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COMMUNICATION: SOLIDARITY

grammar




COMMUNICATION: SOLIDARITY

GRAMMAR: QUESTION TAGS

Illustrative Situations




/. Listen to the dialogues and learn them:

- Bill is very athletic. He can swim very well.

So can Jack.

Yes, they are both very good at sports.

- I am going to the pictures.

So am I.

I hope the film will be good.

So do I.

- Where is Kate?

She's got to stay at home and look after the children.

So has Bill, as a matter of fact

Then we can't play bridge, can we?

- Jim played cards yesterday.

So did Paul.

Didn't they get into trouble?

Yes, I expect so.

- I'm afraid Jack and Jim aren't getting on very well in

English.

No, they aren't.

Particularly Jack, he ought to work harder.

So ought Jim.

I quite agree.

6. - Have you ever been to Australia?

No, 1 haven't.

Neither have I, but I've been to Japan

So have I.

7. - I'm not going to the club, I'm afraid.

Neither am I.

It's a pity, isn't it?

Yes, I suppose so.

8. - Have you got a radio?

No, I haven't. But I've got a piano

So have I.

9. - What do you think of space travel?

I think it's very exciting.

So do I, but Mary doesn't.

Doesn't she?

No, she thinks it's rather useless

10. - As a child I could jump well.

I couldn't but I could climb trees.

So could I but I can't now. - - Neither can I.

11. - Would you like to buy a bicycle?

No, not particularly. I'd rather buy a motor-bike. -So would I.

12. - Dick will get a rise next month.

So will Bill.

13. A: I'm on holiday next month. B: So am I.

A: I need a change.

B: Oh, so do 1. I'm tired of the same office and the same people

every day!

A: Where are you going? B: Spain.

A: Oh, I went there last year. B: So did I. We always go to Spain .. but we never go to the

Costa Brava

A: No, neither do I. There are too many English people there. B: Where exactly are you going?

A: San Pedro. . it's a little village on the north coast. B: You're joking!

A: No, I'm not. I've been there three times. B: So have we... and we're going there this year, too. A: ... not to the Hotel del Sol? B: Yes ... why?

A: Well, I'll see you. I'm stayi 747r1721h ng there, too! 14. Pascale: I like tea with milk and sugar

Luisa: So do I, but I don't like the coffee here, and neither does Maria. It's too weak. Can you cook English food?

Pascale: No, not very well.

Luisa: Neither can I But we had a good meal last night at Stone's Chop House. They call it "The home of tra­ditional English food."

Pascale: Yes, in Leicester Square. But isn't eating out in London expensive! I've spent so much money on food. Luisa: So have I, and I've also put on weight.

Practice

/. Express solidarity. e.g. A: Tom is going by taxi. (Bill) B: And so is Bill.

A: She works in a laundry, (he)

B: And so does he.

1. They had cornflakes for breakfast. (I) 2. George has lunch in the canteen. (Gerald) 3. John has a car. (Alan) 4. Ann got a parking ticket. (Alice) 5. Mary's taking photographs. (Michael) 6. I'm tired of this, (we all) 7. Richard has just got home. (Philip) 8. Bill should take a holiday. (Peter) 9. Emily offered to help. (Jean) 10. Hugh liked the film. (Mary) li. Jack must go. (his wife) 12. Ann made six mistakes, (you) 13. They're looking for a flat, (we) 14. They missed the programme, (we) 15. Philip will have to take lessons. (Pat) 16. Dick speaks Chinese. (Paul) 17. Fred has bought a car. (Mark) 18. Steve can swim well. (Do­nald) 19. I'm happy. (I) 20. I was here last week. (I) 21. I stu­died mathematics at school. (I) e.g. A: Jack couldn't understand it. (Tom)

B: Neither could Tom.

A: He can't cook, (she)

B: Neither can she.

1. Peter hasn't time to study. (Bill) 2. George mustn't be late. (Arthur) 3. Paul didn't get any sleep, (his mother) 4. Ann doesn't smoke. (I) 5. Nancy won't come, (her husband) 6. Paul doesn't believe you. (James) 7. Bill hasn't been waiting long. (Bob) 8. Andrew wasn't drunk. (Peter) 9. They don't know the way. (I) 10. Ann won't write letters. (Lucy) 11. Charles wasn't making a noise. (Jack) 12. He won't be ready by six. (she) 13. The Smiths aren't rich, (the Joneses) 14. He can't explain it. (anyone else) 15. Peter hasn't started work yet. (Harold) 16. Ann couldn't lift it. (Alice) 17. Jack hadn't been paid. (Peter) 18. 1 wasn't late this morning. (I) 19. I didn't go to the cinema last night. (I) 20. I ha­ven't got a Rolls-Royce. (I)

//. Express solidarity in response to your friend's statements (both affirmative and negative).

