How many books may I take out? Librarian:         You can have up to five books for two

weeks. You may keep them longer but you

must renew them first. Customer:         May I take five books with me today,

straight away? Librarian:         Yes, of course.

3.  Enrico:            May I leave early this afternoon, please? Jill:                 Yes, you may leave now, in fact. We've

almost finished our work for today. Maria:             Can I leave now, too, please? I want to go

with Enrico. We're are going to a lecture

at the University.

Jill:                 Yes, of course you can.

Juan:              Can we all leave early?

Jill:                 No, I'm afraid you can't.

4.  Kevin:             Dad!

Mr Wilkins:     Yes, Kevin?

Kevin:             Dad ... Can I go to Henley Youth Hostel

this weekend? Mr Wilkins:     Who with? Kevin:             Mark and Barbara.

Mr Wilkins:     Mmm... Kevin:             Well? Can I?

Mr Wilkins:     No you can't. Kevin:             Oh, Dad! Why not?

Mr Wilkins:     Because you can't! Kevin:             Mum, can I go to Henley Youth Hostel

with Barbara and Mark? Mrs Wilkins:   When? Kevin:             This weekend.

Mrs Wilkins:   What do you think, Stan? Mr Wilkins:     Well, Liz, there's a lot of work to do in

the garden. Mrs Wilkins:   But we can do it, Stan.

Mr Wilkins: Oh, all right then. Kevin:          Thanks, Dad.

5.  Johnny:         Excuse me, sir. It's cold in this classroom.

Could I close the window? Teacher:        OK, Johnny. Close it quickly and then sit

down and get on with the test. Johnny:         Sir, could I have another sheet of paper?

I've spoiled this one. Teacher:        Here's another sheet. Now, please get on

with your work. Johnny:         Sir! Sir! Could I just leave the room for a

few minutes? Teacher:        Why didn't you go before you began the

exam? Johnny:         I didn't want to go then, sir.

6.  Mr Thomas:  Mr Roberts? Could I have a word with you? Mr Roberts: Yes, what is it?

Mr Thomas: Well, as you know, my father can't walk very well, and he needs to go into hospital. I was wondering if I could have a day off work?

Mr Roberts: It's not a very convenient time at the mo­ment.

Mr Thomas: I'd be terribly grateful. He wouldn't be able to go if I wasn't there to help him.

Mr Roberts: Well, if that's the case I suppose you should.

Mr Thomas: That's very kind. I'll make up the time, I promise.

7.   Son:             Dad, can I have the car tonight? Father:         No, you can't. I need it.

Son:             But I'm taking Dave to see his girlfriend in


Father:         I told you. I need it.

Son:             Oh, please. He won't be able to go if I don't

give him a lift. Father:         All right. I suppose I can walk. The exercise

will do me good. Son:             Thanks a lot, Dad. I won't be home late.

8. Mrs Wilkins is on a strict diet. 'Am I allowed to eat toast and butter for breakfast?' she asked the doctor. 'I'm afraid not, Mrs Wilkins. You can only have half a grapefruit and a glass of water. You can't eat any kind of fat and you are not allowed to eat biscuits or sweets. But don't worry, you will be able to eat what you like after two months of this diet.' Mrs Wilkins was very determined and took a lot of exercise as well. After two months' diet and exercise she said to her husband, 'I still can't touch my toes as I could before we were married.' 'Don't worry, my love,' he said kindly. 'Perhaps your fingernails were longer in those days!'

9.  One day, while they were playing in the sand near their home in New Zealand, nine-year-old Patrick and two friends found a giant egg. It was over a hundred times bigger than a chicken's egg. 'Can we keep it?' Patrick asked. 'Of course you can,' said his father. Patrick's friend added, 'I once found some old coins and I was allowed to keep them.' The children wanted to know all about their egg, so they wrote a letter to a scientific laboratory. This is what they said: 'Could you please help us to find out about our egg? May we bring it to show you? Would you please do some tests and tell us what's inside it? Are children allowed to visit your laboratory? If they are, could we please come soon?'

Patrick and his friends were allowed to take their egg for laboratory tests. The tests showed that it was an egg of the extinct elephant bird and that it was at least two thousand years old. What a surprise! 'We will be allowed to keep it, won't we, Dad?' Patrick asked. The children and their egg soon became famous. They appeared on television and someone offered them 75,000 dollars for it. They began to plan how they would spend the money. But it was all too good to be true. One day, a government letter arrived which said: 'The egg is public property. You are not allowed to keep things which belong to the State. We are sorry but you will have to give the egg to us. We will pay you some

money, but only a small amount.' 'They can't have it!' said Patrick, 'If we can't have it, nobody can.' Patrick was very angry. He buried the egg in the sand again and he still refuses to tell anyone where it is.

A.  When Patrick and his friends took their egg to the laboratory, they asked a scientist to find out lots of things. Make their requests with 'Could you ...?' Say your answers.

   They asked the scientist to tell them how old the egg was. Could you please tell us how old the egg is?

1.  They asked the scientist to find out what was inside.

2.  They wanted the scientist to explain the tests to them.

3. They wanted the scientist to tell them what kind of egg it was.

4. They asked the scientist to find out what the eggshell was made of.

5. They wanted the scientist to tell them all about the elephant bird.

B.  Patrick and his friends asked for permission to do the following things in the laboratory. Ask their questions using can or may.

   They wanted to look through the microscopes. Can/May we look through the microscopes?

1.  They wanted to look at the equipment.

2.  Patrick wanted to help with the tests.

3.  They wanted to stay until the tests were over.

4. Patrick wanted to see the results on the computer screen.

5.  They wanted to take the results home.

C. Work with a partner. One partner is Patrick, the other partner is the scientist. Ask for permission to do the things in (B). Give or refuse permission with can, can't or be allowed to.

Patrick:    Can/May I look through the microscopes? Scientist: Yes, you can. or No, I'm sorry you can't. Children aren't allowed to use the equipment.

  What are you allowed to do where? Say what you think.

  in a cinema

stand up during the film/eat and drink/smoke?

You aren't allowed to stand up during the film.

You are allowed to eat and drink if you don't make a

noise. You aren't allowed to smoke.

1.  in a library

talk loudly/run about/ sit and read?

2.  on a plane

play a radio/open the door/talk to the pilot?

3.  in a museum

take photographs/touch things/talk to the museum attendants?

4.  in a public park

pick the flowers/play football/ drop litter?

5.  at school

eat during lessons/listen to music/shout?

§3. Requests: can, could, will, would, may, might

Polite requests with 'I' as the subject


(a) May I (please) bor­row your pen?

(b) Could I borrow

your pen (please)?

May I and could I are

used to request permis­sion. They are equally polite.*

Note in : In a polite re­quest, could has a pre­sent or future meaning, not a past meaning.


(c) Can I borrow your pen?

Can I is used informally to request permission, es­pecially if the speaker is talking to someone s/he knows fairy well. Can I is usually not con­sidered as polite as may I or could I.

TYPICAL RESPONSES: Certainly. Yes, cer­tainly. Of course. Yes, of cour­se. Sure, (informal)

Often the response to a polite request con­sists of an action, a nod or shake of the head, or a simple 'uh-huh.'

Polite requests with 'You' as the subject


(a) Would you pass

the salt (please)? (b) Will you (please) pass the salt?

The meaning of would you and will you in a polite request is the same.   Would you is more common and is often considered more polite. The degree of politeness, however, is often determined by the speaker's tone of voice.


(c) Could you pass

the salt?

Basically,   could you and would you have the same meaning. The difference is slight: would you = Do you want to do this please? could you = Do you want to do this please, and is it possible for you to do this? Could you and would you are equally polite.


(d) Can you pass

the salt?

Can you is often used informally. It usually sounds less polite than could you or would you.

TYPICAL RESPON­SES: Yes, I'd (I would) be happy to. Yes, I'd be glad to. Certainly. Sure, (informal)

A person usually re­sponds in the affirma­tive to a polite request. If a negative response is necessary, a person might begin by saying, I'd like to, but...', (eg, 'I'd like to pass the salt, but I can't reach it. I'll ask Tom to pass it to you.').

Polite requests with would you, mind


(a)   Would you mind if I closed the window? (b)   Would you mind if I used the phone?

Notice in (a):   would you mind if I is followed by the simple past.* The meaning in (a): May I close the window? Is it all right if I close the window? Will it cause you any trou­ble or discomfort if I close the window?

TYPICAL RESPONSES No. Not at all. No, of course not. No, that would be fine.

Another typical response might be 'unh-unh,' mea­ning no.


(c) Would you mind closing the window? (d) Excuse me? Would you mind repeating that?

Notice in (c):  would you mind is followed Ъу-ing (a gerund). The meaning in (c): I don't want to cause you any trou­ble, but would you please close the window? Would that cause you any incon­venience?

TYPICAL RESPONSES No, I'd be happy to. Not at all. I'd be glad to.


/. Study and practise.

1.    - Will/Would you be able to fix my brakes today?

-  I'm sorry. I won't be able to do it until tomorrow.

2.    - Can/Could you possibly check my oil today?

-  Sure. I can do it right away.

3.    - I'm dying of thirst. Would you make a cup of tea?

-  OK. I'll put the kettle on.

- And could you bring me some biscuits?

- Yes, I'll open the new packet.

4.    - Excuse me. Could you open the door for me, please?

-  Yes, of course.

-  Thank you very much.

5.    - Could I have the bill, please?

-  Certainly, sir. I'll bring it straight away.

6.    - It's a present. Do you think you could gift-wrap it for


- Yes, indeed. I'll just take the price off.

7.    - Would you mind opening the window?

-  Not at all. It's very stuffy in here.

8.    -I'll give you a lift if you like.

-  That's great. Would you drop me at the station?

9.    - Yes, madam. Can I help you?

-Yes, I bought these here two days ago and the heel's broken. Can you change them?

-  Oh, dear. I'm so sorry. I'll just see if we've got ano­ther pair for you.

10.  - Turn that wretched music down, will you?

Or better still, turn it off!

-  Oh, all right.

11.  -  Anita, will you come here a minute? Could you get

me the file on sales in France? I just need to check something. Oh, and Anita, I'd love a cup of coffee, if that's at all possible.

-  Yes, Mr Parkinson.

12.  - Would you mind mailing these letters for me?

- All right. I'll do it when I go downtown this afternoon.

13.  - Would you mind not smoking here?

-  OK. I'll go outside.

14.  - Excuse me. Could you move your bag, please?

-  I'm sorry, but it's not mine.

15.  - I wonder if you could tell me where the library is.

-  Certainly. It's just round the corner.

16.  - Would you mind if I borrowed your paper?

-  Actually, I'm just going to read it myself. Sorry.

-  Never mind. It doesn't matter.

17.  - Do you mind if I open the window? It's a bit stuffy

in here.

-  No, not at all. Please do.

-  Thank you.

18.  - Excuse me. Is that your motorcycle outside?

-  Yes, it is.

-  I wonder if you'd mind moving it. It's blocking my car.

-  OK. I'll park it across the street.

19.  - You know, this book is difficult to read!

-  Oh, really?

-  Yes. Can I borrow your dictionary? I'll only need it for about an hour.

-  Sorry, I'm using it.

20.  - Mom!

- Yes, honey.

-  Can you help me with my homework? I really can't understand these history questions.

-  Yes, in a minute.

21.  - Is that the six o'clock news?

-  Yes, it is.

-  Would you mind turning up the TV? I can't hear it. I want to hear the weather report.

- All right.

22.  - Uh, are you going to the cafeteria?

-  Yes, I am.

-  Could you get me a soda from the machine? I'm really thirsty.

-  Sure.

23.  - Excuse me?

- Yes?

- Would you mind if I went before you? I have to make a very quick call, but it's really urgent.

-  Er ... er ... No, go on, that's fine.

-  Oh, that's very kind. Thank you.

24.  - Megan.

-  Mmm.

-  Could you do something for me? Can you see the paper over there? Could you get it for me?

- Sorry, where is it?

-  On the television.

-  OK.

25.  - Is it all right if I leave my bags here for a moment?

-  Of course, go ahead, (informal)

26.  - May I come in?

- By all means.

27.  - Hello.

-  Hello. I wonder if you could help me? Would you mind if I left my bags here just for one minute. I have to make a phone call.

-  No, I'm sorry, sir. It's not allowed.

-  It's only for a short time.

-  It's against the rules. No luggage can be left in re­ception for security reasons.

//. Change the following sentences into polite requests using the words in parentheses.

1. I want you to hand me that book, (would)

Would you please hand me that book? 2.1 want you to give me some advice about buying a computer.


3. I want to borrow your wheelbarrow, (could) 4.1 want to have a cup of coffee, (may) 5. I want to use your bicycle tomorrow, (can) 6.1 want you to read over my composition for spelling errors.


7.  I want you to open the door for me. (would you mind)

8.  I want to leave early, (would you mind)

///. Student A  Make a polite request for the given situation. Student В  Give a typical response.

1.   You and (...) are sitting at the dinner table. You want the butter.

Student A:      (Anna), would/could/will/can you please

pass me the butter? Student B:      Certainly. /Sure./ I'd be glad to. Here you


2.    You want to ask your teacher a question.

3.    You're at your friend's apartment. You want to use the phone.

4.    You're speaking on the phone to your brother. You want him to pick you up at the airport when you arrive home.

5.    You want to leave class early. You're speaking to your instructor.

6.    You want (...) to meet you in front of the library at three this afternoon.

7.    You knock on your professor's half-open door. He's sitting at his desk. You want to go in.

8.    You want to make an appointment to see Dr North.; You're speaking to her secretary.

9.    You are at a gas station. You want the attendant to check the oil.

10.  You are in your chemistry class. You're looking at your textbook. On page 100 there is a formula which you do not understand. You want your professor to explain this formula to you.

11.  You call your friend. Her name is (...). Someone else answers the phone.

12.  You want to see (...)'s dictionary for a minute.

13.  You want a stranger in an airport to keep her eye on your luggage while you get a drink of water.

14.  You want (...) to tape something on the VCR tonight while you're away at a meeting.

15.  You want a stranger to tell you the time.

16.  You want your friend to hand you (something).

17.  You wrote a letter to a university. You want your teacher to read it and correct the mistakes.

18.  (...) is going to the library. You want him/her to return a book for you.

19.  You and (...) are on vacation together. You'd like to have a picture of the two of you together. You see a stranger who looks friendly. You want her to take a picture of you.

IV. Using the verb in parentheses, fill in the blank either with if 1+ the past tense or with the -ing form of the verb. In some of the sentences, either response is possible but the meaning is different.

1.  A: It's hot in here. Would you mind (open) opening

the window? B: Not at all. I'd be glad to.

2.  A: It's hot in here. Would you mind (open) if I opened

the window?

B: Not at all. Go right ahead. I think it's hot in here, too.

3.  A: Would you mind (take)_________the took back

to the library for me? B: Not at all.

4.  A: This story you wrote is really good. Would you

mind (show)________it to my English teacher?

B: Go right ahead. That'd be fine.

5.  A: I'll wash the dishes. Would you mind (dry)

____________them. That would help me a lot.

B: I'd be happy to.

6.  A: I'm feeling kind of tired and worn out. This heavy

work in the hot sun is hard on me. Would you

mind (finish)____________the work by yourself?

B: No problem, Grandpa. Why don't you go and rest? I'll finish it up.

7.  A: Would you mind (use)___________your name as

a reference on this job application? B: Not at all. In fact, ask them to call me.

8.  A: Would you mind (wait)____________here for

just a minute? I need to run back to the classroom. I forgot my notebook.

В: Sure. Go ahead. I'll wait right here.

9.    A: You have an atlas, don't you? Would you mind (bor-

row) ___________it for a minute? I need to settle

an argument. My friend says Timbuktu is in Asia, and I say it's in Australia.

B: You're both wrong. It's in Africa. Here's the atlas. Look it up for yourself.

10.  A: Since this is the first time you've owned a computer,

would you mind (give)___________you some advice?

B: Not at all. I'd appreciate it.

11.  A: Are you going to the post office? B: Yes.

A: Would you mind (mail)__________this letter for me?

B: Not at all.

12.  A: Are you coming with us?

B: I know I promised to go with you, but I'm not feeling

very good.

Would you mind (stay)___________home?

A: Of course not.

13.  A: I still don't understand how to work this algebra

problem. Would you mind (explain)__________it

again? B: Not at all. I'd be happy to.

