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Engleza pentru birou

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1. Engleza pentru birou
    1. Conversatiile
    1.1. Asking general questions
    1.2. Asking for Further Information
    1.3. Saying Nothing
    1.4. Questioning
    2. Letters. Contents of the Letters / Scrisorile. Elementele componente ale scrisorii
    2.1. The Letter-head/Heading (Antetul)
    2.2. The Date (Data)
    2.3. The Reference Line (Referintele)
    2.4. The Inside Adress (Adresa destinatarului/ interioara)
    2.5. The Salutation (Formula de salut)
    2.6. The Subject Line (Obiectul scrisorii)
    2.7. The Body of the Letter (Continutul Scrisorii)
    2.8. The Complimentary Close / Formula de incheiere si salut
    2.9. The Signature / Semnatura
    2.10. Enclosures/ Anexe (Enc. Encl. Encs.)
    2.11. The Envelope / Plicul
    3. The Pattern of a Typical Business Letter (Model de scrisoare tipica pt corespondenta de afaceri)





1.1. Asking general questions

1.1.1. Would you mind...? / Va deranjeaza sa...?
1.1.2. I was wondering if you...? / Ma intreb daca dv...?
1.1.3. May I ask...? / Imi permiteti sa intreb...?
1.1.4. I wonder if you could...? / Ma intreb daca ati putea...?
1.1.5. Would you mind if I asked...? / Va deranjeaza daca intreb...?

1.2. Asking for Further Information

1.2.1. Could you be a little more precise? / Puteti fi putin mai exact...?
1.2.2. I'm sorry, but could you explain in a little more detail? / Scuzati, dar ati putea explica mai in detaliu?
1.2.3. Could you give us some details about...? / Ne puteti da cateva detalii despre...?
1.2.4. Would you care to elaborate on that? / Ati putea sa oferiti mai multe detalii?
1.2.5. Could you expand on that? / Puteti detalia asupra acestei probleme?

1.3. Saying Nothing
1.3.1. Well, it's rather difficult to say at present. / Ei bine,
este greu de precizat acum.
1.3.2. I'm afraid I don't have enough information at my disposal to answer that. / Ma tem ca nu detin destule informatii ca sa pot raspunde la aceasta problema.
1.3.3. I'm afraid I'm not in a position to comment on that just yet. / Ma tem ca nu pot comenta asupra acestui subiect inca.
1.3.4. I think we can leave the problem of...aside for a moment, the real issue is... / Consider ca putem lasa aceasta problema pentru moment, principala preocupare este...
1.3.5. I don't think we have enough time at our disposal to consider all the implications of this particular aspect of the problem. / Consider ca nu avem suficient timp la dispozitie pentru a analiza toate implicatiile acestui aspect particular al problemei.


1.4. Questioning
1.4.1. It depends what you mean by.../ Depinde ce intelegeti prin...
1.4.2. I'm not quite sure what you mean by that. / Nu cred ca am inteles exact ce vreti sa spuneti prin asta...
1.4.3. I'm afraid I don't quite follow.../ Ma tem ca nu inteleg
1.4.4. I don't think it's quite as simple as that.../ Nu cred ca e atat de simplu...

2. Letters. Contents of the Letters / Scrisorile. Elementele componente ale scrisorii

2.1. The Letter-head/Heading (Antetul)

Ex: Brown & Company Limited (sau Co.Ltd)
29 Roses Street
London
23AA
Tel: 530678 88989/ 4

2.2. The Date (Data)

London, 2nd May 2003

2.2.1. denumirea lunilor anului se pot prescurta astfel: Jan., Febr., Mar., Apr., Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov., Dec.;

2.2.2. numele lunilor May, June, July nu se prescurteaza.

2.2.3. pentru lunile curente se mai foloseste abrevierea "inst." (instant); exemplu: "your letter of the 2nd inst."

2.2.4. (Engleza Britanica) 2nd May 2003

2.2.5. (Engleza Americana) May 2nd 2003

2.3. The Reference Line (Referintele)

2.3.1. sunt plasate in partea stanga a colii de hartie, in scopul identificarii cu usurinta a directiei, serviciului sau lucratorului care se ocupa de problema respectiva, precum si pentru o facilitare a reparti 24224h76y zarii corespondentei;

2.3.2 se introduc prin abrevierea Ref. (reference) si includ initialele numelui lucratorului, a dactilografului sau stenografului, precum si numere de ordine emise de secretariat sau registratura, numarul de dosar al contractului...

2.3.3. Exemplu: (EB) Ref: NB/ Oc 543 LP
(EA) Ref: -YS: MS - 5762 XMD

2.3.4. exista uzanta includerii in scrisoare atat a referintelor firmei expeditoare (Our Ref.) cat si a celor ale firmei destinatare (Your Ref.) in scopul identificarii cu usurinta de catre aceasta din urma a corespondentei anterioare;

2.3.5. Exemplu: Our Ref: NS/ Mo 564 P -o
Your Ref: IR/ YB 56 M 24.


2.4. The Inside Adress (Adresa destinatarului/ interioara)

2.4.1. se plaseaza in partea stanga a colii de hartie, sub linia de referinta;

2.4.2. cuprinde numele destinatarului, calitatea sa, sediul institutiei careia ne adresam, tara de destinatie;

2.4.3. adreasarea pentru persoane fizice se face cu numele complet, insotit de formule de politete sau de functii oficiale:
2.4.3.1. Mr. (Mister) - pentru un barbat
2.4.3.2. Mrs (Mistress) - pentru o femeie casatorita
2.4.3.3. Miss - pentru o femeie necasatorita
2.4.3.4. Ms. - cand nu se cunoaste starea civila a femeii
2.4.3.5. Dr. - pentru titlul de doctor
2.4.3.6. Prof. - pentru titlul de profesor;

2.4.4. in Marea britanie, functia destinatarului este indicata inaintea numelui, fara a se folosi alte formule de politete si fara virgula; exemplu: General Manager John Maxwell.

2.4.5. in SUA, functia se indica dupa numele persoanei, precedat de formule de politete; exemplu: Mr. John Maxwell, General Manager.

2.4.6. in cazul functiilor oficiale (ministru, ambasador) formula de adresare este "His Excellency" urmata de functia respectiva; exemplu: His Excellency the Trade Minister (Excelentei sale Ministrul Comertului).

2.4.7. in cazul unui functionar al carui nume nu se cunoaste sau in cazul unui serviciu din cadrul unei institutii, se adreseaza denumind functia sau serviciul, precedate de articolul hotarat "the"(The Managing Director, The Export Department); aceasta indicatie poate fi plasata si la sfarsitul adresei interioare, cu doua randuri mai jos, precedata de cuvintele "Attention", "For the attention of"- mentiunea este subliniata:
The Textile Company, Limited
5 Roses Square, London
Great Britain
For the attention of the Managing Director

2.4.8. in cazul unei institutii, firme, banci, ne adresam mentionand numele acesteia (National Iran Oils, Ltd.)
2.4.8.1. numele respectiv poate fi precedat de abrevierea Messrs (de la cuv. Francez Messieurs)
2.4.8.2. daca numele firmei este precedat de articolul hotarat "the", abrevierea Messrs nu se mai foloseste.

2.5. The Salutation (Formula de salut)

2.5.1. daca destinatarul este o persoana fizica:
2.5.1.1. pentru un barbat: Dear Sir (Stimate domn) ;
2.5.1.2. pentru o femeie: Dear Madam (Stimata doamna);
2.5.1.3. folosind nume proprii, mentionand eventualele functii: Dear Mr. Wilson, Dear Professor Wilson, Dear President Wilson;
2.5.2 daca destinatarul este o institutie, formula va fi:
Marea Britanie - Dear Sirs, Dear Mesdames, (urmate intotdeauna de virgula);
SUA - Gentlemen: (urmata de semnul "doua puncte")

2.6. The Subject Line (Obiectul scrisorii)

2.6.1. se plaseaza spre mijlocul paginii la un rand de formula de salut si se subliniaza;

2.6.2. este precedat de abrevierea Re: (prescurtarea cuv latin res=lucru) sau de abrevierea Ref: (vine de la referring=referitor);

2.6.3. Exemplu: Dear Sirs,
Ref: Our letters ....

2.6.4. includerea obiectului scrisorii poate fi omisa in cazul in care problema tratata in corespondenta respectiva este prezentata pe scurt, in primul paragraf al scrisorii.


2.7. The Body of the Letter (Continutul Scrisorii)

2.7.1. Specimen sentences for opening lines/ Formulari de introducere

2.7.1.1. For first letters / Pentru scrisori initiale

examples: The subject of our letter is to/ Obiectul scrisorii noastre este
- inform you... - sa va informam despre..
- remind you... - sa va reamintim ca...
- notify you... - sa va notificam ca...
- call your attention... - sa va atragem atentia ca
- announce you the... - sa va anuntam...

We have the pleasure / Avem placerea
- to advise you that... - de a va informa ca...
- to let yoy know that... - de a va aduce la cunostinta...

2.7.1.2. Letters expressing a disagreement / Scrisori exprimand un dezacord

We very much regret to let you know that/ Regretam foarte mult sa va aducem la cunostinta ca
- we are obliged to refuse your order for....of...
- suntem obligati sa refuzam comanda dv. de...din...