Self check

/. Complete with "so" or "neither":

Pascale: Are you enjoying the course?

Ann: Yes, very much.

Pascale: ... I I think our English is really improving.

Ann: My pronunciation has improved a lot.

Pascale: By the way, how did you do in the last test?

Ann: Quite well. I thought most of it was fairly easy.

Pascale: ... I. I didn't do very well in the first test though.

Ann: No,... I. That's why I was surprised at my last test result.

Pascale: ... the rest of us. Everybody passed. But I still don't

like tests. And ... Monika. She gets so nervous! Ann: I'm looking forward to a rest over the weekend. Pascale: Yes,... I. There are so many interesting things to do here.

I haven't seen any of the markets yet, for instance. Ann: No, ... I. I'd like to go to Portobello Road. Luisa's been

there. Pascale: ... Monika. She loved it. It was crowded and noisy

and full of atmosphere. The things they sell there are very

interesting. Ann:  And ... the people who sell them, I expect. Let's go there

next Saturday.

//. Translate into English:

QUESTION TAGS

Illustrative Situations

/. Listen to the conversations and learn them. Observe the question tags used in the conversations. 1. Steve: You didn't have a very good holiday, did you?

Diana: No, but how do you know? Oh, I expect George told you, didn't he?

Steve: Yes, I met him in town last week. You went to Spain,

didn't you?

Diana: Yes, I like Spain, but... Steve: ... but it rained all the time, didn't it? And you didn't

like the hotel, did you?

Diana: That's right. You went to Spain last year, didn't you? Steve: Yes, but we had a lovely time. In fact, we'll probably go

there again next year. 2. Jill: What shall I make when you come to tea on Sunday,



Mark? You like chocolate cake, don't you? Mark: Oh, yes, please. It's my favourite.

Jill: And Kate likes strawberry jelly, doesn't she?

Mark: Yes, and so do I.

Jill: And you also like chocolate ice-cream, don't you?

Mark: Yes, I love it. Uncle Steve likes ice-cream, too, doesn't he?

Jill: Yes, that's right. By the way, I think you've eaten enough

of those sweets, Mark. The bag's almost empty. You

don't want to be ill, do you?

Steve: The curry is excellent, isn't it?

Jill: Yes, you're glad we came now, aren't you?

Steve: Yes, of course. It's better than the curries I make at home.

Jill: And it isn't very expensive here, is it?

Steve: Probably because it's new. They only opened last week.

Jill: They aren't very busy, are they?

Steve: No, not yet, but it's still early. Only 6.30 p.m. And it is

Monday night. It will probably be much busier at

weekends.

Hans: The bus leaves at 8.30, doesn't it? AH: Yes, we'll have to get up early.

Hans: And we have lunch in Winchester, don't we?

AH: That's right. After the visit to the Cathedral. Then on to

Salisbury and Stonehenge. Hans: I wonder when the bus will get back. We got back from

the last tour at about 6.30, didn't we? AH: Yes, in time for the theatre. But you don't want to go

out after the tour, do you? Hans: Well, I'd like to go to a concert, but I'll probably be too

tired.

Practice

/. Make question tags:

e.g. A: I'm not late.

B: I'm not late, am I?

1. You won' t tell Peter. 2. You needn't start at once. 3. His parents weren't angry. 4. Ann never reads reviews. 5. We shan't have to wait long. 6. You don't expect me to wait all night. 7. This bus service isn't very reliable. 8. You haven't read this book. 9. You can't play poker. 10. She didn't type the article yesterday. 11. Ann doesn't like detectives. 12. You don't have to work hard. 13. Jack wasn't at the party. 14. He couldn't get the tickets. 15. Lucy didn't come. 16. You won't invite Paul. 17. You haven't talked to the boss, e.g. A: The coffee was terrible.

B: The coffee was terrible, wasn't it?