14.  A: It's getting hot in here. Would you mind (open)

______the window?

B: No.

15.  A: This is probably none of my business, but would you

mind (ask)___________you a personal question?

B: It depends.

16.  A: Would you mind (smoke)________?

B: I'd really rather you didn't.

17.  A: Excuse me. Would you mind (speak)__________a lit- .

tie more slowly? I didn't catch what you said. B: I'd be happy to.

18.  A: I don't like this TV program. Would you mind (change)

__________the channel?

B: Unh-unh.

19.  A: I'm getting tired, I'd like to go home and go to

bed. Would you mind (leave)_____________early?

B: Not at all.

V. Change these sentences into polite requests beginning with Would you mind ... ?' or 'Do you mind?'.

1. You would like your English teacher to speak more slowly.

Would you mind speaking a little more slowly?

2.  The music is a bit soft and you would like to turn the vol­ume up.


3.  You would like your landlady to take any messages for you while you are out.

4.  The room is cold and you would like to turn the heating on.

5. You are in a friend's house and you would like to make yourself a cup of tea.

6. You would like the telephone company to send you another bill. (You have lost the original one.)

7.  You would like your friend to type a letter for you.

VI.  Study very polite ways of asking permission and requesting:

Could you possibly do me a favour?

Do you think you could help me with a problem I've got?

I was wondering if you could lend me some money for a. few


You couldn't possibly lend me £20, could you?

Use each form once in the following situations. Use a more direct form in two of them.

1.  Mr Wilson asks his boss if he can leave the office an hour earlier than usual.

2.  Stephen asks his guitar teacher to lend him his guitar for the evening.

3.  Mr Wilson wants his neighbour to help him carry a cupboard upstairs.

4.  You ask someone to move his car, as it's blocking the entrance to your garage.

5.    Julie and two of her friends ask their typing teacher for permission to leave early.

6.    Mrs Wilson would like Julie to do some shopping for her, if she has time.

7.    You ask a stranger next to you in a train if you can look at his newspaper.

8.    You ask your host for permission to use his phone.

9.    You ask someone you hardly know for a lift into town.

10.  You are checking out of a hotel, and want to pay your bill.

Less formal

Most formal

Can you please lend me $ 100? Could you let me use your car? Would you be able to mail this letter? Would you mind letting me use your Walkman? Would it be OK if I borrowed your car? Would you mind if I used it? I wonder if you'd mind lending me your cassette player.

VII. Pair work. Make requests with modals or if-clauses using the cues below. Then practise them.

a) You want to borrow some­one's typewriter.

b) You want someone to dri­ve you to the airport.

c) You want someone to help you move on Saturday.

d) You want someone to lend you a camera.

A: Would you mind ... B: Sorry. It's not working right. A: ... B: OK. What time?

A: ... B: Sure, that'll be fine, but I'm only free in the afternoon.

A: ... B:  Gee, I'm sorry, I'm going to use it later.

e) You want to use some­one's telephone.

A: ... B: All right. Go ahead!


Class activity. Go round the class and make your requests. How many people accepted and how many refused?

Accepting a request

Oh, sure. I'd be glad to! OK. I'll do that. All right. Sure! No problem! By all means. Of course, go ahead.

Refusing a request

Oh, sorry, I can't right now. I'm sorry, but I'm busy. I'd rather not. What? You must be kidding! Please don't.

VIII. Ask polite questions in the following situations. Use any appropriate modal (may, could, would, etc.).

1.    Your train leaves at 6 p.m. tomorrow. You want your friend to take you to the station.

2.    You're sitting at your friend's house. A bowl of fruit is sitting on the table. You want an apple.

3.    You're in class. You're hot. The window is closed.

4.    You're in a car. Your friend is driving. You want her to stop at the next mailbox so you can mail a letter.

5.    You're trying to study. Your roommate is playing his music tapes very loudly, and this is bothering you.

6.    You call your friend. Someone else answers and tells you that he's out. You want to leave a message.

7.    You want your pen. You can't reach it, but your friend can. You want her to hand it to you.

8.    You're at a restaurant. You want some more coffee.

9.    You're at your friend's house. You want to help her set the dinner table.

10.  You're the teacher. You want a student to shut the door.

11.  You want to make a telephone call. You're in a store and have to use a pay phone, but you don't have any change. All you have is (a one-dollar bill). You ask a clerk for change.

12.  You're at a restaurant. You've finished your meal and are ready to leave. You ask the waiter for the check.

13.  You call your boss's house. His name is Mr Smith. You want to talk to him. His wife answers the phone.

14.  You're walking down the hall of the classroom building. You need to know what time it is. You ask a student you've never met.

15.  You're in the middle of the city. You're lost. You're trying to find the bus station. You stop someone on the street to ask for directions.

17.  You call the airport. You want to know what time Flight 62 arrives.

18.  You're in a department store. You find a sweater that you like, but you can't find the price tag. You ask the clerk to tell you how much it costs.

IX. Translate from Russian into English.

1. He могли бы вы дать мне консультацию сегодня? 2. Не принесете ли вы мне стакан воды? 3. Пожалуйста, брось письмо в почтовый ящик по дороге на работу. 4. Ты не поможешь мне перевести эту статью? 5. Вы не возражаете, если я приглашу своих друзей? - Конечно нет. Я буду рад. 6. Можно мне включить телевизор? - Боюсь, что нет. Уже поздно и пора ложиться спать. 7. Пожалуйста, скажите мне, где я должен выйти, чтобы попасть на стадион. 8. Ты не можешь зайти ко мне сегодня вечером? 9. Можно мне взять на минуту ваш бинокль? Я хочу рассмотреть лицо певца. 10. Вы не поможете мне с чемоданами? - Конечно. 11. Пожалуйста, подожди меня немного. - Хорошо. 12. Вы не могли бы подвезти меня на вокзал? - С удовольствием. 13. Вы не могли бы помочь мне при переезде на новую квартиру? - Боюсь, что не смогу. Я уезжаю в командировку. 14. При­ходите после обеда, хорошо? 15. Вы не возражаете, если я открою окно? Здесь очень душно. 16. Можно мне сесть рядом с вами? - Да, пожалуйста. 17. Не мог бы ты помочь мне упаковать вещи? - С удовольствием. 18. Будьте добры, помогите мне выбрать подарок жене. 19. Вы не против, если я возьму ваш зонтик? - Нет конечно. 20. Не могли бы вы

показать нам свой город? - С удовольствием. 21. Вы не передадите мне соль? - Вот, пожалуйста. 22. Можно мне оставить свой портфель в гардеробе? - Да. 23. Вы не будете возражать, если я оставлю свои вещи до возращения? - Нисколько. 24. Вы ничего не имеете против того, чтобы мы пообедали в кухне? В столовой слишком холодно. 25. По­жалуйста, позвони в кассу и закажи билеты на самолет. 26. Покажите мне расписание поездов, пожалуйста. 27. Вы не возражаете > если я верну вам остальные деньги через неделю? - Хорошо. 28. Вы ничего не имеете против того, чтобы я пользовался вашим компьютером? 29. Не могли бы вы одолжить мне немного денег? 30. Вы не могли бы отнести мою книгу в библиотеку?

X. Study and practise the following conversations.

1.  Isabel is at Sandy's house.

Sandy:    Are you hungry?

Isabel:     Yeah. I haven't had lunch yet. Could you make

me a sandwich?

Sandy:    Sure. I'll make it for you in a minute. Isabel:     And could you get me something to drink, too? Sandy:    Yeah. Could you show me your English

homework while you're eating? Isabel:     Sure. Let me get it.

Sandy:    Oh, could you lend me a pen? I can't find mine. Isabel:     Here. The sandwich is delicious. Sandy:    Thanks. Isabel:     Could you pass the salt and pepper?


2.  Mr Adams: Bob, would you please get me the report that's

in my outbox?

Bob:           Of course, Mr Adams.

Mr Adams: Bob, could you bring me the stapler that's on

my desk?

Bob:           Of course, Mr Adams.

Bob:           Maria, could you help me fix the typewriter

that's on Mr Adams' desk?

Woman:     No, not at all. It is rather hot.

Man:          Tickets, please.

Liz:            Excuse me, but do you know what time this

train gets to Paddington? Man:          10.35, madam.

Liz:            Thank you. Er, could I possibly borrow your

newspaper for a moment? Woman:     Yes, certainly. By all means. I've finished with

it. Liz:            Thanks. I just wanted to check the times of a

film I'm going to see this afternoon. Woman:     Are you going to see anything interesting? Liz:            Well, actually, I'm taking my four-year-old

niece to see Bambi!

(Some time later)

Man:          Any more tickets?

Liz:            Oh, excuse me, but do you think you could

help me with my case?

Man:          Certainly, madam. There you are!

Liz:            Thanks very much.

A.  Ask polite requests beginning with 'Do you think you could ...?'.

1.  You want your teacher to check a letter you have written in English.

2.  You want your friend to lend you his camera for the weekend.

3.  You want a shop-assistant to change a £5 note for you.

4.  You want your landlady to forward your post when you leave.

5.  You want a friend to answer the phone while you are out.

B. Ask for permission in different situations beginning with 'Excuse me. Do you mind if I ... ?'

1.  You are in a cafe. You want to borrow the salt and pepper from another table.

2.  You are in a hospital waiting room where there is a TV. You would like to change the channel.

3.  You are in the reception area of a hotel. You would like to use the phone.

4.  You are on an aeroplane. You would prefer to sit in the aisle seat.

5.  You are in a dentist's waiting room. You would like to turn the radio on.

C. Make polite requests.

You are making a train journey. You want to buy a newspaper and you ask another passenger to look after your bag.

A: Would you mind looking after my bag? B: I'm sorry?

A: Could you possibly look after my bag? B: Oh yes, of course. No problem.

1.  You want to buy a newspaper and you ask another passenger to look after your bag.

2.  You ask the assistant at the newspaper kiosk to give you a fifty pence in the change.

3.  On the train you want to do the crossword in your newspa­per. You wonder if your neighbour could lend you a pencil.

4.  You feel a little chilly. You would like the person next to the window to close it a little.

5.  Your suitcase is on the rack and you would like the person opposite to lift it down.

6.  A woman in the corner has got her walkman on very loud. You would like her to turn it down a little.

D. Write a dialogue for the following situation.

-  You are in the departure area at a ferry terminal after your ferry has been delayed. You notice a place next to a woman and ask if you can sit there.

- You then notice that a woman has a magazine on the seat beside her and you ask politely if she could lend it to you.

-  The woman doesn't realize that you are talking to her and you repeat your request.

- You have a portable radio with you which you and your friends would like to play. You feel it polite to ask

permission to do this. Tell her you won't play it very loud.

XI. A. Write a note to a friend or classmate asking for several favours and explain why you need help.


I'm taking my boss and her husband out to dinner on Saturday, and I want to make a good impression. Would you mind if I borrowed your car? I promise to drive very carefully. And I wonder if you'd mind lending me that red bow tie of yours. Could you let me know as soon as possible? Thanks!


B. Pair work. Exchange notes and write a reply accepting or declining the requests.


Of course you can borrow my car on Saturday. You can

pick it up at ...

About my red bow tie, I'd like to lend it to you but ...


§4.   Obligation and necessity (1): must, have to, have got to

Must and have to

We use both must and have to to express obligation or necessity, but there is sometimes a difference between them:

We normally use must when

We normally use have to when the

the authority comes from the

authority comes from outside


the speaker.

Mother: You must be home

Daughter: I have to be home

by 10 o'clock. (I insist.)

by 10 o'clock. (My parents insist.)

I've got a terrible pain in my

I have to go and see the doctor

back. I must go and see the

at 9.00 tomorrow morning. (I have

doctor. (I think it is neces-

got an appointment.)


You must drive care-

You have to drive on the left

fully. (I insist.)

in Britain. (That is the law.)

We tend to prefer must:

-  when we refer to ourselves (with I/we): I really must weed this garden.

-  With you to express urgency: You must phone home at once.

-  in public notices, etc.: Cyclists must dismount.

- (= Can't you stop yourself?): Must you interrupt?

-  pressing invitations or advice: You must come and see us. You must repair that fence.

We only use must (+infinitive) to talk about the present and the future. When we talk about past obligation or necessity, we use had to.

I had to work late yesterday.

Must has no infinitive, -ing form or participles. So, when necessary, we make these forms with have to.

I'll have to work late tomorrow.

He hates having to get up early.

She's had to work hard all her life.

Note that in questions and negatives with have to we use do/does in the present simple and did in the past simple.

What time do you have to start work?

We don't have to hurry. We've got plenty of


Did you have to walk home last night?

Have got to

We often use have got to instead of have to to talk about obligation and necessity. Have got to is more informal and is used primarily in spoken English. Have to is used in both formal and informal English.

I have to hurry. Do you have to go?

I've got to hurry. Have you got to go?

We normally use have to, not have got to, for things that happen repeatedly, especially when we use one-word adverbs of frequency eg always, often. Compare:

I always have to work late on Wednesday evenings. Do you have to get up early'

I've got to work late this evening. ? Have you got to get up early tomorrow?

We use got mostly in the present.   To talk about the past, we normally use had to, not had got to.

I had to work late last night.


I. (i) Mrs Woods isn't very well. The doctor is speaking to her. Complete what the doctor says using must and the verbs drink, take, stay and continue. Use each verb only once.

Doctor: Well, Mrs Woods, your temperature is a little high, so you ... in bed for the next few days. You can eat whatever you like, but you ... plenty of liquids. And I'll give you some medicine. You ... it three times a day after meals. And you ... to take it for the next ten days.

(ii) Now Mrs Woods is explaining the doctor's instructions to Mr Woods. Complete what Mrs Woods says using have to and the verbs drink, take, stay and continue. Use each verb only once.

Mrs Woods: The doctor gave me some medicine. I ... it three times a day after meals. And I ... to take it for the next ten days. I'm not allowed to get up at the moment. I ... in bed for the next few days. Oh, and I'm allowed to eat whatever I like, but I ... plenty of liquids.

//. Complete the sentences using must or a form of have to. Sometimes two answers are possible.

1. I couldn't go to the party last night because I ... babysit for my sister. 2.1... get up early tomorrow morning. 3. You ... get a visa to visit the United States. 4. It's getting late. We ... go now. 5. I ... stay in bed yesterday because I wasn't very well. 6. Mr Mason ... wear glasses since he was a child. 7.1 don't like ... work at weekends. 8. He ... try harder if he wants to win the prize. 9. Notice in a picture gallery: Cameras, sticks and umbrellas ... be left at the desk. 10.1... do all the typing at my office. 11. You ... read this book. It's really excellent. 12. The children ... play in the streets till their mothers get home from work. 13. She felt ill and ... leave

early. 14. Mr Pitt ... cook his own meals. His wife is away. 15.1 hadn't enough money and I... pay by cheque. 16.1 never remember his address; I always ... look it up. 17. Employer: You ... come to work in time. 18. If you go to a dentist with a private practice you... pay him quite a lot of money. 19. Father to small son: You ... do what Mummy says. 20. My neigh­bour's child ... practise the piano for three hours a day. 21. Doctor: I can't come now. Caller: You ... come; he's terribly ill. 22. English children ... stay at school till the age of 16. 23. Notice above petrol pump: All engines ... be switched off. 24. Mother to daughter: You ... come in earlier at night. 25. The shops here don't deliver. We ... carry everything home ourselves. 26. The buses were all full; I ... get a taxi. 27. Notice beside escalators: Dogs and push chairs ... be carried. 28. Tell her that she ... be here by six. I insist on it. 29. Park notice: All dogs ... be kept on leads. 30. She ... learn how to drive when her local station is closed. 31. Railway notice: Passengers ... cross the line by the footbridge. 32. I got lost and ... ask a policeman the way. 33. If you buy that television set you ... buy a license for it. 34. When I changed my job I ... move to another flat. 35. Father to son: I can't support you any longer; you ... earn your own living from now on. 36. Whenever the dog wants to go out I ... get up and open the door.

III. Make questions with have to.

Example   'Tom had to go to the police station.'


'Why did he have to go to the police station?'

1.  'Ann has to leave tomorrow.'

'What time exactly______________________________?'

2.  'We had to answer a lot of questions at the examination.' 'How many questions_____________________________?'

3.  'George had to pay a parking fine.'

'How much_____________________________________?'

