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Infinitive as Subject

a) We can use the to-infinitive as a subject (eg To know how to drive is useful) but this is unusual. When we use the to-infinitive as a subject, it is more usual to begin the sentence with it (as a "preparatory subject").

It is useful to know how to drive.

It isn't expensive to play tennis in England.

b) The infinitive is the complement of subject + BE

Your mistake was to send him that letter.

Verb + infinitive

Salesman: As you see, when we try to clean even the dirtiest part of your carpet there is no problem for this vacuum-cleaner.

Customer: But how easily can I learn to operate this machine? It seems to be extremely complicated to me.

Salesman: If you want to know how to get the best out of your new Dirt-Up vacuum cleaner you should read this brochure. It tells you everything you need to know.

If these verbs are followed by another verb, the structure is usually verb + to-infinitive:

1. afford I can't afford to buy it.

2. agree They agreed to help us.

3. appear She appears to be tired.

4. arrange I'll arrange to meet you at the airport.

5. decide I have decided to leave on Monday.

6. expect I expect to be back on Sunday.

7. fail She failed to return the book to the library on


8. forget I forgot to mail the letter.

9. happen I happened to be passing his house at that time.

10. hope Jack hopes to arrive next week.

11. intend He intended to meet me at the station.

12. learn He learned to play the piano.

13. manage She managed to finish her work early.

14. mean I didn't mean to hurt your feelings.

15. need I need to have your opinion.

16. offer They offered to help us.

17. plan I am planning to have a party.

18. prepare We prepared to welcome them.

19. pretend He pretends not to understand.

20. promise I promise not to be late.

21. prove He proved to be a good doctor.

22. refuse I refuse to believe his story.

23. seem The dog seems to be friendly.

24. threaten They threatened to tell my parents.

25. want I want to tell you something.

26. wish She wishes to come with us.

There is a continuous infinitive (to be doing) and a perfect infinitive (to have done). We use these especially after seem, appear, happen and pretend:

I pretended to be reading. (= I pretended that I was reading.) You seem to have lost weight. (= It seems that you have lost weight.)

She appeared to have been cleaning the house since the morning. (= It appeared that she had been cleaning the house since the morning.)

After the following verbs you can use a question word (what/ where/how etc.) + to-infinitive:

ask decide know remember forget explain understand

I don't know what to say.

We asked how to get to the station.

Have you decided where to go for your holidays?

I'll explain what to do later on.

I don't know whether to go to the party or not.

We often use this structure with an object + question word + to-infinitive.

I'll show you how to play chess. Somebody told me where to buy a ticket.

Alec: I don't know where to go and what to do.

George: Why don't you go to the cinema? There are a couple

of good films on at the moment. Alec: That's another problem. I don't know which to see.

I don't know whether to choose "Star Wars" or "Love


Verb + object + infinitive

I. These verbs normally take the structure verb + object + to-infi­nitive:

1. advise She advised me to wait until tomorrow.

2. allow She allowed me to use her car.

3. ask I asked John to help us.

4. beg They begged us to come.

5. convince I couldn't convince him to accept our


6. expect I expect you to be on time.

7. forbid I forbid you to tell him.

8. force They forced him to tell the truth.

9. get (= persuade) She got her son to do his homework.

10. hire She hired a boy to mow the lawn.

11. instruct He instructed them to be careful.

12. invite Harry invited the Johnsons to come to

his party.

13. order The judge ordered me to pay a fine.

14. permit He permitted the children to stay up


15. persuade I persuaded him to come for a visit.

16. remind She reminded me to lock the door.

17. teach My brother taught me to swim.

18. tell The doctor told me to take these pills.

19. urge I urged her to apply for the j ob.

20. want I want you to be happy.

21. warn I warned you not to drive so fast.

Note: After help you can use the infinitive with to or without to: Can somebody help me (to) move this table?

2. Make (= force), have (= ask) and let (= allow) These verbs

have the structure verb + infinitive without to:

I only did it because they made me do it.(= forced me to do it)

Hot weather makes me feel uncomfortable. (= causes me

to feel)

Jane had the waiter bring her some tea. (= asked)

I had the plumber repair the leak. (= asked)

They let their children stay up late at weekends. (= allow)

Will you let me use your camera? (= allow)

Compare the use of causative verbs make, have, get:

a) I made my brother carry my suitcase. (= forced)

b) I had my brother carry my suitcase. (= asked)

c) I got my brother to carry my suitcase. (= persuaded)

Note: After the passive verb the infinitive is always with to: Everyone was made to take the exam.

We do not use the verb letin the passive. We use allow instead. Mr Jones was allowed to leave early.

/ want (you) to speak to him

There are two possible structures after these words: want, ex­pect, hate, like, dislike, love, cannot bear, prefer, wish, would like, would prefer.

verb + to-infinitive I want to help her. We expected to be late. He would like to come. I'd prefer to stay at home. I hate to be punished.

verb + object + to-infinitive I want him to help her. We expected her to be late. He would like me to come. I'd prefer you to stay at home. I hate him to be punished.

I cannot bear to read in bed.

I cannot bear him to read in bed.

/ know him to be an honest man

We can use that or to-infinitive after these verbs to refer to people or things: believe, consider, find, imagine, know, suppose, think.

Instead of: People know (that) he is an honest man. We can say: People know him to be an honest man. Instead of: I thought that the lecture was useful. We can say: I thought the lecture to be useful.

It is said that he.../He is said to... etc.

1. When we talk about what other people say, believe, etc. we can use two possible passive forms. Compare:

Active: People say that Mr Ross is a millionaire.

Passive (I): It + passive + that-clause

It is said that Mr Ross is a millionaire. Passive (2): Subject + passive + to-infinitive

Mr Ross is said to be a millionaire.

We often use these passive forms in a formal style and with verbs such as: say, think, believe, consider, know, report, expect

- It is believed that they own a lot of land in the north. They are believed to own a lot of land in the north.

- It is reported that the president is seriously ill. The president is reported to be seriously ill.

- It is expected that a new law will be introduced next year.

A new law is expected to be introduced next year.

When the belief, etc refers to an earlier action, we use the perfect infinitive. Compare:

- It is believed that the fire started late last night. The fire is believed to have started late last night.

- It was thought that two prisoners had escaped. Two prisoners were thought to have escaped.

2. Be supposed to

We can use supposed to to mean "said to ".

- I'd like to read that book. It's supposed to be very good. (= It is said to be very good.)

- He's supposed to have been married before. (= He is said to have been married before.)

Supposed to sometimes suggests some doubt about whether something is true or not.

Note that we also use supposed to to say what people are expected to do because of an arrangement, a rule, or a duty eg I'm supposed to see Maria this afternoon.

Infinitive of purpose

Jill: Hi, Sally. I've come to show you my new records. I went to buy a sweater, but then I heard this record playing...

Sally: I suppose when you go to buy records you usually come out of the shop with clothes!

a) The infinitive with to frequently expresses purpose, indicating that one action will follow another:

- I have come to apologise.

- I sent Mrs Bacon a bunch of flowers to thank her for the party.

- We shouted to warn everyone of the danger.

You can also use in order or so as + to-mfinitive:

- We shouted in order to warn everyone of the danger.

(so as)

- Some speakers hesitate so as to choose the right word.

(in order)

In order and so as + to-infinitive are more formal than the infinitive of purpose with to.

I am going to England to improve my English.

I am going to England in order (so as) to improve my


Note: You can never express purpose with/or plus an infinitive. You cannot say: I am going to England for to learn English, b) So (that)

So (that) is used to express purpose in the following situations: (i) with can or could

I'd like to work in the afternoons so (that) I can study in the mornings.

We moved to London so (that) we could visit our friends more often.

(ii) when the purpose is negative:

You'd better take a map so (that) you won't get lost. I hurried so that I wouldn't be late. (= because I didn't want' to be late)

(iii) when the subject of the main clause is different from the subject of the purpose clause:

I gave him my address so that he could contact me. He wore glasses and a false beard so that nobody would recognize him.

The infinitive after nouns and pronouns

Son: I'm really bored. I've got nothing to do.

Mother: You're lucky! I've got the kitchen to clean, the dinner

to cook and the shopping to do! Why don't you help

me? You could make a cake. Son:  That's all right. I've just found a comic to read!

- We have a problem to discuss. (= We have a problem which we should discuss.)

- I've got a comic to read. (= I've got a comic which I can read.)

- I have an exercise to do. (= I have an exercise which I must do.)

- The book tells you about walks to take. (= which you can take)

- There are a lot of museums to visit. (= which you can visit)

The infinitive after adjectives

Chris: You were very kind to lend me your bike. I was just too lazy to walk all the way to the bank.

Ian: That's all right. Now you can be good enough to pay me the money that you owe me.

a) The to-infinitive often follows an adjective:

- I'm ready to go to school.

- We were sorry to hear the bad news.

- I was surprised to see Tim at the meeting.

b)You can use a phrase with of after adjectives:

- It's good of you to come.

- It was silly of Peter not to tell anyone.

c) Note.-I'm eager to please. = I am very keen to please someone


- I'm easy to please. = It is easy for someone else to plea­se me.

- He is easy to teach. = He is an easy pupil to teach, or It is easy to teach him.

- George is quick to take offence. = He takes offence qui­ckly.

- This car is easy to drive. = It is easy to drive this car.

- She is hard to deal with. = It is hard to deal with her.

This construction is often used after the comparative and superlative of adjectives and expressions with too and enough:

- It would be more interesting to go out.

- The Top Club is the easiest to find.

- The piano is too heavy to move.

- I'm not strong enough to lift this box.

- The examination was too terrible to talk about.

d) The to-infinitive is often used after ordinal numerals and the adjective last:

- He was the first to answer.

- She was the last to leave.

For + noun phrase + infinitive

We use for + noun phrase + infinitive after

1. an adjective

It was easy for the player to kick the ball into the empty goal.(= The player easily kicked the ball into the empty goal.)

2. a noun phrase

It was a mistake for Helen to marry Bob. (= Helen married Bob, which was a mistake.)