1. Tom and Ann have announced their engagement. 2. They

are getting married next month. 3. Bill will be disappointed 4. He was hoping to marry her himself. 5. You earn twice as much as your brother. 6. And he works much harder than you. 7. He ought to ask for more money. 8 His employers could afford to pay him more 9. They made an enormous profit last year. 10. Dick can swim well. 11. He can also dive very well. 12. He is good at water-skiing, too. 13. Last year he won the water-skiing compe­tition, e.g. A: You didn't have to wait long.

B: You didn't have to wait long, did you? e.g. A: A bus came almost at once.

B: A bus came almost at once, didn't it? 1. You won't be late. 2. You'll be in time. 3. They weren't very good jokes. 4. Nobody laughed. 5. It's no use crying over spilt milk. 6 You will be careful. 7. They hadn't met before. 8. I'm in time. 9. You didn't expect him to get the job. 10. He was quite astonished himself. 11. But it'll mean living in London. 12. He won't like that 13. You can manage on your own. 14. You don't want me to help you. 15. Anyway I'm not much use. 16. You aren't listening to the radio. 17. Paul caught the 8.40. 18. Ann hasn't come yet. 19. You don't think it was my fault. 20. You like Peter. 21. They didn't take your passport. 22. The bottle was full this morning. 23. You aren't going to do anything stupid. 24. You can sail a boat. 25. We don't have to start at once. 26. You didn't find your watch. 27. You know Peter Brown. 29. Bob will drive the car. 30. She doesn't speak French. 31. Lucy is at home now.

//. Ask your friend for some information using question tags. Ask him/her about a) sports b) food c) entertainments.

Self check

/. Put in the correct question tags:

An Interrogation

Police

Constable: You are John Alfred Smithers, ...?

Smithers: Yes, I am

PC: You're 36, ...?

S: Yes, that's right. It was my birthday yesterday.

PC: You sell cars, ...?

S: Yes, I do. And other things.

PC: You live in Baling, ...?

S: Yes, I do. I've lived here all my life.

PC. You went to Ascot races yesterday, . ?

S: That's right.

PC' You weren't alone, ...?

S: No, ! wasn't I was with Isadora Bell

PC: But you're married, ..., Smithers?

S: Yes, but I haven't seen my- wife For three years.

PC' I see. Now you left your flat at ono o'clock, . .?

S: Yes, about one o'clock.

PC: You were in your Jaguar, .. ?

S: Yes, I was.

PC: You didn't stop for petrol, ...?

S: No.

PC: You had lunch in an Indian restaurant, .. ?

S: Oh, no we didn't. We had lunch in a pub.

PC: You don't remember the name of the pub, ...?

S: No, I'm afraid 1 don't.

PC: You had chicken and chips, ...?

S: No, no, no. We had beer and sandwiches outside.

PC: You arrived in time for the first race, and stayed until the

last race, ...? S: Yes!

PC: You were very lucky, ...? S: Yes, I was. PC: You won f 5,000,...? S: No, I can't remember exactly how much. PC: There was f 5,000 in your flat, ...? S: Was there?

PC: You don't know where Miss Bell is> now, ...? S: No, I'm not her husband, ...? PC- But you left her in Central London, because she wanted to

buy some clothes. S: Yes, yes.

PC: It's very interesting, ..., Mr Smithers? S: What do you mean? PC: The last race at Ascot began late and it didn't finish until

twenty-five past five, so you drove from Ascot to Central

London and back to Haling in 35 minuies, in the rush hour.

That's impossible, ... Mr Smithers!

//. Translate into English:

1. - Ты живешь на улице Центральной, не так ли?

- Да, я живу там уже пять лет.

- Ты ведь знаешь Олега Лобова?

- Да, он мой сосед.

- Ты можешь передать ему записку?

- Конечно.

2. - Николай уехал в Москву на прошлой неделе, не правда ли?

- Да.

- Он еще не вернулся, не так ли?

- Нет.

- Но он ведь вернется к субботе?

- Думаю, что вернется.

3. - Ты не умеешь играть в шахматы, не так ли?

- Да, не умею.

- Но ты ведь играешь в шашки?

- Да.

- Тогда давай поиграем в шашки.

U N IT 7

GRAMMAR. PAST PERFECT. PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS. FUTURE PERFECT. FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS.

Illustrative Situations

/. Study these example situations:

I went to a party last week. Tom went to the party too. Tom went home at 10.30. So, when I arrived at 11 o'clock, Tom wasn't there. He had gone home.