2.7.2. Specimen sentences for closing the letter/ Formulari de incheiere

2.7.2.1. General specimen sentences/ Exprimari generale

- Looking forward to receiving your answer, we remain
- In asteptarea raspunsului dv., ramanem

2.7.2.2. For expressing thanks / Pentru exprimarea de multumiri
We thank you / Va multumim
- very much - calduros
- in advance - anticipat
- once more - inca o data
With our best thanks.... Cu multumirile noastre cele mai calduroase

2.7.2.3. For expressing the wish for cooperation/ pentru exprimarea dorintei de colaborare
We hope/we are sure that / Speram sa, suntem siguri ca
- to hear from you soon - aflam in curand vesti de la dv.
- you will place your order with us - ne veti incredinta comanda dv.
- you will promptly carry out/execute our order - veti executa cu promptitudine comanda noastra.

2.7.2.4. For expressing a recommendation/ Pentru exprimarea unei recomandari
We count on / Contam pe
- hearing from you soon - primirea unor vesti de la dv.
- having your answer by... - raspunsul dv. pana la...
- your confirmation - confirmarea dv.
2.7.2.4. Expressing apologies/Pentru exprimarea de scuze
- Please accept our apologies for - Va rugam sa acceptati scuzele noastre pentru...
- We (much) apologize for / Va cerem scuze pentru
- being late in... - intarzierea in...
- having neglected such... - a fi neglijat asemenea...
- error made in... - eroarea comisa la...


2.8. The Complimentary Close / Formula de incheiere si salut

2.8.1. se plaseaza de obicei cu 2-3 randuri sub textul scrisorii, spre mijlocul paginii, urmate de virgula

2.8.2. adresarea unei institutii: Yours faithfully, Faithfully yours; (Cu respect/sincer)

2.8.3. adresarea unei persoane cunoscute: Yours sincerely, Sincerely yours, dar si cele de mai sus;

2.8.4. pentru un caracter mai formal: We/I hope to hear from you soon, With our/my best wishes, Kind regards.


2.9. The Signature / Semnatura

2.9.1. se plaseaza sub formula de incheiere si salut, fiind precedata de numele firmei; imediat dedesubt este obligatorie dactilografierea numelui complet al celui care semneaza corespondenta, indicandu-i-se calitatea si, eventual, titlul.

2.9.2. la persoanele de sex feminin se va specifica starea civila prin Mrs. sau Miss pentru a cunoaste modul de adresare catre acestea in corespondenta de raspuns.

2.9.3. uneori se poate semna si in numele conducerii institutiei: for an on behalf of (pentru si in numele), per procurationem/per pro/p.p. (prin procura pentru).


2.10. Enclosures/ Anexe (Enc. Encl. Encs.)

2.10.1. se mentioneaza in capatul de jos al colii de hartie

2.10.2. Enclosures: 2 / 2Anexe:
- Invoice - Factura
- Certificate of origin -Certificat de origine.

2.11. The Envelope / Plicul

2.11.1. the inside adress/ adresa destinatarului

2.11.2.indicatii pt posta (fie categoria sau tariful postal, fie modul de trimitere a corespondentei):
- registered mail / corespondenta recomandata
- by air mail/ corespondenta prin avion
- registered air mail/ corespondenta recomandata prin avion
- by express mail/ corespondentacu posta rapida
- special delivery/ expediere expresa
- To be called for/ post-restant
-
2.11.3. indicatii special de atentionare: Personal, Private, Confidential

2.11.4. indicatii de transmitere catre o anumita persoana, directie, serviciu: For the attention of: Selling Department (In atentia Serviciului Comercial).


3. The Pattern of a Typical Business Letter (Model de scrisoare tipica pt corespondenta de afaceri)

Urmariti Resurse: Model de scrisoare de afaceri





2. Corespondenta precontractuala in activitati de import-export     2.1. The Inquiry/ Cererea de oferta
    2.2. The Offer/ Oferta
    2.3. The Order/ Comanda
    2.4 Tranzactiile comerciale internationale




2.1. The Inquiry/ Cererea de oferta

2.1.1. Specimen sentences for opening lines / Formulari introductive

- We are importers and exporters specialized in...
- Suntem importatori si exportatori specializati in...

- We hear/understand from Brown&Co.Ltd. that you export...
- Am aflat de la firma Brown&Co.Ltd. ca exportati...

- We are intersting in importig....from you.
- Ne intereseaza sa importam....de la dv.

- We have seen your advertisement in "Evenimentul"
- Am vazut anuntul dv. in ziarul "Evenimentul"

- Following our conversation with your representative...
- In urma conversatiei noastre cu reprezentantul dv...

2.1.2. Specimen sentences expressing a request of quotations, offers, price-lists, prospectuses, patterns / Formulari pentru cereri de cotatii, oferte, liste de preturi, prospecte, mostre

- Please quote on the following items/goods
- Va rugam sa ne transmiteti cotatiile pentru urmatoarele marfuri

- We should be grateful if you would send us your catalogues/ price-lists/ patterns
- V-am fi recunoscatori daca ne-ati trimite catalogul dv/ listele de preturi/ mostrele

- Kindly quote us your lowest (best, keenest, most advantageous) prices for the goods listed below...
- Va rugam sa ne cotati preturile dv. cele mai scazute/avantajoase pentru marfurile din lista de mai jos




2.1.3. Specimen sentences which refer to prospects for fruitful business relations Formulari referitoare la perspectivele unor tranzactii fructuoase

- If your quality comes up to our expectations, we shall be able to do good business to mutual advantage.
- Daca marfurile dv. au o calitate ce se ridica la inaltimea asteptarilor noastre, vom putea face tranzactii avantajoase reciproc.

- As we anticipate a considerable demand for this line of goods, we should require a special discount.
- Intrucat anticipam o cerere masiva pentru aceasta gama de produse , v-am solicita un rabat special.

- If you can supply right away from stock, we would be prepared to place an initial order at once.
- Daca puteti livra direct din stoc, am fi dispusi sa va trimitem imediat o comanda initiala.


2.1.4. Concluding sentences/ Formulari de incheiere
- We are looking forward to your quotations
- Asteptam cu nerabdare cotatiile dv.

- We thank you in anticipation of a prompt reply.
- Va multumim in asteptarea unui raspuns prompt.

- Your prompt reply will be appreciated.
- V-am fi recunoscatori pentru un raspuns prompt.


2.1.5. Specimen sentences used in replies to inquiries
/ Formulari utilizate in raspunsul la cererea de oferta
- We are pleased to receive your letter in reply to our advertisement in....
- Ne-a facut placere sa primim scrisoarea dv. ca raspuns la reclama noastra din...

- Your inquiry is receiving our careful attention and we hope to be able to send you our quotation soon.
- Cererea dv. de oferta e in centrul atentiei noastre si speram sa va putem trimite curand cotatia noastra.

- We express our regret that we are unable to accept deliveries within the time required by you.
- Ne exprimam regretul ca nu putem accepta livrari pentru perioada solicitata de dv.


2.2. The Offer/ Oferta

2.2.1. Specimen sentences for opening lines/ Formulari introductive

2.2.1.1. Solicited offer/ Oferta solicitata
Many thanks for your / Va multumim pentru
- Inquiry of... Cererea dv. de oferta din...
- letter of... asking/ inquiring about... scrisoarea dv. din...
- interest in our products-interesul dv. in produsele noastre
As per/ in compliance with / In conformitate cu
- your verbal inquiry of this morning - cererea dv. verbala din aceasta dimineata
- your request.... - cererea dv....
- your desire... - dorinta dv...

2.2.1.2. Interview offer (at the recommentadion of...)/ Oferta la recomandarea...

We have been informed by Messrs.../ Am fost informati de firma...
- that you are interested in...- ca sunteti interesati de...
- that you are buyers of ... - ca sunteti cumparatori de...
- that you are doing a considerable trade in...- ca lucrati intens cu...

2.2.1.3. Unsolicited offer / Oferta nesolicitata
You will be interested to hear...Veti fi interesati sa aflati ca...
In order to acquaint you with our goods...Pentru a va familiariza cu marfurile noastre...
To maintain/restore our relations...Pentru a mentine/restabili relatiile nostre...


2.2.2. Specimen sentences for the message of the letter/ Formulari specifice mesajului scrisorii

2.2.2.1. Referring to samples, catalogues/ Referitor la mostre, cataloage
By today's cover we are sending you/ Prin posta de astazi va trimitem
- our best quotation....oferta nostra cea mai buna
- our latest price-list....ultima noastra lista de preturi
- our catalogue...catalogul nostru
- samples and prices...mostre si preturi
- a set of patterns...un set de modele

2.2.2.2. Referring to quality/ Referitor la calitate
The samples we sent/enclosed with no doubt convince you of/ Mostrele remise/ anexate va vor convinge fara indoiala de
- the excellent quality of our goods...calitatea exceptionala a marfii noastre
- the modern design of our products...design-ul modern al produselor ...
- the excellent adaptability of our products to special conditions...capacitatea excelenta de adaptare a produselor noastre la conditii speciale...