3. a verb which usually has for after it, eg wait for

They are still waiting for them to reply. (= They have not replied yet.)

See someone do and see someone doing

Policeman: There's been a robbery here. I want to speak to anybody who saw anything at seven o'clock this evening.

Mr Jackson: I was here. I saw a car arrive at about six o'clock. The driver waited for an hour. Then I noticed him signal to somebody in the building. Then there was a loud bang inside the building.

Policeman: Did you hear anybody scream or shout? Did you see anyone come out of the building?

Mr Jackson: I heard someone shout "murderer". Then three men ran out, jumped into the car and drove off.

a) Study this example situation:

Tom got into his car and drove away. You saw this. You can say:

- I saw Tom get into his car and drive away. In this structure we use the infinitive (get, drive etc.):

Someone did something I saw this


I saw someone do something

Remember that we use the infinitive without to:

- I saw her go out. (not "to go out")

But after apassive ("he was seen" etc.) we use to + infinitive:

- She was seen to go out.

b) Now study this example situation:

Yesterday you saw Ann. She was waiting for a bus. You can say:

- I saw Ann waiting for a bus.

In this structure we use - ing (waiting):

Someone was doing


I saw this

I saw someone doing something I

) Now study the difference in meaning between the two structures:

" I saw him do something" = he did something (past simple} and I saw this. I saw the complete action from beginning to end:

- He fell to the ground. I saw this.

I saw him fall to the ground.

- The accident happened. We saw this,-

We saw the accident happen.

"I saw him doing something" = he was doing something (past continuous) and I saw this. I saw him when he was in the middle of doing something. This does not mean that I saw the complete action:

- He was walking along the street.

I saw this when I drove past in my car.

4J-I saw him walking along the street.

When we use a present participle we emphasize experience of part of an action:

- I watched the boats sailing by.

When we want to emphasize experience of the complete action we use an infinitive without to after the verb of perception:

--1 watched the boats sail by.

There is usually little difference in meaning between the two forms except that the -ing form usually gives the idea of "while":

- I've never seen Tom dance.

- I saw my friend run down the street.

- I heard the rain fall on the roof.

I've never seen Tom


I saw my friend

running down the street.

I heard the rain falling

on the roof.

d) We use these structures especially with see and hear, and also with watch, listen to, feel and notice:

- I didn't hear you come in. - I could hear it raining.

- She suddenly felt someone - The missing boys were touch her on the shoulder. last seen playing near

the river.

- Did you notice anyone  - Listen to the birds go out? singing!

After smell and find you can use the -ing structure only:

- Can you smell something burning?

- She found him reading her letters.

Would rather

Would rather (do) = would prefer to do. After would rather we use the infinitive without to.


Shall we go by train?

Well, I'd prefer to go by


Well, I'd rather go by car.

(not "to go")

-"Would you rather have tea or coffee?" "Coffee, please."

- I'm tired. I'd rather not go out this evening, if you don't mind.

- "Do you want to go out this evening?" "I'd rather not."

Note the structure: / 'd rather do something than (do) something else.

- I'd rather stay at home than go to the cinema.

Had better do something

The meaning of had better (I'd better) is similar to should. "I'd better do something" = I should do something or it is advisable for me to do something; if I don't do this, something bad might happen:

- I have to meet Tom in ten minutes. I'd better go now or I'll be late.

- We've almost run out of petrol. We'd better stop at the next petrol station to fill up.

The negative form is had better not ('d better not):

You don't look very well. You'd better not go to work today.

The form is always "had better" (usually 'd better in spoken English). We say had but the meaning is present or future, not past:

- I'd better go to the bank this afternoon.

Remember that had better is followed by the infinitive with­out to:

- It might rain. We'd better take an umbrella,

Practice Infinitive as subject, complement of subject

I. Transform according to the model.

eg To skate here is pleasant. It is pleasant to skate here.

1. To swim on a hot summer day is marvellous. 2. To learn a foreign language is difficult. 3. To rest there was pleasant. 4. To be given such an opportunity is important. 5. To look after the children was her duty. 6. To marry him was her ambition. 7. To have spent a month at the seaside was very useful. 6. To be fishing now is too cold. 9. To have bought such a useless thing was stupid.

10. To be treated rudely is unpleasant.

11. Make sentences with the same meaning by usingit + infinitive.

eg Having good friends is important. It is important to have good friends.

I. Playing tennis is fun. 2. Being polite to other people is im­portant. 3. Learning about other cultures is interesting. 4. Walk­ing alone at night in this part of the city is dangerous. 5. Is learning a second language difficult? 6. Is riding a motorcycle easy? 7. Ha­ving a cold isn't much fun. 7. Learning a second language takes a long time. 8. Cooking a soft-boiled egg takes three minutes.

III. Answer the questions.

Student A: Use it + infinitive. Student : Use gerunds.

1. Which is easier: to make money or to spend money?

A: It is easier to spend money than (it is) to make money. B: Spending money is easier than making money.

2. Which is more fun: to study at the library or to go to a movie?

3. Which is more difficult: to write English or to read English?

4. Which is easier: to write English or to speak English?

5. Which is more expensive: to go to a movie or to go to a con­cert?

6. Which is more interesting: to talk to people or to watch people?

7. Which is more comfortable: to wear shoes or to go barefoot?

8. Which is more satisfying: to give gifts or to receive them?

9. Which is more dangerous: to ride in a car or to ride in an air­plane?

10. Which is more important: to come to class on time or to get an extra hour of sleep in the morning?

IV. Student A: Complete the sentence with an infinitive phrase. Student B: Give a sentence with the same meaning by using a gerund phrase as the subject.

1. It is fun...

A: It is fun to ride a horse. B: Riding a horse is fun.

2. It's dangerous... 5. It is important... 8. It's a good idea...

3. It's easy...  4. It's impolite...

6. It is wrong... 7. It takes a lot of time.

9. Is it difficult...?

V. Restate the sentences by changing a sentence with a gerund as the subject to a sentence with it + an infinitive phrase, and vice-versa.

1. Teasing animals is cruel. - It is cruel to tease animals.

2. It wasn't difficult to find their house. - Finding their house wasn't difficult.

3. Voting in every election is important.

4. It was exciting to meet the king and queen.

5. Hearing the other side of the story would be interesting.

6. It is unusual to see Joan awake early in the morning.

7. If you know how, it is easy to float in water for a long time.

8. Mastering a second language takes time and patience.

9. Driving to Atlanta will take us ten hours.

10. It takes courage to dive into the sea from a high cliff.

VI. Match columns A and to make sentences: eg It's not easy for old people to climb stairs.

It's not easy for old people

It's quite easy for Dutch people

It's not safe in some cities for women

It's dangerous for inexperienced people

It's not difficult for young children

It can be difficult in a big city

to learn English.

to climb mountains.

to learn languages.

to climb stairs.

to make friends.

to go out alone at night.

VII. Use the given information to complete each sentence. Use for (someone) and an infinitive phrase in each completion.

1. Students should do their homework. It's important... It is important for students to do their homework. 2. Teachers should speak clearly. It's important... 3. We don't have to hurry. There's plenty of time. It isn't necessary... 4. A fish can't live out of water more than a few minutes. It is impossible... 5. Students have to budget their time carefully. It's necessary... 6. A child usually can't sit still for a long time. It's difficult... 7. My family always eats turkey on Thanksgiving Day. It's traditional... 8. People can take vacation trips to the moon. Will it be possible... within the next fifty years? 9.1 usually can't understand Mr Alien. It's hard... He talks too fast. 10.1 can understand our teacher. It's easy... 11. The guests usually wait until the hostess begins to eat. At a formal dinnerparty it's customary... 12. The bride usually feeds the groom the first piece of wedding cake. It's traditional...

VIII. Identify exactly who the speaker is talking about using the phrase for (someone). Add for (someone) to the following sen­tences 'and any other words to give a more specific meaning.

1. It's important to take advanced math courses. It's important for science students to take advanced math courses. 2. It isn't easy to speak Spanish. 3. It's important to learn English. 4. It's unusual to be late. 5. It is essential to get a visa. 6. It is dangerous to play with matches. 7. It's difficult to communicate. 8. It's quite easy to do this exercise. 9. It's useful to go jogging. 10. It must be interesting to study at the Linguistic University. 11. It is necessary to be present.

IX. Student A: Complete the sentence with an infinitive phrase. Student B: Give a sentence with the same meaning by

using a gerund phrase. eg Her ambition is...

A: Her ambition is to become an actress.

B: Her ambition is becoming an actress. 1. My hobby is... 2. Your duty is... 3. His favourite pastime is...4. The main thing to do is... 5. The first thing to do is...6. Her dream is... 7. The only way out was...

Verb + infinitive

I. Robert is talking about the day he bought a second-hand car. Complete Robert's story using the to-infinitive form of the verbs in the boxes.



not like


"When I got to the garage, I managed to have a quick look at the car before the salesman came out of his office. It seemed... in very good condition and was worth about £1000, although the garage was asking £1400 for it. When the salesman came out, I arranged... the car straight away. The salesman and I got in and we drove off. I liked the car immediately and decided that I wanted... it, but, of course, I didn't say this to the salesman. Instead, I pretended... the car very much."




pay  |

"When we had finished the test-drive and had pulled up outside the garage, I told the salesman that I couldn't afford... more than £750. The salesman, of course, refused such a miserable little offer. He told me that he expected at least £1200 for the car. I tried offering£800, £850, £875, but he wouldn't change his mind. Then I decided to do something different."





"I thanked the salesman politely, said goodbye, got out of the car and started to walk away. It worked! The salesman got out of the car too and hurried after me. He told me that he wanted... fair and was prepared ... a reasonable offer for the car. In the end, he agreed... it to me for £ 1100. He even agreed... me £ 200 for my old car!"

II. Make up short dialogues.

seem/appear/happen/is said/is supposed + infinitive

Mr X has recently come to live in the area, but seems to wish to avoid people. This of course arouses interest and his neighbours

observe him closely. Two of them are talking about him. The first speaker makes confident assertions; the second is more cautious.


A: He wishes to avoid us.