2. As I was going to the station some days ago it began to rain. Fortunately I had taken an umbrella and put on my raincoat.

Yesterday I had a spare ticket for a concert. I knew that my cousin had already passed her exams and I invited her to the

concert.

The other day 1 met my school-mate. He said he had spent a month at the seaside and enjoyed his holidays there.

Richard went home a few minutes early yesterday. A few minutes after he had left, his boss phoned and asked to see him urgently. He was very angry when Richard's secretary told him he had gone.

Richard had already gone when his boss phoned.

6. Last Saturday we had a party. Some guests were late. We sat down to dinner only when all the guests had arrived.

7. I went to the movies after I had done my test.

8. When Mr Hanson was leaving the office he asked his secretary to type some letters. She had typed all the letters by the time Mr Hanson came back.



9. By 7 o'clock I had packed my suitcases and was ready

to start.

10. Last month I was in London. I had done a lot of sightseeing before I left London.

11. When I called on Peter last week I found him in bed. He looked pale as he had been seriously ill for a month.

12. Some weeks ago I had a party. My friend Victor didn't come to the party as he had left for Geneva the day before.

13. When I met Robert last month he told me he had bought a car the previous week.

14. Yesterday morning I got up and looked out of the window. The sun was shining but the ground was very wet. It had been raining.

It wasn't raining when I looked out of the window; the sun was shining. But it had been raining. That's why the ground was wet.

15. When the boys came into the house, their clothes were dirty, their hair was untidy and one had a black eye. They had been fighting.

16. When I entered Jane's room yesterday I saw that her eyes were red. I understood that she had been crying.

17 When I called on my friend the other day he was writing a report. He said he had been working at it for a month.

//. Listen and learn the following dialogues:

1. - Fred had studied French for ten years before he went to

France

Could he understand French people when he arrived in France?

Yes, he could, but not very well.

- I met Bill last Friday. He told me he had written a book.

Wasn't he joking?

Yes, he probably was.

- I phoned Harry yesterday. He said he had made a discovery.

Wasn't he joking?

Yes, he might have.

- Kate was very clever as a child.

Was she really?

Oh, yes. By the time she was three, she'd learned to dance.

How remarkable!

- How long have you known Jim Black?

For six years. I met him at my uncle's six years ago.

How long had he been a teacher at that time?

For about two years.

6. - I hear you had a telephone call from Edward yes-

terday.

Yes, I did. He phoned to tell me he had got married.

What else did he say?

He said he was going to Florida.

Practice

/. Complete these sentences using the verbs in brackets: You went back to your home town alter many years and found that many things were different.

1. My friend Henry was no longer there. He (go) away.

The local cinema was no longer open. It (close) down.

Mr Johnson was no longer alive. He (die)

4. I didn't recognise Mrs Johnson She (change) a lot.

Bill no longer had his car. He (sell) it.

//. Complete these sentences as in the example. Use the j verb in brackets:

e.g. Mr and Mrs Davis were in an aeroplane. They were very

nervous as the plane took off because they (fly).. They

were very nervous because they had never flown before.

1. The woman was a complete stranger to me. I (see) ...

2. Margaret was late for work. Her boss was very surprised.

She (be late ...) 3. Janet played tennis yesterday - at least she

tried to play tennis. She wasn't very good at it because she

(play) . . 4. It was Keith's first driving lesson. He was very

nervous and didn't know what to do He (drive) ... 5. She found

it difficult to type. She (type) ...

///. Make up sentences using the words in brackets: e.g. I wasn't hungry. (I/just/have/lunch) I had just had lunch.

1. Tom wasn't at home when I arrived, (he/just/go out) 2. We arrived at the cinema late (the film/already/begin) 3. They weren't eating when I went to see them, (they/just/finish/their dinner) 4. I invited Ann to dinner last night but she couldn't come (she/already/arrange/to do smth. else) 5. I was very pleased to see Nora after such a long time. (I/not/see/her/for 5 years) 6. I knew the actor well. (I/see/him/ in/ many plays) 7. Jane was busy in the kitchen, (she/not/cook/dinner/yet) 8. Robert was late for the lecture, (he/miss/the 8 o'clock train)

IV. Join the sentences together. Do it as in the examples: e.g. We came to the stadium. The football match started When we came to the stadium the football match had al­ready started.