4.  'He will have to work hard next month.'


5.   'We had to get up early to catch the bus.'

'What time_____________________________________?'

6.   'My mother has to go abroad a lot.'

'How often_________________________________       ?'

7.   'I have to leave tomorrow morning.'

'What time_____________________________________?'

8.   'We had to wait for ages.'

'How long______________________________________?'

9.   'I have to take my car to the garage.'


10. 'Peter had to stay in bed for a week.'

'Why__________________________________              ?'

11. 'She'll have to go by bus.',


12. 'We have to dine out.'


IV. Make up short dialogues.

A: About this parcel - do we have to tie it up? B: Oh, yes, it must be tied up.

About ... - do we have to ...

1.    these books ... take them back?

2.    these old newspapers ... throw them away?

3.    this broken glass ... sweep it up?

4.    this wallet we've found ... hand it in?

5.    these old curtains ... take them down?

6.    the carpet ... roll it up?

7.    this watch we are giving him ... wrap it up?

8.    this information ... pass it on?

9.    this notice ... put it up?

10.  the instructions ... write them down?

11.  these forms ... fill them up?

12.  the money ... pay it back?

13.  the dishes ... wash them up?

14.  his orders ... carry them out?

15.  the wall that you say is unsafe ... pull it down?

16.  the documents ... lock them up?

17.  the meeting ... put it off?

V. Say 'why'.

Examples:   Jane is going -                 food/money/wine

to the bank.

She has got to go to the bank because she needs some money.

I am going to the shop,     dress/glass of


I have got to go to the shop because I need a dress.


Jane is going to the




I am going to the shop.

dress/glass of water/money


Peter is going to the

stamps/parcel labels/

post office.

traveller's cheques


Peter is stopping at the




Simon is asking for

bath/hot dog/girl-friend

some money.


Mr and Mrs Hunt are


going to bed.


The man is stopping at


the newsagent's.


They are phoning Direc-

book/telephone number/room

tory Enquiries.


You are going to the




We are going to the


hotel now.

§5. Obligation and necessity (2): mustn't, don't have to, don't need to, haven't got to, needn't

Compare mustn't and don't have to:

Father: Annie, you have a

Susan: I'm on holiday. I

bad cold. You mustn't get up

don't have to get up early now.

today. (= Do not get up.)

(= It is not necessary to get

up early. )

You mustn't wash that

You don't have to wash that

sweater. It has to be

shirt. It isn't dirty. (= It is

dry-cleaned. (= Do not

not necessary to wash it. )

wash it.)

We use mustn't when

We use don't have to when

there is an obligation

it is not necessary to do

not to do something.


Mustn't means 'it's forbidden'.

mustn't - prohibition             don't have to = absence (lack)

of necessity

Life belts must not be re-         Tomorrow is a holiday. We moved, (no choice)                   don't have to go to class.


We can also use don't need to, haven't got to or

needn't to say that it is not necessary to do some­thing.

I don't need to get up today. I haven't got to get up today. I needn't get up today.

Note that we often use needn't when the speaker gives someone permission not to do something.

You needn't pay me back the money you owe me until next week. (= I give you permission not to pay me back the money until then.)


/. Choose the correct form.

1. You've been late for work twice this week. You mustn't/ needn't be late again tomorrow. 2. We mustn't/don't have to hurry. We've got plenty of time. 3. We mustn't/haven't got to make any noise going into the house. It's very late and everybody is asleep. 4. You mustn't/needn't tell Nicki about the party. I've already told her. 5. You mustn't/don't need to phone the station about the time of the trains. I've got a timetable. 6. I mustn't/haven't got to go now. I can stay a bit longer if you want me.

II. Jim is going to backpack around the world for a year, but his mother is worried. Listen to them.

Mum:  You must write to us every week!

Jim:     Yes, Mum! I will.

Mum:  You mustn't lose your passport!

Jim:     No, Mum! I won't.

Work in pairs. Make similar dialogues between Jim and his

mother. Use the cues and must or mustn't.

- look after your money - go out when it's dark - make sure you eat well - phone us if you're in trouble

- talk to strangers - drink too much beer - have a bath regularly

- go anywhere that's dangerous

III. Complete the utterances using haven't got to and the prompts in the right column.

Examples: Jane is not tired.

Sheila has got a lot of clothes.

buy a new dress go to bed early.

Jane has not got to go to bed early. Sheila has not got to buy a new dress.

1.    Jane is not tired. 2.     Sheila has got a lot of clothes.

buy any food this week look for a flat



Harry has got a lot of money.

phone the restaurant


Mrs Hunt has got a lot of

cash a cheque today

food in the house.


We have bought a house in the

go to bed early



You have already booked a table.

buy a new dress


I have got six airletters.

go to a snack-bar


We have hired a car.

phone them tonight


I have written to the Blakes.

go to the post office yet


They have already had dinner

buy a car

in the hotel.

IV.  This time make negative sentences with have to.

Example: 'Did they have to change trains?'

'No, it was a through train so they didn't have to change (trains).'

1.  'Did you pay to get into the concert?'

'No, we had free tickets so we_____________________'

2.  'Does Jack shave?' 'No, he's got a beard so___________'

3.  'Did you get up early this morning?' 'No, it's my day off so____________________________________________'

4. 'Do you work?' 'No, I'm extremely rich so___________'

5. 'Will you have to walk?' 'No, we have a car so________'

6.  'Did you have to ask a doctor in?' 'No, my sister is a doctor so______________________________________'

7.  'Did you have to hire a taxi?' 'No, the hotel is not far from the station so______________________________'

8. 'Shall I have to wait?' 'No, the boss is free so_________'

V. Complete the sentences with any appropriate form of have to. Include any words in parentheses.

1.   A: (You) ... leave so early?

B: I'm afraid I do. I have some work I ... finish before I go to bed tonight.

2.  Last night Jack ... go to a meeting. (You) ... go to the

meeting last night too?

3.    Joan travels to Russia frequently. Luckily, she speaks

Russian, so she (not) ... rely on an interpreter when she's there.

4.    I (not) ... water the garden later today. Joe has agreed to do it for me.

5.    I ... write three term papers since the beginning of the semester.

6.    Why (Tom) ... leave work early yesterday?

7.    I found some milk in the refrigerator so we (not) ... go to the store after all. There is plenty.

8.    (John)... buy a round-trip ticket when he went to Egypt?

9.    Matt is nearsighted. He ... wear glasses ever since he was ten years old.

10.  By the time this week is finished, I ... take eight examinations in five days. The life of a student isn't easy!

11.  (You, not) ... return these books to the library today? Aren't they due?

12.  If Jean stays in Brazil much longer, she ... teach English part-time so that she'll have enough to support herself. (She) ... apply for a special work visa? Or can she work part-time on a student visa?

13.  Because it was Emily's birthday yesterday, she (not) ... do any of her regular chores, and her mother let her choose anything she wanted to eat for dinner.

VI. Use must not or do not have to in the following sentences.

1.  I've already finished all my work, so I ... study tonight.

2.  I ... forget to take my key with me. 3. You ... introduce me to Dr Gray. We've already met. 4. In order to be a good salesclerk, you ... be rude to a customer. 5. I ... go to the doctor. I'm feeling much better. 6. Johnny! You ... play with sharp knives. 7. We ... go to the concert if you don't want to, but it might be good. 8. This is an opportunity that comes once in a lifetime. We ... let it pass. We must act. 9. If you encounter a growling dog, you ... show any signs of fear, it is more likely to bite a person. 10. A person ... get married in order to lead a happy >.nd fulfilling life. 11. The soup is too hot. You ... eat it yet. Wait for it to

cool. 12. You ... have soup for lunch. You can have a sandwich if you like. 13. Liz finally got a car, so now she usually drives to work. She ... take the bus. 14. Tommy, you ... say that word. That's not a nice word. 15. Mr Morgan is very rich. He ... work for a living. 16. If you are in a canoe, you ... stand up and walk around. If you do, the canoe will probably turn over. 17. When the phone rings, you ... answer it. It's up to you. 18. When you have a new job, you ... be late the first day. In fact, it is a good idea to be a few minutes early. 19. A: You ... tell Jim about the surprise birthday party. Do you promise? B: I promise. 20. I... forget to set my alarm for 5.30. B: Why do you have to get up at 5.30? A: I'm going to meet Ron at 6:00. We're going fishing. 21. A: Listen to me carefully, Annie. If a stranger offers you a ride, you ... get in the car. Never get in a car with a stranger. Do you understand? B: Yes, Mom. 22. A: Do you have a stamp? B: Uh-huh. Here. A: Thanks. Now I ... go to the post office to buy stamps.

VII. Use must not or need not to fill the spaces in the following sentences.

1. You ... ring the bell; I have a key. 2. Notice in cinema: Exit doors ... be locked during performances. 3. You ... drink this: it is poison. 4. We ... drive fast; we have plenty of time. 5. You ... drive fast; there is a speed limit here. 6. Can­didates ... bring books into the examination room. 7. You ... write to him for he will be here tomorrow. 8. We ... make any noise or we'll wake the baby. 9. You ... bring an umbrella. It isn't going to rain. 10. You ... do all the exercise. Ten sentences will be enough. 11. We ... reheat the pie. We can eat it cold. 12. Mother to child: You ... tell lies. 13. You ... turn on the light; I can see quite well. 14. You ... strike a match; the room is full of gas. 15. You ... talk to other candidates during the exam. 16. We ... make any more sandwiches; we have plenty now. 17. You ... put salt in any of his dishes. Salt is very bad for him. 18. You ... take anything out of a shop without paying for it. 19. You ... carry that parcel home yourself; the shop will send it. 20. You ... clean

the windows. The window-cleaner is coming tomorrow. 21. Mo­ther to child: You ... play with matches. 22. Church notice: Visitors ... walk about the church during a service. 23. I ... go to the shops today. There is plenty of food in the house. 24. You ... smoke in a non-smoking compartment. 25. Police notice: Cars ... be parked here. 26. We ... open the lion's cage. It is contrary to Zoo regulations. 27. You ... make your bed. The maid will do it. 28. I want this letter typed but you ... do it today. Tomorrow will do. 29. I'll lend you the money and you ... pay me back till next month. 30. We ... climb any higher; we can see very well from here. 31. You ... ask a woman her age. It's not polite. 32. You've given me too much. - You ... eat it all. 33. We ... forget to shut the lift gates. 34. Mother to child: You ... interrupt when I am speaking. 35. If you want the time, pick up the receiver and dial 8081; you ... say anything.

VIII. What do you say to the other person in these situations. Use need't or mustn't.

Situation. You are talking to a little girl. She is playing

with some matches. Response You mustn't play with those matches.

Situation  Someone is speaking English to you very slowly. Response You needn't speak so slowly.

1.  You are in a petrol station. Someone is smoking.

2.  You are in someone's house. They are going to turn the heating up. You are warm enough.

3. Your secretary is willing to work late. You can do without


4. Your friend is going to park his car where there is a sign saying 'No Parking'.

5.  Your friend is willing to drive you somewhere. You are willing to walk.

6.  Your friend is going out and it is going to rain. You can see he is going to forget his umbrella.

7.  Someone is shouting at you but you are not deaf.

8.  Your taxi driver is willing to wait but it is not necessary.

IX.      You must...       It's necessary       You mustn't ... It's forbidden

You needn't ...   It's not necessary

When you arrive in Britain, there are plenty of regulations to worry about. There are things that are necessary, unnecessary, or forbidden. Use the modals above to complete the following statements.

1.    You ... bring animals into Britain.

2.    You ... have a passport.

3.    ... have a visa, if you want to stay a long time.

4.    ... have a visa if you are from an EEC (Common Market) country.

5.    ... declare any restricted goods at the customs.

6.    ... declare cigarettes up to a certain limit.

7.    ... take guns into Britain.

8.    ... drive on the left.

9.    ... stop at pedestrian crossings unless someone is on them.

10.  ... use the horn on your car except in an emergency.

X.  Mrs Wilson is telling her husband what has been happe­ning. Write his reactions, using must, mustn't or needn't + one of these expressions, and a tag question.

buy anything too expensive do any housework be stopped

be paid immediately make him change his mind

. 1. Stephen has announced that he is going to drop out of school.

We must make him change his mind, mustn't we? 2. They have been invited to a wedding, and will have to buy a present. They________________________,__________?

3.  The owners of the house across the road want to open a gambling club.


4.  The doctor has told Gran to rest completely.


5. The telephone bill has arrived - the final date for payment

is in two weeks.

It   ______________________,_____________?

XI.  Complete the sentences using must, mustn't, have to or will have to.

1.  Julie, trying to train her dog: You ... sit when I tell you to!

2.  The teacher who is invigilating Stephen's exam: You ... try to talk to each other during the exam.

3.  The doctor to a nurse about a patient with a bad heart: He ... stay in bed for several weeks, and ... talk too much.

4.  Mr Wilson phones his wife at 6 pm:

I'm afraid I'm going to be late - I ... finish some letters.

5.  The immigration officer notices that a traveller hasn't signed his new passport:

You ... sign it as soon as you get it.

6.  Mr Wilson explains why he is taking a pill: I ... take these pills for my blood pressure.

7.  Mrs Wilson is offering more cake to a guest at a tea party:

You ... have some more cake.

8.  Stephen has hurt his knee playing football: The doctor says I ... play for three weeks.

XII.  You work in a gym club. In pairs, use the cues below to make rules for the gym, sauna, and carpark, using must always and mustn't.


You must always wear sports shoes and sports clothes. You mustn't smoke.


wear sports shoes and sports clothes


use the equipment without a teacher

use training bicycles for more than twenty minutes

clean the equipment after using it


wear a swimming costume

remove any jewellery

read newspapers

use the sauna after 8 p.m.


lock your car

make any noise after 9.30 p.m.

leave your car overnight

play your car radio loudly

XIII.  Choose the correct verb in these exchanges.

1.  I can't go to the disco tonight. I'm afraid I ... get up early tomorrow.

a) mustn't         b) I've got                   c) will

2.  You ... wear shoes in the gym.

a) don't            b) haven't got to         c) mustn't

3.  ... go through that door. It says 'No entry'.

a) Don't            b) Not                         c) You mustn't to

3. It was a lovely party. We ... write and thank them, a) got to           b) do                           c) must

5. You're driving at 120 kph. You really ... drive so fast, a) don't            b) didn't                     c) mustn't

XIV. Supply mustn't or needn't/don't have to/haven't got to.

Note: We can use needn't, don't have to and haven't got to

in place of each other to mean it isn't necessary: I needn't/ don't have to/haven't got to go to the office tomorrow.

1. They ... wear a uniform. It's not obligatory. 2. She ... leave the office last. She can go when she is ready. 3. You really ... waste money like that. It worries your parents. 4. Visitors ... enter the laboratories without permission. 5. You ... go to the party if you don't want to. Nobody's forcing you. 6. He ... do the job today, as long as it gets done some time this week. 7. Surely we ... leave home yet. It's far too early to go to the station. 8. Passengers ... smoke in the toilets. 9. 'Are you going to read the report?' - 'No, I.... It's confidential.' 10. 'Are you going to read the report?' - 'No, I .... I already know what it says.' 11. You ... attend the meeting tomorrow. It's for union officials only. 12. You ... attend the meeting tomorrow. It's not important. 13. You ... forget to pay the electricity bill, or we'll be cut off. 14. We ... worry about Tom. He's just phoned to say he's all right. 15. You ... work such long hours. You won't earn any more.

XV. Supply must, need, or a form of have to. Question forms and negatives are also included.

1.    'What time ... we ... leave for the airport?'

'It's only a thirty-minute drive, so we ... go until about 3.30.' 'I ... do my packing. I haven't started yet!'

2.    I have an interview for a job next week, but before the interview I ... have a medical examination.

3.    How did you damage your bike? You ... learn to look after your toys. When I was your age, I... clean my bike every night.

4.    There's a new Indian restaurant just opened that you ... go to. It's wonderful! You ... book, though, because it's so popular already.

5.    I'm sure she didn't mean to upset you. You ... take things so personally.

6.    I hate ... get up on cold, winter mornings.

7.    I hate ... tell you this, but you've just got a parking ticket.

8.    I have perfect teeth. I ... never ... have a single filling.

9.    I think I've put on weight. I ... watch what I eat in future.

10.  I don't think a career in the army would suit me. I ... wear a uniform, for a start.

11.  You ... worry about me. I can look after myself.

12.  I got something for my cough from the chemist's, so I ... go to the doctor's.

13.  You ... drive me to the station. I'd much rather go on foot.

XVI. Replace the words in bold type by need not/need I? etc., or a negative or interrogative have to form.

  I've been invited to a wedding; but I can't go. Will it be necessary for me to send a present? Shall I have to send a present?