B: Well, he seems to wish to avoid us.

1. is afraid of someone.

2. suspects everyone.

3. distrusts his neighbours.

4. dislikes children.

5. likes dogs.

6. avoids people.

7. reads a lot.

8. prefers to be alone.

9. thinks he is in danger. 10. lives on pills.

1 1 . eats very little.

12. feeds his dogs well.

13. writes a lot of letters.

14. works at night.

15. has plenty of money.

16. knows several languages.

17. takes a lot of photos.

Two people keep a close eye on Mr Smith, who lives opposite. The road is wide and busy so they do not see exactly what is happening, but they have a general idea.

A: He doesn't usually watch television. B: Well, he seems to be watching it today. A: He doesn't usually get letters. B: Well, he seems to be getting some today. He doesn 't usually...

1 . talk to his mother-in-law.

2. help his wife.

3. use the public phone box.

4. try to please his wife.

5. play with the children.

6. bring his wife flowers.

7. take photographs.

8. do the shopping.

9. carry his wife's parcels.

10. leave the car at home.

11. let his wife drive.

12. quarrel with his neighbours.

13. walk to work.

14. pay cash.

15. collect the children from school.


Two people are visiting a "stately home" built in the eighteenth " century by a famous duke. One asks questions about the duke, which the other, who has just bought the guide book, does his'best to answer.

A: Was he rich? (very)

(a) B: Yes, he seems to have been very rich.

(b) B: Yes, he appears to have been very rich.

(c) : Yes, he is said to have been very rich.

(d) B: Yes, he is supposed to have been very rich.

1 . Did he live here? (most of his life) 2. Did he marry? (several times) 3. Did he have children? (a lot of) 4. Did he build any other houses? (several) 5. Did he own (large) estates? (enormous) 6. Did he employ a large staff? (huge) 7. Was he a good landlord? (excellent) 8. Did his tenants like him? (very much) 9. Did he entertain? (lavishly) 10. Did he drink? (heavily) 1 1 . Did he hunt? (when he was a young man) 12. Did he keep racehorses? (all his life) 1 3 . Did they win races? (quite a lot of) 1 4. Did he lose money gambling? (a fortune) 15. Did he sell his other houses? (two of them) 16. Did he quarrel with his neighbours? (some of them) 17. Did he fight duels? (two) 18. Did he kill his opponent? (both times) 19. Did he leave the country? (after the second duel) 20. Did he die abroad? (in Paris)

The first speaker is very suspicious.

A: You asked him the time. Was it part of a plan?

: No, I just happened to ask him the time.

A: You were looking out of the window when I passed.

Was this part of a plan? B: No, I just happened to be looking out of the window.


1. were in the phone box when I passed. Were you watching me? 2. looked at your watch. Was that a signal of some kind? 3. were sitting by the window when I passed. Were you watching me? 4. were leaning against your gate when I passed. Were you watching me? 5. were waiting for a bus when I passed. Were you watching me? 6. gave him a lift. Was this part of a plan? 7. were standing in your doorway when I passed. Were you watching me? 8. travelled on the same train as Peter. Was that part of a plan? 9. were watering your window-box when I passed. Were you watching me? 10. got out at the same station as Peter. Was this part of a plan? 11. had your tape recorder with you. Was this part of a plan? 12. waved at Jack. Was this a signal? 13. sat at the same table as Jack. Was this part of a plan? 14. were wearing dark glasses when I saw you. Was this part of a plan? 15. and Peter exchanged briefcases. Was this intentional?

III. This time you have to make sentences with seem and appear.

eg Is he waiting for someone?  He appears to be waiting

for someone

Has she lost weight? She seems to have lost


1. Is Tom worried about something? He seems...

2. Does Ann like Jack? She appears...

3. Is that man looking for something? He appears...

4. Has the car broken down. It seems...

5. Have they gone out? They appear...

6. Is Dick looking for his gloves? He seems...

7. Have they been sitting here long? They seem...

IV. Read each sentence. Then make two new sentences in the passive, beginning with the words in brackets.

eg People expect that taxes will be reduced soon. (It) (Taxes)

It is expected that taxes will be reduced soon. Taxes are expected to be reduced soon.

1. People say that the monument is over 2000 years old. (It) (The monument)

2. People expect that the president will resign. (It) (The president)

3. People think the fire started at about 8 o'clock. (It) (The fire)

4. Journalists reported that seven people had been injured in the fire.

(It) (Seven people)

5. They say that prices will rise again this month. (It) (Prices)

6. People consider that he is honest and reliable. (It) (He)

7. We suppose that he is an expert in financial matters. (It) (He)

8. People know that this place is famous for its lakes. (It) (This place)

V. Read each sentence. Then make a new sentence with be + supposed to, as in the example.

eg People say that Whitby is a very nice town. Whitby is supposed to be a very nice town.

1. People say that the new film is very exiting.

2. People say that those cars are rather unreliable.

3. People say that he moved to New York last year.

4. People say that the new restaurant is very expensive.

5. People say that the concert was very good.

VI. Sylvia is supposed to be home by eight 'clock every evening. Which of the following things are you (not) supposed to do? Say your answers.

eg I am supposed to tell my parents the truth.

eg I am not supposed to park my bicycle in the living-room.

tell your parents the truth

park your bicycle in the living-room

help at home sometimes

tell your parents where you are going every time you go out

be punctual for meals

sit at table in silence during meals

stay out all night without permission

stay in bed until lunchtime at weekends

wear dirty shoes inside the house

play loud music late at night

go everywhere with your parents

VII. Make up short dialogues.

would like + perfect infinitive, wanted+ present infinitive

A: Did you see the castle?

(a) B: No, I would like to have seen it* but there wasn't time.

(b) B: No, I wanted to see it but there wasn't time.

* Note: Would have liked to see it and would have liked to have seen it are also possible forms. Did you...

1. ring Peter?

2. talk to the students?

attend the conference?

4. try the beer?

5. watch the match?

6. visit the museum?

7. see the zoo?

8. walk round the town?

9. meet your friends?

10. look at the old bridge?

11. climb to the top of the monument?

12. have coffee? (Answer with some.)

13. make a sketch? (Answer with one.)

14. take any photographs? (some)

15. hire a boat? (one)

16. send any postcards? (some)

17. buy any souvenirs? (some)

18. listen to the town band?

19. paint any pictures? (some)

remember/forget + infinitive

Ann's bad memory saves her a lot of trouble.

(a) A: I locked the safe. Ann had forgotten. B: Oh, Ann never remembers to lock it.

or B: Oh, Ann always forgets to lock it.

(b) A: I took down the old notices. Ann had forgotten. B: Oh, Ann never remembers to take them down.


B: Oh, Ann always forgets to take them down. (Notice word order.)

I... Ann had forgotten.

1. turned out the lights. (See (b) above.)

switched off the TV. (See (b) above.)

3. shut the lift doors.

4. paid the milkman.

5. took the milk in. (See (b) above.)

6. washed the coffee cups.

7. made coffee.

8. swept the floor.

9. dusted the desks.

10. put up the new notices. (See (b) above.)

11. watered the pot plants.

12. thanked the office cleaners.

13. put out the rubbish. (See (b) above.)

14. stamped the letters.

15. bought the biscuits.

16. covered the typewriters.

17. locked the office.

Verb + question word + infinitive

Complete the sentences using the most suitable words in the box.

what/do how/get

how/make whether/stay

what/wear how/spell

eg Could you tell me how to get to Western Road, please?" "Yes. Go down this road and it's second on the left."

1. "Have you decided... to the interview?" "Yes, I'm going to wear my new blue suit." 2. Could you tell me... you name please? 3. "What are you going to do this evening?" "I can't decide... at home or go out." 4. Do you know... a Spanish omelette? 5. 1 felt very embarrassed when she started shouting. I didn't know..., so I just stood there.

Verb + object + infinitive

I. Complete these sentences using an object + to-infinitive after the verbs.

1. Take out a loan. My bank manager advised me to take out a loan. 2. She didn't peel the potatoes. You didn't tell... 3. We work hard. Our teacher taught... 4. The soldiers fired. The officer ordered... 5. The public should not approach this man. The police have warned... 6. My wife and I play tennis. My boss invited... 7. You may take my car. He allowed... 8. At first I didn't want to play but Jack persuaded me. Jack persuaded... 9. You should tell the police about the accident. She advised... 10. Could you please post this letter? She asked... 11. Don't forget to buy some sugar. She reminded...

II. Make up short dialogues.

make + object + infinitive without to

(a) A: He told Ann, I hope. (b) He put on his gloves,

I hope. B: Yes, I made him tell her. Yes, I made him put

... I hope.

1. apologized

2. explained

3. paid the bill

4. wrote to the Smiths

5. cleaned the bath

6. took the medicine

7. reported the accident

8. waited for Ann

9. rang his parents

10. finished the book

11. answered the letter

12. made his bed

13. cleaned his shoes

14. wore his best suit

15. insured his house

16. did his exercises

them on.

(b) He... I hope.

1. hung up his coat

2. turned down the radio

3. shaved off his beard

4. took back the books

5. rang up Jane

6. took down the notice

7. rolled up the carpet

8. locked up the papers

9. threw away his old boots

10. filled up the form

11. looked up the time of the train

12. switched off the central heating

paid back the money

14. put away his tools

put on his raincoat

16. took off his coat

let + object + infinitive without to, to be allowed + to-infinitive

The Smiths and their two boys and the Browns and their two girls went to the same holiday resort but at different times. Afterwards the boys and the girls compare their holidays. The boys had a much more interesting time! The boys speak first.

(a) Active: A: We went rock climbing.

B: Our parents didn't let us go rock-climbing.

(b) Passive: A: We ran about without shoes.

B: We weren't allowed to run about without shoes, (stress on we and allowed)


1. ran about without shoes.

2. slept in the garden.

3. practised parachuting.

4. played water polo.

5. sailed round the island.

6. water skied.

7. had bicycle races on the sand.

8. canoed down the river.

9. climbed the cliffs.

10. went surfing.

11. rode Peter's pony.

12. explored the caves.

