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ME 400P

Practical Training




About the Organization:

Punjab Tractors Limited is an Indian Tractor manufacturing company that was established on June 27, 1970. It was India's first Large Scale Project, which was based on indigenous design and modern technology. It was a new venture towards making India more competent in the international scenario. PTL has four branches, all set up in northern India.

PTL began its commercial operations in April 1974. In the 28 years till March 2003, it has sold more than 500,000 tractors. While the journey commenced in the north, PTL today has an all India presence. Its 377 strong dealer network sells and services a wide portfolio of 6 tractor models with more than 100 variants. Swaraj beginning was indeed humble, with the commercial introduction of Swaraj 724 model, tractor sales barely reached 600 in 1974-75. However, over the years, on the introduction of new tractor models, product performance and reliable service, Swaraj brand started receiving flavor with the farmers leading to an increase in both volume and market share. In 1999, two new models Swaraj 733 and Swaraj 744 were added to Swaraj portfolio. By financial 1998-99, all these initiatives took Swaraj to the No. 2 slot in the industry, hitting a peak sale of 50,700 tractors in 1999-00 (market share 18.6%).

After disinvestments of its shares by P.S.I.D.C. shareholding patterns as on December, 2003 are as follows


CDC & Associates




Unit Trust of India (UTI)








Mutual Funds / Nationalized Banks




Other FIIs






Punjab Tractors Limited consists of following divisions: -

1. SWARAJ TRACTORS DIVISION, SAS Nagar, Capacity of 300000 tractors p.a.

2. SWARAJ FOUNDRY DIVISION, Majri, Capacity 8000 M.T. castings

3. SWARAJ COMBINE DIVISION, Chhapar Cheri, Capacity of 300000 tractors p.a.

These plants set up at most economic outlays, also represent the most productive tractor facilities in the country, with concept and the technology in the new plant matching global standards. Today PTL stands as a multi product multi location unit manufacturing Tractors, Harvester Combines, Industrial Forklifts, Agricultural Implements and Automotive castings. PTL is actively participating in the industrial scene of Punjab through its group companies SWARAJ MAZDA LIMITED, SWARAJ ENGINES LIMITED AND SWARAJ AUTOMOTIVES LIMITED. All these companies are major players in their respective fields.

On the social front also, PTL has always risen to the occasion and assumed the social responsibility by contributing to national causes like floods, Kargil War and in the matters of community development. In the wake of Kargil conflict, the members, business associates and employees contributed a total of Rs. 10551000 for Armed Forces Welfare Fund and a cheque of like amount handed over to army authorities.


The major products of Punjab Tractors limited are divided into two categories i.e. for domestic consumption and overseas consumption.

The domestic products include the following:

1.      Swaraj 855

2.      Swaraj 939 FE

3.      Swaraj 834 FE

4.      Swaraj 744 FE

5.      Swaraj 735 FE

6.      Swaraj 733 FE

7.      Swaraj 724 FE

8.      Swaraj 722

9.      Forklift 15

10.  Forklift 20

11.  Forklift 30

12.  Electric Forklift 15

13.  Swaraj 8100-Harvester Combine

The products for overseas consumption include:

1.      Swaraj 978 FE, 4 Wheel drive

2.      Swaraj 978 FE, 2 Wheel drive

3.      Swaraj 855 FE, 4 Wheel drive

4.      Swaraj 939 FE, 4 Wheel drive

Hierarchy of the Organization:

1.           Board of Directors (B.O.D)

2.           Working Directors: Vice Chairman and Managing Director

3.           Executive Directors: Finance, Human Resource and Development, Manufacturing, International Business Division, Material Services, Swaraj Automotive Limited, Swaraj Motors Limited, Senior Vice-President (Marketing)

4.           Vice Presidents: 3-4 under each Executive Director in level 3

5.           Assistant Vice President

6.           General Manager

7.           Chief Manager

8.           Senior Manager

9.           Manager

10.      Assistant Manager

11.      Senior Engineer

12.      Engineer

13.      Assistant Engineer

14.        Junior Engineer

15.        Operating Class

The level 5-15 are under each vice president of level 4.

Employee Strength:


The total numbers of employees currently under the Mohali division of PTL are around 1600. These comprise of 500 in management staff and rest is working staff.


Financial Information:

Annual Turnover for the financial year 2003-04 = Rs. 641.44 crores

Net Profit = Rs. 43.11 crores

%age turnover spent on Research and development = 1.28%

Market Share = 15 %

Earning per share = Rs. 7.10


1.      Raw Materials: The following table shows a detailed analysis of raw material consumption during the financial year 2003-2004.