1. It isn't necessary for him to go on working. He has already reached retiring age. (He ... ) 2. Was it necessary for you to wait a long time for your bus? 3. It isn't necessary for me to water my tomato plants every day. 4. It will be necessary for them to get up early when they go out to work every day. 5. We had to stop at the frontier but we were not required to open our cases. 6. It wasn't necessary to walk. He took us in his car. (We ...) 7. My employer said, 'I shan't require you tomorrow.' (You ... come.) 8. It is never necessary for me to work on Saturdays. 9. When I am eighteen I'll be of age. Then it won't be necessary to live at home if I don't want to. 10. New teacher to his class: It isn't necessary for you to call me 'Sir'; call me 'Bill'. 11. Will it be necessary for us to report this accident to the police? 12. When you buy something on the installment system you are not required to pay the whole price at once. 13. 'Did you know enough English to ask for your ticket?' 'It wasn't necessary to say anything. I bought my ticket at a machine.' 14. It isn't necessary to buy a license for a bicycle in England. (We ...) 15. Is it essential for you to finish tonight? 16. Is it necessary for people to go everywhere by boat in Venice? 17. Will it be necessary for me to sleep under a mosquito net? 18. Most people think that civil servants are not required to work very hard. 19. It wasn't necessary to swim. We were able to wade across. 20. It isn't necessary

for you to drive me to the station. I can get a taxi. 21. Our plane was delayed so we had lunch at the airport. But it wasn't necessary to pay for the lunch. The airline gave it to us. 22. Is it obligatory for us to vote? 23.When you were a child were you required to practise the piano? 24.1 saw the accident but fortunately it wasn't necessary for me to give evidence as there were plenty of other witnesses. 25. Small boy to friend: It won't be necessary for you to work hard when you come to my school. The teachers aren't very strict. 26. They had plenty of time. It wasn't necessary for them to hurry. 27. Is it necessary for you to take your dog everywhere? 28. What time was it necessary for you to leave home? 29. I brought my passport but I wasn't required to show it to anyone. 30. I missed one day of the exam. Will it be necessary for me to take the whole exam again? 31. Is it really necessary for you to practise the violin at 3 a.m.? 32. Everything was done for me. It wasn't necessary for me to do anything. 33. Are French children obliged to go to school on Saturdays? 34. I was late for the opera. - Was it necessary for you to wait till the end of the first act before finding your seat? 35. He repaired my old watch so it wasn't necessary for me to buy a new one after all. 36. Were you required to make a speech?

XVII. Rewrite each of the sentences below using mustn't, can't and don't/doesn't have to, as appropriate.

I. You're not allowed to smoke on the lower deck of a bus in Britain. 2. It's impossible to learn a language properly in just a few weeks. 3. In Britain it isn't necessary for men to do military service. 4. It's impossible to be served in an English pub if you're under eighteen. 5. In Britain it isn't necessary for people to carry identity cards. 6. 'Don't put on any more weight,' his doctor said. 7. 'Don't forget to post my letter,' she said to him. 8. He's not going to work next Monday because it's a public holiday.

§6. Needn't have and didn't need to

Needn't have + past participle says that someone did something, but it was not necessary.

I needn't have made so much food for the party. Nobody was very hungry.(= It was not necessary to make so much food, but I did.) I needn't have told Kate what happened. She already knew. (= It was not necessary to tell Kate, but I did.)

Didn't need to + infinitive says that something was not necessary (but it does not say if someone did it or not). Compare:

She needn't have waited. (= It was not necessary to wait, but she did.)

She didn't need to wait. (= It was not necessary to wait; we don't know if she did or not.)

They needn't have worried. (= It was not necessary to worry, but they did.)

They didn't need to worry. (= It was not necessary to worry; we don't know if they did or not.)

When we use didn't need to, it often means that someone did not do something (because it was not necessary).

I didn't need to unlock the door because it

was already unlocked.

I didn't need to write to you so I phoned you


But we can also use didn't need to (with stress on need) when something was not necessary but some­one did it.

I didn't 'need to write to you, but I wrote to you anyway.


/. Respond using needn't have done/could have done.

A: You sent the sheets to the laundry, I suppose? (wash

them myself)

B: No, I washed them myself. C: You needn't have washed them yourself. You. could have

sent them to the laundry.

1.    You went by taxi, I suppose? (take a bus)

2.    You went by bus, I suppose? (walk)

3.    You took the lift, I suppose? (walk up the stairs)

4.    You phoned him, I suppose? (write)

5.    You got the tube tickets from a machine, I suppose? (stand in a queue)

6.    You borrowed the books, I suppose? (buy)

7.    You asked the shop to send the parcels home, I suppose? (carry them)

8.    You painted the car yourself, I suppose?(have it sprayed)

9.    You sewed it by hand, I suppose? (use the machine)

10.  You walked up the ski-slope, I suppose? (take the ski-lift)

11.  You paid by cheque, I suppose? (pay by cash)

12. You dialled the Paris number direct, I suppose? (ask the exchange to get)

13. You replaced the bulb yourself, I suppose? (send for the electrician)

14.  When the curtain caught fire you put it out yourself, I suppose? (ring for the Fire Brigade)

15.  You covered the grand piano with a sheet before you painted the ceiling, I suppose? (moved it out of the room)

16.  You went second class, I suppose? (go first class)

17.  You left your heavy case at the station, I suppose? (take it with me)

18.  As you needed a copy you used a carbon, I suppose? (type it twice)

//. Complete the sentences using needn't have where possible. If needn't have is not possible, use didn't need to.

I. 'Did you water the garden?' 'Yes, but I... (do) it. Just after I'd finished it started to rain!' 2.1 didn't wear my coat when I went out. I... (wear) it. It wasn't cold. 3. He was very anxious before the exam, but he ... (worry). It wasn't as difficult as he'd expected. 4. She ... (pay) the man, but she gave him some money anyway. 5. She ... (pay) the man, so she didn't give him any money. 6. Thank you very much for the flowers, but you really ... (buy) them for me. 7. I ... (phone) the plumber. I learnt later that John had already phoned him. 8. You ... (bring) your umbrella after all. It hasn't rained. 9. The forecast was for fine weather so I knew I ... (bring) my umbrella. 10. I ... (wash) these clothes. I didn't know they had already been washed.

II.  I ... (cook) a meal last night because we went out and the food I prepared was uneaten. 12. She had rich parents, and she ... (work) for a living and spent her time travelling. 13. She knew that the exam would be easy, and as she ... (worry) she was very relaxed. 14. He bought a loaf of bread, but he ... (buy) one because his wife had already bought one. 15. They ... (pay) for their son on the train because he was only two years old. 16. Brian had no money, so he sold his car. A few days later he won a lot of money in a competition. He ... (sell) his car. 17. Jack was very angry with Jill and threw a book at her. Later Jill said, 'I know you were very angry but you ... (throw) the book at me.'

HI. Complete this text using needn't have or didn't need to.

1. I ... (take) a taxi to the station because Mr Peters took me there in his car. We were held up in a traffic jam and I thought we would miss the train, but we ... (worry) because it was half an hour late anyway. There was a restaurant car on the train but I... (have) a meal because I had had a good breakfast. I ... (take) any luggage with me because I was coming back the same day. I took a book to read but I ... (bother) because I didn't even open it. The firm had booked a seat for me but they ... (do) so because the train was half empty. When I got to the meeting they told me I... (come) because the matter had already been dealt with. That night, when I got home I found no key, but I ... (wake) my wife because she was still up.

§7. Obligation and arrangement, part of a plan: be to,  be supposed to

Be to

The be + infinitive construction, eg I am to go, is

extremely important and can be used in the following


1. To convey orders or instructions:

No one is to leave this building without the permis­sion of the police, (no one must leave) He is to stay here till we return, (he must stay)

This is a rather impersonal way of giving instructions and is chiefly used with the third person. When used with you it often implies that the speaker is passing on instructions issued by someone else. The difference between (a) Stay here, Tom and (b) You are to stay here, Tom is that in (a) the speaker himself is ordering Tom to stay, while in (b) he may be merely conveying to Tom the wishes of another person. This distinction disappears of course in indirect speech, and the be + infinitive construction is an extremely useful way of expressing indirect commands, particularly when the introductory verb is in the present tense:

He says, 'Wait till I come.' =

He says that we are to wait till he comes.

or when there is a clause in front of the imperative:

He said, 'If I fall asleep at the wheel wake me up.' =

He said that if he fell asleep at the wheel she was to wake him up.

It is also used in reporting requests for instructions:

'Where shall I put it, sir?' he asked. = He asked -   where he was to put it.

2. To convey a plan( an arrangement):

She is to be married next month.

The expedition is to start in a week's time.

This construction is very much used in newspapers:

The Prime Minister is to make a statement to­morrow.

In headlines the verb be is often omitted to save space: Prime Minister to make statement tomorrow.

Past forms:

He was to go. (present infinitive)

He was to have gone, (perfect infinitive)

The first of these doesn't tell us whether the plan was carried out or not. The second is used for unfulfilled plan, i.e. one which was not carried out:

The Lord Mayor was to have laid the foundation stone but was taken ill last night so the Lady Mayoress is doing it instead.

was/were + infinitive can express an idea of destiny:

He received a blow on the head. It didn't worry him at the time but was to be troublesome later, (turned out to be/proved troublesome) They said goodbye, little knowing that they were never to meet again, (were destined never to meet)

Compare: must, have to and be to.

a) In order to graduate you must pass your exams.

must = obligation, absolute necessity with no free­dom of choice

b) You have (got) to go now or else you'll miss your train.

have (got) to = necessity arising out of circums-


b) We are to start tomorrow morning.

be to = obligation arising out of arrangement

Be supposed to

We can use supposed to to talk about what people are expected to do because of an arrangement, a rule, or a duty.

You're supposed to start work at 8.00 every


I'm supposed to see Maria this afternoon.

Note: Both fee supposed to and be to express expectations about scheduled events or correct procedures. Be to is stronger, more definite than fee supposed to. Compare:

(a) The game is supposed to begin at 10.00.

(b) The game is to begin at 10.00.

(c) The committee is supposed to meet tomorrow.

(d) The committee is to meet tomorrow.

We use not supposed to to express prohibitions.

You know you're not supposed to eat in the classroom.

There is often a difference between what is supposed to happen and what really happens.

I'm supposed to see Maria this afternoon, but

I'm not going to have enough time.

Put those sweets away! You know you're not

supposed to eat in the classroom.

He was supposed to phone me yesterday, but he


Note that we also use supposed to to mean 'said to' eg I'd like to read that book. It's supposed to be very good.


/. Explain the meanings and forms of be to in the following sentences. Translate them into Russian.

I. We were to act as guides to the party. 2. Now will you please show me the room where I am to work. 3. The children are not to touch anything in the room. 4. There was a special order that no one was to come to the station to see the battalion off. 5. Norman said I was to leave you alone. 6. The plane was not to take off at night as the weather was too bad. 7. The plane was to have taken off at night, but the weather was too bad. 8. It was the first and the last ceremony I was to see. 9. What do you want with my things? Am I to be moved to another cell? 10. I want to know on what terms the girl is to be here. Is she to have any wages? And what is to become of her when you've finished your teaching? You must look ahead a little. 11. Eliza, you are to live here for the next six months, learning how to speak beautifully. 12. He was to have had a music lesson in the morning but the teacher called up to cancel it. 13. It is evident that we are to have a backward season for grains. 14. 'My dear Trot!' cried my aunt in a terrified whisper, 'I don't know what I am to do.' 15. Why are you late? You were to have come an hour ago. 16. The order came that we were not to leave the village before dawn.

17. We were not to have left the village before dawn, but by the time the order came we were two miles away from it.

18.  Renny grinned: 'If we are to be neighbours for life - if you are to marry into a family I'm attached to - we should be on friendly terms.' 19. Sorry, but I must be off. I am to have tea with Betty this afternoon. 20. All junior officers are to report to the colonel at once. 21. He said you were to go to the police-station, did he? 22. Tell them they are not to stop work just now to talk about football. 23. He knew that

he was to be punished for his crime sooner or later. 24. I didn't see Mike at the appointed place and I wasn't surprised. We were to have met at 6 sharp. 25. What's the matter? The luggage is not packed yet. - Ann was to have packed it an hour ago. It's all her fault. 26. Classes were to begin within two days and the past week had seen a steady stream of new arrivals. 27. The meeting was to take place in a public room, at a hotel. 28.1 was to tell you she is sorry you are not free. 29. But I tell you, you are to come down, miss, this minute: your mother says so. 30. He was going to meet for the first time the people with whom he was to work for the next few years.

//. Translate the following sentences into Russian.

1. The building custodian is supposed to unlock the class­rooms every morning. 2. You're not supposed to open that door. 3. Where are we supposed to meet? 4.1 have a meeting at seven tonight. I am supposed to be there early to discuss the agenda. 5. When we go to the store, Annie, you are not supposed to handle the glassware. It might break, and then you'd have to pay for it out of your allowance.

III. It is evening and a group of people engaged in a team activity have been given their instructions .for the next day. Martin wants to know what the others have been told to do. They always use Jack's name in their reply.

A: You went with John today, didn't you? B: Yes, but I'm to go with Jack tomorrow.

A: Bill carried John's equipment today, didn't he? B: Yes, but he's to carry Jack's equipment tomorrow.

1.    Ann looked after Peter's children today, didn't she?

2.    Peter and Mary worked with Tom's group today, didn't they?

3.    You followed Bill's car today, didn't you?

4.    You drove Bill's car today, didn't you?

5.    Mary led Tom's team today, didn't she?

6.    George rode Peter's horse today, didn't he?

7.    They took their orders from Bill today, didn't they?

8.    You trained with Peter today, didn't you?

9.    You stood in front of Bill today, didn't you?

10.  They tested Peter today, didn't they?

11.  Mary filmed Andrew's group today, didn't she?

12.  You and Hugo gave Charles a lift today, didn't you?

IV.  Pretend you are taking a bus load of students (ages 12 to 16) on a trip to a nearby town. You are the supervisor. Make a list of rules you want the students to follow. Use be to in your list.

1.  You don't want the students to bring glass containers onto the bus.

For safety reasons, students are not to bring glass containers onto the bus.

2.  You want the students to keep the bus clean.

3.  You don't want the students to lean out of the windows.

4.  You don't want the students to toss anything from the bus.

5.  You want the students to store personal items under the seats.

6.  You don't want the students to yell, scream, or shout on the bus.

7.  You want the students to stay in their seats at all times while the bus is moving.

8.  (Make additional rules you want the students to follow.)

V.  Restate the following rules in sentences with be to.

1.  NO SMOKING.  -*. You are not to smoke.








VI.  Practise using be to. Make up several sentences using be to for each of the following situations.

Example: The teacher gave the students a writing assign­ment. Tell us what the students are to do.

Possible response. They are to write a composition./ They are to write about a person they admire./ They are to hand it in next Tuesday./They are to write it in ink./ They are not to write it in pencil.

1.  Jack's back hurt, so he went to a doctor. She gave him some instructions. Tell us what he is to do and what he is not to do.

2.  This is your assignment for the next class. (Supply an assignment.)

Can you repeat to me what you are to do?

3. Your son has some jobs to do before he can go outside and play. What is he to do?

4.  You have a new job as a cook. Your boss told you what she expects of you. Can you tell us what she expects of you?

5. You are on a committee to make rules for this school. The committee is writing a list of rules. What does this list include?

6. All of us use the library. What behaviour is expected of us? (We are to ... )

7. You are in charge of some children at a playground. You want to make sure they understand the rules you set. Tell them the rules. (Children, you are to ...)

8.  Who lives in an apartment building or dormitory? What is expected of its residents?

VII.  Complete the sentences using the correct form of be supposed to and the verbs in the box.

Example:   I'm on a diet, so I'm not supposed to eat cream cakes.

arrive    not eat        go    not open       not park       have

1. What are you doing with your birthday presents? You ... them until your birthday! 2. I ... to work yesterday, but I couldn't because I was ill in bed. 3. You ... your car here at any time. 4. We ... in Manchester at 6 o'clock this morning, but our plane was delayed. 5. Peter ... a one-hour lunch break, but he sometimes takes a bit longer.