13. learnt how to dive.

would prefer + object + infinitive

A: Shall I phone Tom tomorrow? B: I'd prefer you to phone him today.

Shall I... tomorrow'''

1. phone Bill

2. bring my friends

3. speak to James

4. sweep the stairs

5. begin

6. pay the milk bill

7. come

8. leave

9. go to the library

10. read the instructions

11. take the books back

12. burn the rubbish

13. get the new programme

14. write to the Smiths

15. buy your season ticket

16. make the arrangements

would like/want + object + infinitive

a) A: Would you like to make a speech9

B: No, I'd like you to make a speech, (stress on you) (b) A: Do you want to make speech?

B: No, I want you to make a speech, (stress on you)

(a) Would you like to... (b) Do you want to...

1. lead the deputation?

2. pick the team*?

3. receive the mayor1?

4. speak first?

5. introduce the speakers

6. sign the cheque

7. witness Tom's signature?

8. engage the extra staff?

9. attend the conference?

10. give a talk?

11. meet the president?

12. make the arrangements?

13. answer the queries?

14. choose the colours?

15. fix a date?

16. organize the reception?

17. open the champagne?

doesn 't/didn 't want + object + infinitive

Ann is a young married woman with a lot of time on her hands. Two of her friends think that she would be happier if she had an occupation or hobby. Unfortunately her husband doesn't seem to share their views.

(a) A: Have you suggested going to evening classes?

B: Yes, but apparently her husband doesn't want her to go to evening classes, (stress on want)


A: Did you suggest going to evening classes? B: Yes, but apparently her husband didn't want her to go

to evening classes. Have you suggested.... Did you suggest....

1. painting?

2. riding?

3. working in the garden?

4. taking a driving test?

5. making friends with her neighbours?

6. inviting her mother to stay?

7. getting a part-time job? ' '

8. hiring a typewriter?

9. joining a drama club?

10. acting in a play?

11. singing in the choir?

12. buying a dog?

13. helping at the old people's club?

14. studying Russian?

15. learning judo?

16. attending keep-fit classes?

17. going to art lectures?

18. taking a course in vegetarian cooking?

19. redecorating the house?

20. training as a tourist guide?

III. Paraphrase these sentences using a to-infinitive instead of that

eg People know that he is an honest man. People know him to be an honest man.

1. I believe that she is guilty. 2. I found that the job was too difficult. 3.1 know that she has an interest in the company. 4.1 imagine that he works very hard. 5. The teacher considered that my answer was inadequate. 6.1 felt that it was true. 7.1 suppose that the matter is urgent. 8.1 think he is a bore.

Infinitive of purpose

I. Where did you go yesterday, and why did you go to each place?

1. Chemist's

2. Post Office

3. Cinema

4. Hairdresser's

5. Car Rental Agency

6. Park

Make sentences using "I went to the (place) to... " and the words in the box.

eg I went to the chemist's to buy some medicine.







a haircut


a film

some letters

a car

some medicine

II. Join each idea in A with an idea from B. Make sentences using (i) in order (not) to, and (ii) so as (not) to.

eg (i) He drank lots of black coffee in order to keep awake, (ii) He drank lots of black coffee so as to keep awake.


1. He drank lots of black coffee

2.1 often write things down

3. She took an umbrella

4. We'll use the computer 5.1 want to pass the exams 6. We turned down the music

disturb the neighbours

save time

get a better job

forget them

keep awake

get wet

III. Join the sentences with in order to, or so (that).

I. I'll give you my telephone number. You can phone me at work. 2. Take some suntan cream. Then you won't get sunburnt. 3. I'm going to the post office. I want to post a parcel. 4. We are organizing a "Fun Run". We want to raise money for the local hospital. 5. They took the phone off the hook. Nobody could phone them. 6. Speak louder. Then Granny can hear you. 7. Turn the sound down. I don't want you to disturb the neighbours. 8. We are installing solar ( ) heating. We want to save energy.

IV. In pairs, think of five good reasons why you are learning English.

Noun/pronoun + infinitive

I. Paraphrase the following so as to use the infinitive.

eg He gave me a passage which I was to look through. He gave me a passage to look through.

1. There are still a lot of things which must be packed. 2. There are so many letters that must be answered. 3. I have no money which I can spend. 4. There is nothing which we might record now. 5. There is nothing you should worry about. 6. Here is a list of medicines which are to be sold without a prescription. 7. He is not the man you can rely on. 8. A good housewife will always find something that must be done about the house. 9. He is not the man who can be easily impressed. 10. The next patient who was examined was my brother. 11. There was nothing that might keep him at home that night, and he gladly accepted the invitation. 12. She had no one who could take care of her. 13. We've got no time that we can lose.

II. Respond using what a/an + adjective + noun + infinitive.

A: He lives in a cave, (funny place) B: What a funny place to live!


1. parked outside the police station, (silly place)

2. travels by donkey, (slow way)

3. said, "mind your own business." (rude thing)

4. sleeps in his car. (uncomfortable place)

5. makes money by telling fortunes, (interesting way)

6. swims at night, (odd time)

7. plays golf on his flat roof, (strange place)

8. makes all his important decisions in the lift, (extraordinary place)

9. lives on brown rice, (odd thing) (Keep on)

10. cooks in his bathroom, (queer place)

11. rings up his friends at 6 a.m. (inconvenient time)

12. relaxes by standing on his head, (odd way)

13. reads the telephone directory, (strange thing)

14. gets up at 4 a.m. (unpleasant time)

15. has a holiday in June, (agreeable time)

16. drives a Rolls Royce. (expensive car)

III. Paraphrase the following using a noun instead of the verb in bold type with the infinitive as attribute, make all other necessary changes.

eg He offered to help us but we refused. - We refused his of­fer to help us.

I don't want to change my mind. - I have no desire to chan­ge my mind.

1.1 was surprised that he refused to go there. 2. We did not know that they planned to leave soon. 3. They demand to be regularly informed, and you will have to comply with it. 4. I remember you promised not to talk of it. 5.1 told him that I was firmly determined to find out the truth. 6. He was permitted to leave. 7.1 don't intend to do anything about it. 8, They repeatedly attempted to stage the experiment. 9. He did not wish to let you down. 10. The trainer instructed the cyclists to examine their bicycles before the competition. 11. He consented to fill up the vacancy.

Adjective + infinitive

be + horrified/glad/surprised/amazed/ relieved etc. + infinitive

I. Paraphrase using the infinitive.

eg A: I saw smoke coming under the door, (horrified) B: I was horrified to see smoke coming under the door. 1.1 heard cries of pain coming from the next room, (horrified) 2.1 saw a photograph of myself on the front page, (asto­nished) 3.1 found a complete stranger taking food out of my fridge.


4.1 saw that the beds had been made, (glad) 5.1 received an invitation to the palace, (delighted) 6.1 found that no preparations had been made, (surprised) 7.1 heard that the last train had just left, (dismayed) 8.1 found everyone still in bed at eleven o'clock, (shocked) 9.1 found the last bus still standing there, (relieved) 10.1 heard that you can't come skiing after all. (disappointed) 11.1 learnt that no room had been reserved for me. (annoyed) 12. 1 saw that most of the town had been destroyed by the

explosion, (shocked)

13. I heard that the plane had crashed, (horrified)

14.1 heard that my brother was safe, (relieved)

15.1 found that I could make myself understood, (pleased)

16.1 saw that I had passed the exam, (glad)

17.1 found my name at the very bottom of the list, (sorry)

181 heard that I could have every weekend off. (delighted)

it is/was + adjective + of+ object + infinitive

II. Respond to the following statements.

A: He warned me. (kind)

B: It was kind of him to warn you.

1. They waited for me. (good) 2. He lent Ann his bicycle, (kind) 3. She believed him. (stupid) 4. They invited me. (nice) 5. She told the police, (sensible) 6.1 found the way. (clever) (Use you) 7. She left her car unlocked, (careless) 8. He had another drink, (foolish) 9. She argued with the customs officer, (stupid) 10. He refused to share his sandwiches, (selfish) 11. They ran away, (cowardly) 12. He kept the money, (dishonest) 13. He took the only cream cake, (greedy) 14. She jumped into the river to save the child, (brave) 15. He offered to pay. (generous) 16. He said I wasn't any use. (unkind) 17. He told lies about me. (wicked) 18. He admitted he was wrong, (courageous)

too + adjective + infinitive, adjective + enough + infinitive

III. Respond to the following statements.

A: You sat on the grass, I suppose? (wet/dry) (a)B: No, it was too wet to sit on.


No, it was too wet for us to sit on. b) B: Yes, it was dry enough to sit on.

Yes, it was dry enough for us to sit on.

... I suppose?

1. You slept in the cave, (wet/dry) 2. He walked on the ice, (thin/ thick) 3. You ate the apple, (sour/sweet) 4. He wore his

blue suit, (shabby/smart) 5. The plane landed on the sand, (soft/ hard) 6. You drank the coffee, (hot/cool) 7. He picked the fruit, (unripe/ripe) 8. You took out the (electric light) bulb, (hot/cool) 9. She read by the light of the moon, (dim/bright) 10. You used yesterday's milk, (sour/fresh) 11. He dived from the pier, (high/ low) 12. She handed in her exercise, (untidy/tidy) 13. You swam in the river, (polluted/clean). 14. He stood on the table, (unsteady/ steady) 15. You put your umbrella in your suitcase, (long/short) 16. He put the trunk in the boot of the car, (big/small) 17. She dived into the pond, (shallow/deep) 18. You sat on the floor, (dirty/ clean) 19. He picked up the sack of potatoes, (heavy/light)

This book is hard to get

IV. Agree or disagree with the following.

eg - John is a bad-tempered man. (deal with)

- I don't agree with you. He is very pleasant to deal with. eg - This is a very rare stamp.

- Quite so. It is so hard to get.