1. She phoned me. I packed my luggage. 2. I found her car­riage. She got off the train. 3. I returned home. The guests left. 4. We got to the station. Our train went out. 5. I came home. My son went to the cinema. 6. I phoned Lucy. She left the house, e.g. The inspector examined rny suitcases. I went to the train. After the inspector had examined my suitcases I went to the train.

I. He had dinner. He went to the movies. 2. She wrote the letter. She went to the post-office. 3. He finished work. He left the office. 4. He saw his friend off. Then he returned home. 5. She felt well. She took some pills, e.g. The rain stopped. We went out.

The rain had stopped before we went out. I. She got off the train. I reached the platform. 2. She passed all her exams. She left for Moscow. 3. I listened to the news. I be­gan to do my exercises. 4. She studied English well. She went to London. 5. We returned home. It got dark, e.g. I booked a ticket. I phoned Bill.

As soon as I had booked a ticket I phoned Bill. I. He reserved a room at the hotel. He went to the post-office. 2. He paid the bill. He left the hotel. 3. She finished work. She went out for a walk. 4. I cooked dinner. I began to lay the table. 5. I did the test. I left the Institute, e.g. Mr Jones came home. His son repaired the TV set.

By the time Mr Jones came home his son had repaired the TV set.

I. The boss returned. The secretary typed the documents. 2. I got to the station at 6. My friend booked the tickets. 3. He came home. His wife made supper. 4. She phoned me. I packed my suitcases. 5. We reached the station. The train left.

V. Complete the following:

e.g. By five o'clock yesterday...

By five o'clock yesterday I had translated the article. 1 By the end of the month.... 2. ... by 1992. 3. ... by 6 o'clock. 4. By the beginning of the year... . 5. By 8 o'clock... . 6. By January ... . 7. ... by the end of the lesson.

VI. Complete the situations:

e.g. Tom was watching television. He was feeling very tired, (he/study/hard/all day)

He had been studying hard all day.

1. When I entered the room, it was empty. But there was a smell of cigarettes. Somebody (smoke). 2. When Mary came back from the beach, she looked very red from the sun. (she/lie in

the sun/too long) 3. The two boys came into the house. They had a football and they were both very tired, (they/play) 4. Ann woke up in the middle of the night. She was frightened and she didn't know where she was. (she/dream) 5. The streets were wet. (it/rain)

VU. Make your own sentences for these situations:

e.g. It was 3 o'clock when Jill went out to look for her son

and 6 o'clock when she found him.

Jill had been looking for her son for 3 hours before she found

him.

1. Roger Morgan got his first job in the film industry when he was 20 He made his first film when he was 25. 2. Roy started studying for his doctorate when he was 25. He got it when he was 30. 3. Mary started in the shop when she was 19. When she was 29 she became the manageress. 4. Miss Roach began her driving lessons in January 1992. She didn't pass her test until January 1993. 5. She started the composition at 8 in the evening. She gave it up at midnight and went to bed. 6. Roger went to the bus - stop at 7. It was 7.30 when the bus came. 7. You ordered the meal at 2, and the waiter brought it at 3. 8. They went for a walk in the park at 11. It was 12 when it began to rain. 9. Peter and I arranged to meet at 6 but he came only at 6.30.10. The program­me was interesting. I started to watch TV at 9 when the telephone rang at 10.

VIII. Put the verb into the correct form, Past Perfect Con­tinuous (I had been doing) or Past Continuous (I was doing):

1. Tom was leaning against the wall, out of breath. He (run).

2. I tried to catch Tom but I couldn't. He (run/very fast).

Jim was on his hands and knees on the floor. He (look/for his cigarette lighter). 4. We (walk) along the road for about 20 minutes, when a car stopped and the driver offered us a lift 5. When I arrived everyone was sitting round the table with their mouths full. They (eat). 6. When I arrived, Ann (wait) for me. She was rather annoyed with me because she (wait) for a long time.

IX. Use either Simple Past or Past Perfect.

1. The house was very quiet when I got home. Everybody (go) to bed. 2. I felt very tired when I got home, so I (go) straight to bed. 3. I had been looking for my textbook for an hour when at last I (find) it in the laboratory. 4. Mary looked happy. She said she (find) her ring. 5. Julia (not, finish) work when Jim got to the office. 6. I (finish) my homework at 6 and went out for a

walk. 7. Jane (wash) the dishes, dried them and put them into the cupboard. 8. Tom called me this afternoon and invited me to go out for a walk, but I couldn't as I (not, wash) the windows yet.