Not allowed to

This is used when the speaker is giving a definite rule: We're not allowed to go in the theatre.

Not supposed to

This is often used when talking about a rule which people sometimes break:

You're not supposed to block the street.

Note: In the positive allowed to = have permission to, but supposed to = have an obligation to, i.e. it is expected behaviour.

Write restrictions and rules for the following places or situations.

  I. In an aeroplane you're not allowed to smoke in the toilets.

You're not supposed to stand up until the plane comes to a complete halt.

1. in an aeroplane

2.  in a petrol station

3.  on a motorway

4.  in a library

5. visiting people in hospital

6.  in your school

Look at the signs below and state the rules connected with them using not allowed to and not supposed to.

No right turn

Don't drop litter! £20 fine

Thank you for not smoking in this office.

It is illegal to travel without a ticket.

Please keep our city clean. Don't drop litter.

No parking between 08.00 and 18.30.

Please do not talk to the driver.

IX. Make up short dialogues.

A: What were your instructions about phoning Bill? B: I was to phone him at 6.00.

What were your Instructions about ...

1. reporting? 2. posting the documents? 3. meeting George? 4. contacting Ann? 5. seeing the agents? 6. joining?

7.   leaving? 8.   paying the workmen? 9.    inspecting the camp? 10. taking off? 11. starting? 12. opening the doors?

A: Did you borrow a car?

B: No. We were to have borrowed a car but the plan fell through.

Did you ...

1. camp on the beach?


swim before breakfast?

2. hire a boat?



3. visit the island?


get up at dawn?

4. anchor in the bay?


climb the cliffs?

5. explore the caves?


search for the sunken


6. bathe by moonlight?


take photographs under


7. spend a week there?


have sing-songs round the

camp fire?

8. cook over open fires?


invite everyone to a bar-

9. make a film of the seabirds?


X. Combine the modal verb be to with the correct form of the infinitive in brackets.

1. I stood at the window, looking at them, disappear, and my heart kept repeating 'Good-bye, good-bye!' I was not (see) them for nearly five years. 2. Nobody met me when I came. I was (arrive) by the ten o'clock train, but I couldn't get a ticket for it. 3. Remember that we are (be) at his place not later than eight. 4. Hot compresses were (apply) all night to the knee. 5. You knew exactly what you were (get) when you took on the job. 6. Why are you so late? Didn't you get my letter saying that we were (meet) at 4? 7. What am I (do) if she starts crying? 8. It's clear that we are (have) a very cold and rainy spring. 9. She is very excited today. She is (take) to her very first party. 10. There was a violent storm that night and the Albatros which was (arrive) at the port in the morning had to drop anchor near an island a hundred miles off the port. 11.When are they (dock)? Have they written? 12. Ba-teman remembered the winter at the end of which Isabel and Edward were (marry), a winter of dances and theatre-parties. 13. That is that. But who is (tell) her about it? 14.1 don't like the idea. Am I (stay) here all this time? 15.1 told you expressly that Miss Adeline was not (ride) at any more horse shows this autumn. 16. I just mention it because you said I was (give) you all the details I could. 17. I promised to go to a club in Whitechapel with her last Tuesday, and I really forgot all about it. We were (play) a duet together. 18. Everything has been arranged. You are (not have) any wages the first six months. Just your keep.

XI. Fill in the blanks with have to or be to in the correct tense forms.

1. At nightfall the ship put in at a small port where they ... . to load three hundred bags of coffee. 2. They ... to light a fire to cook their supper. 3. It was too late to change the plan and it ... to remain as it was. 4. The arrangement was that you ... to give your views and I... to say what I thought of them. 5. He set off to the school where he ... to write

examinations for entry to the University. 6. When I got home I found I had left my olive oil in front of the notice-board and I ... to return in the afternoon to collect it. 7. I wondered what ... to happen to us. 8. We agreed that the one who came first... to reserve seats for the rest of us. 9. Nobo­dy met me at the airfield as I ... to have arrived a day later and could not warn any of my friends of the change. 10. He always puts off doing what he ... to do until it... to be done.

11.  We ... to leave on Monday, but because of a two days' delay with the visas we ... to book tickets for Wednesday.

12.  There is nothing strange in what he did. It ... to be expected. 13. What ... to be done? We can't sit around like this the whole day. 14. He made all arrangements for the marriage which ... to take place on the day of his mother's arrival. 15. The Finnish woman who ... to work for Finch has not arrived yet. 16. Uncle Nick's things ... to be moved out of his room so that it could be re-let. 17. Eden went to the wood where he ... to meet his brother for a ride. 18. For the next few weeks I ... to stay in bed. Everyone came to visit me, and brought me presents, and I ... not to do the cooking. 19. That day, however, I had a pupil waiting for an English lesson and I ... to cut my visit short. 20. When no food ... to be had he seemed capable to do without. 21. ... I to do it all by myself? 22. You ... not to tell him anything about it before you get further instructions. 23. You ... not to tell him about it if you don't want to. 24. It was too late to change the plan and it ... to remain as it was. 25. They hoped to spend the summer together, but that ... not to be.

XII. Fill in the blanks with be to, have to, or must, using the correct form of the infinitive.

1.  I did not know who ... (be) my travelling companion.

2.  According to the state plan, many new dwelling houses ... (build) this year. 3. We ... (work) hard to achieve good results. 4. 'It is eight o'clock. The children ... go to bed,' Mr Hudson said to the nurse. 5. She ... (go) to bed at eight o'clock to be up in time for the first train. 6. This is serious; you ... (not joke) about it. 7. What ... (become) of the girl? ...

she (pay) anything? 8. 'I've told my husband he ... (not smoke) in the living room.' 'And I... (not tell) my husband such things; he's a born gentleman.' 9. The doctor told her that she ... (eat) chocolate. 10. He ... (stay) the night with us. I won't let him drive to the country in this rain. 11. He ... (stay) the night with us because he has missed the last bus. 12. He ... (stay) the night with us and tomorrow he sets off on his tour to Europe. 13. We ... begin as early as possible or we shan't finish it today. 14. My bike is under repair and I ... (walk) here this morning. 15. My bike was under repair and I ... (collect) it that afternoon. 16. My bike is under repair and I ... (collect) it yesterday. 17. He told me that I ... (not repeat) what I had heard. 18. No need to worry about the children. They ... (pass) the night in the country. 19. Mike ... (break) the news to his mother. She must know all about it already. 20. 'She's sinned and she ... (suffer),' said the missionary. 21. 'She has a lot to put up with, poor girl.' 'You ... (not tell) me. I know.' 22. He told me I... (not use) words which I didn't know. 23.1 did not expect that the worst ... (happen). 24. Sir Peter (looks at his watch): This is the time I ... (go). 25. Presently we ... (cross) the river, which we did on the craziest ferry-boat you can imagine. 26. Cokane (to Trench): How ... anybody (know) that you are well brought up if you don't show it by your manners? 27.1... (start) on my new job on Monday. 28. You ... (take) the dog away. I won't have it here any longer. 29. They ... (take) the dog along with them because there is no one who could look after it. 30. She ... (learn) to do things for herself. I refuse to help her in future. 31. What a pity you ... (go). I know it's time for you to catch your train. 32. I ... (be) off. I want to go to bed. 33. My mother says that I ... (not be) out after eleven o'clock, but I ... (not hurry) home because she herself is out playing bridge. 34. He told me that I ... (learn) by heart some twenty lines every day to know English well. 35. Meat ... (keep) in a refrigerator or it will spoil.

XIII. Translate from Russian into English.

1. Если у тебя будут неприятности, ты должна послать за мной. 2. Мне придется обдумать это и принять решение.

3. Если вы приходите сюда работать, то вы обязаны рабо­тать. 4. Ты должен научиться серьезно относиться к жизни, Стивен. 5. Вы должны сейчас же спуститься вниз, мисс: так говорит ваша мать. 6. Я рассказал эту историю, потому что кому-то надо было говорить. 7. Я должна выздороветь. Это слишком дорого обходится Барту. 8. Опять ему пришлось работать по ночам, и опять работа продвигалась медлен­но. 9. Я был несколько удивлен, обнаружив в зале, где я должен был выступать, так много людей. 10. Мне не при­шлось их знакомить. Оказалось, что они встречались рань­ше. 11. Тебе придется взять пальто. Холодает. 12. Озеро было так близко, что Алан, который не любил ходить пешком, согласился, что не нужно брать машину. 13. Он знал, что ему не надо никому ничего объяснять. 14. Че­рез десять минут вы должны сдать контрольные работы. 15. Он обязан (ему полагается) знать это. 16. Незачем было нести эти свертки самой. Магазин бы доставил их, если бы вы попросили. 17. Незачем брать зонтик. На небе ни облачка. 18. Один из гостей сел около меня. Мне не нужно было говорить, кто он. 19. Извини за опоздание. Мне пришлось отвести детей в школу. 20. Вы должны пользоваться словарем. Я устал исправлять ваши орфогра­фические ошибки. 21. Тебе не надо было делать пересадку. Автобус №8 довозит прямо до моего дома. 22. Объявление гласило, что посетители не должны кормить животных. 23. Концерт должен был состояться пятого февраля, но был отложен из-за болезни дирижера. 24. Дети, вы не дол­жны играть со спичками. 25. Почему Тому пришлось вчера уйти с работы так рано? 26. Разве тебе не нужно сегодня вернуть книги в библиотеку? 27. Врач сказал, что за ребенком нужно хорошо ухаживать. 28. Ты можешь подождать полча­са? - Нет, не могу. Я должен быть дома в два часа, и мне нужно поторопиться, так как сейчас без двадцати минут два. 29. Если боль прошла, то ему не нужно принимать лекар­ство. 30. У него хорошие способности к языкам, и ему не приходится много заниматься. 31. Руди пригласили на обед к Мэри. После обеда они должны были пойти в кино. 32. Вы должны сделать работу к четвергу. 33. Мне не нужно будет

сдавать этот экзамен. 34. Если бы я не приготовил все за­ранее, мне нужно было бы сделать это сейчас. 35. Он дол­жен был уехать утренним поездом, но что-то задержало его и ему пришлось ехать вечерним поездом. 36. Не пола­гается разговаривать во время контрольной работы. 37. Он сказал, что я могу не оплачивать счет до 31 числа. 38. Я должен встретить их на вокзале? - Нет, не нужно. Ты дол­жен ждать их здесь. 39. Кому-нибудь придется ее прово­дить. Я сам не смогу.

XIV. Study and practise.

1.  Customer: I wonder if you can tell me what the special

requirements are for a visit to Poland?

Official: First you have to arrange a visa. This can take up to three weeks so you must apply ear­ly-

Customer: Thank you. I'll have to contact my friend before I can make any definite arrangements. But I can see we'll have to move more quickly if we want to travel in July.

Official: Yes, sir. You must fill in the form as soon as you can.

2.  Susan:         Can't you come and have tea now, Peter? Peter:        Not yet, dear. I must water the garden first. Susan:       Do you have to water it now?

Peter:        I'm afraid I must.

Look at it! It's terribly dry.

Susan:       What a nuisance!

Peter: Last summer it was very dry, too. I had to wa­ter it every day.

Susan:        Well, I'll have tea by myself.

Susan:       That was quick!

Have you finished already?

Peter:        Yes, dear.

Look out of the window.

Susan:       Good heavens! It's raining.

That means you needn't water the garden. Peter:        That was a pleasant surprise.

It means I can have tea, instead.

3.  Maria:        Hey, Judy, want to come to lunch with me? Judy:         Oh, lunch would be great right now, Maria,

but I just don't have the time. I have this three o'clock sales meeting with the vice president and I have to finish typing my report before I do another thing.

Maria: Oh, but this is the third time this week you've skipped lunch.

Judy: Well, I know, but this is just too important to miss. Listen, could you bring me back a sand­wich?

Maria:       Sure.

Judy: I'll have to eat it at my desk while I make a few more phone calls to check on some sales figures before the meeting.

Maria: Sure, but... but why can't your secretary help finish the report?

Judy: Well, I'd have my secretary do it only, with this deadline, I just can't trust him to type it fast enough. I want to do it myself so I know it's done right. Look, I can't talk any more, Maria, I have to get started on this report. There are just too many important things to do before this meeting this afternoon.

4.  Josh has now got a job as a tour guide through Work International. His first job is to take a coach party around Europe.

Clare:        OK. So is everything all right for Monday? Josh:        Yes, fine. Oh, just one thing. How much do I

have to know about each city? Clare:         You don't have to be an expert but it helps if

you know a little. Josh:         I see.

Clare:         They use local guides.

Josh:        Ah, that's good. Do things ever go wrong on

these trips? Clare:         Oh, yes, often. You have to be quite resourceful!

A.  1. What is Josh's first job? 2. How much does he have to know about each city in Europe? 3. What sort of person does a tour guide have to be?

B.  Do you know anyone who has been a tour guide? Do you think it is an exciting job?

C.  An English-speaking friend is interested in the way you live in your country. In pairs, use the list below to ask and answer about laws in your country.

A: Do you have to carry an ID card all the time? B: Yes, you do./No, you don't.

Do you have to:

-  carry an ID (identity) card all the time?

- show an ID card to buy alcohol?

-  do military service if you are a man?

-  pay for water?

-  pay when you visit the doctor?

- buy your own books at school?

- pay traffic fines on the spot (immediately)?

5. John Byron is a tour guide who takes coach parties through Europe.

'All sorts of things can go wrong on these tours. One of the worst problems is when the bookings are wrong. For example, you arrive late at the hotel and there are only thirty beds when you've got forty people on the bus! You have to be very resourceful. You have to sort out problems quickly. There is always one big drama during a tour. Last year in Austria a man in my party had an asthma attack in the middle of the night and I had to call a doctor. The man couldn't breathe. In fact he nearly died and the hotel owner was very worried because he didn't want a death in his hotel! The doctor

forgot to bring any alcohol to sterilise his needles and he had to use some local brandy from the hotel bar! You have to be on your toes all the time in this job!'

A. Have you ever had any problems on a school trip, guided tour or package holiday?

B. In pairs, choose three adjectives from the box to describe the qualities most needed for each of the jobs below.

I. A teacher has to be ...

1.  teacher

2.  a personal assistan

3.  a writer

4.  a nurse

5.  a model

6.  a hairdresser

7.  an engineer













6. I=Interviewer     M=Megan   L=Laura

I:  What are some of the good things about being a

teenager, not an adult? M:Um ... well, you don't have to go out to work, for a

start. L: And you don't have to pay bills. You can go out with

your friends, go shopping, go to the cinema. M: But I always have to tell my Mum and Dad where I'm

going first.

L: So do I. Another thing is we don't have to do the house­work and the washing and cleaning, and all that stuff,

which is really boring. M:One problem is that you never have enough money.

We get some money from our parents, but it's never

enough. You aren't allowed to buy what you want. I:  What do you think it's like being an adult? L: Well, adults have to worry about bills and looking

after their family. They can't do what they want when

they want.

I:  They have responsibilities, you mean?

L: Yeah. I feel more sorry for my Mum. She's always rushing around and she has to go to work as well. She doesn't have to work on Thursdays and Fridays, but she has loads of different things to do in a day, like shopping, er ... cooking, taking me to dancing and swimming.

I:  So do you think Dad has the easier life?

L: Well, I don't know. He has to work full-time, and he drives over a thousand miles a week, but he doesn't have to do anything in the house. When he gets in at 7.30, everything's been done!

I: Urn, tell me about school. What are some of the school rules?

M:Huh! We have to wear a stupid school uniform, and we're not allowed to wear white socks, they have to be black. We can't wear make-up, and we aren't allowed to chew gum!

I: And if you break one of the rules, you get a Friday afternoon detention!

A. What are some of the things Megan and Laura like a don't like about being a teenager? Complete the gaps.

a.  You ... go out to work.

b.  You ... pay bills.

c. You ... go out with your friends.

d.  I always ... tell my Mum and Dad where I'm going.

e.  We ... do the housework.

f.  You ... buy what you want.

g.  Adults ... worry about bills.

h. We ... wear a stupid school uniform, i. We ... wear make up. j. We ... chew gum!

