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PRESENT TENSE

grammar




PRESENT TENSE SIMPLE

Time line

Affirmative Interrogative Negative




I work Do I work? I don't work

You work Do you work ? You don't work

He/She/It works Does he/she/it work? He/She/It don't work

We work Do we work? We don't work

You work Do you work? You don't work

They work  Do they work? They don't work

Meaning:

A - an habitual action

B - a characteristic or fact about someone or something

C - verbs which cannot normally be used in the continuous

Eg . : to belong, to like, to understand

To be:

    & 24224s1812y nbsp;   & 24224s1812y nbsp;   & 24224s1812y nbsp;   & 24224s1812y nbsp;    am with the personal pronoun II

    & 24224s1812y nbsp;   & 24224s1812y nbsp;   & 24224s1812y nbsp;  is with the personal pronouns he, she or it (or with the singular form of nouns)

    & 24224s1812y nbsp;   & 24224s1812y nbsp;   & 24224s1812y nbsp;  are with the personal pronouns we, you or they (or with the plural form of nouns)

affirmative

Interrogative

Negative

I

I am.

Am I?

I am not.

he/she/it

He is.

Is he?

He is not.

you/we/they

You are.

Are you?

You are not.

PRESENT TENSE CONTINUOUS

Time line

Affirmative  Interrogative Negative

I am working Am I working? I am not working

You are working Are you working? You are not working

He/She/It is working Is he/she/it working? He/She/It is not working

We are working Are we working? We are not working

You are working Are you working? You are not working

They are working  Are they working? They are not working

Meaning

a)     A - an action which is taking place at the moment of speaking

b)     B - an arrange future

The present progressive puts emphasis on the course or duration of an action.

To be:

    & 24224s1812y nbsp;    am with the personal pronoun I

    & 24224s1812y nbsp;    is with the personal pronouns he, she or it (or the singular form of nouns)

    & 24224s1812y nbsp;    are with the personal pronouns you, we, they (or the plural form of nouns)

Affirmative

Interrogative

Negative

I

I am playing.

Am I playing?

I am not playing.

he, she, it

He is playing.

Is he playing?

He is not playing.

you, we, they

You are playing.

Are you playing?

You are not playing.

PAST TENSE SIMPLE

Affirmative Interrogative Negative

I worked Did I work? I didn't work

You worked Did you work? You didn't work

He/She/It worked Did he/she/it work? He/She/It didn't work

We worked Did we work? We didn't work

You worked Did you work? You didn't work

They worked Did they work? They didn't work

Use of Past Tense Simple

    & 24224s1812y nbsp;    action in the past taking place once, never or several times

Example: He visited his parents every weekend.

    & 24224s1812y nbsp;    actions in the past taking place one after the other

Example: He came in, took off his coat and sat down.

    & 24224s1812y nbsp;    action in the past taking place in the middle of another action

Example: When I was having breakfast, the phone suddenly rang.

    & 24224s1812y nbsp;    if sentences type II (If I talked, .)

Example: If I had a lot of money, I would share it with you.

Affirmative



Interrogative

Negative

I

I spoke

I did not speak.

Did I speak?

he, she, it

He

Is he playing?

He is not playing.

you, we, they

You are playing.

Are you playing?

You are not playing.

PAST TENSE CONTINUOUS

Affirmative Interrogative Negative

I was working Was I working? I wasn't working

You were working Were you working? You weren't working

He/She/It was working  Was he/she/it working? He/She/It wasn't working

We were working Were we working? We weren't working

You were working Were you working? You weren't working

They were working Were they working? They weren't working

Meaning

A - an actionwhich was in progresswhen another action ocurred ( second

action is expressed in the past simple )

PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE

Affirmative Interrogative Negative

I have worked Have I work? I haven't work

You have worked Have you work? You haven't work

He/She/It has worked Has he/she/it work? He/She/It hasn't work

We have worked Have we work? We haven't work

You have worked Have you work? You haven't work

They have worked Have they work? They haven't work

Meaning

A - an action which occurred at an unspecified time in the past

B - an action which occurred in the past but the result of which is evident in

the present - often a recent past action

C - a state or activity starting in the past which still pertains to the present

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS

Affirmative Interrogative Negative

I have been working Have I been working? I haven't been working

You have been working Have you been working? You haven't been working

He/She/It has been working Has he/she/it been working? He/She/It hasn't been

working

We have been working Have we been working We haven't been working

You have been working Have you been working? You haven't been working

They have been working Have they been working? They haven't been working

Meaning

A - an activity (usually temporary) which started in the past and continues up

to the present

PAST PERFECT SIMPLE

Affirmative Interrogative Negative

I had worked Had I work ? I hadn't work

You had worked Had you work? You hadn't work

He/She/It had worked Had he/she/it work? He/She/It hadn't work

We had worked Had we work? We hadn't work

You had worked Had you work? You hadn't work

They had worked Had they work? They hadn't work

Meaning

A - the earlier of two actions which occurred in the past , the second of

which is the simple past

Used either:

c)     when there is ambiguity over which action occurred first

or

d)     when the first action refers to a time period earlier than that of the main narrative

PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS

Affirmative Interrogative Negative

I had been working Had I been working? I hadn't been working

You had been working Had you been working? You hadn't been working

He/She/It had been working Had he/she/it been working? He/She/It hadn't been

working

We had been working Had we been working? We hadn't been working

You had been working Had you been working? You hadn't been working

They had been working Had they been working? They hadn't been working

Meaning

A - an action which was in progress for a period of time before another

action ( in the simple past ) occurred

FUTURE SIMPLE ( with will )

Affirmative Interrogative Negative

I shall/will work Shall/Will I work? I shan't/won't work

You shall/will work Shall/Will you work? You shan't/won't work

He/She/It shall/will work Shall/Will he/she/it work? He/She/It shan't/won't

work

We shall/will work Shall/Will we work? We shan't/won't work

You shall/will work Shall/Will you work? You shan't/won't work

They shall/will work Shall/Will they work? They shan't/won't work

Meaning

A - a spontaneous decision taken at the moment of speaking. Can be a

promise, offer, threat etc

B - prediction about the future events often preceded by verbs such as

hope, expect, suppose etc

FUTURE SIMPLE ( with going to )

Affirmative Interrogative Negative

I am going to work Am I going to work? I am not going to work

You are going to work Are you going to work? You are not going to work

He/She/It is going to work Is he/she/it going to work? He/She/It is not going to

work

We are going to work Are we going to work? We are not going to work



You are going to work Are you going to work? You are not going to work

They are going to work Are they going to work? They are not going to work

Meaning

A - used to talk about intention or plans which have bee3n decided before

the moment of speaking

B - statement about future events where there is some present evidence for

the event happening

FUTURE CONTINUOUS

Affirmative Interrogative Negative

I shall be working Shall I be working? I shall not be working

You shall be working Shall you be working? You shall not be working

He/She/It shall be working Shall he/she/it be working? He/She/It shall not be

working

We shall be working Shall we be working? We shall not be working

You shall be working Shall you be working? You shall not be working

They shall be working Shall they be working? They shall not be working

Meaning

A - an action in progress at a definite time in the future

FUTURE PERFECT SIMPLE

Affirmative Interrogative Negative

I shall have worked Shall I have work? I shall not have work

You shall have worked Shall you have work? You shall not have

work

He/She/It shall has worked Shall he/she/it has worked? He/She/It shall not has

work

We shall have worked Shall we have work? We shall not have work

You shall have work Shall you have work? You shall not have

work

They shall have work Shall they have work? They shall not have

work

Meaning

A - an action which is seen to be in the past from a point of time in the

future

FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS

Affirmative Interrogative Negative

I shall have been working Shall I have been working? I shall not have been

working

You shall have been working Shall you have been working? You shall not have been

working

He/She/It shall has been working Shall he/she/it has been working? He/She/It

shall not has been

working

We shall have been working Shall we have been working? We shall not have

been working

You shall have been working Shall you have been working? You shall not have

been working

They shall have been working Shall they have been working? They shall not have

been working

Meaning

A - an action which is seen as a starting point in the past and being in

progress from a point of time in the future

Tense

Affirmative/Negative/Question

Use

Signal Words

Simple Present

A: He speaks.
N: He does not speak.
Q: Does he speak?

action in the present taking place once, never or several times

facts

actions taking place one after another

action set by a timetable or schedule

always, every ., never, normally, often, seldom, sometimes, usually
if sentences type I (If I talk, .)