1. The novel is boring, (read) 2. She is a charming little creature, (look at) 3. He is a shallow man. (deal with) 4. She is good at dancing, I must say. (dance with) 5. My friend looks altogether a new girl after the trip, (recognize) 6. Jane is a very clever girl, (talk to) 7. The passage is too long, (learn by heart) 8. She is a good-natured girl, (please) 9. The bicycle is broken, (repair)

find it easy + infinitive

V. Make up short dialogues using the prompts, (i) Prompt: open the windows

(a) A: Do you have difficulty (in) opening the windows?

(b) B: No, I find it quite easy to open them.

(c) B: No, I find them quite easy to open.

Note: I find it easy to open them implies that the speaker has the necessary skill. I find them easy to open implies that it is easy to open them.

The hall porter of a block of flats is answering questions

1. regulate the central heating

2. organize the cleaning

3. control the cleaning staff

4. remember the tenants' names

5. answer telephone enquiries

6. deal with complaints

7. understand foreign tenants

8. operate the switchboard

9. read the meters

10. get on with the tenants

He was the first to come

VI. Paraphrase the following so as to use the infinitive.

eg He was the first who came. He was the first to come.

1. Kate was the last who saw him. 2. He was the first who broke the silence. 3. He was the first who answered at the examination. 4.1 wonder who left the office last. 5.1 wonder who spoke at the meeting first. 6. You will answer next. 7. She was the first who praised him. 8. He complained that he was always the last who was informed. 9. He found that he was the only one who realized the danger. 10. Andrew was the third who went in for the interview. 11. The first person who entered was Mrs Evans. 12. If there is a vacancy I would like to be the one who will be offered the job.

VII. Make up sentences usinglikely, certain and sure + infinitive.

eg He is likely to arrive before dawn, eg He is sure to marry her. eg She is certain to get a scholarship, eg He is not likely to come.

see + object + -ing, or see + object + infinitive without to

Make up short dialogues.

A: (with a note of doubt in his/her voice) Did he pay the bill?

(a) B: Well, I didn't actually see him paying it.

(b) B: Well, I didn't actually see him pay it.

Did he...

1. sign the cheque?

2. lock the door?

3. take the key?

4. read the instructions?

5. use the photocopier?

6. weigh the parcel?

7. post the letter?

8. burn the photographs?

9. copy the documents?

10. swallow the tablet?

11. drink the coffee?

12. cut the telephone cable?

13. open the safe?

14. take the money?

hear + object + -ing, or hear + object + infinitive without to

A: Are you sure Tom left?

(a) B: Yes, I heard him leaving.

(b) B: Yes, I heard him leave.

Are you sure...

1. Tom booked the tickets?

2. Jack invited Mrs Jones?

3. Mrs Jones accepted the invitation?

4. Mary told her husband?

the lift door shut?

6. Peter wound the clock?

7. the bell rang?

8. they accused Bill?

9. the bus stopped?

10. the ice cracked?

11. George spoke to Mary?

12. the passengers shouted at the driver?

the driver apologized?

14. Ann asked for the keys?

15. Peter complained about the delay?

16. the students laughed?

17. they opened the champagne?

Would rather

I. Answer these questions usingl'd prefer... or I'd rather... Use

the words in brackets for your answers.

eg Shall we walk? (prefer/go by car) - I'd prefer to go by car. Shall we eat now (rather/eat a bit later) - I'd rather eat a bit later.

Shall we play tennis? (prefer/go for a swim)

Shall we watch television (rather/read a book)

3. Shall we leave now? (rather/wait for a few minutes)

4. Shall we go to a restaurant? (prefer/eat at home)

5. Shall we decide now? (rather/think about it for a while)

. Now you have to make sentences using I'd prefer... rather than... or I'd rather... than...

eg (walk/go by car) I'd rather walk than go by car.

(stay at home/go to the cinema) I'd prefer to stay at home rather than go to the cinema

1. (go for a swim/play tennis) I'd rather...

2. (read a book/watch television) I'd prefer...

3. (wait for a few minutes/leave now) I'd prefer...

4. (eat at home/go to a restaurant) I'd rather...

5. (think about it for a while/decide now) I'd prefer...

Had better

Read each sentence and make up a sentence with had better. eg You're going out for a walk with Tom. You think you should take an umbrella because it might rain. What do you say to Tom?

We'd better take an umbrella.

eg Tom doesn't look very well. You don't think he should go to work today. What do you say to Tom? You'd better not go to work today.

Ann suddenly begins to feel ill. You think she should sit down. What do you say to her?

2. You and Tom are going to the theatre. You've just missed the bus. You think you should take a taxi. What do you say to Tom? We...

3. Ann wants to play the piano late at night. You know that she'll wake up the people next door. What do you say to Ann?

4. You and Ann are going to a restaurant for a meal. You think you should reserve a table because the restaurant might be crowded. What do you say to Ann?

5. Tom has just cut himself. You think he should put a plaster on the cut. What do you say to him?

You are by a river. It's a very warm day and your friend suggests going for a swim. You don't think you should do this because the river looks very dirty. What do you say?

Uncompleted infinitives

(a) I've never met Rita but I'd like to.

In (a): I'd like to - an uncompleted infinitive;

I'd like to meet Rita - the understood completion.

Complete the sentences with the words in brackets. Use any appropriate tense, discuss the understood meaning of the uncompleted infinitives.

1. A: Why didn't you go to the concert?

B: I (want, not) I didn't want to.

2.1 haven't written to my parents yet this week, but I (intend). 3. Did Jane enjoy the play? - She (seem). 4. I'd like to buy fresh flowers for my desk every day, but I can't (afford). 5. I've never eaten at that restaurant, but I (would like). 6. Want to go to the jazz festival with us tomorrow night? - I (would love). 7. Are you going to the historical society meeting? - Yes, I (plan). And you? 8. Oh!

I'm sorry I closed the door in your face! I (mean, not). 9.1 don't play with toys any more but I (use). 9. Have you called Jennifer yet? - That's the fourth time you've asked me. I (be going)! I (be going)! Don't be a nag! 10. Tina doesn't feel like going to the meeting, but she (have) 11. Are you planning to go to the market?- No, but I suppose I (ought). 12. Why didn't you pay the bill for him? - I (offer) but he refused. 13. Why didn't you hit him? - I (be afraid). 14. Why doesn't he try again? - He (want, not).

Various infinitive constructions

Replace the group of words in italics by an infinitive or an infinitive construction.

It is important that he should understand this. It is important for him to understand this.

He was the first man who arrived. He was the first man to arrive.

1. The captain was the last man who left the ship. 2. He got to the top and was very disappointed when he found that someone else had reached it first. 3. There are a lot of sheets that need mending. 4. I was astonished when I heard that he had left the country. 5. It is better that he should hear it from you. 6. / was rude to him, which was stupid. (It was stupid...) 7. If he had another child with whom he could play he would be happier. 8. It is necessary that everyone should know the truth. 9. There was no place where we could sit. 10. He put his hand into his pocket and was astonished when he found that his wallet wasn't there. 11. He rushed into the burning house, which was very brave of him. (It was very brave...) 12.1 can't go to the party; I have nothing that I can wear. 13. is expected that he will broadcast a statement tonight. (He is expected...) 14.1 want a kitchen where (=in which) I can cook. 15. He reached the station exhausted and was very disappointed when he learnt that the train had just left. 16. Haven't you anything with which you could open if. 17. It seems that the crime was committed by a left-handed man. (The crime seems... Use perfect infinitive passive.) 18. Is it likely that he will arrive before six? (Is he...) 19. It is said thathe was a brilliant scientist. (He is said...) 20. It is advisable that we should leave the house

separately. 21. You signed the document without reading it, which was very stupid. (It was stupid...) 22. It is said that she has a frightful temper. (She..) 23. He was the first man who swam the Channel. 24. They believe that he is honest. (He...) 25.It appears that he was killed with a blunt instrument. (He appears... Use passive infinitive.) 26. He was the only one who realized the danger. 27. It is said that the earth was originally part of the sun. (The earth...) 28. It is said that he is hiding in the woods near your house. 29. It is said that this palace was built in three years. This palace is said... 30. They expect thathe will arrive on Tuesday. (He...). 31.1 knew that he was a boring man. (I knew...)

Self check

I. Insert to where necessary before the infinitive in brackets.

1. He made me (do) it all over again. 2. He will be able (swim) very soon. 3. You ought (go) today. It may (rain) tomorrow. 4. He made her (repeat) the message. 5. They won't let us (leave) the Customs shed till our luggage has been examined. 6. I used (smoke) forty cigarettes a day. 7. Will you help me (move) the bookcase? 8. He is expected (arrive) in a few days. 9. Please let me (know) your decision as soon as possible. 10. He made me (wait) for hours. 11. I'd like him (go) to a university but I can't (make) him (go). 12. You seem (know) this area very well. - Yes, I used (live) here. 13. The kidnappers told the parents (not inform) the police, and the parents didn't dare (disobey). 14. I'm sorry (disappoint) you but I can't (let) you (have) any more money till the end of the month. 15. It is easy (be) wise after the event. 16. Do you (wish) (make) a complaint? 17. We don't (want) anybody (know) that we are here. 18. If you can't (remember) his number you' d better (look) it up. 19.1 want her (learn) Esperanto; I think everybody ought (know) it. 20. He is said (be) the best surgeon in the country. 21. Visitors are asked (not feed) the animals. 22. He should know how (use) the film projector, but if he doesn't you had better (show) him. 23. He was made (sign) a paper admitting his guilt. 24.1 heard the door (open) and saw a shadow (move) across the floor. 25. He tried (make) me (believe) that he was my stepbrother. 26. As we seem (have missed) the train we may as well (go) back to the house. 27.1 felt the house

(shake) with the explosion. 28. Before he let us (go) he made us (promise) (not tell) anyone what we had seen. 29. Would you (like) (come) in my car? - No, thanks, I'd rather (walk). 30. I advised him (ask) the bus conductor (tell) him where (get) off. 31. It is better (put) your money in a bank than (keep) it under your bed in an old stocking. 32. Did you remember (give) him the money? - No, I didn't, I still have it in my pocket; but I'll (see) him tonight and I promise (not forget) this time. 33.1 saw the driver (open) his window and (throw) a box into the bushes.

