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INDICATIVE MOOD: real action

grammar




INDICATIVE MOOD: real action

ACTIVE VOICE: S P DO (+ IO + Amanner + Aplace + Atime)




SIMPLE ASPECT: S + V: habitual/repeated action

FUTURE IN THE PAST

S + would + V

I would wash

He would take

Future action to a past action or moment (not to the present)

Mainly used in the sequence of tenses.

He told me he would visit me in August last year.

PAST PERFECT

S + had + V

I had washed

He had taken

Past action that happened before another past action

-adverbs: before, after

Mainly used in the sequence of tenses.

When we got there h 14114g620o e had already left.

PAST TENSE

S + V

I washed

He took

Past action, not connected to the present;

-adverbs: last, ago, yesterday, the day before yesterday.

He spent his summer holidays in Malibu.

PRESENT PERFECT

S + have/has + V

I have washed

He has taken

Action begun in the past and continued in the present or with present results;

-no time reference

-adverbs: just, yet, ever, already, often, up to now, so far.

I have lived here since I was born.

PRESENT TENSE

S + V (III sg. -s, -es)

I wash

He takes

Habitual and repeated action, general truths;

-adverbs: every (day, week, month, etc.), usually, sometimes, always, now and then.

I usually go to school by bus.

FUTURE SIMPLE

S + shall/will + V

I shall wash

He will take

Future action or plan to the present moment;

-adverbs: tomorrow, next (week, month, etc.), the day after tomorrow, in two weeks.

He will know the result tomorrow.

FUTURE PERFECT

S + shall/will + have + V

I shall have washed

He will have taken

Future action completed before another future action

-time adverbials: by the time, by the end of the week

By the end of the year he will have taken all the exams.

PROGRESSIVE ASPECT: S + BE + V-ing ACTION IN PROGRESS AT A CERTAIN MOMENT IN THE PRESENT, PAST OR FUTURE (AT THAT TIME)

S + would be + V-ing

I would be washing

He would be taking

S + had been + V-ing

I had been washing

He had been taking

S + was/were + V-ing

I was washing

He was taking

S + have/has been + V-ing

I have been washing

He has been taking



S + am/is/are + V-ing

I am washing

He is taking

S + shall/will be +V-ing

I shall be washing

He will be taking

S + shall/will + have been + V-ing

I shall have been washing

He will have been taking

REFLEXIVE VOICE: S P; S + V + REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS (myself, yourself, herself, himself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves)


PASSIVE VOICE: S P BY AGENT; S + BE + V (+ by agent)

SIMPLE ASPECT

S + would be + V

I would be washed

He would be taken

S + had been + V

I had been washed

He had been taken

S + was/were + V

I was washed

He was taken

S + have/has been + V

I have been washed

He has been taken

S + am/is/are + V

I am washed

He is taken

S + shall/will be + V

I shall be washed

He will be taken

S + shall/will have been V

I shall have been washed

He will have been taken

PROGRESSIVE ASPECT

_

_

S + was/were being + V

_

S + am/is/are being + V

_

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