Present Progressive

A: He is speaking.
N: He is not speaking.
Q: Is he speaking?

action taking place in the moment of speaking

action taking place only for a limited period of time

action arranged for the future

at the moment, just, just now, Listen!, Look!, now, right now

Simple Past

A: He spoke.
N: He did not speak.
Q: Did he speak?

action in the past taking place once, never or several times

actions taking place one after another

action taking place in the middle of another action

yesterday, 2 minutes ago, in 1990, the other day, last Friday
if sentence type II (If I talked, .)

Past Progressive

A: He was speaking.
N: He was not speaking.
Q: Was he speaking?

action going on at a certain time in the past

actions taking place at the same time

action in the past that is interrupted by another action

when, while, as long as



Present Perfect Simple

A: He has spoken.
N: He has not spoken.
Q: Has he spoken?

putting emphasis on the result

action that is still going on

action that stopped recently

finished action that has an influence on the present

action that has taken place once, never or several times before the moment of speaking

already, ever, just, never, not yet, so far, till now, up to now

Present Perfect Progressive

A: He has been speaking.
N: He has not been speaking.
Q: Has he been speaking?

putting emphasis on the course or duration (not the result)

action that recently stopped or is still going on

finished action that influenced the present

all day, for 4 years, since 1993, how long?, the whole week

Past Perfect Simple

A: He had spoken.
N: He had not spoken.
Q: Had he spoken?

action taking place before a certain time in the past

sometimes interchangeable with past perfect progressive

putting emphasis only on the fact (not the duration)

already, just, never, not yet, once, until that day
if sentence type III (If I had talked, .)

Past Perfect Progressive

A: He had been speaking.
N: He had not been speaking.
Q: Had he been speaking?

action taking place before a certain time in the past

sometimes interchangeable with past perfect simple

putting emphasis on the duration or course of an action

for, since, the whole day, all day

Future I Simple

A: He will speak.
N: He will not speak.
Q: Will he speak?

action in the future that cannot be influenced

spontaneous decision

assumption with regard to the future

in a year, next ., tomorrow
If-Satz Typ I (If you ask her, she will help you.)
assumption: I think, probably, we might ., perhaps

Future I Simple

(going to)

A: He is going to speak.
N: He is not going to speak.
Q: Is he going to speak?

decision made for the future

conclusion with regard to the future

in one year, next week, tomorrow

Future I Progressive

A: He will be speaking.
N: He will not be speaking.
Q: Will he be speaking?

action that is going on at a certain time in the future

action that is sure to happen in the near future

in one year, next week, tomorrow

Future II Simple

A: He will have spoken.
N: He will not have spoken.
Q: Will he have spoken?

action that will be finished at a certain time in the future

by Monday, in a week

Future II Progressive

A: He will have been speaking.
N: He will not have been speaking.
Q: Will he have been speaking?

action taking place before a certain time in the future

putting emphasis on the course of an action

for ., the last couple of hours, all day long

Conditional I Simple

A: He would speak.
N: He would not speak.
Q: Would he speak?

action that might take place

if sentences type II
(If I were you, I would go home.)

Conditional I Progressive

A: He would be speaking.
N: He would not be speaking.
Q: Would he be speaking?

action that might take place

putting emphasis on the course / duration of the action

Conditional II Simple

A: He would have spoken.
N: He would not have spoken.
Q: Would he have spoken?

action that might have taken place in the past

if sentences type III
(If I had seen that, I would have helped.)










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