Fluency

/. Listen to the texts. Ask and answer questions on the texts. Re­tell them.

An Amusing Experience

I had an amusing experience last year. After I had left a small village in the south of France, I drove on to the next town. On the way a young man waved to me. I stopped and he asked me for a lift. As soon as he had got into the car, I said good morning to him in French and he replied in the same language. Apart from a few words I do not know any French at all. Neither of us spoke du­ring the journey. I had nearly reached the town when the young man said very slowly: "Do you speak English?" As I soon learnt he was English himself.



He Often Does This

After I had had lunch at a village inn I looked for my bag. I had left it on a chair beside the door and now it wasn't there. As I was looking for it, the inn-keeper came in. "Did you have a good meal?" he asked. "Yes, thank you," I answered, "but I can't pay the bill. I haven't got my bag." The inn-keeper smiled and im­mediately went out. In a few minutes he returned with my bag and ga\e it back to me "I'm very sorry." he said. "My dog had taken it into the garden. He often does this."

A Busy Day

Steve was very busy at the office today At 10.15 he had already made eleven phone calls. By 11.15 he had written three separate reports on an accident, a hold-up, and a bomb-scare. At 12 o'clock he arrived at Heathrow Airport - the week before, he had arranged an interview with a British Airways representative. Unfortuna­tely, the man was late. Steve was hungry, but he couldn't go to lunch until he had interviewed the representative, so he only had a cheese sandwich. The representative finally arrived at 12.45. He had just come from an important meeting. The interview lasted till 1.30 and at 2.15 Steve had another appointment in

town. At 3 o'clock he still hadn't had any lunch, so he bought another cheese sandwich. He finally finisned work at 6.30, tired and hungry. He was looking forward to a good meal at home, but when he arrived home, Jill had gone out. There was a note for him on the kitchen table: "Gone out. Cheese sandwiches in the fridge".

Readers' Letters

Have you ever had an embarrassing experience? Last week we asked readers to tell us about embarrassing experiences. We received hundreds of letters! Here is a selection.

A Smart Teacher

My most embarrassing experience happened when -I had just left the university. I had just started teaching in a Liverpool secon­dary school. One morning my alarm-clock didn't ring... . I had forgotten to wind it up. I woke up at half past eight and school began at nine. I quickly washed, shaved, dressed, jumped into my car and drove to school. When I arrived the students had already gone into class. After two or three minutes the students began laughing, and I couldn't understand why. Suddenly I looked down and understood. I had put on one black shoe and one brown shoe!

Hand in Hand

The most embarrassing experience I've ever had happened two years ago. My wife and I had driven into town to do some shopping. The streets were very busy and we were holding hands. Suddenly my wife saw a dress that she liked in a shop window, and stopped. I started looking at some radios in the next window. After a minute or two I reached for my wife's hand. There was a loud scream, and a woman slapped my face. I hadn't taken my wife's hand, I'd taken the hand of a complete stranger!

A Parking Problem

My husband and I had decided to buy a new house, and I'd made an appointment to see our bank manager. I'd never met him before and I was a bit nervous. I drove into town and I was lucky enough to find a parking place outside the bank. I'd just started reversing into the space when another car drove into it. 1 was furious! I opened my window and shouted at the other

driver. He ignored me and walked away. It took me twenty minu­tes to find another space. As soon as I had parked the car, I rushed back to the bank. I was ten minutes late for my interview. I went-to the manager's office, knocked and walked in. The manager was sitting behind the desk. He was the man who had taken my parking space!

Everything Except the Weather

My old friend, Harrison, had lived in the Mediterranean for many years before he returned to England. He had often dreamed of retiring in England and had planned to settle down in the country. He had no sooner returned than he bought a fine house and went to live there. Almost immediately he began to complain about the weather, for even though it was still summer, it rained continually and it was often bitterly cold. After so many years of sunshine, Harrison got a shock. He acted as if he had never lived in England before. In the end, it was more than he could bear. He had hardly had time to settle down when he sold the house and left the country. The dream he had had for so many years ended there. Harrison had thought of everything except the weather.