2.2.2.3. Referring to price and terms of payment/ Referitor la pret si conditii de plata
Our terms of payment are/Conditiile nostre de plata sunt:
- net cash....plata in numerar la valoarea neta;
- spot cash...plata imediata in numerar;
- cash against acceptance...plata in numerar contra acceptare (de documente);
- cash against documents...plata in numerar contra prezentarii de documente;
- cash on delivery...plata in numerar la livrare;
- cash with order...plata in numerar la ordin;
- cash within 10 days...plata in numerar in 10 zile;
- 90 days' credit...credit 90 de zile

2.2.2.4. Concluding sentences

We shall be pleased/glad/we hope/ Vom fi incantati/speram
- to receive an order from you....sa primim o comanda de la dv.
- to have your confirmation soon...sa primim curand confirmarea dv.
- to meet your requirements...sa va satisfacem cerintele dv.
- to hear from you soon... sa primim curand vesti de la dv.


2.3. The Order/ Comanda

2.3.1.Specimen sentences for opening lines/ Formulari introductive
Please/Kindly - Va rugam
- supply at once/immediately...sa livrati imediat
- send us by return...sa ne trimiteti cu intoarcerea postei...
- dispose an early forwarding/shipment of...sa dispuneti imediat expedierea/ transportul...

2.3.2. Quantity and quality/ Cantitatea si calitatea
Please take care that the quality / Referitor la calitate, va rugam sa aveti grija
- (should) match/ be in accordance with the sample/pattern...sa se potriveasca/ sa fie conforma mostrei/esantionului;
- should completely answer our purpose/ sa raspunda pe deplin scopului nostru
- should be the same as the last delivery/sa fie aceeasi ca la ultima livrare.

2.3.3. Prices, reductions/ Preturi, reduceri
We must point out that the highest price - Trebuie sa precizam ca pretul cel mai mare...
- we can afford to pay is...pe care ne putem permite sa-l platim este...
- we can go to is...la care ne putem urca este...
We find the price satisfactory, but we should like to know if you could grant us a 5% discount for a quantity of over...Consideram pretul convenabil, dar am dori sa stim daca ati putea acorda un rabat de 5 % pentru o cantitate de peste...

2.3.4. The delivery/ Livrarea
Please kindly forward/dispatch the goods/Va rugam sa ne expediati marfurile
- immediately/ at once...imediat/de indata;
- at your earliest convenience...imediat ce puteti;
- upon receipt of this order...la primirea acestei comenzi
- by the end of the month...pana la sfarsitul lunii;
- without delay, according to... fara intarziere, in conformitate cu...

2.3.5. Concluding sentences/ Formulari de incheiere
Please /Kindly acknowledge/confirm receipt of our order and give it your best attention...Va rugam sa confirmati primirea comenzii noastre si sa-i acordati cea mai mare atentie.

2.3.6. Rejecting an offer/ Respingerea unei oferte
Thank you for your offer of May 3rd. Much to our regret, we have no demand for this article at the moment so we must/have to/are compelled to decline it/turn it down....Multumim pentru oferta dv. din 3 mai. Spre marele nostru regret, in momentul de fata nu avem nevoie de acest articol, asa ca trebuie/ suntem nevoiti sa o respingem.

2.3.7. Cancelling an order/ Anularea unei comenzi
Please cancel our order No...of 5 May, for...and send us...in exchange...Va rugam sa anulati comanda noastra nr...din data de 5 mai pt...si sa ne trimiteti in schimb...

2.3.8. Acknowledgement of Orders/ Confirmarea comenzii
We acknowledge with thanks receipt of your order No...for... Confirmam cu multumiri primirea comenzii dv Nr..pentru...

We are glad to open up business relations with you...
Ne bucuram sa initiem relatii de afaceri cu dv....

2.4 Tranzactiile comerciale internationale
Modalitatile de plata folosite de regula in tranzactiile comerciale internationale sunt

2.4.1. The documentary letter of credit L/C (acreditivul documentar
Reprezinta o metoda prin care un importator (importer), prin intermediul unei banci se angajeaza sa plateasca unui exportator (exporter) suma convenita, cu conditia sa fie indeplinite anumite cerinte.

2.4.1.1. The Revocable Credit / Acreditivul revocabil
This credit is subject to revocation or modification at any time without notice to you. This advice conveys no engagement on our part and is simply for your guidance in preparing and presenting drafts and documents / Acest acreditiv este posibil de a fi revocat sau modificat in orice moment fara a va notifica pe dv. Acest aviz nu implica nici un angajament din partea noastra si este doar pentru orientarea dv. in pregatirea si prezentarea de trate si documente.

2.4.1.2. The Irrevocable Credit / Acreditivul irevocabil
We hereby agree with the drawers, endorsers and bonafide holders of drafts drawn under and in compliance with the terms of this credit, that such drafts will be duly honored on due presentation to the drawees, if negotiated on or presented to the drawees together with this Letter of Credit or before that date / Prin prezenta, asiguram tragatorii, girantii si detinatorii de buna credinta de trate trase in cadrul si in concordanta cu conditiile prezentului acreditiv, ca astfel de trate vor fi onorate la timp la prezentarea lor in buna regula trasilor, daca sunt negociate la sau anterior datei de expirare sau prezentate trasilor impreuna cu acest acreditiv la sau inaintea acelei date.

2.4.1.3. The Irrevocable Confirmed Credit / Acreditiv irevocabil confirmat
The above mentioned issuing bank engages with you that all drafts drawn under and in compliance with the terms of this credit will be duly honoured, on delivery of documents as specified, if presented at this office on or before the expiry date indicated above. We confirm the credit and thereby undertake that all drafts drawn and presented as above specified will be duly honored by us. / Mai sus mentionata banca emitenta se angajeaza fata de dv. ca toate tratele trase in cadrul si in conformitate cu conditiile acestui acreditiv vor fi onorate la timp, la prezentarea documentelor precum se specifica, daca se prezinta la acest oficiu la data sau inainte de data expirarii indicata mai sus. Confirmam acreditivul si prin prezenta ne angajam ca toate tratele trase si prezentate cum se mentioneaza mai sus vor fi onorate la timp de noi.


2.4.1.4. The Irrevocable Advised Credit / Acreditivul irevocabil avizat
The above mentioned issuing bank engages with you that all drafts drawn under and in compliance with the terms of this credit will be duly honored, on delivery of documents as specified, if presented at this office on or before the expiry date indicated above. This letter is solely an advice of credit opened by the above mentioned issuing bank and conveys no engagement by us. / Mai sus mentionata banca emitenta se angajeaza fata de dv. ca toate tratele trase in cadrul si in concordanta cu conditiile acestui acreditiv vor fi onorate la timp, la prezentarea documentelor precum se specifica, daca se prezinta la acest oficiu la data sau inainte de data de expirare indicata mai sus. Aceasta scrisoare este doar o avizare a acreditivului deschis de mai sus mentionata banca emitenta si nu contine vreun angajament din partea noastra.


3. Relatiile cu clientii si furnizorii/ Clients and Tradesmen     3.1. Types of Contracts/ Tipuri de contracte
    3.2. The Sales Contract / Contractul de vanzare - cumparare
    3.3. Contract Draft / Model de contract de vanzare - cumparare



3.1. Types of Contracts/ Tipuri de contracte

3.1.1. Sale-Purchase Contract - Contract de vanzare-cumparare
1. Fungible Contract - Contract pentru bunuri fungibile
2. Non-fungible contract - Contract pentru bunuri nefungibile
3. Cash-Payment Contract - Contract cu plata in numerar
4. Credit-Payment Contract - Contract cu plata pe credit

3.1.2. Commercial Banking Guarantee Contract - Contract comercial de garantie bancara
1. Factoring Contract - Contract de factoring (contract de realizare a creantelor sub forma de facturi
2. Forfeiting Contract - Contract de forfeiting (contract pentru finantare prin negocierea titlurilor de credit
3. Leasing Contract - Contract de leasing (inchiriere
4. Lease-back Contract - Contract de finantare pe termen lung
5. Licence Contract - Contract de licenta pentru brevet de inventie
6. Know-how Contract - Contract de transfer know-how
7. Agent Contract - Contract de mandat
8. Commission Contract - Contract de comision
9. Consignment Contract - Contract de consignatie
10. Agency Contract - Contract de agency (corespunde in dreptul anglo-american celor de mandat comercial si de comision, prevazute in sistemele de drept continental european
11. Concession Contract - Contract de concesiune
12. Franchising Contract - Contract de franchising
13. Warehouse Contract - Contract de depozit
14. Charter-Party - Contract de navlosire
15. International Railways Transport Contract - Contract de transport feroviar international
16. International River Transport Contract - Contract de transport fluvial international
17. International Air Transport Contract - Contract de transport aerian international
18. Insurance Contract - Contract de asigurare
19. Engineering Contract - Contract de engineering (consultanta tehnica
20. Consulting Contract - Contract de consulting
21. Turn-key Project Contract - Contract pentru obiective


3.2. The Sales Contract / Contractul de vanzare - cumparare

3.2.1. Preamble, introduction, definition , scope of the contract/ Preambul, introducere, definitii, scopul contractului
This Contract is made between...Prezentul contract este incgeiat intre.
The Undersigned...represented by...and ...Co. Ltd., represented by... Subsemnatii...reprezentati de...si firma...reprezentata de...
...have agreed the followings...au cazut de acord asupra urmatoarelor
The Seller has sold and the Buyer has bought...Vanzatorul a vandut...si cumparatorul a cumparat...