That is too heavy for one person (carry); let me (help) you.

35. The children were made (obey). 36. She was seen (cross) the street and (turn) round the corner. 37.1 didn't expect her (marry) him. 38. They were supposed (know) German well.

II. Choose the correct answer.

1. Are you sure you told me? I don't recall... about it.

A. having told C. to have told

B. having being told D. to have been told.

2. Dan appears... some weight. Has he been ill?

A. having lost C. to have lost

B. having been lost D. to have been lost

3. Tom made a mistake at work, but his boss didn't fire him. He's lucky... a second chance.

A. having given B. having been given

C. to have given D. to have been given

4. Dr Wilson is a brilliant dedicated scientist who had expected to be selected as the director of the institute. She was very surprised not... the position.

A. having offered C. to have offered

B. having been offered D. to have been offered

5. By the time their baby arrives, the Johnsons hope... painting and decorating the new nursery.

A. having finished C. to have finished

B. having been finished D. to have been finished

6. We would like... to the president's reception, but we weren't.

A. having invited C. to have invited

B. having been invited D. to have been invited

7. The stockbroker denied... of the secret business deal.

A. having informed C. to have informed

B. having been informed D. to have been informed

8. George mentioned... in an accident as a child, but he never told us the details.

A. having injured C. to have injured

B. having been injured D. to have been injured

9. The Smiths wanted to give their son every advantage. However, they now regret... him by providing too many material possessions.

A. having spoiled B. having been spoiled

C. to have spoiled D. to have been spoiled

The spy admitted... some highly secret information to enemy agents.

A. having given C. to have given

B. having been given D. to have been given

11. We were shocked to hear the news of your...

A. having fired C. to be fired

B. having been fired D. to have been fired

12. Marge's children are used to... after school every day. They don't have to walk home.

A. picking up C. be picked up

B. being picked up D. pick up

13. The bus driver was so tired of... the same route every day that he asked for a transfer.

A. to drive B. being driven

. driving D. drive

14. I'm sure it's not my fault that Peter found out what we were planning. I don't remember... anyone about it.

A. having told C. to tell

B. being told D. to be told

15. Even though she was much younger than the other children, Alexis demanded... in the game they were playing.

A. including C. to include

B. being included D. to be included

16. The baby continued... even after she was picked up.

A. being crying B. having cried

C. to cry D. having been crying

III. Put the verbs in brackets into gerund or infinitive.

1.1 used (ride) a lot but I haven't had a chance (do) any since (come) here. - I ride sometimes. Would you like (come) with me next time? 2. Most people prefer (spend) money to (earn) it. 3.1 resented (be) unjustly accused and asked him (apologize). 4. It isn't good for children (eat) too many sweets. 5.1 didn't feel like (work) so I suggested (spend) the day in the garden. 6. Why do you keep (look) back? Are you afraid of (be) followed? 7. Do you remember (post) the letter? - Yes, I do; I posted it in the letter-box near my gate. 8. Did you remember (lock) the door? - No, I didn't. I'd better (go) back and (do) it now. 9. You still have a lot (learn) if you'll forgive my'(say) so. 10. It's no use (try) (interrupt) him. You'll have (wait) till he stops (talk). 11. I'm for (do) nothing till the police arrive. They don't like you (move) anything when a crime has been committed. 12. He didn't like (leave) the children alone in the house but he had no alternative as he had (go) out to work. 13. I'm very sorry for (be) late. It was good of you (wait) for me. 14. I keep (try) (make) mayonnaise but I never succeed. - Try (add) the yolk of a hard-boiled egg. 15. Do you feel like (go) to a film or would you rather (stay) at home? 16. He took to (get up) early and (walk) noisily about the house. 17.1 liked (listen) to folk music much better than (listen) to pop. 18. The car began (make) an extraordinary noise so I stopped (see) what it was. 19. You'll never regret (do) a kind action. 20. He decided (put) broken glass on top of his wall (prevent) boys (climb) over it. 21. He annoyed me very much by (take) the piece of cake that I was keeping (eat) after my supper.

22. He kept (ring) up and (ask) for an explanation and she didn't know what (do) about him. 23. We got tired of (wait) for the weather (clear) and finally decided (set) out in the rain. 24. He made me (repeat) his instructions (make) sure that I understood what I was (do) after he had gone. 25. I suggest (leave) the car here and (send) a breakdown van (tow) it to the garage. 26. She apologized for (borrow) my sewing-machine without (ask) permission and promised never (do) it again. 27. I didn't mean (offend) anyone but somehow I succeeded in (annoy) them all. 28. He never thinks of (get) out of your way; he expects you (walk) round him. 29. You don't need (ask) his permission every time you want (leave) the room. 30. The police accused him of (set) fire to the building but he denied (have been) in the area on the night of the fire. 31. It's much better (go) to a hairdresser than (try) (save) time by (cut) your own hair. 32. I'd rather (earn) my living by (scrub) floors than (make) money by (blackmail) people. 33.1 always remember (turn) off all the lights before I leave my house. 34. I'll never forget (carry) my wife over the threshold when we moved into our first house. 35.1 regret (listen, not) to my father's advice. He was right. 36. We went for a walk after we finished (clean) up the kitchen. 37. Sometimes students avoid (look) at the teacher if they don't want (answer) a question. 38. The club members discussed (postpone) the next meeting until March. 39. Did Carol agree (go) (camp) with you? 40. The taxi driver refuse (take) a check. He wanted the passenger (pay) in cash. 41. The soldiers were ordered (stand) at attention. 42. The travel agent advised us (wait, not) until August. 43.1 don't mind (wait) for you. Go ahead and finish (do) your work. 44. Keep (talk), I'm listening to you. 45. The children promised (play) more quietly. They promised (make, not) so much noise. 46. Linda offered (look after) my cat while I was out of town. 47. You shouldn't put off (pay) your bills. 48. The doctor ordered Mr Gray (smoke, not). 49. Don't tell me his secret. I prefer (know, not). 50. Could you please stop (whistle)? I'm trying (concentrate) on my work. 51. Did you remember (turn off) the stove? 52. Jack was allowed (renew) his student visa. 53. Pat told us (wait, not) for her. 54. Mr Buck warned his daughter (play, not) with matches. 55. Would you please remind me (call) Alice tomorrow'? 56. I'm considering (drop) out of school, (hitchhike) to New York, and (try) (find) a job. 57. Sally reminded me (ask) you (tell) Bob (remember) (bring)

his soccer ball to the picnic. 58. Alex broke the antique vase. I'm sure he didn't mean (do) it. 59. Mrs Freeman can't help (worry) about her children. 60.1 appreciate your (take) the time to help me. 61.1 can't afford (buy) a new car. 62. Julie finally admitted (be) responsible for the problem. 63. She keeps (promise) (visit) us, but she never does. 64.1 don't enjoy (laugh) at by other people. 65. I'm angry at him for (tell, not) me the truth. 66. It is easy (fool) by his lies. 67. Sharon wants us (tell) her the news as soon as we hear anything. If we find out anything about the problem, she wants (tell) about it immediately. 68. You must tell me the truth. I insist on (tell) the truth. 69. Martha doesn't like to have her picture taken. She avoids (photograph). 70. It's been nice talking to you. I really have enjoyed our conversation, but I have to leave now. I'm very happy (have) this opportunity to meet you and talk with you. 71. This letter needs (send) immediately. 72.1 thought Sam was sick. - So did I. But he seems (recover) very quickly. He certainly doesn't seem (be) sick now. 73. Last year I studied abroad. I appreciate (have) the opportunity to live and study in a foreign country. 74. This year I am studying abroad. I appreciate (have) this opportunity to live and study in a foreign country. 75. Mrs Jackson complained about (tell, not) about the meeting. In the future, she expects (inform) of any and all meetings. 76. The dog needs (wash). He's been digging in the mud. 77. Alice didn't expect (ask) to Bill's party. 78. Matthew left without (tell) anyone. 79. It's useless. Give up. Enough's enough. Don't keep (beat) your head against a brick wall. 80. His (be, not) able to come is disappointing. 81. I hope (award) a scholarship for the coming semester. 82. We are very pleased (accept) your invitation. 83. It is exciting (travel) to faraway places and (leave) one's daily routine behind. 84. He wants (like) and (trust) by everyone. 85. I can't help (wonder) why Larry did such a foolish thing. 86. She admitted (drive) too fast through the town. 87. Mr Carson is very lucky (choose) by the committee as their representative to the meeting in Paris. 88. (Live) in a city has certain advantages. 89. It is very kind of you (take) care of that problem for me. 90. She opened the window (let) in some fresh air. 91.1 don't remember ever (hear) this story before. 92. You should stop (drive) if you get sleepy. It's dangerous (drive) when you're not alert. 93. After driving for three hours, ^e stopped (get) something to eat. 94. Please forgive me for

(be, not) here to help you yesterday. 95. Polly was in the garden, so she didn't hear the phone (ring) 96. The guard observed a suspicious-looking man (come) into the bank. 97.1 was almost asleep last night when I suddenly heard someone (knock) on the door. 98. I remember it distinctly. At 5:30 yesterday afternoon, I saw Jim (walk) to his car, (open) the door, and (get in). 99. I got Mary (lend) me some money so I could go to a movie last night. 100. The teacher had the class (write) a 2000-word research paper. 101. Susie pretended (be) asleep. She pretended (hear, not) me when I spoke to her. 102. You seem (be) in a good mood today. 103. Janice is thinking about (look) for a new job. 104. Dick appears (have) a lot of money. 105. My father expects me (get) high marks in school. 106. According to the sign on the restaurant door, all diners are required (wear) shirts and shoes. 107.1 appreciate your (pay) for my dinner. I'll pay next time. 108. Children shouldn't be allowed (watch) violent programs on TV. 109. The sign warns you (turn, not) right on a red light. 110. After hearing the weather report, I advise you (go, not) skiing this afternoon. 111. Janice misses (take) walks with her father in the evening now that she has moved away from home.