Herbert's Homecoming

Herbert Marshall was a student at Cambridge, but his home­town was St Albans. It was August and the family had gone to the seaside. Herbert went to France for his holiday, but he ran out of money, and came home a week earlier than he had expected to.

His train didn't get into St Albans until just before midnight. The last bus had gone, so he had to walk home. He let himself into the kitchen, and as he was feeling hot and sticky, he took off his shirt to have a wash.

Suddenly he heard heavy footsteps running up the path. The back door burst open, and he found himself surrounded by police­men. They pushed him into the living-room next door, made him sit down, and began asking him questions.

"What's your name?"

"Where do you live?"

"What's in that case?"

"What are you doing here?"

"I live here", said Herbert. "I've been on holiday". But nobody listened to him. They just went on asking questions. Then suddenly one of the policemen said: "Watch him Frank - we'll go and search the house". They left one tall, very young policeman, to guard him.

"Can I put my shirt on?" asked Herbeit

"No", said the policeman, "stay where you are".

Then the others came back with an older man, a sergeant. He asked the same questions, but he listened to Herbert's answers.

"I live here", said Herbert, "and I want to put my shirt on". The sergeant looked at him thoughtfully. "We'll soon settle this", he said.

He went out and came back with a small, sandy-haired man wearing a shabby, brown dressing-gown. It was Herbert's next-door neighbour. He looked at Herbert intently through thick spectacles.

"Oh yes, Sergeant", he said, "That is Mr Marshall". Then he disappeared very quickly. The policemen all looked dreadfully disappointed. They were convinced that they had caught a burglar.

"Did he ring you up?" asked Herbert. The police sergeant nodded. "He saw a light and understood your family had all gone away to the seaside."

When they'd all gone, Herbert made himself a cup of tea.

What's Up?

Do you like stories? I want to tell you a true story. It happened to a friend of mine a year ago.

While my friend, George, was reading in bed, two thieves climbed into his kitchen. After they had entered the house, they went into the dining-room. It was very dark, so they turned on a torch. Suddenly they heard a voice behind them. "What's up? What's up?" someone called. The thieves dropped the torch and ran away as quickly as they could. George heard the noise and came downstairs quickly. He turned on the light, but he couldn't see anyone. The thiev s had already gone. But George's parrot, Henry, was still there. "What's up, George?" he called. "Nothing, Henry," George said and smiled. "Go back to sleep."

Self check

Use the proper tense forms:

1. Deborah woke up with a terrible headache because she and Arthur (hold) a party the night before. 2 When Peter (go) along the street he (see) a friend of his whom he (not, meet) for a long time. 3. I (not, fall asleep) yet when I (hear) the sound of the bell. 4. I (speak) to the woman because I (think) I (meet) her somewhe­re before. 5. When we (get) to the station, we (find) that the 8 o'clock train already (leave) and we had to wait until the next train came in. While I (wait) I (read) a newspaper. 6. As soon

as they (go), 1 (go) straight to bed. 7. When I (get) back to the shop, they (sell) the book I wanted. 8. He (be) tired because he (work) in the garden all day. 9. First she (open) the parcel, and then she (read) the letter. 10. They (sit) there for more than an hour when the taxi finally (arrive). 11. They (leave) the room as soon as he (finish) speaking. 12. He quickly (forget) all he (learn) at school. 13. When we (come) to Harpole, the Smiths already (live) there for ten years. 14. He (tell) me that he (fish) in the river every weekend for the last two years but he never (catch) anything. 15. As soon as she (hear) the news, she (phone) her mother. 16. When he (look) around he (understand) that he (get off) at the wrong station. 17. Jack (do) his work by 8 o'clock. He (go) out into the street. The weather (be) fine. It (stop) snowing and the moon (shine) high in the sky. 18. Errol and his girlfriend, Judy, were very excited because Judy's father (manage) to get them two tickets for the football Cup Final at Wembley Stadium. They (catch) an early train to London and (spend) the morning looking round the shops. They (arrive) at Wembley at two o'clock and (join) the queue to get in. Imagine their horror at the turnstile when they (realise) they (leave) the tickets at home.

//. Translate into English:

FUTURE PERFECT. FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS

Illustrative Situations

/. Study these example situations:

I. Tom is a football fan and there is a football match on televi­sion this evening. The match begins at 7.30 and ends at 9.15. Ann

wants to come and see Tom this evening and wants to know what

time to come.

Ann: Is it all right if I come at about 8,30?