2.      Power Consumption: The total power consumption last year was 117.83 lakh units.

3.      Water consumption: No records were kept for water consumption as the net amount spent on water resources was negligible.

4.      Diesel Consumption: The average amount of diesel consumed per tractor last year was 619.11 Rupees. This includes consumption in both assembly and paint shop.


Technical Collaborations:


  1. For Light commercial Vehicles:

P.T.L. entered into technical and financial collaboration with Mazda Motor Corporation of Japan in the year 1984 to set another company by the name of Swaraj Mazda Limited. It was Rs. 50 crore project with an installed capacity to manufacture 5000 LCVs of up to 3.5 tones payload capacity

2.      For Forklifts

The company entered into technical collaboration with KOMATSU FORKLIFTS COMPANY of Japan in 1985 for the manufacture of high tech forklifts of both diesel and electric at its combine division.

3.      For Diesel Engines

P.T.L. set up Swaraj Engines Ltd. (S.E.L.) in technical and financial collaboration with Kirloskar Oil Engines for the manufacture of diesel engines.



Competition within India:


The major competitors for PTL in India are Mahindra & Mahindra Tractors, Massey, Escorts, Eicher and HMT. The trends of market shares for the last 30 years are shown in the figure below. We can see that the market share of Swaraj tractors has increased from 9.1% in 1983 to 15% in 2003. Also the ranking has improved from 6th to 3rd. This is the sign of growing organization well on track to become the largest producers of tractors in India.

On the international scene, Swaraj is now a recognized name in the developing world. Swaraj Tractors find an important place in countries like Ghana, Zambia, Kenya, Sudan, Indonesia, and Malaysia etc


Market share percentages and Volumes

Pollutants and Pollution control measures:


1.      Water Pollution: There are two kids of effluent waste that pollutes water


        Industrial effluent: Process water after use is discharged as effluent. Industrial effluent is contaminated with pH imbalance, sulphates, chlorides, dissolved solids, suspended solids, oil and grease.

        Domestic effluent: Domestic use consists of drinking and canteen water consumption apart from toilets. Domestic effluent is discharged into public sewer directly.

2.      Air Pollution: Major contributors to air pollution are:


        Shot-blasting section

        Painting booths

        Baking oven

        D.G. sets

Major air pollutants include SPM, NOx, SO2.

3. Land Pollution: The following solid wastes case land pollution.

        Paint waste scum, sludge from ETP

        Steel scrap

Pollution Control Measures:


        Plantation of trees.

        Expenditure of 5 lakh rupees per year for environmental management and pollution control activities.

        Effluent Treatment Plant for Industrial Effluent Treatment.

        Bag House Filter for the Shot Blasting Sections.

        Fume Extraction System for the pre-treatment process.

        Filter press for the extraction of water contents from the effluent sludge.


Training Program and Project Details:

I spent the first 15-20 days of my training period for observational part. I spent time at various shops and tried to understand the various aspects of manufacturing.

The manufacturing includes the following departments:

1. Production

Light machine shop (LMS)

Heavy machine shop (HMS)

Assembly shop

Heat treatment shop

Paint shop

2. Product services

Tool room

Tool Design

Tool Control

Research & Development

Production planning & control (PPC)

Material Management & control (stores)

Quality Engineering


Industrial Engineering

3. Support Services

Management systems



I was assigned as a trainee in tool design cell. It is a part of Manufacturing Aids unit of Technology department. Designing of various Jigs and Fixtures, gauges, special tools, trolleys (material handling), shop equipment and dies etc. is done here.

The design is based on design requests from Customer Department. After designing the drawings are sent to engineering tool room for fabrication.

My Project:

To begin with design I was asked to learn AutoCAD and Micro station. For doing that I was given smaller projects, which included designing of lead testing mandrel, which is used in standard testing room for testing the lead of gears.

Then I was asked to make casting drawings of left and right cages from their component drawings. These cages are used in assembly of differential. This helped me to understand the various aspects of AutoCAD package and it gave me a fair idea about the allowances and drafts that are required in castings

After I had learnt to use AutoCAD, I was asked to redesign the punch holder for blanking die

And reduce its weight.

Now I have been allotted a bigger project involving design of top bonnet blanking die.


The increased need for aesthetics in any design led to a total redesigning of bonnet and side panel designs of tractors. Swaraj does not want to lag behind. It understands the need of modern day agriculture which is not only based on performance (which off-course is the most important part) but also the aesthetics of the design.