B. Laura's parents are called Malcolm and Barbara, wnat are some of the things they have to do, and some of the things they don't have to do? Who do you think has an easier life, Barbara or Malcolm? What about your family?

Is there a division between what the men do and what the women do in your family?

7. Molly Morgan is going to her sister's house for a week.

Molly:    Now, Mick! What have you got to do while I'm away?

Mick:     I've got to hoover the carpet ...  and do the washing. Oh ... and I've got to feed the cat. Have I got to do the shopping?

Molly:    No you haven't. There's lots of food in the fridge.

Mick:     And have I got to cut the grass?

Molly:    Yes, you have. It's very long. I'm coming back on Sunday.

Mick:     OK. Goodbye, Molly.

A. Write a list of things you've got (haven't got) to do today.

B. Rewrite these sentences with have (n't) got to or must not

as appropriate.

Example:   If you want to take the exam it is necessary to sign your name.

If you want to take the exam you've got to sign your name.

1. It isn't necessary to answer all the questions, but you can if you want to.

2. It is necessary to answer at least three questions or you'll fail.

3.  You can't use a pencil in the examination.

4.  It is forbidden to leave the room during the first hour of the exam.

5.  It isn't necessary to answer the questions in numerical order.

6. Everybody must answer question I, but you needn't answer

question 2, if you don't want to.

7.  You needn't spend half an hour on every question.

8.  If you finish half an hour early it isn't necessary to wait until the end.

g. Tessa hasn't seen Maggie for a long time and would like her to come round to her flat.

Tessa:     It would be nice to see you again, Maggie. Are

you free on Sunday evening? Maggie: I'm sorry, I'm not. I've got to visit my aunt in

hospital. Tessa:     Oh, that's a pity. Monday's difficult for me.

What about Tuesday evening? Maggie: Tuesday's bad for me as well. I've got to go to a


Tessa:     Wednesday then? Maggie: No, Wednesday's out for me I'm afraid. I've got

to stay in and do some work. I really must. Tessa:     Oh, that's a shame. Well, I can't make Thursday.

Friday? Maggie: I'm awfully sorry, I've got to go out for dinner

on Friday.

Tessa:     Have you got to? Can't you get out of it? Maggie: I'm afraid not, I've simply got to go. Tessa:     Well ... it looks as if we'll have to wait till next

week then. Maggie: Yes, I am sorry Tessa. Look, I must go now. I

have to meet Stephen in ten minutes. Ring me

next week sometime. Tessa:     Fine. Try and keep an evening free for me.

9. John:       I'd love to continue this conversation, but I really need to go now. I have to get back to the office.

Steve:     Well', let's get together soon.

John:      Okay. Would you like to have lunch some day next week?

Steve:     Sure. How about Monday?

John:      Hmm. I'm afraid I can't make it on Monday,

I've got to fly to Chicago on business. 'Steve:     Well, unfortunately, I'm tied up on Tuesday. I'm supposed to have lunch with an important visitor from out of town, and I don't think there's

any way I can get out of it. Are you free on Wednesday?

John: Wednesday? Let's see. Hmm. Somehow I think I've already got something scheduled for Wednes­day. Oh, yes! I've got an appointment with my dentist to have my teeth cleaned, and it's es­sential that I keep it.

Steve: Well, I'm afraid Thursday is out for me. I'm expected to attend a meeting of our personnel committee, and it's very important for me to be there.

John: So that leaves Friday. I don't have any obligations or commitments on Friday. How about you?

Steve:     Friday sounds good. Where should we meet?

John: You know I really must be going now or I'll be very late.

Steve:     Can you give me a call tomorrow and we'll decide?

John:      Fine. Speak to you then.

Sorry I have to rush off like this.

Steve:     That's okay. I understand.

John:      Good-bye.

Steve:     So long.

A. Make up similar dialogues.

lO.When Margaret went into Wilson's office, she noticed that he looked very tired. In fact, he looked awful. She knew it was not a good time to ask for a rise, but she felt she had to. She tried to think of something casual to say first. It was always best to begin such conversations casually.

'Uh ... you're looking a bit tired,' she said. Wilson sighed. He told her he had just seen the Financial Controller, the man who told everybody at the EBC how much they could spend.

'As usual, he said I was spending too much. It wasn't a very pleasant conversation,' he said. Then he mentioned that he had a headache. Margaret began to feel sorry for him. She offered to get some aspirins for him from the canteen.

'You needn't bother. I can go there myself,' he said.

'Oh, but I'm going to the canteen anyway. It's no trouble,' she protested. Wilson thanked her and gave her some money for the aspirins. She left. It was only after she had closed the door behind her that she realised something. She had forgotten to ask for the rise!

A- Margaret says:

'I'll go to the canteen now.'

and Wilson answers:

'That's very kind of you, but you needn't bother. I

can go there myself.'

What are his answers if she says:

1. Til type that letter.'

2. 'I'll post those letters.'

3. 'I'll carry that bag for you.'

4. 'I'll take care of this matter.'

5. Til solve the problem for you.'

6. 'I'll dial the number for you.'

11. 'Do you call that a hat?' I said to my wife.

'You needn't be so rude about it,' my wife answered as she looked at herself in the mirror.

I sat down on one of those modern chairs with holes in it and waited. We had been in the hat shop for half an hour and my wife was still in front of the mirror.  'We mustn't buy things we don't need,' I remarked suddenly. I regretted saying it almost at once.

'You needn't have said that,' my wife answered. 'I need  not remind you of that terrible tie you bought yesterday.' 'I find it beautiful,' I said. 'A man can never have too many ties.' 'And a woman can't have too many hats,' she answered.

Ten minutes later we walked out of the shop together. My wife was wearing a hat that looked like a lighthouse!

A. Put mustn't, needn't or needn't have in the gaps in the following sentences.

1.    You ... give Freddy any more sweets or he won't eat any tea.

2.    The Doctor said I... go back to the hospital; my leg is all right.

3.    You ... make any sandwiches for me. I'm not hungry.

4.    My tea was already sweetened. I ... put any sugar in it, but I did and made it too sweet.

5.    She ... fill in a new application form, we have the other one.

6.    You ... mention this to Kate, or she'll get upset.

7.    I... answered the questions, which would have saved me a lot of time.

8.    She ... bring a doctor's certificate, she was only away for one day.

9.    You ... take any more aspirins, you've had four already.

10.  Tell her she ... open any letters marked 'personal'.

11.  You ... stayed if you hadn't wanted to-

12. Mike: Do you think I can borrow the car tonight, Mum? Mum: No, you can't. Your father and I will be using it.

We're going to the annual general meeting at the

bridge club.

Mike: But they aren't holding the meeting tonight. Mum: Aren't they? How do you know? Mike: I heard Dad telling Mr Jones it had been postponed

for a month. Mum: Well, he didn't mention it to me. If that's the

case you can use the car, but you're not to cram it

with too many of your friends again. There must

have been eight or nine of you in it last week.

You'll spoil the upholstery, and besides it's against

the law. Mike: Well Pete's car had broken down, so ours was the

only available. Anyway there are only seven of us

this week, Mum: That car's only meant to take five people. You are

not to go far in it, or you'll break the springs. Mike: We're only going to a party at Topsham. I'll drive

slowly and gently. Mum: Another of those parties! You're to be home at

midnight, or your father and I will be worried to

death that you've had a crash. Mike: Mum, the party will hardly have started by

midnight. Just go to sleep and forget about me. Mum: If you're late in, you are not to make a noise ...

And you're not to drink any alcohol or the police

will stop you and you'll lose your license. Mike: For god's sake, Mum, you must think I'm 9 years

old, not 19!

A. Look at the examples below. Make up similar dialogues.

A: I can't take the car tonight, can I? B: No, you're not to take the car tonight.

A: Mike's got to come back before twelve o'clock, hasn't

he? B: Yes, he's to come back before twelve o'clock.

13. Mum:Hello, Mike. Did you enjoy the weekend in Paris?

Mike: Yes, it was great, Mum. Look, I've brought you back some wine, and here are some cigarettes for Dad.

Mum: Thank you, dear. That's lovely. But you needn't have gone to that expense.

Mike: Well, I don't often buy you presents, but I don't often go to Paris either.

Mum: Tell me about it. What did you do with yourself?

Mike: Well, we had quite a good flight, and we got to the hotel at about seven o'clock. We had a super dinner, and then Olive, Tim and I went to a night­club.

Mum: Didn't anyone else go with you?

Mike: No, no one else wanted to come. All the others were too tired. Then on Saturday morning we did some shopping, and of course we watched the international rugby match in the afternoon. The match was drawn, but England were lucky not to lose.

Mum: Where else did you go? Didn't you look round the Louvre?

Mike: Yes, but it was a lightning visit. And.we went up the Eiffel Tower too, of course. But we didn't have time for much else. We were told we were not to be late for check-in at the airport and we had to rush like mad. When we got there, though we found we needn't have hurried because take off had been delayed for an hour.

Mum: What else did you buy then?

Mike: Let me see ... A few souvenirs, some postcards, a bottle of perfume for Janet ... Nothing much else because I ran out of money. By the way, can you lend me a couple of pounds until next week, Mum?

Mum: So that's the price of my French wine, is it?

A. Complete the sentences using had to, didn't have to, was not to, or was not allowed to.

1.1... go to London last week for a meeting. The firm paid so I ... buy the train ticket. I ... go first class because the firm was trying to economise on fares. I ... be in London by 10 o'clock, so I... get up early to catch the train in the morning. The boss said I ... be late because I ... meet a very important client from New York. The discussions only lasted a few hours and I... stay the night because there was a fast train home in the evening. I wanted to stay and see a show but my wife wasn't well and she said that I... be away all night. After the meeting I ... rush to the station to catch the train.

14. Nick: Hello, Alex. Alex: Oh, hi Nick! Nick: What's happening? Alex: We're waiting to see Timothy Dalton. I want to

get his autograph. Nick: Why don't you go in? Alex: We're not allowed to. We have to wait until he

comes out. Man: Come on, you lot, move on. You know you're not

supposed to block the street.

Alex: Here he is! Later Alex: Well at least I got his autograph! Do you want to

come and have a coffee? Nick: O.K. But I'll have to be quick. I'm supposed to be


A. Complete the text by Inserting one of the verb phrases below.

not allowed to not supposed to was allowed to

has to didn't have to

have to

I've got a new job as a security guard and it's a big change. We ... clock in at 7.30 but in my last job we ... start until eight o'clock. Also in my last job ... take an afternoon off every two weeks but here we don't get any half days. They're strict about smoking too but I think that's good. We're ... smoke anywhere in the building. Anyone who wants to smoke ... go outside. But they're not so strict about the lunch hour. We're ... take more than an hour off but everyone does. Nobody seems to mind very much if you're a bit late back.

15. The education of children starts as soon as they are born; girls wear pink and boys wear blue; boys play with guns and girls play with dolls. Boys are allowed to make more noise and cause more trouble, while girls are supposed to be more interested in talking to and understanding people. This kind of education prepares boys for power in the world but for little else.

A. Are your parents strict?

Say what you are (not) allowed (supposed) to do.

§8. Obligation and advice: should, ought to, had better

Should and ought to

We can use both should and ought to to talk about obligation and duty, to ask for and give advice, and, in general, to say what is right or good.

You should learn to swim./You ought to learn

to swim.

You shouldn't tell lies./ You oughtn't to tell


What do you think I should do?/ What do

you think I ought to do?

Should and ought to are very similar in meaning, but we often prefer ought to to talk about authority which comes from outside the speaker eg from laws or rules. Should is a little more common, and ought to is a little more emphatic.

Note that after should, we use the infinitive without to eg learn, tell.but after ought, we use to+ infinitive eg to learn, to tell.

We use should have/ought to have + past participle to say that someone did the wrong thing in the past.

I should have posted this letter yesterday, but I forgot. (I did not post it.) I'm really tired this morning. I shouldn't have stayed up so late last night. (I stayed up late.) Haven't you finished your homework yet? You ought to have done it last night. (You did not do it.)

Had better

Had better (+ infinitive without to) expresses a strong recommendation in a particular situation.

I'm going to an interview tomorrow. I'd better iron my shirt.

It's going to be cold tonight. We'd better turn on the heating.

('d better =had better)

We always use had (not have) with better in this structure, but the meaning is present or future, not past.

We form the negative with had better not. We'd better riot be late.

Had better often suggests a kind of threat or warning of possible bad consequences and is stronger than should or ought to.

You'd better take care of that cut on your hand soon, or it will get infected.

Should/Ought to and Must compared

All of them are used to express obligation, but must is often obligation with the sense of command, while the meaning of obligation in should and ought to is weakened to advice, admonition, recommendation. (must = strong obligation, should/ought to - mild obligation)

Must also expresses duty but is a much stronger word than should or ought to. People are often punished if they do what they must not do, or if they don't do what they must do.

A man must not steal. (If he steals he will be put into prison.)

You must study your lessons. (If you do not study you will not pass your exams. Failure is a kind of punishment.)

But people who do what they should not do, or what they ought not to do, are not always punished.

We should (ought to) clean our teeth after every meal. (But many of us forget to clean our teeth, or we have no time to clean them, and we are not punished.)

Should and ought to suggest that the person or

thing concerned is advised, required or expected to

take a certain action but is free to avoid it. Must

differs from should and ought to in that the person

or thing concerned is not considered free to avoid

the required or expected action. With must this

action is imagined as inevitable.

Should and ought to are used when must would

sound too peremptory.

Must indicates an obligation, usually one that comes

from outside. Rules and regulations usually make

use of must.

Ought to and should are often used to indicate

moral obligation, the feeling of obligation that comes

from inside us.

Illustrative Situations

1.  Tony is typical of many young men today. He is overweight and he never gets any exercise. He drives everywhere. Even if he wants a packet of cigarettes from the corner shop, he drives there. The doctor has told him to get more exercise and to walk as much as possible.

He should get more exercise.

He should walk when he goes to the corner shop.

Perhaps he should take up tennis or golf.

2.  Young Dr Pildare is drunk. Everyone is shocked. The worst thing is that he has just come into the operating

theatre without a mask on. There is also a dirty black cigar in his mouth. He knows all this is strictly forbidden.

He should be wearing a mask. He shouldn't be smoking.

3.  You went out without your mac yesterday. When it started raining you didn't even shelter under a tree.

You should have been wearing your mac. You should have sheltered under a tree.

4.  The supervisor was furious. It wasn't tea-time, yet when she went into the packing-department she found all the girls there were not working. They were having a cup of tea. They didn't go back to work when she came in. In fact, they laughed at her.

They shouldn't have been drinking tea. They shouldn't have laughed at her.

5.  The goal-keeper suddenly decided to have a rest. He sat down in front of the goal and didn't even bother to get up when the other team attacked. One of the forwards shot the ball into the net. He simply watched.

He should have been standing up. He should have stopped the ball.

6.  Jack smokes and coughs a lot. His wife says, 'You ought to stop smoking. You ought to have done that long ago.'

7.    Robert has an important examination in a few days, but he spends a lot of time on the beach swimming and sunbathing. His mother says, 'You ought to be studying for your exam. You shouldn't be spending all your time on the beach.'

8.    Susan and Ron have just had an accident. Luckily neither of them was hurt. Susan says, 'You ought to have stopped at the traffic lights. You shouldn't (oughtn't to) have been driving so fast.'

9.    Frank Martin has not been feeling very well lately. He has been working a lot overtime because he wants to buy a new car. The doctor has been examining him. 'You've been working too hard, that's all,' he is saying. 'You'd better take things easy for a while. You'd better not work so hard.'

10.  Peter is making a long-distance call to Canada. He has been talking for six minutes and the operator has just asked him to put some more money in. He has not got any. 'Look,' he is saying to the person in Canada. 'I think I'd better hang up now.'

11.  Mrs Wilson:  Did you remember to pay the phone bill? Mr Wilson:    No, I completely forgot. We'd better pay

it soon, or they'll cut us off! Well, it's 8.20. I'd better leave for work.

Mrs Wilson: It's raining, you know, you'd better not go without a coat.

Mr Wilson:    You're right.


/. Analyse the meanings expressed by should and ought to.

Observe the forms of the infinitive. Translate the sentences into Russian.