3.2.2. Subject matter of the contract / Obiectul contractului
Includes:
- parties' obligations/ obligatiile partilor
The Seller undertakes to deliver and the Buyer will take over and pay according to the conditions of the present contract the....Vanzatorul se obliga sa livreze si Cumparatorul sa preia livrarea si sa plateasca in concordanta cu conditiile prezentului contract...

- description of the goods/ descrierea bunurilor

bearings/ rulmenti, wool/lana, cupboards/dulapuri...

- quality/ calitatea

by catalogue/ conform catalogului, by tender book/ conform caietului de sarcini, by description/ conform descrierii, by sample/ conform mostrei, to type/ conform tipului, to norm, standard/ conform normei, standardului, to contract/ conform contractului, at/on sight/ la vedere (vazut-placut), subject to inspection/ cu conditia inspectarii marfii, on approval/ cu aprobarea cumparatorului, on trial/ de proba, fair average quality f.a.q./ de calitate medie, good ordinary brand g.o.b./calit. obisnuita buna, mercantable quality/calitate vandabila, grade/quality I,II,III/ grad, calitate I,II,III, fine/fina, finest/foarte fina, superfine/extrafina, pure/pur, per analysis/conform analizei.

- quantity/ cantitatea

- number of pieces/numarul de bucati - grams/ grame, kilograms/kilograme, pounds/livre;

-units of length/unitati de lungime - millimeters/ milimetri, centimeters/centimetri, meters/metri, inches/ inci, feet/picioare, yards/iarzi
- units of area/ unitati de suprafata
- units of volume/ unitati de volum

- packing / ambalare
- seaworthy packing/ambalaj rezistent la transportul pe mare, moisture-proof packing/ambalaj care protejeaza impotriva umezelii, water-proof packing/ambalaj impermeabil, fire-proof packing/ambalaj neinflamabil
- bag or sack/ sac, box, chest/cutie, case/lada, jar/borcan,
tin, can/bidon, barrel, cask, wooden/butoi....

- marking / marcaj
- shipper's own distinctive marks/marcajele distinctive ale expeditorului
- consignee's distinctive marks/ marcajele distinctive ale destinatarului
- pentru marcaje se folosesc: stencils/sabloane, paint/imprimari cu vopsea, indelible ink/cerneala neradiabila

Exemple: Do not drop/Nu trantiti, fragile/fragil, keep in cold place/ pastrati in loc rece, handle with care/manuiti cu grija, open here/deschideti aici etc.


3.2.3. Price, costs, rates, related matters / Pret, costuri, tarife si alte probleme
- pretul poate fi fix - fixed price- sau variabil - sliding price
- pretul contractului se scrie atat in cifre cat si in litere
- calificative care se asociaza cu pretul pentru a aprecia obligatiile reciproce ale partilor contractuale: duty paid/vamuit, duty unpaid/nevamuit, package included/inclusiv ambalajul, package excluded/exclusiv ambalajul, non returnable package/ cu ambalaj nereturnabil, freight, charges and expenses prepaid/ cu taxele si cheltuielile de transport platite, free/franco domicile/franco domiciliu, delivered in/at/livrat in/la, free of charges/gratuit, delivered free to/livrat franco etc.


3.2.4. Terms of payment; bank guarantees/Conditii de plata;garantii bancare
- by sight drafts - prin trate la vedere
- by 90 days' time drafts - prin trate la termen de 90 de zile
- by cash with order - in numerar la darea comenzii
- by irrevocable letter of credit - prin acreditiv documentar irevocabil
- in cash against first presentation of documents - in numerar contra primei prezentari a documentelor
- in installments - in rate.


3.2.5. Delivery / Termene de livrare
ex stoc - din stoc
ex warehouse - din depozit
ex works - din fabrica
prompt delivery - livrare prompta
delivery on call - livrare la cerere
fixed time delivery - livrare la termen fix
delivery on, by, within - livrare la, pana la, in intervalul...
delivery in time - livrare la timp
advance delivery - livrare anticipata
late/postponed delivery - livrare cu intarziere
to extend the time of delivery - sa prelungeasca termenul de livrare
to speed up deliveries - sa urgenteze livrarile
complete delivery, one lot shipment - livrare efectuata integral, intr-un singur lot
delivery by installments - livrare efectuata esalonat
part/partial shipments - livrari partiale

Se mai precizeaza:
place of delivery - locul livrarii
transfer of property and risks from the Seller to the Buyer - transferul proprietatii si al riscurilor de la vanzator la cumparator
evidence of delivery - documentele doveditoare ale efectuarii livrarii.


3.2.6. Insurance / Asigurare
The insurance of the goods shall be made/ Asigurarea marfii trebuie efectuata
- by the Buyers and is charged to their account...de catre cumparatori si trece in contul lor
- by the Buyers, the incumbent expenses are on their account unless it is otherwise stipulated in this contract....de catre cumparatori, cheltuielile care le revin sunt suportate de ei, cu exceptia cazurilor cand este stabilit altfel in prezentul contract
- by Sellers for Buyers' account...de catre vanzatori in contul cumparatorilor....


3.2.7. Forwarding and shipping / Expediere si transport
- loading - incarcare, forwarding - expediere, discharging/unloading - descarcare

- loading port/station - statia de icarcare, unloading port/station - statia de descarcare

- chartering of a ship wholly - navlosirea unei nave in intregime, chartering of a ship in part - navlosirea unei nave partial, railway wagoon - vagon de cale ferata, truck - autocamion, plane - avion.


3.2.8. Claims / Reclamatii
Exemple:
- Quantity claims shall be filed by the Buyers within 10 days from the reception of the goods...Reclamatiile cu privire la cantitate se vor depune de catre cumparator in termen de 10 zile de la receptionarea marfii.

- Complaints made by subcontractors will be disregarded by the Sellers...Reclamatiile facute de subcontractanti nu vor fi luate in consideratie de vanzatori.
Pot fi generate de: Seller's fault/vina vanzatorului, Buyer's fault/ vina cumparatorului, both to blame/vina ambelor parti, force majeure/cauze de forta majora.

Reclamatiile cumparatorului pot avea urmatoarele cauze:
- a fault in merchandise quantity, quality, damage/ deficiente cu privire la marfa: cantitate, calitate, pagube;
- delay in delivery/ intarziere la livrare;
- faulty documents/ documente cu erori;
- faulty or unsuitable packing/ ambalaj defectuos sau necorespunzator;



Reclamatiile vanzatorului pot avea urmatoarele cauze
- delayed payment/ intarzierea platii;
- non-payment/ neplata contravalorii marfurilor;
- failure to place/ nepunerea la dispozitia vanzatorului a mijlocului de transport etc.


3.2.9. Cancellation of the contract / Rezilierea contractului
As you are unable to deliver the goods / Intrucat nu puteti sa livrati marfa
- by the agreed time ....la termenele convenite
- under the agreed conditions...in conditiile asupra carora am cazut de acord...
we are compelled to cancel the contract concluded against our order dated... suntem obligati sa reziliem contractul incheiat pe baza comenzii noastre din..


3.2.10. Force majeure / Forta majora
Both parties shall be exonerated from any liability, if contract provisions cannot be observed due to a contingency such as: storm, hurricane, earthquake, flood, war, strike or any other event beyond their control.... / Ambele parti vor fi exonerate de orice raspundere in caz ca prevederile contractuale nu vor putea fi respectate ca urmare a unui caz de forta majora, precum: furtuna, uragan, cutremur, inundatie, stare de razboi, greva sau orice alt eveniment independent de vointa acestora.


Miscellaneous / Prevederi diverse
Final dispositions / Dispozitii finale
Appendices (Annexes) / Anexe



3.3. Contract Draft / Model de contract de vanzare - cumparare

Date / Data:...

Place/ Locatie: Bucharest, Romania
Concluded between:....X as the Seller and Y as the Buyer, represented by..../ Incheiat intre:...firma X in calit. de vanzator si firma Y in calit de cumparator, reprezentat de...

1. Object of the contract / Obiectul contractului
2. Orders / Comenzi
3. Quality / Clauza cu privire la calitate
4. Quantity / Clauza cu privire la cantitate
5. Time of delivery / termenele de livrare
6. Prices / Clauza preturi
7. Payment terms / Termenii de plata
8. Packing and Marking / Ambalajul si Marcajul
9. Guarantee / Clauza privind garantia
10. Quality and Quantity Inspection / Clauzele privind inspectia calitatii si cantitatii
11. Force Majeure / Clauza privind forta majora
12. Arbitration / Clauza arbitraj
13. Insurance / Clauza privind asigurarea
14. Tnasport / Clauza privind transportul
15. Claims / Reclamatii
16. Cancellation / Rezilierea contractului
17. Other conditions / Alte prevederi


Made on the ..... in Bucharest, Romania / Redactat in data de ..., in Bucuresti, Romania

For and on behalf of the Sellers, For and on behalf of the Buyer,

Semnatura si stampila vanzatorului, Semnatura si stampila cumparatorului

4. Termeni de marketing, management si publicitate     4.1. Marketing planning / Planul de marketing 1
    4.1.1. Planning / Planificare 1
    4.1.2. Stages in the preparation of a marketing plan/ Etapele pregatirii unui plan de marketing
    4.2. Important Marketing Tips / 10 Sfaturi Importante in Marketing 5



4.1. Marketing planning / Planul de marketing
Marketing is the process that brings together the abilities of a company and the requirement of its customers Marketing-ul reprezinta procesul care combina resursele companiei cu cerintele clientilor sai

- the customer receives the benefits that satisfy his requirements; / clientul primeste beneficiile care ii satisfac nevoile;

- the company receives payment for the goods and makes some profit; / compania primeste plata pentru bunuri(marfuri) si castiga profit.