IV. Translate from Russian into English.

Infinitive as subject, complement of subject

Verb infinitive

seem/happen/appear/prove/pretend + infinitive

Кажется, что этот завод производит такое оборудование с 1986 года. 16. Кажется, что на их пред­ложение нет возражений. 17. Оказалось, что есть еще одно решение проблемы. 18. Случайно оказалось, что среди них был хирург. 19. Он, кажется, знает этот предмет очень хоро­шо. 20. Он, по-видимому, много читал по этому вопросу. 21. Эта книга, по-видимому, очень интересная. 22. Он, ка­жется, сердится на меня. 23. Вчера мы случайно встретили г-на Грина. 24. Он, кажется, болен. 25. Они, по-видимому, пользовались этим справочником. 26. Он оказался дома в это время. 27. Он оказался очень опытным работником. 28. Он притворился, что напряженно работает. 29. Кажется, все сту­денты читали эту статью. 30. Он, кажется, болел все это вре­мя. 31. Он, по-видимому, удовлетворен результатом своей ра­боты. 32. Он, кажется, уехал на юг. 33. Коробка, кажется, пустая. 34. Он оказался хорошим спортсменом. 35. Я слу­чайно встретил его в Сочи. 36. Эта задача оказалась очень трудной. 37. Я случайно слышал, как он спросил ее об этом.

40. Он, кажется, не очень умный человек. 41. Он, по-види­мому, не знает французского языка. 42. Казалось, они не ин­тересуются этим вопросом. 43. Они оказались не очень опыт­ными преподавателями.

Verb + object + infinitive

I asked John to help me. I made/let him come. He was made to come. He was allowed to come.

18. Я не мог убедить ее принять мое предложение. 19. Отец запретил мне пользоваться его машиной. 20. Я убедил его по­мочь ей. 21. Я попросил машинистку напечатать несколько писем. 22. Он разрешил детям искупаться. 23. Мы пригласи­ли их присоединиться к нам. 24. Я напомнила сестре, чтобы она принесла мой словарь. 25. Он настаивал, чтобы я занялся спортом. 26. Нам не разрешалось пользоваться словарем. 27. Они заставили его сказать правду. 28. Она умоляла врачей спасти ее ребенка. 29. Мне разрешили пользоваться библио­текой. 30. Его заставили помочь ей.

I want you to come. I'd like you to come. I expect him to join us.

I know him to be an honest man.

is said/supposed/thought, etc. to be clever.

The infinitive of purpose

The infinitive after adjectives

The infinitive after nouns

The infinitive after question words

See someone do and see someone doing

likely/unlikely/certain/sure + infinitive

Would rather/had better + infinitive


Listen, read and practise.

Computer Czazy

When Alan was ten he seemed to be very interested in computers. His mother knew that he would love to have one, but she couldn't afford to buy him one. He learned how to use a friend's computer, but he couldn't wait to get one of his own. His mother decided to give him a computer for his twelfth birthday. At first she only let him use it for an hour a day. She didn't want it to damage his


By the time Alan was fifteen he had become very good at using his computer, but it was his only hobby. His mother wanted him to go out and do things, but he had very few friends. Nobody could persuade him to do anything and nothing could make him turn his computer off.

In the end, his mother threatened to turn off the electricity. Alan went to bed and pretended to be asleep, but at midnight he got up to work at the computer again. He didn't want to sleep or to eat. He just couldn't bear to be away from his computer.

Alan's mother didn't know what to do. Her sixteen-year-old son had become a computer addict. Not even the family doctor knew how to help. One morning Alan's mother found him lying on the bedroom floor. He had collapsed with exhaustion. Two weeks in hospital finally made Alan realize that his computer had become a dangerous obsession.

Now Alan is eighteen. He has lots of friends and hobbies. He

hopes to study computer science at university and would like to find a job in computer research.

A. Questions

1. Why didn't Alan's mother buy him a computer when he was ten? 2. When did his mother decide to give him a computer? 3. How long did she let him use it? 4. Why didn't she let him use it for longer? 5. What made Alan's mother realize that he had become a computer addict? 6. What did she threaten to do? 7. What did Alan do that night? 8. What made him realize that the computer had become an obsession? 9. What does he hope to do next? 10. What would he like to do when he has finished studying?

B. Read the text and then complete the sentences from the text.

When Alan was ten, he ... very interested in computers. His mother knew that he... one, but she couldn't... him one. He learned ... a friend's computer, but he ... one of his own.

His mother... him a computer for his twelfth birthday. At first she only... it for an hour a day. She didn't... his eyes. By the time Alan was fifteen he had become very good at using his computer, but it was his only hobby. His mother... out and do things, but he had very few friends. Nobody could... anything and nothing could ... his computer off.

In the end, his mother ... off the electricity. Alan went to bed and... asleep, but at midnight he got up ... at the computer again. He didn't... or... He just couldn't... away from his computer.

Alan's mother didn't know ... Her sixteen-year-old son had become a computer addict. Not even the family doctor knew ... One morning Alan's mother found him lying on the bedroom floor. He had collapsed with exhaustion. Two weeks in hospital finally ... that his computer had become a dangerous obsession.

Now Alan is eighteen. He has lots of friends and hobbies. He ... computer science atuniversity and... ajob in computer research.

C. Complete the sentences about Alan with the correct form of make or let.

1. Before Alan had a computer, his friend... him use his. 2. When Alan was twelve, his mother... him use the computer for an hour a day. 3. Then she ... him turn it off. 4. She said Alan shouldn't... the computer damage his eyes. 5. At first, Alan ... his friends

play games on his computer. 6. Alan's friends tried to ... him go out with them, but he didn't want to. 7. His mother tried to... him take up other hobbies, but she couldn't persuade him. 8. The family doctor couldn't... him change his attitude either. 9. A stay in hospital finally ... him realize that his computer was ruining his life. 10. If he hadn't stopped when he did, Alan might have ... himself extremely ill. 11. Alan... his obsession take over his life.

D. Study and practise the text.

E. Situation-

Work with a partner. Imagine that you have five friends who have problems, like Alan. With your partner invent some problems and say how you tried to help. Write five sentences using the verbs below + him/her + to + infinitive. Describe the problem first, like this:

We have a friend who wants to stop smoking, but he can't. We advised him to read some brochures about the dangers of smoking.

1. advise 2. help 3. warn (not to) 4. persuade 5. invite

F. Whose future?

Alan hopes to study computer science at university. What do you hope to do when you leave school?

a) On a piece of paper, write a short paragraph, using some of the following verbs: hope, would like, want, expect, prefer. Remember to use to after the verbs. Do not write your name on the paper:

After school I would like to go to America for a year. My favourite hobby is playing tennis. I hope to be a professional tennis coach.

b) A pupil collects the papers and gives them to other pupils. Take turns to read the paragraph you have been given to the class. If you think there is a mistake, correct it. Then try to guess who wrote it.

G. Mary and Rick don't know how to work with the computer. Complete what they say with a question word (how, where, which etc.) + to, like this:

eg Rick: I don't know how to turn it on.

Rick: Do you know ... do first?

Mary: Yes, I do, but I'm not sure... put this disk.

Rick: I'd like to know... start this game.

Mary: There are so many keys. I don't know... press first.

Rick: We'll have to find out... make it start. Just press all the keys.

Mary: It's flashing! And it's making a funny noise! Do you know ... turn it off?

Rick: No. Let's look at the book. Perhaps that will tell us... do.

Mary: I don't know... look at first. There are at least five com­puter books on the shelf.

H. Make up sentences using (In order,) to + infinitive to show purpose or the reason why someone does something. Use the prompts.

eg 10 Downing Street

I'm going to 10 Downing Street to talk to the Prime Minis­ter, eg the kitchen

I'm going to the kitchen to wash the dishes.

Prompts: England, Moscow, France, Rome, China, the super­market, the station, the post office, the library, the shoe shop, the booking agency, the University, the bank.

~What's Wrong?

Jenny: What's wrong, Jane? You look upset.

Jane: I want to go sailing, but my aunt won't let me go. She's too strict. She lets Ben do everything, and he's younger than me. Yesterday she let him watch TV until midnight. She makes me do the washing up every day, but she never makes Ben do anything. It isn't fair.

Later, Jenny tells Nick about Jane's problem.

Jenny: Jane says that she wants to go sailing, but her aunt won't let her go. She says her aunt makes her do the washing up every day but she never makes Ben do anything.

A. Questions

1. Why does Jane look upset? 2. What is she complaining of?

B. What do these things make you or others do? Use words from each list to make ten sentences.

eg Onions make my sister cry. Onions don't make me cry.





feel happy





make (s)  my sister



doesn't/don't make  my friend

feel cross

a new hair style

some people


funny cartoons

feel tired


feel good

sad films

C. Say four things from the box that your parents let you do. Say four things that they don't let you do.

eg They let me have parties. They don't let me stay out late.

have parties

stay out late

go on holiday with friends

buy your own clothes

go out in the evenings alone

bring friends home

listen to loud music

wear whatever clothes you want

watch late films on TV

talk on the telephone for hours

spend lots of money on records

D. What do your parents make you do? What don't they make you do? Write a short paragraph. Here are some ideas:

keep all your things in your room

help at home

get up early on Sundays

do homework every night

do the washing up

clean your shoes

Susan is ~WoZ£ied

It's a fine spring day. Tom is sitting in his garden at home, marking some books.

Susan: Tom? Do you think you could come into the kitchen for a second? There's something I'd like you to look at.

Tom: What? Just let me finish these books and I'll be right there.

Susan: Would you mind coming right away, please? It's the washing machine. It's making a funny noise. I want you to listen to it. I'm worried.

Tom: Oh, no! Not again. (In kitchen now. Tom has to shout above a loud whirring and pumping noise) It's the pump, that's what it is.

Susan: I can't hear you. Let me turn the machine off!

Tom: The pump isn't working properly. What do you want me to do about it?

Susan: What do I want you to do about it? Repair it, of course. You don't think I made you leave your work for no­thing, do you?

Tom: But I'm not a mechanic. Why don't you ring the shop where we bought the thing? Ask them to repair it.

Susan: Are you sure that's what you want me to do?