1. 'I'm sorry.' 'You should be.' 2. 'You should come here often,' he said to Shelton. 'You ought to come here often,' he repeated to Shelton. 3. 'I've come to tell you that I'm sorry.' 'You ought to be,' I said. 4. He looked more than ever out of place, he should have stayed at home. 5. 'You ought to be careful not to make a fool of yourself,' I said to Percy. 6. It's late. You should go to bed. 7. Look, if you're worried you ought to see Dr Devit. He is a sensible doctor. 8. He thought, 'She is not thinking of me - why should she? She's young.' 9. She smiled. 'You ought to get married yourself, my boy.' 10. Betty says it's a kid's game anyway and I ought to be ashamed of myself flying a kite at my age.

11. 'I'm not sure, young man,' said Eden, 'that I oughtn't to refuse straight out - in your own best interests.' 12. But she was too young to know that wisdom shouldn't be spoken about when you are happy. 13. Perhaps it is one's duty. Perhaps I ought to do it. Perhaps you'd better tell them I will do it - just as a matter of duty. 14. He ought never to have married a woman eighteen years younger than himself. 15. You should have gone to the concert. Why should you miss the music? 16. There were fifteen equally good reasons why she should not have played bridge. 17. 'Mr Davidson thinks that such a costume should be prohibited by law,' said his wife. 18. Why should I know anything about them?

19.  Oh, Renny, you should not have done what you did.

20.  They both thought it an opportunity that shouldn't be missed. 21. I think you ought to show some respect for the dead. 22. The doctor told her she ought to go to a sanatorium. 23. 'He was pleased with his present,' said Mr Sunbury to change the conversation. 'And so he ought to be,' said Mrs Sunbury still upset. 24. He knew he ought to tell Gorin and allow him to take other plans, but he continued to postpone the decision. 25. Aunt Milly took it into her head that I ought to become an engineer. 26. Small children ought not to play in the streets. 27. Some people are colour blind. They ought not to drive cars and buses. 28. 'Well,' Michael mumbled, 'I'm very glad to know at last what it was all about.' 'You ought to have been told before.' 29. Oughtn't you to be more careful? 30. When Charles saw Ann playing tennis, he came up and said, 'Are you sure you ought to be doing that?' 31. The responsibility is entirely mine. I acted very wrongly indeed. I ought not to have let this relationship start. 32. 'When is he going back?' 'How should I know?' 33. I'm the head of the noblest branch of the family and I ought to live up to it. 34. She will expect you to marry, Harry; a doctor ought to marry. 35. 'I ought to have told Soames,' he thought, 'that I think him comic.' 36. You should have left me alone. It's all I'm fit for. 37. They should be taught a lesson. 38. One should always eat muffins quite calmly. It is the only way to eat them. 39. You'd better stop taking these pills.   40. Your

daughter has a good voice. Her interest in singing should be encouraged.

II. Complete the conversations using ought to. Roleplay the conversations.

1.  A university tutor is talking to one of her students. The student knows that he isn't working hard enough.

Tutor: This essay is useless. You simply haven't writ­ten enough.

Student: Yes, I know I ought to write more.

Tutor: It's typical, there's absolutely no evidence of any background reading.

Student:   _______________________________________.

Tutor: Furthermore, I understand you go out every night.


2.  Mr Fox, the editor of Euromode, works very hard and feels that he might be in danger of having a nervous breakdown because of the pressure of his work. He is talking to his wife.

Mr Fox:    I don't know what's the matter with me. Mrs Fox:   Too much work. You need a break, a rest, some­thing to stop you worrying. Now if you took a

holiday ...

Mr Fox:    Ought I to take a holiday, do you think? Mrs Fox:   It would be a good idea. Work can affect your

health, you know. Why not see a doctor? Mr Fox:    _______________________________, do you

think? Mrs Fox:   Yes, I think you should. But have you told the

director you're worried about work?

Mr Fox:    ______________________________________?

Mrs Fox:   That's up to you, but it won't do any harm.

Another thing is that you do too much yourself.

You ought to get an assistant you know.

Mr Fox:    ______________________________________?

Mrs Fox: Yes, then you could relax a bit more. On the

other hand, perhaps getting a new job would

help you.

Mr Fox:    __________________________________?

Mrs Fox:   Well ... I don't know about that. Now if you

stopped working for a bit ...

Mr Fox:______________________________________?

Mrs Fox:   A change is as good as a rest you know.

Mr Fox:    Oh, you are marvellous! I don't know what I'd

do without you ...

III. Complete the advice using should or ought to; find the advice for the problems.

Example:   'I've lost my credit card.'

'You should report it to the credit card company immediately.'

'You ought to report it to the credit card com­pany immediately.'



1. 'I've lost my credit card.'

'I think you/sell it.'

2. 'I can't wake up in the

'Perhaps you /look for another



3. 'I'm bored with my job.'

'Don't you think you/apologize

to them?'

4. 'I've got a terrible head-

'Perhaps you/buy a new alarm



5. 'I was very rude to my

'You/report it to the credit card

parents. '

company immediately.'

6. 'My car keeps on breaking

'Perhaps you/take some aspirin.'

down. '

7. 'My sister's birthday is only

'You/go/to a dentist.'

a month away.'

8. 'I have a toothache.'

'I think you/buy a present/befo-


IV. Criticize somebody you know using shouldn't or oughtn't.

        Examples:    You shouldn't eat so much.

                       Our teacher ought not to give us so much work.

V. Make up short dialogues using had better.

A: I haven't told Tom yet.

B: Then you'd better tell him today. (HAD here is normally contracted.)

I haven't ... yet.


done the ironing

11. returned the books



12. decided



13. suggested it



14. booked the seats



15. ordered the coal


finished my essay

16. advertised the house


washed the car

17. answered his letter


mended the fuse

18. reported the accident


fixed the aerial

19. renewed my license


paid the rent

20. seen Tom about it

VI.  Transform in the same way.

'I want to have your name and address. Perhaps I'll need them.'

- I think I'd better have your name and address just in case I need them.

1.  I want to borrow some money. Perhaps I'll need some.

2.  I want to leave now. Perhaps the bus will come early.

3.  I want to take this umbrella. Perhaps it will rain.

4.  I want to study. Perhaps there'll be a test tomorrow.

5.  I want to borrow your revolver. Perhaps someone will attack me.

6.  I want to take the bag. Perhaps I'll do some shopping.

7.  I want to put on my overcoat. Perhaps it'll get colder.

VII.  Complete the following sentences.

1.    I should study tonight because ....

2.    I ought to study tonight because ...

3.    I had better study tonight. If I don't ...

4.    I should wash my clothes today, but ...

5.    I'd better wash my clothes today, or ...

6.    It's a beautiful day. We ought to ...

7.    It looks like rain. If you're going out, you'd better ...

8.    You'd better obey the speed limit. If ...

9.    You shouldn't stay up late tonight because ...

10.  You'd better not stay up late tonight. If you do ...

VIII. Give advice in the following situations by using should, ought to, or had better.

Example I have a test tomorrow.

Response You. should (ought to, had better) study tonight.

1. I'm writing a composition, and there is a word I don't know how to spell. 2.1 don't feel good. I think I'm catching a cold. 3.1 can't see the blackboard when I sit in the back row. 4. I'm cold. 5. I'm homesick. 6. My roommate snores and I can't get to sleep. 7.1 need to improve my English. 8. I can't stop yawning. 9. My library book is due today. 10. There's no food in my house, and some guests are coming to dinner tonight. 11. I have only twenty-five cents in my pocket, but I need some money to go out tonight. 12. My apartment is in a mess, and my mother is coming to visit me tomorrow. 13. I have a toothache. 14. I have the flue. 15. My friend is arriving at the airport this evening. I'm supposed to pick him up, but I've forgotten what time his plane gets in. 16. I'm really fed up with my job. 17. I never have any money.

IX.  Give advice to the people in the following situations. Use should, ought to, or had better.

1.    Ann would like to make some new friends. -». I think she should join some clubs so she can meet people who have similar interests.

2.    Ellen is having a lot of trouble in her chemistry class. She's failed the last two tests.

3.    Sam and Tim, both teenagers, have messed up the house, and their parents are coming home soon.

4.    Pierre is feeling really homesick these days.

5.    Ron is wearing jeans. He's expected at a formal reception this evening.

6.    Alice is planning to drive across the country by herself

this summer, but she's never changed a flat tire or even pumped her own gas.

7.    Mike can't understand what's going on in his English class.

8.    William's parents expect him to work in the family business, a shoe store, but he wants to be an architect.

9.    Richard's roommate stays up very late studying. While his roommate is studying, he listens to loud music, and Richard can't get to sleep.

10.  The Taylors' daughter is very excited about going to Denmark to live and study for four months. You've been an international student, haven't you? Could you give her some advice?

11.  Virginia doesn't really have enough money saved for a vacation, but she wants to go someplace. Do you know of any inexpensive but wonderful place she could go?

12.  Mr Rice is behind schedule in the history class he's   teaching. Should he skip some less important historical events, or should he give the students longer assignments?

13. Maria is expecting George to meet her when she arrives at the airport in an hour, but George's car won't start. What should George do?

X. Use should have or ought to have + past participle in your response.

Example     You failed the test because you didn't study. Response    I should have studied./I ought to have studied.

Example:     You didn't study because you went to a movie. Response    I shouldn't have gone to a movie./ I oughtn't to have gone to a movie.

1.    You are cold because you didn't wear a coat.

2.    You misspelled a word because you didn't look up in the dictionary.

3.    Your friend is upset because you didn't write him a letter.

4.    You are broke now because you spent all your money foolishly.

5.    The room is full of flies because you opened the window.

6.    You don't have any food for dinner because you didn't go to the grocery store.

7.    You overslept this morning because you didn't set your alarm clock.

8.    Your friends went to (New Orleans) over vacation. They had a good time. You didn't go with them, and now you are sorry.

9.    John loved Mary, but he didn't marry her. Now he is unhappy.

10.  John loved Mary, and he married her. But now he is unhappy.

11.  You didn't have a cup of coffee. Now you are sleepy.

12. You didn't stop for gas, and then you ran out of gas on the highway.

13.  You were sick yesterday, but you went to class anyway. Today you feel worse.

14.  The weather was beautiful yesterday, but you stayed inside all day.

15.  You bought your girlfriend a box of candy for her birthday, but she doesn't like candy.

16.  The little girl told a lie. She got into a lot of trouble.

17. You have a stomach ache because you ate (five hamburgers).

18.  You had to pay a fine because your library book was overdue.

19. You lent your car to (...), but s/he had an accident because

s/he was driving on the wrong side of the road.

20.  When (...) fell asleep on the overnight train from (place name) to (place name), her purse was stolen.

21.  There was an important meeting yesterday afternoon, but you decided not to go. That was a mistake.

22.  Ann didn't feel well a couple of days ago. I told her to see a doctor, but she didn't. That was a mistake. Now she is very sick.

23.1 didn't invite Sam to my party. That made him feel bad.

I'm sorry I didn't invite him. 24. Mary sold her car. That was a mistake because now she

can't take trips to see her friends and relatives.

25. Alex signed a contract to buy some furniture without reading it thoroughly. Now he has discovered that he is paying a lot more money than he expected. He made a mistake.

XI. Make up short dialogues.

  A: Look at that man shaving while he drives!

B: He shouldn't be shaving now. He should have shaved before he left the house.

Note-. This exercise could also be done with ought to (have) and oughtn't to (have).

1.    Look at that woman doing her nails in the bus queue!

2.    Look at that man correcting exercises in the bus!

3.    Look at that man polishing his shoes in the bus!

4.    Look at that boy tying his shoelaces as he goes into school!

5.    Look at that woman putting on her earrings on the stairs!

6.    Look at that girl sewing on a button in the library!

7.    Look at that man eating his breakfast as he walks down the path!

8.    Look at that girl putting on her make-up in the bus queue!

9.    Look at that man brushing his coat in the lift!

10.  Look at that man putting in his contact lenses on the escalator!

11.  Look at that boy combing his hair in the classroom!

12.  Look at that woman cleaning her glasses while she drives!

13.  Look at those children doing their homework in the bus!

14. Look at that man putting in his false teeth in the street!

  Ann, a student at a summer school, has the following programme:

7.00-7.30    get dressed 7.30-8.00    (have) breakfast 8.00-8.30    wash up 8.30-9.30    (do) P.T.(phy-sical training)

9.30-10.00    watch televi­sion programme 10.00-10.30 discuss prog­ramme 10.30-12.00 (attend) lectures


12.00-1.00 1.00-2.00 2.00-2.30 2.30-3.30 3.30-4.30 4.30-5.00

help with lunch (have), lunch rest work in garden (play) tennis tea

5.00-6.00 6.00-7.00 7.00-7.30 7.30-8.00 8.00-9.00 11.30

practise the piano rehearse play supper type lecture notes read in library lights out.

(a) A: It's 7.20 and Ann is sleeping.

B: She shouldn't be sleeping. She should be getting dres­sed.

(b) A: At 7.20 yesterday Ann was sleeping.

B: She shouldn't have been sleeping. She should have been getting dressed.

(a) It's ... and Ann is ...          

1.    7.45    ...   getting up             

3.    8.45    ...  washing up               

4.    9.45    ...  doing P.T.

5.    10.15 ...  watching television

6.    12.30...  listening to a lecture

7.    2.15    ...  playing tennis

8.    2.45    ...  resting

9.    3.45    ...  working in the garden

10.  5.15    ...  having tea

11.  6.15    ...  practising the piano 12.7.15    ...   rehearsing the play 13. 7.45    ...  having supper 14.8.15    ...  typing her lecture notes 15. 12.00 ...  listening to records

 (b) At ... Ann was ...

1. At 7.45 Ann was getting up.

2.    8.15    ...  having breakfast         i.e. as in (a) but replacing IS

by WAS

It is Thursday evening. The secretary is inclined to leave everything till Friday, which doesn't please the boss. But perhaps the secretary has too many duties.

A: I'll remove the old newspapers tomorrow.

(a)   B: But they should be removed every day.

(b)   B: But they should have been removed today.

I'll ... tomorrow.


2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

7. 8.

open your windows dust your desk tidy your books water your pot plants wind your clock empty your waste-paper basket wash your coffee cup clean your office

9. clear your out-tray 10. refill your cigar-box 11. check the cash 12. test the alarm system 13. change the combination of the safe 14. write up the diary 15. file the copies 16. exercise the guard dogs

XII. Write two sentences, one in the positive and one in the negative, for each of the following situations.

Example: Margaret was mugged last night. She was walking home alone.

She shouldn't have been walking home alone. She should have gone with someone or taken a taxi.

1.  Andrew was arrested last night. He was driving home after a party, and he'd had too much to drink.

2. Graham was wounded when he tried to stop a man robbing a post office. The robber shot him in the leg.

3. Annie lost her purse yesterday. It was in her bag, but her bag wasn't fastened, and she left it unattended for a few minutes while she bought a newspaper.

4. My briefcase was stolen from my car yesterday. I'd left it lying on the passenger seat while I got out to do some shopping, and I'm afraid the window had been left open.

5.  Jenny was caught travelling on a train without a ticket.

6.  There was a fire at Henry's house yesterday. Their son Max was playing with matches, and he set fire to the furniture. Unfortunately the flat wasn't insured, so they've lost everything.

XIII. Now answer as Robert Wilson does here.

Linda: I haven't finished the report yet. Robert: Really? You should've finished it! Linda: I've been working on something else.

Robert: Really? You shouldn't have been working on some­thing else!

1.  I haven't even started it.

2.  I was taking a nap when you came in.

3.  I've been using your phone.

4.  I used it yesterday.

5. And I've been looking through your letters.

6.  I've read them.

7.  I was reading them when you came in.

8.  I threw some of them away.


You work in an office. Yesterday the office manager was away, so you, two secretaries and the office boy used his office to have a party. The office manager came back in the middle of it. You weren't working. You were dancing. You didn't stop when he came in. You asked him if he wanted to dance, as well. Naturally, he was furious. Describe all the things you should have done, shouldn't have been doing, etc. Think of more examples!

XIV. Put an appropriate verb of obligation in its correct form into each gap. The verbs are must, have to, had to, have had to, should.

The forms are positive, negative, and gerund.