4.1.1. Planning / Planificare
4.1.1.1. Planning is one of the most important roles of management. The company's corporate or business plan runs the business. / Planificarea reprezinta una dintre cele mai importante roluri ale managementului. Corporatia companiei sau planul de afaceri desfasoara afacerea.

4.1.1.2. The marketing plan is only one part of the corporate plan and the marketing planning process therefore needs to be carried out as part of the overall company planning and budgeting process. / Planul de marketing reprezinta doar o parte a planului corporatiei, rezulta deci ca procesul de planificare a marketing-ului trebuie sa fie elaborat ca parte a planificarii generale a companiei si a procesului bugetar.

4.1.1.3. The approach adopted by marketing planners is to implement action plans which will produce visible short-term results Abordarea facuta de planificatorii de marketing consta in implementarea planurilor de actiune care vor produce rezultate vizibile pe termen scurt.

4.1.1.4. Selling involves persuading the customer to buy the product, but it is one aspect of the marketing process. Marketing involves finding out what the customers wants and matching the company's products and services to meet these requirements, and in the process making a profit for the company. / Vanzarea implica convingerea clientului de a cumpara produsul, dar este doar un aspect al procesului de marketing. Marketing-ul consta in aflarea cerintelor clientilor si imbunatatirea produselor si serviciilor companiei astfel incat sa indeplineasca aceste cerinte, iar intregul proces sa duca la realizarea de profit pentru companie.

4.1.1.5. This involves understanding:/Aceasta implica intelegerea
- the abilities of the company / resurselor companiei
- the requirements of the customers / cerintele clientilor
- the marketing environment in which you operate / mediul de marketing in care iti desfasori activitatea.

4.1.1.6. The abilities of the company can be managed by controlling four main elements of the company's operation, often reffered to as the marketing mix. / Resursele companiei pot fi administrate prin controlul asupra a patru elemente principale ale activitatii companiei, adesea referindu-se la mixul de marketing:
- the product sold (Product)/ produsul vandut (Produs);
- the pricing policy (Price)/ politica de pret (Pret);
- how the product is promoted (Promotion)/ cum este promovat produsul (Promotie);
- the methods of distribution (Place)/ metode de distribuire (Pozitie).

4.1.1.7. Marketing planning involves the application of marketing resources to achieve marketing objectives. It is used to segment markets, identify market position, forecast market size and plan a viable market share within each market segment Planificarea marketing-ului implica aplicarea resurselor de marketing cu scopul de a atinge obiectivele de marketing. Este folosita pentru segmentarea pietelor, identificarea pozitiei pe piata, estimarea marimii pietei si stabilirea unei portiuni de piata viabila din cadrul fiecariu segment de piata.

4.1.1.8. Key marketing principles apply equally to the marketing of consumer and capital goods and to services. / Principiile de baza in marketing se aplica in mod egal marketingului clientului, mijloacelor de productie si serviciilor.

4.1.1.9. A marketing plan is a documet which formulates a plan for marketing products and/or services. The overall marketing plan can be made up of a number of smaller marketing plans for individual products or areas. / Un plan de marketing este un document care cuprinde un plan pentru produsele si/sau serviciile de marketing. Intregul plan de marketing poate fi alcatuit din mai multe planuri de marketing mai mici pentru produse sau zone individuale.

4.1.1.10. A company marketing plan sets out the company's marketing objectives and suggests strategies to achieve them. / Planul de marketing al unei companii stabileste obiectivele de marketing ale companiei si sugereaza strategiile de indeplinire a lor.

Stages in the preparation of a marketing plan/ Etapele pregatirii unui plan de marketing
(1) Corporate objectives are normally expressed in financial terms and they define what the company aims to be at some time in the future.
Obiectivele corporatiei se exprima in mod normal prin termeni financiari si definesc ceea ce compania isi propune pentru viitor.

(2) Before looking at in-house data, it is important to collect and analyse external data related to the markets that the plan will cover. Inainte de a analiza datele interne, este important sa se adune si analizeze datele externe in legatura cu pietele pe care planul le va acoperi.
This is the key information concerning the companies, industries and countries/ areas that the product is being sold in, as well as information on the customers and competitors. /Acestea reprezinta informatii de baza cu privire la companii, industrii si tari/zone in care produsul este vandut, precum si informatii despre clienti si concurenti.

(3) Includes a detailed study of the company's marketing mix - its products/ services, promotions (advertising, PR and sales promotion) and distribution. / Include un studiu detaliat asupra mixului de marketing al companiei - serviciile/ produsele sale, promotii (publicitate, relatii publice si promovarea vanzarilor) si distributia.

(4) SWOT - Strengths / Puncte tari
- Weaknesses / Puncte slabe
- Opportunities / Oportunitati in the marketplace
- Threats / Temeri, amenintari

(5) Assumptions could relate to / Presupunerile ar putea fi legate de:
- inflation rate / rata inflatiei
- currency / valuta
- exchange rates / ratele de schimb
- market growth rates / ratele crescute de pe piata
- the effect of price competition on price levels in the industry/ efectul competitiei preturilor asupra nivelelor de pret din industrie

(6) It relates to which products you want to sell into which markets / Se leaga de felul produselor pe care vrei sa le vinzi si de felul pietelor
It is important not to confuse / Este important sa nu se confunde
Objective = is what you want to achieve / Obiectiv= reprezinta ceea ce vrei sa realizezi
Strategy = is how you get there / Strategie = reprezinta modul in care reusesti sa realizezi.


(7) Marketing strategies relate to general policies for the following / Strategiile de marketing se leaga de politicile generale privind urmat:

(a) Products / Produse
- changing product portfolio/mix - schimbarea portofoliului/mixului produsului
- dropping, adding or modifying products - indepartarea, adaugarea sau modificarea produselor
- changing design, quality and performance - schimbarea formei, calitatii si performantei
- consolidating/ standardizing - consolidare, standardizare

(b) Price / Pret
- changing price, terms or conditions for particular product groups in particular market segments - modificarea pretului, a termenelor ori conditiilor pentru grupuri de produse speciale in cadrul segmentelor de piata speciale
- skimming policies - politici de inlaturare
- penetration policies - politici de infiltrare
- discount policies - politici de acordare a discount-ului

(c) Promotion / Promovare
- changing selling organization - modificarea tehnicii de vanzare
- changing advertising or sales promotion - modificarea publicitatii sau promovarii vanzarilor
- changing public relations policy - modificarea politicii de relatii publice
- increasing/ decreasing exhibition coverage - cresterea/ descresterea numarului de expozitii

(d) Distribution / Distributie
- changing distribution channels - schimbarea canalelor de distributie
- improving service - imbunatatirea serviciilor.

4.2 Important Marketing Tips / 10 Sfaturi Importante in Marketing
Tip 1
Protect yourself against the impact of change by increasing the number of products and services you offer ...and by using a variety of different marketing methods. Only a small portion of your total business will be affected if the sales of one product declines or the response to one marketing method drops. Protejeaza-te de impactul schimbarilor prin marirea numarului de produse si servicii pe care le oferi...si prin folosirea mai multor metode de marketing. Doar o mica parte din afacerea ta va fi afectata daca vanzarile unui produs scad sau daca o metoda de marketing folosita este inadecvata.

Tip 2
Customers are prospects too. Stay in contact with them. Find or develop other products or services you can offer them. It's easier to make a sale to a previous customer than to someone who never bought from you.
Clientii reprezinta si ei perspective. Ramai in contact cu ei. Gaseste sau creeaza alte produse sau servicii pe care sa le poti oferi. Este mult mai usor sa vinzi unui client decat unei persoane care nu a cumparat niciodata de la tine.

Tip 3
Avoid making any claim that sounds exaggerated ...even if it is true.
Evita sa sustii ceva care pare exagerat...chiar daca este adevarat.

Tip 4
Express numerical claims as odd numbers with fractions or decimals. For example, "Our clients save 17.7 percent" sounds more believable than "Our clients save 20 percent" ...even if 20 percent is the accurate number.
Fa referire la numere impare, cu fractii sau zecimale. De exemplu, "Clientii nostri economisesc 17.7%" pare mai credibil decat "Clientii nostri economisesc 20 %"...chiar daca 20% este cifra corecta.