The methodology of designing includes the following. The R & D department sends component drawings of the new part. They take care of all the design and aesthetic parameters. It is the job of tool design cell to make the necessary component before the deadlines. So the following steps are involved

  • Process Planning
  • Design of required dies, tools, fixtures
  • Fabrication
  • Trials

After above steps, the actual components are manufactured and sent to R & D who suggest possible modifications and also check the design.

Once the design is cleared, the large scale manufacturing is done and new models are rolled out.

New Knowledge:


On the whole my experience with industry has provided a lot of insight into the details of manufacturing and designing. There were so many things that I could learn out of this experience. The following is the brief information about what is being done at PTL, Mohali.

For the manufacture of tractors following procedures are performed

  1. Manufacturing and Machining of gears and shafts. (Light Machine Shop)
  2. Machining of Rear Cover, Gear Box Cover, Trumpet and Differential Cover (Heavy Machine Shop)
  3. Assembly
    • Differential Sub Assembly
    • Gear Box Sub Assembly
    • Engine Sub Assembly
    • Rear Cover Assembly
    • Main Line Assembly

Chassis Painting Line

         Chassis Washing


         Primer Painting

         Flash Off

         Final Painting


Tractor Dismounting


         Sheet Metal

         Electrical components

         Final Accessories or assemblies

         Roller Testing


Heat Treatment

The transmission components (manufactured at LMS) after undergoing machining operation are subjected to heat treatment. Heat treatment is carried out in sealed quench furnaces where gas carburising takes place at 920C. Hot components are cooled in quenching oil. This treatment helps to enhance strength and hardness of the component and thus increases its lifetime. It is also known as case hardening.

Shot Blasting

After heat treatment the components are treated in the shot- blasting to remove the scaling of the components.


Sheet metal are pretreated before painting. Pre-treatment takes place in the following stages:

1.      Degreasing

2.      De-rusting

3.      Phosphating

4.      Surface-Activation

5.      Passivation

An alkaline solution is used for degreasing. Rinsing in water is done after degreasing. After rinsing, the sheet metal is sent for de-rusting and finally it is sent transferred for passivation.



Tractor components are properly washed before assembling and painting. There is a separate washing system for small components as well as for large components like chassis. Chassis washing is done by auto spray at 55C in washing zone area of chassis paint booth. After proper washing, components are transferred into drying section for drying. Small components are also washed in the washing machine installed at different locations before their assembling. In some components temporary seals are provided to prevent water penetration in critical places and crevices, which might not be removed while drying. These seals also prevent paint from penetrating inside.


Painting is done on chassis and sheet metal frames in different sections. Chassis painting take place in following four stages. Baking is carried out at 120C after painting.

1.      Primer coating

2.      Finish Painting

3.      Flash off

4.      Oven Drying


Journals and Trade magazines:

The important journals and magazines that are related to the organization are

      Metal Working World


      Gear Exchange

      Industrial Automation

Professional Practices:


  1. Punctuality: The staff in the organization is very punctual in terms of timings and never get late. I have been adhering to this practice by reaching at least 5 minutes earlier than the regular timings.
  2. Respect: All the employees respect their seniors. The seniors also earn this respect because of their concern for juniors. I respect all my seniors and in turn they help me in every way possible.
  3. Patience: I had to wait for a long time before I could clear my doubts or get instructions from my boss, since he was a very busy man. I showed patience and never got angry or frustrated.
  4. Deadlines: All the people are assigned tasks of different nature with deadlines. All of them have to adhere to that deadline. I also tried to show same professionalism by completing the work assigned to me much before the deadlines.
  5. Humility: The senior employees have a very humble attitude irrespective of their position. This is a very important part of any organization. I also tried to be as humble with the workers as possible. I tried to understand what they were trying to say even though they had little knowledge of technical terms.
  6. Teamwork: Most of the projects here are done in teams. Each person is working on a different aspect of same problems. They show full coordination and cooperation. I also worked on the same principles and was always ready to cooperate and be a part of the team rather than an observer.
  7. Dress Code: Though there was no formal dress code for industry but still I used to wear Full Sleeve Shirt, Trousers and formal shoes thus maintaining a level of decency at work.
  8. Communication Skills: Most of the people in the organization used Punjabi language and the workers could only understand Punjabi. Since I also know Punjabi, I tried to communicate with the workers in the language they were most comfortable with.
  9. Devotion: All the employees were highly devoted to their work. Never did they waste time on meaningless talks or any other pastime. I also tried to inculcate same level of devotion and never tried to chat with others for pastime.
  10. Friendly Atmosphere: There were many other trainees who were assigned different projects. We became very good friends in course of time and always helped each other in their projects.


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