1. I really do think you ... get your hair cut. 2. Careful, darling. You ... play with matches. They're too dangerous. 3. My wife suddenly became ill in the middle of the night and I ... call the doctor. 4. I'm overweight. The doctor said I ... eat too many sweets or potatoes. 5. I like Saturdays because I ... get up early. 6. A: Why have you got so much money on you? You ... keep it in the bank. B: I know. But today's the day I ... pay my employees. 7. It's my mother's birthday next week. I... remember to buy her a present and a card. 8. No one likes ... work at weekends. 9. You ... come with me if you don't want to. I don't mind going on my own. You stay here if you like. 10. I have a really bad memory

for phone numbers. I... look them up in the book every time. 11. When I was at school we ... wear a uniform. Everybody hated it. 12. You ... touch electrical appliances if you've got wet hands. You could kill yourself. 13. She has a private income. She ... never ... do one day's work in the whole of her life.

XV.  Use should(n't), ought (not) to, must (n't) haven't got to, or have to, giving more than one answer where possible.

Charles: I really ... do some work tonight, but I feel too


Barbara: You ... work so hard. You'll make yourself ill. Charles: I'd like to take a holiday, but I simply ... finish

these plans by the end of the month. Barbara: Yes, but you ... finish them by next week. I think

you ... have a holiday. Can't we have a long weekend

in Paris? Charles: All right. But I ... stay longer than next Tuesday

or I'll never finish my work on time. Barbara: Good. But if we are going, you ... book the seats

today. Charles: I'll ... ask Mr Peters first, but I don't think he'll


XVI.  Complete these sentences using had to or ought to have.

1.  James ... (work) harder, then he would have passed the exams.

2. Graham didn't play squash because he ... (help) his wife.

3.  Bill ... (visit) his mother-in-law on Saturday so he missed the match.

4. You ... (take) a taxi, then you wouldn't have missed the train.

5.  He opened all the windows but he ... (know) better.

6.  I left the office early because I... (meet) Mary at 5 o'clock.

7.  They ... (sell) their car last month in order to pay their debts.

8.  We ... (buy) a house last year when the prices were lower.

XVII.  Change the following sentences to the passive.

1.    People should save pandas from extinction. -*. Pandas should be saved from extinction.

2.    People must obey all traffic laws.

3.    Someone ought to repair this broken window.

4.    Someone should have supplied the hotel guests with clean towels.

5.    Someone had better take this garbage to the dump soon.

6.    Someone is supposed to tell Fred about the meeting.

7.    Someone has to finish this work today.

8.    Someone ought to have reported this accident to the po­lice.

9.    You shouldn't put bananas in the freezer.

10.  We should teach children to respect their elders.

XVIII.  Make sentences using should(n't) ..., ought(n't) to ..., should(n't) have ... or ought(n't) to have ...  and the

words in brackets.

Example: My car is always dirty. (I/clean/ it more often.) I should clean it more often./I ought to clean it more often.

1. You think your friend works too hard. You tell him/her: (You/not work/so hard.) (You/relax/more.)

2. Your friend overslept this morning and was late for work. His boss said to him: (You/buy/an alarm clock!)

3. Kate didn't feel well yesterday, but she went to work and now she feels really terrible. (She/not go/to work yester­day.) (She/stay/in bed.)

4.  Mr Woods walked straight out into the road without looking. He was nearly killed by a bus. (He/not walk/into the road without looking.) (He/look/first.)

XIX.  Here are five situations where you will be able to use the modals you have been practising. Use each modal only once.

must/mustn't/ought to/needn't/'d better

1.  There's a fantastic film on at the Odeon. Advise your friend to see it before it's too late.

2.  Tell your friend not to drive her car till it's insured.

3.  You are going to play tennis with a friend at the tennis club. Tell him it isn't necessary for him to bring any tennis balls as the club supply them.

4.  Your friend has just received his bank statement. He's sure it's incorrect. Advise him to telephone the bank.

5.  Tell your Venezuelan friend that she needs a visa to get into France.

XX. Translate from Russian into English.

1. Тебе не следовало жениться на мне, Дэвид. Это было большой ошибкой. 2. Я прошу прощения. Мне не следо­вало это говорить. 3. Тебе бы лучше остаться дома. Похо­же, будет дождь. 4. Мне следовало пригласить его тоже. 5. Я думаю, вам следует проявлять больше уважения к старшим. 6. Моррис сказал, что если это долг, то его сле­дует исполнить. 7. Тебе должно быть стыдно за такие злые слова. 8. Она бросила меня. Она должна заплатить за это. 9. Тебе следовало выбрать более подходящее время, что­бы сообщить мне об этом. 10. Когда он возвращается? - Откуда мне знать? 11. Это его вина. Ему следовало разве­стись с вами, когда он мог это сделать. 12. Тебе следует купить это платье. Оно тебе идет. 13. Тебе бы лучше туда одной не ходить. 14. Ну, что же, вы были правы. Мне не так надо было сделать это. 15. Почему вы не пришли вчера? Вы должны были позвонить мне, если вы были заняты. 16. Мне нужна была копия этого письма, поэтому я напе­чатала его два раза. - Не нужно было печатать его дваж­ды. Вы могли воспользоваться копиркой. 17. Вам не сле­довало упоминать об этом в его присутствии. 18. Не надо звонить ей. Она уже пришла. 19. Не надо портить глаза. Зажги свет. 20. Вам следовало бы поговорить с директором еще раз перед тем, как вы поедете в Лондон. 21. Вам бы лучше пойти и поговорить с ним сейчас же, пока он еще не ушел. 22. Нам бы лучше не говорить об этом Энн. Она рассердится. 23. Он юрист, и он должен знать такие вещи.

24. Они должны действовать так, как им сказали. 25. Тебе следует самому зарабатывать на жизнь. 26. Нельзя зажи­гать спичку. В комнате много газа. 27. Он сказал, что я не должен открывать дверь. 28. Следует ли ей заняться спортом всерьез? - Думаю, да. 29. Ты выглядишь уста­лой. Тебе следует поехать за город на выходные. 30. Нельзя вставать так рано. Ты всех разбудишь. 31. Он сказал, что мы должны встретить его на вокзале. 32. Я подумал, что тебе следовало бы знать об этом. 33. Не следует разре­шать ставить здесь на стоянку автомобили: улица слиш­ком узкая. 34. Вы должны носить форму на дежурстве, не так ли? 35. Она сказала, что мне не следовало посту­пать подобным образом. 36. Необходимо сообщить ей эту новость как можно скорее. 37. Давно нужно было сооб­щить ей эту новость.

XXI. Study and practise.

1.  Mother:     Kathryn, I want to talk to you about something.

Have you got a minute?

Kathryn:    OK. What's the problem now?

Mother: You know you don't have a job and you're get­ting money from Social Security. You said you wanted to prepare for your exams. I think you should stay at home and do some work.

Kathryn: I think you should leave me alone. You don't know if I'm working or not. It's not your busi­ness.

Mother:      Kathryn! You shouldn't talk to me like that! I'm your mother.

2.  Trainer:    OK, boys. We've got the big competition in front

of us now. It's our big chance. You must train

harder than ever. Player:       We're going to do that. You needn't worry.

But I think we ought to practise more often

together this week. Coach:        No, we oughtn't to overdo it. We'll become

stale and tired. We shouldn't risk that.

3. Jenny:      Nick, Mum has a headache. We ought to be quiet.

We shouldn't make so much noise. Nick:         Did you say something? Jenny:       The music is too loud. You ought to turn it


Nick:         I can't hear you! Jenny:      Don't shout, Nick! Shut up! And turn the music


Nick:        Yes, I've already been to town. Jenny:      No, Nick. Your music. Turn down your music! Nick:        I can't hear you. The music's too loud.

A. Some of your friends have problems. Give advice with ought to. Use these or your own ideas:

go to bed earlier

talk to them

join a club

work harder

see a doctor

wear glasses

get a job

save money for a new one

go on a diet

get it cut

tidy it

  I'm always tired.

You ought to go to bed earlier.

1.    My eyes are sometimes red and sore.

2.    I never have enough money.

3.    My school marks are bad.

4.    I'm too fat.

5.    I've got spots.

6.    I've had a quarrel with my parents.

7.    I haven't got many friends.

8.    My old bicycle needs repairing again.

9.    My hair looks terrible.

10.  I can't find anything. My room is so untidy.

4. Gina:      Susan, please. Make up your mind. I'm exhausted. Susan:    I know, I'm tired, too. But this is an important decision.

Oh, which one should I buy? Yon Mi: Susan, you're young! Why don't you buy a sports

car? Sports cars are fun. Susan:    Maybe you're right. The red one is nice. Maybe

I'll look at that one. Lucy:      Wait a minute! You won't be single forever, you

know. You should think about the future and

buy a family car. Susan:    Hmm. That's good advice, too. Oh, I'm confused.

I don't know what to do. Gina:      What about that green car? It's a lot bigger, and it

isn't too expensive. Susan:     Oh, I don't know. The red sports car is nice, but

you're right, Lucy. It's too small and impractical.

And I really can't afford it. I think I'll buy the

green one. Yon Mi: Well, it's your choice, but you shouldn't decide

too quickly. Let's go and get a cup of coffee. We

can sit and talk about it and come back later. Susan:    Good idea!

A. What should or shouldn't Susan do? Match each sentence on the left with the best response.

1. Susan likes to drive fast.

a. She shouldn't get a two-door


2. She thinks big cars are safer

b. She should buy an economical

than small cars.


3. She likes to listen to music.

c. She shouldn't buy an expensive

foreign car.

4. Gas is expensive.

d. She should get a car with air con-


5. Dallas is very hot in the

e. She should get a sports car.


6. She can't afford an expen-

f . She shouldn't get a small car.

sive car.

7. She isn't a very good driver.

g. She should get a car with a good


8. She has to drive her aunt and uncle to work.

h. She should practise a lot.


B. Ask and answer questions as in the examples.

you/wear a seat belt when

people/cross the street when the

you drive

light is red                                     ;

A: Should you wear a seat


Should people cross the            .

belt when you drive?

street when the light is red?    .

B: Yes, you should.


No, they shouldn't.

1.  people/drive slowly when


You/swim after you eat

it rains

2.  you/drive fast on a crow-


you/cover your mouth when

ded street

you sneeze

3.  you/look at your passen-


you/stand under a tree

gers when you drive

during a storm

4.  drivers/pay attention to


children/disagree with

traffic signs when they

their parents


5.  Simon is talking to Ellen Change, a travel agent.

Ellen: You and your wife have been to France before, haven't you?

Simon:    No, we haven't.

Ellen: Well, then, you really ought to go. You'll love Paris, and the weather is perfect this time of the year.

Simon:    But we don't speak French.

Ellen: You shouldn't worry about that. A lot of people speak English in France, especially in the hotels and restaurants.

Simon:    Should we make our reservations now?

Ellen:     Well, you ought to make them as soon as possible.

Simon: Where should we stay? Do you have any sugges­tions?

Ellen:     I'll find an inexpensive hotel for you.

Simon:    Do you have any brochures? I don't know anyone

in Paris, and I don't know anything about the city.

Ellen: I'll give you some brochures, but you ought to visit Notre Dame, the Eiffel Tower, and the Louv­re. Also, if you have time you ought to drive to Versailles for a day. It's really beautiful.

A. What is the travel agent's advice? Choose the appropriate word in parentheses.

1.  Simon and Lucy (should/shouldn't) go to France.

2.  They (should/shouldn't) worry about speaking French.

3.  They (should/shouldn't) make their reservations as soon as possible.

4.  They (should/shouldn't) stay in an inexpensive hotel.

5.  They (should/shouldn't) plan to visit Notre Dame, the Eiffel Tower, and the Louvre.

6.  They (should/shouldn't) try to visit Versailles.

B.  Give advice for someone who is thinking of taking a vacation abroad.

  You must get a passport.

You shouldn't pack too many clothes.

a)  ... get a passport.

b)  ... pack too many clothes.

c)   ... buy a roundtrip ticket.

d)  ... make hotel reservations.

e)   ... get health insurance.

f)   ... check the weather.

g)  ... carry lots of cash.

h)  ... get traveller's checks.

i)   ... take a lot of luggage.

j)   ... check on visas.

j)   ... carry your wallet in a back pocket.

Pair work. Give more pieces of advice.

Group work. What advice would you give tourists planning

to visit your city or country?

What time of the year should they visit?

What kinds of clothing do you think they ought to bring?

Where should they stay?

What places should they visit?

What should they see?

Is there anything they shouldn't do?

What other advice would you give them?

6.  Chris: Nell! I was digging in the garden and I've just cut

my foot with the spade.

Nell: Oh dear! How did you manage to do that? OK. You'd better let me have a look.

Chris: Ouch! It really hurts a lot.

Nell: It doesn't look too good. I think you'd better go along to the Out-patients Department at the hos­pital. You'd better have an injection. There could be germs in the wound.

7.  Gina and Frank are having lunch.

Gina: Frank, we've got a problem. We don't have enough money to pay the rent this month.

Frank: I know. I guess I'd better ask Mom and Dad for a loan.

Gina:   And I'd better ask my boss for a raise.

Frank: Do you think you'll get it?

Gina: I don't know. But maybe I'd better not take another English course for a while.

Frank: Gina, you can't stop studying English. It's impor­tant. This is an English-speaking country. You can't get ahead without English.

Gina:   I know.

Frank: I'd better get a part-time job. I can work at the office during the day and then do something else at night. In fact, I'd better check the newspaper right now.

A. Pretend you have something to do (a date, a meeting, a class, etc.). Ask the time and then give yourself some advice.

A: Victor, have you got the time?

B: Yeah, it's 3.00.

A: I'd better go. I haven't done my homework yet.


I have a date at 3.30. I'd better not be late.

8. Maggie and Daisy are having tea with Daisy's aunt in the country.

Aunt:       Would you like some bread and butter Daisy? Daisy:      No thank you, I'd better not have any, I'm on a


Aunt:      Some bread and butter for you, Maggie? Maggie:   Well, I know I shouldn't, but I think I will have


Aunt:       How about a cake then, Daisy? Daisy:      No thank you, I'd better not have one, I'm on a


Aunt:      What about you Maggie, would you like one? Maggie:   Well, I know I shouldn't, but I think I will have


A. Complete the following and discuss the meaning you wish to express by giving reasons for your statement.

Example,   I'd better...

Possible response: I'd better write my mother a letter. (Reason: If I don't, there will be a bad result: she'll be angry or start worrying about me or feel hurt.)

1. I should ... 2. I'm supposed to ... 3. I ought to ... 4. I'd better ... 5. I have to ... 6. I've got to ... 7. I am to ... 8. I must ... 9. I shouldn't ... 10. I'm supposed to ... 11. I'd better not ... 12. I don't have to ... 13. I must not ...

9.  Jane: Sylvia is having trouble with her parents. They say

she ought to do more at school. She knows she should work harder for the exams, but she's angry because her parents don't like her friends. Although she's almost sixteen, she's supposed to be home every night by eight o'clock.

Nick: Perhaps her parents ought to trust her more. They shouldn't treat her like a child. Why don't they like her friends?

Jane: I'm not sure. Sylvia's mother says that they are very rude. They don't do any school work. Sylvia is supposed to do her homework every night but she goes out with her friends instead. She says she wants to leave home.

Nick: She had better not do that. She might regret it.

Jane: But her parents just complain and never listen.

Nick: I think they had better start listening before it's too late.


a. What do you think Sylvia, her parents and her friends should do to improve the situation? Say sentences from the table.

  Sylvia should/ought to talk to her parents.

Sylvia Her parents Her friends

should shouldn't ought to

talk to her parents, work harder, listen to Sylvia, leave home, leave school, be more tolerant, be rude to her parents, ask her friends home, be so strict, trust Sylvia, encourage Sylvia to lea­ve home.

b. What else do you think Sylvia, her friends and Sylvia's parents ought to/should do or shouldn't do? Write five more suggestions. Take turns to read them to the class.

  Sylvia's parents should try to get to know her friends better.

c. What do you think they should do in the following situations? Say a sentence with had better and a sentence with had better not for each situation.

  Sylvia's exams are in two weeks' time. She had better do some work. She had better not waste time.

1.  Sylvia's friends want to go to the cinema.

2.  Sylvia wants to invite her friends to a party.

3.  Sylvia's parents want to watch television, but Sylvia is playing very loud music in her room.

4.  Sylvia's friend Anne wants Sylvia to go on holiday with her and her family.

5. Sylvia wants to go away for the weekend with some friends.

Her parents are worried about her. They don't want her to go.

6.  Sylvia has decided to try to explain to her parents why she isn't happy at home.