Tip 5
To create an absolutely irresistible offer, combine a special discount price and a set of valuable bonuses in the same offer.
Pentru a face o oferta absolut irezistibila, combina o reducere de pret cu un set de bonusuri in aceeasi oferta.

Tip 6
Develop a series of 4 or 5 different special offers. Use them one at a time with an expiration deadline. When one offer expires, replace it with the next offer and a new deadline. Continuously recycle through the same series of offers. This enables you to keep using special offers to generate sales without taking time to develop new ones.
Creeaza un pachet de 4 sau 5 oferte speciale. Foloseste-le pe rand si pe durata limitata. Cand expira o oferta, inlocuieste-o cu urmatoarea oferta pe termen limitat. Foloseste aceleasi oferte in mod ciclic. Astfel, vei folosi intotdeauna oferte speciale pentru a face vanzari fara sa pierzi timp pentru a crea tipuri noi de oferta.

Tip 7
If you're attracting many prospects who really don't have (or can't get) the money to buy your product or service ...you need to change your market. Target a market where prospects have an intense desire for the benefits produced by your product or service - AND the money to buy it.
Daca sunt interesati de produsele sau serviciile tale multi potentiali clienti care nu au (sau nu pot face rost de) banii necesari cumpararii...trebuie sa
te reorientezi spre alta piata. Tinteste o piata in care potentialii clienti interesati de produsele sau serviciile tale au si banii necesari cumpararii.

Tip 8
Set yourself apart from competitors by offering an exclusive benefit your competitors cannot copy ...or one they're not willing to copy. For example, a business owner includes his personal phone number on every order. His competitors don't - and they are not likely to start making themselves that accessible to customers.
Diferentiaza-te de competitorii tai oferind un beneficiu pe care acestia nu il pot oferi ... sau nu sunt dispusi sa-l ofere. De exemplu, un om de afaceri ofera numarul lui de telefon la fiecare comanda onorata. Competitorii sai nu fac acest lucru - si e putin probabil ca vor dori sa poata fi contactati de clienti oricand.

Tip 9
Advertising copy produces the biggest response when each reader can believe the message was written specifically for him or her. As you write any sales message, visualize you're writing to one person instead of to a large group of people. This will help you write in a less formal and more personal style.
Reclama personalizata are impact atunci cand fiecare cititor are impresia ca mesajul i se adreseaza personal. Cand compui un mesaj publicitar, imagineaza-ti ca te adresezi unei persoane si nu unui grup de persoane. Aceasta te va ajuta sa transmiti un mesaj mai putin formal.

Tip 10
Most sales are not made on the first contact. Develop a method to capture and save the names and contact information of prospects who don't buy from you. Follow up periodically. A little gentle coaching will eventually convert many of them into buyers.
Cele mai multe vanzari nu se fac dupa primul contact cu potentialul client. Utilizeaza o metoda care iti permite sa retii numele si datele de contact ale potentialilor clienti care nu au cumparat de la tine. Contacteaza-i in mod regulat. Un mic imbold ii poate transforma in clienti.

Each of these 10 marketing tips implements a simple but highly effective marketing tactic. Fiecare din aceste 10 sfaturi prezinta o tactica de marketing simpla dar foarte eficienta.

5. The Negotiation. Financial terms/ Negocierea. Termeni financiari     5.1. Steps in a negotiation / Pasi de urmat intr-o negociere
    5.2. Expressions Currently Used in Negotiations / Expresii uzuale folosite in negociere
    5. 3. Financial terms / Termeni financiari




5.1. Steps in a negotiation / Pasi de urmat intr-o negociere

1.1. trying to persuade by giving a lot of different reasons (arguments)/ incercarea de a convinge prin invocarea mai multor motive (argumente):
"Considering the fact that...I would suggest..." / Considerand faptul ca...as sugera...

1.2. summarizing and reviewing / rezumare si revizuire
"Coming back to the problem..." / Revenind asupra problemei...

1.3. taking a long term view / planificare pe termen lung
"If we think in five years' time..." / Daca ne gandim la urmatorii 5 ani...

1.4. thinking in terms of the present / accentuand pe situatia din prezent
"This will be appropiate for the moment" / Acest lucru ar fi potrivit pentru momentul de fata

1.5. checking understanding, by paraphrasing what he/ she has said/ se verifica gradul de intelegere, parafrazand ce a spus el/ ea
"Correct me if I'm wrong, but did you mean..."/ Corecteaza-ma daca gresesc, dar ai vrut sa spui...

1.6. setting objectives as single points / stabilirea unor obiective punctuale
"I still think..." / Inca mai cred/ consider...
"As I have said..." / Dupa cum am spus...

1.7. being tactful and polite / dand dovada de tact si politete
"May I respectfully remind you of...?" Imi permiteti sa va reamintesc de...?

1.8. constantly responding with alternative posibilities/ raspunzand in mod constant cu alternative
"What if we..." / Dar daca am...

1.9. expressing their intentions /exprimandu-si intentiile:
"I'd like to make a proposal" / As dori sa fac o propunere....
"Can I make a suggestion?" / Pot sa fac o sugestie?

1.10. giving a clear indication of the feelings about the issues discussed / indicand clar ceea ce crede despre problemele discutate:
"I have some doubts about..." / Am cateva indoieli privind...



5.2. Expressions Currently Used in Negotiations / Expresii uzuale folosite in negociere

2.1. Asking for information / Solicitarea informatiilor
2.1.1. Could you (possibly) / Mi-ati putea (oare
- tell me about..... - spune despre
- suggest.... - sugera....
- explain.... - explica
- give more information about... - da mai multe informatii cu privire la...
2.1.2. What / Ceea ce
- we are (mostly) interested in is... - ne intereseaza (in mod deosebit) este...
- I really want to know about is... - vreau cu adevarat sa stiu...
2.1.3. Could you be a little more precise about....?
V-as ruga sa fiti ceva mai precis in privinta...?



2.2. Sounding out your partner / Sondarea opiniei partenerului
2.2.1. Tell me, have you ever thought of...Spuneti-mi, v-ati gandit vreodata sa...
2.2.2. Tell me, have you ever considered the posibility...Spuneti-mi, v-ati gandit la posibilitatea...


2.3. Making a suggetion / Prezentarea unei propuneri
2.3.1. I was thinking / Ma gandeam ca
- you might be interested in...- poate v-ar interesa...
- it might be a good idea to...- ar fi o idee sa...
- it would be worth trying... - ar merita sa incercam...
2.3.2. By the way / Apropo
- how about replacing... - ce-ati zice sa inlocuim...
- I suggest you ring him right now...- Va propun sa-l sunati chiar acum...


2.4. Persuasion / Persuasiune
2.4.1. I'm sorry to insist, but / Regret ca insist, dar
- I must point out... - trebuie sa subliniez ca
- to my mind, the main point to consider now is that...dupa parerea mea , problema principala pe care trebuie sa o avem in vedere acum este...
2.4.2. There are, if I may say so, certain points you must bear in mind... Sunt, permiteti-mi s-o zic, anumite probleme pe care trebuie sa le aveti in vedere...
2.4.3. In other words / Cu alte cuvinte
- it is advisable to... -este recomandabil sa...
- it's not worth the risk... - nu merita riscul


2.5. Approval, disapproval/ Aprobare, dezaprobare
2.5.1. We fully agree (with you) / Suntem cu totul de acord (cu dv.)
2.5.2. That's an excellent idea / Este o idee excelenta
2.5.3. Yes, that suits us (perfectly) / Da, ne convine (de minune
2.5.4. I'm afraid we really couldn't accept that / Ma tem ca nu am putea accepta asa ceva
2.5.5. I can't agree (with you) / Nu pot fi de acord (cu dv.)


2.6. The Negotiation / Negocierea propriu-zisa
2.6.1. Your price is a little high for us / Pretul dv. este cam mare
- could you come down a bit on it? - l-ati mai putea micsora putin?
- which would your lowest price be for...? - care ar fi pretul dv. cel mai mic pentru...?
2.6.2. The delivery time is too long. Could you deliver within a month? / Termenul de livrare este prea lung. Ati putea livra intr-o luna?
2.6.3. Quality: The material used for the performance or the goods included in this contract should meet the standards... Materialul folosit pentru confectionare sau marfa inclusa in prezentul contract sa corespunda standardelor...
2.6.4. Quantity: Buyers shall pay for the quantity actually supplied (no exceed is allowed)...Cumparatorul va plati cantitatea realmente livrata (nu se admite nici o depasire)...
2.6.5. Packing: You should pack in wooden cases...Ambalarea se va f ace in cutii de lemn...
2.6.5. Transport: The Buyer has the right to indicate the frontier station or the loading port of the exporting country in the shipping instructions...Cumparatorul are dreptul sa indice punctul de frontiera sau portul de incarcare din tara exportatoare in instructiunile de transport.
2.6.6. Terms of payment: Payment should be made by cash with order...Plata trebuie facuta in numerar la darea comenzii.


2.7. Concessions / Concesia
2.7.1. We feel our request is reasonable...Consideram ca cererea nostra este rezonabila...
2.7.2. In return for this concession, we would hope you would reconsider the discount...In schimbul acestei concesii, speram ca veti recalcula rabatul...
2.7.3. I'm afraid these are two quite distinct issues...Ma tem ca acestea sunt doua chestiuni absolut diferite una de alta.