Tom: No, don't come then. I'll be watching the match on television.

Ann: Oh. Well, what about 9.30?

Tom: Yes, that'll be fine. The match will have finished by then.

Bill Rawlings and all the other men in the factory have just had their last tea break. It is 2.30. They are all working again. They'll go on working and then, at 4 o'clock a whistle will blow and they will all stop. Most of them will run out immediately. A few will stay for a few minutes but the last one will be out before 4.10.

They will all work until 4. The last one will have left by 4.10.

3. Lawrence Morrel, the writer, is trying to finish a story. He must get it in this evening's post. The post is collected at 5.30. "I'll go on writing until I finish this!" he says to himself. "I'll write until 5.30, but I must finish it by then. I hope I'll have finished it by then!"

My father works at one of the city hospitals. By next month he will have been working there for 40 years.

5. I'm writing a thesis. By the end of this year I'll have been writing it for 5 years.

Practice

/. Make sentences with Future Perfect:

e.g.: Tom and Ann are going to the cinema. The film begins at 7.30 and it is already 7.20 and it will take them 20 minutes to get there. When they get there the film will have already started.

1. Jim goes to bed at II o'clock. Tom is going to visit him at 11.30 this evening. When Tom arrives, Jim (go) to bed. 2. Dick is on holiday. He has very little money and he is spending too much too quickly. Before the end of his holiday he (spend) all his money. 3. Mike came to Britain from the US nearly three years ago. Next Monday it will be exactly three years since he arrived. Next Monday he (be) in Britain exactly three years. 4. I know Janet Smith. By the end of the month I (know) her a whole year. 5. The train arrives at. 6. Peter thinks it arrives at 6.30. It is 6 o'clock now. Peter is on his way to the station to meet his mother. By the time he reaches the station his mother (get) off the train.

//. Make one sentence with either "by" or "until" for each situation:

e.g.: All the men in the factory are working. The whistle blows at 4. They will work until 4.

Sometimes the boss goes home at 5.30, but he never goes home later than six. He'll have gone home by 6. 1. Richard is watching a programme that ends at 9. He wants to go to bed then. 2. The latest possible time Richard can get up is 7.30. 3. That bus never leaves later than 8. 4. Old Mr Howard is reading a very good book in the library. It closes in a few minutes, at 9. 5. Mr Jackson is staying at a hotel. He will leave on Friday. 6. Some students are sitting in the language laboratory at the Institute. The lesson ends at 3 o'clock. 7. The professor sometimes comes at 9.15 and never later than 9.30. 8. It is the middle of the morning and Lawrence Morrel is writing. He always has lunch at 12. 9. Lawrence may finish today at 4, certainly not later than 4.30. 10. Lawrence is waiting for some money from his publisher. The publisher has told him that it will arrive not later than Tuesday.

///. Answer the questions using the prompts:

e.g. Have you been waiting for two hours? midday By midday I'll have been waiting for three hours. 1. Have you been learning English for three years? July 2. Have they been staying here for five weeks? Monday 3. Have you been living here for nineteen years? Christmas 4. Has he been playing tennis for three hours? tea time 5. Has she been studying in Lon­don for a year? next June 6. Has he been sleeping for eight hours? breakfast time 7. Have I been talking non-stop for an hour? seven o'clock

e.g. Can you tell me what you want to do by Monday? decide No. 1 won't have decided by then.

1. Can Sid bring the car back tomorrow? repair 2. Can they go to Spain on Tuesday? finish school 4. Shall we have breakfast at seven? wake up 5. Can we leave in ten minutes' time? eat 6. Shall I go to meet the plane at two o'clock? land 7. Can you let me know on Saturday? make up one's mind

Self check

/. Use Future Perfect or Future Perfect Continuous:

1. We (finish) this exercise by 8 o'clock. 2. We are late. The les­son (start) by now. 3. By the end of March he (live) here for three years. 4. Young Billy is growing up. By this time next year he (begin) school. 5. They will be tired when they get there. They (travel) all day. 6. She (have) lunch by the time we arrive. 7. They (build) the road by the end of the year. 8.1 (spend) all my money by tomorrow. 9. We (fly) for twelve hours by the time the plane lands. 10. The play (begin) before we reach the theatre. 11. Before

the end of the year they (complete) the project. 12. I (work) for this company non-stop for thirty years by the end of October.










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