2.8. Interrupting, expressing a contrary opinion / Intreruperea, exprimarea unei opinii contrare
2.8.1. Excuse me for interrupting you, but...Scuzati-ma ca va intrerup, dar...
2.8.2. I'm afraid that really isn't quite right...Ma tem ca nu este deloc adevarat.
2.8.3. Do you mind if I say something here?...Va derajeaza daca adaug ceva in aceasta problema?


2.9. Hesitating / Ezitare
2.9.1. Sorry, but I can't give you the answer at the moment...Regret, dar nu va pot da raspunsul acum
2.9.2. Before we finalize the deal, I'd have to ask my colleagues about that...Inainte de a finaliza afacerea ar trebui sa ma consult cu colegii in legatura cu aceasta.


2.10. Expressing confidence in the good business relations of the two partners / Exprimarea increderii in posibilitatile de cooperare dintre cei doi parteneri

Example: We value our association, which is based on mutual respect and precise fulfilment of commitments on both sides...Pentru noi este pretioasa colaborarea cu dv., care se bazeaza pe respect reciproc si indeplinirea cu exactitate a angajamentelor de ambele parti.


5.3. Financial terms / Termeni financiari
3.1. Favourable information / Informatii favorabile
3.1.1. According to report received from reliable sources / Conform cu relatarile primite din surse d incredere
- they seem to do good business...- se pare ca desfasoara un comert infloritor
- their financial position is satisfactory...- situatia lor financiara este satisfacatoare
- they appear to have adequate funds...- se pare ca au fonduri corespunzatoare
3.1.2. We have always found them satisfactory in their payment methods...Intotdeauna am fost satisfacuti de metodele lor de plata.

3.2. Unfavourable information / Informatii nefavorabile
3.2.1. We have no detailed information regarding/ about their financial status...Nu detinem informatii detaliate cu privire la/despre situatia lor financiara.
3.2.2. The firm is quite solvent but we ourselves would be reluctant to grant a credit of this size as much of their capital is blocked....Firma e solvabila dar noi insine nu am fi dispusi sa-i acordam un credit de o asemenea valoare intrucat mare parte a capitalului ei e blocat.


3. 3. Instruments of payment / Instrumente de plata
3.3.1. The Draft/ Bill of Exchange - Cambia
O cambie sau trata (bill of exchange or draft) este un ordin scris si neconditionat, emis de o persoana fizica sau juridica, emitentul sau tragatorul (maker of bill or drawer) catre o alta persoana fizica sau juridica, denumita trasul (drawee), de a plati o anumita suma de bani unei terte parti, beneficiarul (payee), fie la prezentare sau la vedere (at sight), fie la o data viitoare determinata, de pilda la 30 de zile de la prezentare (30 days after sight).

Example: According to our terms of payment we have drawen on you at 30 days' sight for the amount of the enclosed invoice...Conform conditiilor noastre de plata, am tras o trata asupra dv. la 30 de zile de la vedere pentru suma facturii alaturate.


3.3.2. The Cheque / Cecul
Cecul este un instrument de plata emis asupra unei banci (drawn on a bank) si platibil la cerere (payable on demand). Tragatorul sau emitentul (drawer) cere trasului (drawee). De regula, sa plateasca o suma de bani unui beneficiar (payee).
Exista cecul la purtator (bearer chequer) platibil detinatorului, precum si cecul nebarat (non crossed cheque) platibil in numerar si cecul barat (crossed cheque) care se plateste unei alte banci in cont.
Se mai distinge si cecul la ordin (order cheque), emis nominal in favoarea beneficiarului.

Example: Please stop payment of our cheque no...drawen by us in favour of...for the sum of...and signed by...
Va rugam sa opriti plata cecului nr... emis de noi in favoarea ... pentru suma de... si semnat de...


3.4. Methods of Payment / Modalitati de plata
3.4.1. the documentary credit / acreditivul documentar (prezentat la capitolul Import-Export)
3.4.2. payment upon receipt of documents or documentary collection / incasso-ul documentar

Aceasta metoda presupune ca doua banci sa fie implicate in plata unei trenzactii de export import. Banca ce remite documentele (remitting bank) este aleasa de exportator pentru a transmite documentele unei banci corespondente din tara importatorului, banca ce urmeaza sa faca incasarea (collecting bank). Documentele nu pot fi remise contra platii (documents against payment), ceea ce inseamna tragerea de trate la vedere pentru suma rezultata din tranzactie. Ele pot fi remise si contra acceptarii platii (documents against acceptance) ceea ce inseamna emiterea de trate la termen spre a fi acceptate pentru plata la scadenta.

3.4.3. the payment order / ordinul de plata
Ordinul de plata e un ordin prin care un importator da instructiuni unei banci sa plateasca vanzatorului, de regula printr-o banca corespondenta, o anumita suma de bani.

6. Company Management and Personal Recruitment/ Managementul firmei si recrutarea de personal     6.1 Time management / Managementul timpului
    6.2 Planning to make the best use of your time - Effective Scheduling
    6.3 Interview Success Plan




6.1 Time management / Managementul timpului

At the heart of time management is Concentrate on results, not on being busy / La baza managementului timpului sta expresia Concentreaza-te asupra rezultatelor, nu a eforturilor.

Many people achieve very little of their activities because they are not concentrating on the right things Multi oameni nu reusesc sa realizeze prea multe dintre activitatile pe care si le propun deoarece nu se concentreaza asupra prioritatilor.

Tips / Sfaturi
Finding out how much your time is worth - Costing Your Time / Afla cat valoreaza timpul tau.

Making sure you concentrate on the right things - Deciding Work Priorities / Stabileste-ti o lista de prioritati

Checking how you really spend your time - Activity Logs / Tine un jurnal de activitati

Keeping an Activity Log for several days helps you to understand how you spend your time, and when you perform at your best. / Pastrand un jurnal de activitati, te va ajuta sa intelegi cum iti petreci timpul si cand lucrezi mai eficient.

You may also see that you are energetic in some parts of the day, and flat in other parts. / De asemenea, iti poti da seama ca esti mai energic in anumite intervale ale zilei si mai putin energic in altele.


6.2 Planning to make the best use of your time - Effective Scheduling / Planificare Eficienta
Scheduling is the process by which you look at the time available to you, and plan how you will use it to achieve the goals you have identified. /
Planificarea este procesul prin care, verificand timpul disponibil, iti planifici folosirea lui pentru a indeplini scopurile propuse. By using a schedule properly, you can: / Folosind corect o planificare, vei putea:

Understand what you can realisticaly achieve with your time/ Intelege in mod realist ce poti realiza cu timpul tau

Plan to make the best use of the time available / Planifica cea mai eficienta utilizare a timpului tau disponibil
Leave enough time for things you absolutely must do / Rezerva timp suficient pentru lucrurile absolut necesare

Preserve contingency time to handle 'the unexpected' / Rezerva timp pentru rezolvarea unor probleme "neasteptate".
Time management products reviewed - Reviews / Trecere in revista (Revizuire


Project management / Managementul proiectelor

Planning to solve a problem- Action Plan / Planul de actiune
An Action Plan is a list of tasks that you have to carry out to achieve an objective. / Un Plan de Actiune este o lista cu sarcini pe care trebuie sa le indeplinesti pentru a atinge un obiectiv. It differs from a To Do List in that it focuses on the achievement of a single goal. / Difera de Elaborarea Listei prin faptul ca se concentreaza pe indeplinirea unui singur scop.

Tackling the right tasks first - Prioritized To Do Lists / Elaborarea listelor prioritare

Remembering To Do All Essential Tasks, In The Right Order / Retine ca trebuie sa descrii toate sarcinile principale, in ordinea lor corecta

A 'To-Do List' is a list of all the tasks that you need to carry out. / "Elaborarea unei Liste" presupune o lista cu toate sarcinile pe care trebuie sa le indeplinesti. It consolidates all the jobs that you have to do into one place. / Lista pune laolalta toate treburile pe care trebuie sa le faci intr-un singur loc. You can then prioritize these tasks into order of importance. /
Asadar, poti clasifica aceste sarcini in ordinea importantei lor. This allows you to tackle the most important ones first. / Acest lucru iti permite sa dai prioritate celor mai importante.

To draw up a Prioritized To-Do List, list all the tasks you must carry out. /Pentru a elabora o Lista de Prioritati, enumera toate sarcinile pe care trebuie sa le indeplinesti. Mark the importance of the task next to it, with a priority from A (very important) to F (unimportant). / Marcheaza importanta fiecarei atributii scriind langa aceasta gradul de prioritate de la A (foarte important) pana la F (neimportant). Redraft the list into this order of importance. / Rescrie lista in ordinea importantei data de aceasta insemnare.

Now carry out the jobs at the top of the list first. / Acum indeplineste mai intai atributiile care se afla in fruntea listei. These are the most important, most beneficial tasks to complete. / Acestea reprezinta sarcinile cele mei importante, cele mai benefice de realizat.

Deciding what your personal priorities should be - Personal Goal Setting / Stabilirea Obiectivelor Personale

Goal setting is a standard technique used by successful business-people in all fields. / Stabilirea obiectivelor reprezinta o tehnica standard utilizata de oamenii de afaceri de succes din toate domeniile. It gives you long-term vision and short-term motivation. / Iti ofera o viziune pe termen lung si o motivare pe termen scurt. It focuses your acquisition of knowledge and helps you to organize your resources. / Pune accent pe cunostintele tale acumulate si te ajuta sa-ti organizezi resursele.

To give a balanced coverage of all important areas in your life, try to set goals in some or all of the following categories: / Pentru a putea indeplini in mod egal toate domeniile importante din viata ta, incearca sa-ti stabilesti obiectivele in unele sau toate categoriile urmatoare

Artistic: / Domeniul artistic:
Do you want to achieve any artistic goals? If so, what? / Vrei sa realizezi vreun obiectiv artistic? Daca da, care?

Attitude: / Atitudine:

Is there any part of the way that you behave that upsets you? / Exista ceva in comportamentul tau care te supara? If so, set a goal to improve your behavior Daca da, stabileste un obiectiv care sa-ti imbunatateasca comportamentul.

Career: / Cariera

What level do you want to reach in your career? / La ce nivel doresti sa ajunga cariera ta?

Education: / Educatie

Is there any knowledge you want to acquire in particular? / Exista cunostinte pe care doresti sa le dobandesti in particular? What information and skills will you need to achieve other goals? / Ce informatii si abilitati ai nevoie pentru a realiza alte obiective?

Family: / Familie:

Do you want to be a parent? / Iti doresti sa fii parinte? If so, how are you going to be a good parent? / Daca da, cum vei reusi sa fii un parinte bun? How do you want to be seen by a partner or by members of your extended family? / Cum iti doresti sa fii vazut de un partener sau de membrii intregii familii?

Financial: / Financiar

How much do you want to earn by what stage? / Cat de mult vrei sa castigi si la ce nivel?

Physical: / Din punct de vedere fizic
Are there any athletic goals you want to achieve, or do you want good health deep into old age? Exista obiective sportive pe care vrei sa le realizezi sau iti doresti o stare a sanatatii buna pana la adanci batraneti? What steps are you going to take to achieve this? / Ce pasi vei urma pentru a realiza acest lucru?

Pleasure: / Distractie

How do you want to enjoy yourself? - you should ensure that some of your life is for you! / Cum vrei sa te distrezi? - trebuie sa te asiguri ca traiesti si pentru tine.

Public Service: / Serviciu Public

Do you want to make the world a better place? If so, how? / Vrei sa faci ca lumea sa fie un loc mai bun? Daca da, cum vei face aceasta?
Once you have decided your goals in these categories, assign a priority to them from A to F. O data ce ti-ai stabilit obiectivele dupa aceste categorii, stabileste-le importanta de la A la F. Then review the goals and re-prioritize until you are satisfied that they reflect the shape of the life that you want to lead. / Apoi revizuieste obiectivele si reclasifica-le pana cand consideri ca reflecta modelul vietii dorit. Also ensure that the goals that you have set are the goals that you want to achieve, not what your parents, spouse, family, or employers want them to be. / De asemenea, trebuie sa te asiguri ca obiectivele pe care le-ai stabilit sunt cele pe care ti le doresti tu, nu parintii tai, sotul/ sotia, familia sau angajatorul.


The following guidelines will help you to set effective goals: / Urmatoarele indrumari va vor ajuta sa stabiliti obiective eficiente

- State each goal as a positive statement: / Exprima fiecare obiectiv in mod pozitiv - 'Execute this technique well' is a much better goal than 'Don't make this stupid mistake' / "Aplica bine aceasta tehnica" este un obiectiv exprimat mult mai bine decat "Nu face aceasta greseala prosteasca".

- Be precise: / Fii precis: Set a precise goal so that you can measure achievement. / Stabileste un obiectiv precis, a carui rezultate pot fi masurate. If you do this, you will know exactly when you have achieved the goal/ Astfel, vei sti cu precizie cand ai indeplinit obiectivul.

- Set priorities Stabileste prioritatile: This helps you to direct your attention to the most important ones. / Te va ajuta sa-ti indrepti atentia asupra celor mai importante.

- Write goals down: / Scrie-ti obiectivele: this crystallizes them / acest lucru le va scoate in evidenta.

- Keep operational goals small Pastreaza obiective operationale mici If a goal is too large, then it can seem that you are not making progress towards it. / Daca un obiectiv este prea amplu, va putea sa para ca nu faci nici un progres spre indeplinirea lui.

- Set realistic goals: / Stabileste obiective realiste: It is important to set goals that you can achieve. / Este important sa stabilesti obiective pe care le poti realiza.

- Do not set goals too low: / Nu stabili obiective prea mici: Just as it is important not to set goals unrealistically high, do not set them too low. /
Asa cum este important sa nu stabilesti obiective nerealist de mari, de asemenea nu stabili obiective prea mici. No one will put serious effort into achieving a goal that they believe is unrealistic. / Nimeni nu va depune un efort serios in realizarea obiectivului daca il considera ca fiind nerealist. However, remember that your belief that a goal is unrealistic may be incorrect. / Oricum, tine minte ca parerea ta despre un obiectiv ca fiind nerealist poate fi gresita.


6.3 Interview Success Plan
Here is some important tips that we should take into account for having an effective interview: / In continuare sunt descrise cateva sfaturi pe care ar trebui sa le luam in considerare pentru a avea un interviu reusit:

1. Don't smoke, chew gum or anything else. / Nu fuma, nu mesteca guma sau orice altceva de genul acesta.

2. Make a positive first impression by giving a firm handshake to each interviewer and addressing each interviewer as they are introduced. / Fa o prima impresie pozitiva printr-o strangere de mana ferma cu fiecare membru al comisiei de intervievare si adresandu-te fiecaruia in momentul in care se prezinta.

3. Reinforce your professionalism and your ability to communicate effectively by speaking clearly and avoiding "you knows", and slang. / Pune-ti in evidenta profesionalismul si capacitatea de a comunica eficient vorbind clar si evitand expresia "stiti" sau argoul.

4. Use appropriate wording. You won't receive extra points for every word that has more than 10 letters. Use technical terms only when appropriate to the question. / Foloseste cuvinte potrivite. Nu vei primi puncte in plus pentru cuvintele care au mai mult de 10 litere. Foloseste termeni tehnici doar cand corespund intrebarii.

5. Use positive words. Instead of "if", "I think", "I feel" and "I wish" use "when", "I am" and "I would" / Foloseste cuvinte pozitive. In loc de "daca", "cred", "consider", "doresc" poti folosi "cand", "eu sunt", "eu as".

6. Establish rapport by relating to each interviewer. Note the wording that is used by each interviewer and when appropriate use similar words. Maintain eye contact with each of the interviewers throughout the interview. / Stabileste un raport relationand cu fieare intervievator. Observa expresiile folosite de fiecare intervievator in parte si cand este momentul potrivit foloseste cuvinte asemanatoare. Mentine contactul vizual cu fiecare dintre intervievatori pe tot parcursul interviului.

7. Sit comfortably and erectly (but don't sit stiffly or sprawl over the chair). / Stai comfortabil si drept (dar nu nemiscat sau intins pe scaun).

8. Project confidence and a positive attitude. Maintain awareness of your voice, posture, energy level, and enthusiasm. Make hand gestures to emphasize important points, but avoid distracting gestures or making too many hand gestures. / Da dovada de incredere si o atitudine pozitiva.
Mentine constientizarea vocii tale, posturii, nivelului de energie si entuziasmului. Fa gesturi cu mana care sa sublinieze puncte importante, dar evita gesturi de distragere a atentiei sau prea multe gesturi cu mana.

9. Smile confidently, but not to the point where you would appear to be too casual. Smiling will also help you relax and establish a rapport with the interviewers. / Zambeste increzator, dar nu in momentul in care ai putea parea prea nepasator. Zambetul te va ajuta, de asemenea, sa te relaxezi si sa stabilesti un raport cu intervievatorii.

10. Emphasize your strengths and qualifications that make a compelling reason that you are the ideal person for the job. / Pune accent pe punctele tale tari si pe calificarile/pregatirea ta profesionala care reprezinta un motiv convingator ca esti persoana potrivita pentru slujba oferita.

11. Don't dominate the interview. Time does not equal quality. / Nu domina interviul. Mai mult timp nu inseamna neaparat calitate mai buna.

12. Manage weaknesses so that they appear to be indications of your strengths. / Fa in asa fel incat slabiciunile tale sa para indicii ale punctelor tari.

13. Be attentive. Listen to each question carefully and don't interrupt. If you aren't sure of what is being asked, politely request that the question be repeated. / Fii atent. Asculta cu atentie fiecare intrebare si nu intrerupe. Daca nu esti sigur ca ai inteles intrebarea, cere politicos sa o mai repete.

14. Close the interview with a strong closing statement of your qualifications for the job. / Incheie interviul cu o afirmatie prompta asupra calificarii tale privind slujba respectiva.

Thank the interviewers. Shake their hands individually and thank each interviewer by name. / Multumeste-le intervievatorilor. Da mana cu fiecare in parte si multumeste-i fiecaruia pe nume.












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