Tom: Of course I'm sure? Why do you ask?

Susan: Because the last time they came you got very angry.

Tom: Did I?

Susan: Yes. It was a small question of money. Don't you remem­ber? The men were only here for half an hour but they still charged £ 8 for an hour's work. You didn't like that at all.

Tom: Oh? Hmm ... yes. I remember now.

A. Questions

1. Why is Susan worried about the washing machine? 2. What exactly does she want Tom to do about it? Ask why! 3. What does he want her to do? 4. What happened the last time something went wrong with the machine?

B. Study and practise the conversation.

. Make progressive substitutions. Let me finish these books.

help you stay here

him me

repair your bike do it

her think

I'd like you to look at the washing machine.

help me to come

her him

phone us go abroad

buy the tickets you

them study German

stay with us make a cake

There's something I'd like you to look at.

do read

remember cook

see type

think over listen to

forget pay attention to

Do need a Ride?

Jim: Hi,-Keiko.

Keiko: Oh, hi, Jim.

Jim: What are you reading?

Keiko: A mystery. "Murder on the Nile" by Agatha Christie.

Jim: That reminds me. Can you tell me where the library is?

Keiko: Yeah. It's on Young Street across the City Hall.

Jim: You don't know what time it closes, do you?

Keiko: Gee, no, I don't. I always have Sandra return my books. She goes there all the time.

Jim: Sandra?

Keiko: Sandra Green. The new designer. She does a lot of re­search at the library.

Jim: Oh, I haven't met her yet.

Keiko: I'll introduce you. You'll like her. She's very nice. Say, don't forget the meeting at Butler's Department Store

this afternoon. It's at 2:00. Jim: Oh, right. Do you need a ride? Keiko: No. Jessica made me promise to get there early, so I'll

probably leave about 1:00. I'll get Sandra to give me

a ride. She has to be there early, too. Jim: OK. See you this afternoon.

A. What can you infer from the conversation? Answer "I think so " or "I don't think so ". Give reasons for your answers, as in the example.

- Jim often borrows books from the library.

- I don't think so, because he doesn't know where the library is.

1. Jim and Keiko work together. 2. Jessica is their boss. 3. Kei­ko and Sandra are probably friends. 4. Jim and Sandra work in the same room. 5. Sandra gets ideas for new clothing designs from books in the library. 6. Keiko drives to work every day.

B. Study and practise the conversation.

C. Pretend you are talking to someone you do not know very well. Make these questions more polite.

Where's the library?

Can you tell me Could you tell me I wonder if you could tell me


the library is? the library is.

When does the library open? 2. What time does it close? 3. What kind of books do they have? 4. Which floor are the mysteries on? 5. Who should I talk to to get a library card? 6. How much does a library card cost? 7. What information does the librarian need? 8. How long can I keep a book?

D. There are many ways to tell someone to do something. Look at these sentences from the conversation. Then make sentences about Jim and his mother.

Ask: I always have Sandra return my books.

Persuade: I'll get Sandra to give me a ride.

Force:  Jessica made me promise to get there early.

1. When Jim was a little boy, his mother had a lot of rules for him. What did she make him do?

Mother. Finish your homework before dinner. Clean your

room every Saturday. Brush your teeth before you go to bed. Promise to go to bed by 10:00.

2. When Jim went to college, he was very busy so he persuaded his mother to help him. What did he get his mother to do?

Jim: Mom, could you do my laundry, please? I have a huge test tomorrow and I really have to study. Would you iron my clothes, please, Mom? You iron so well, and I do it so badly. Mom, could you lend me $10? I'll pay you back tomorrow. Really, I will. You're real­ly a terrific mother. Say, could you mend my shirt? You sew so well.

Today, Jim lives alone and his mother lives far away. He doesn't have time to do some things, and he doesn't know how to do other things. What does he have other people do for him?

Jim . Please paint my apartment. Please fix my car. Please clean my house. Please take care of my garden.

You're "Driving Too Fast Bert and Jill are in Bert's sports car. He is driving very fast.

Jill: Bert... uh... don't you think you should slow down a bit?

Bert: Slow down? What do you want me to do that for?

Jill: But the speed limit is 70 and you're doing at least 80 and...

Bert: Look! I've told you before that you mustn't talk to me while I'm driving. I can't concentrate!

Jill: But the speed limit...

Bert: And you don't have to tell me what the speed limit is, either. I know all about it!

Jill: I only want you to slow down a bit. And there's some­thing else. There's a pol...

Bert: When I'm in my car, I'm the boss! So if you don't want me to lose my temper, keep quiet.

Jill: All right, Bert.

Bert: I don't want you or anyone to tell me how to drive. Jill: No, Bert, (a pause. Suddenly there is the sound of a po­lice car horn.)

Bert: Good Lord! What's that? Jill: A police car, Bert. They're following you. I think they

want you to stop. Bert: A police car! Why didn't you tell me? Do you want me

to lose my driving-licence?

Jill: But that's why I wanted you to slow down before, Bert. I saw the car behind us and tried to tell you, but you said I mustn't talk to you while you're driving. A, Questions

I. What is the speed limit and how fast is Bert driving? 2. What does Bert say when Jill tries to say something about the speed limit? 3. What exactly does Jill want Bert to do? 4. What does the police car want Bert to do?

B. Recall the sentences with "want someone to do something".

C. Study and practise the conversation.

D. Make sentences with "want someone to do something".

1. Richard thinks everyone should understand science. Why does he often buy his son books on science? 2. The boys don't want to work. Why is their father shouting at them? 3. It is five o'clock and Jane's boss has a lot of letters to be typed this evening. Why is he phoning Jane? 4. When Jill was 8, she still could not read. Why did her father get a special teacher for her? 5. Two students in a language class do not understand a word in the text. Why are they holding up their hands? 6. Lady Ottoway has a young daughter, Caroline. Lady Ottoway always invites rich, young men to dinner. Why? 7. Richard never used to be on time in his job. Why did his wife buy him an alarm clock when he got a new job? 8. Richard's son cannot go to sleep. Why is his mother singing to him?

E. Make progressive substitutions. Follow the model. They don't want him to hear.

1. We

2. He

3. me

4. us

5. know

6. find out

7. them

8. her

9. see it 10. have it

What Do You Want to Be ?

Jenny: What do you want to be?

Jane: Dad wants me to be a dentist but I want to be a doctor. I'm learning to do first aid. It won't be easy, but I have decided to work hard at school. What about you? What would you like to do?

Jenny: Well, I like reading. I would like to study languages and literature. I hope to go to university. Then I would like to work abroad for a while. Uncle Joe has offered to help me. He could help me to get a job in the States.

Jane: Will your parents allow you to leave England?

Jenny: Why not? They would prefer me to stay here, but it's up to me. And what about Ben?

Jane: He has decided to become Prime Minister.

A. Study and practise the conversation. 2.

Max: I want to be a mechanic. I like repairing cars. I would like to have my own garage one day. I don't want to go to university. My uncle has offered to give me a job at his garage.

Marion: I hope to study biology and chemistry. I love doing experiments. I would like to be a research scientist one day. I hope I'll manage to get a job at a university

Dave: We can't afford to buy many things at home, so I would like to have a job that pays well - like a pop star. I'm learning to play the guitar-I'm pretty good. I would love to buy a big house for my family.

Jill: I don't like being indoors. I would hate to have ajob in an office. I would prefer to be a gardener. I have decided to leave school next year. I don't want to do any more exams.

A. Say the answers to the questions in full sentences.

eg What does Max want to be? He wants to be a mechanic.

eg What would Dave love to buy?

He would love to buy a big house for his family.

1. Who wants to be a research scientist? 2. What is Dave learning to play? 3. Who doesn't want to do any more exams? 4. What would Marion like to get? 5. What would Dave like to be? 6. What does Marion hope to study? 7. Who would prefer to have an outdoor job? 8. What has Jill decided to do? 9. What would Max like to have one day? 10. What has Max's uncle offered to do?

B. Complete the sentences with the verbs in brackets. Use to + infinitive or an -ing form.

1. Max has decided (become) a mechanic, because he likes (repair) cars. 2. Max's uncle has offered (give) him ajob, but he would like (have) his own garage one day. 3. Marion wants (be) a research scientist because she likes (do) experiments. She would like (go) to university. She hopes (study) biology and chemistry. 4. Jill would love (have) an outdoor job. She doesn't like (stay) indoors. She has decided (leave) school next year. She would love (be) a gardener. 5. Dave is learning (play) the guitar. He hopes (become) a pop star, because he likes (write) music. He wants (earn) a lot of money because he would like (buy) a big house for his family.

C. What do/don '(you like doing? What would/wouldn 't you like to be?

D. Say eight sentences about yourself using the to + infinitive form. Use words from the lists or use your own ideas.

eg I have decided to do all the housework.

have offered can (not) afford have decided (not) hope

buy a motor bike/car/boat do all the housework stay out late

become a film star/rock star/interna­tional model

have promised (not) spend lots of money on clothes/shoes have (not) agreed read every play by Shakespeare would (not) like do nothing all day (don't) want live in the mountains

can (not) manage study physics at university

write a book about gardening become an opera singer learn every word in the English lan­guage play professional basketball

E. Conflicts

What do they want to do?

What do other people want them to do?

Write the answers.

eg Jenny: I'm going to the cinema on Saturday.

Jane: Why don't you go to the theatre with me instead?

Jenny wants to go to the cinema, but Jane wants her to go to the theatre.

Tom: I'm going to the music shop.

Nick: Why don't you go to the fun-fair with me instead?

Jane: I'm staying at home tonight.

Amanda: That's boring. Go to the basketball game with me.

Ben: I want to go to the air show on Sunday. Tom: Can't you go with me on Saturday?

Jenny: I'm going to watch television now. Amanda: Let's go to the snack bar instead.

Ben: I'm going to give my old computer games to my

cousin. Amanda: Oh? Can't you give them to me?

Mike: I'm going to visit my friends in London tomorrow. Sue: Can't you visit them next week instead?

Jane: I'm going to the swimming pool.

Ben: But you said you would help me with my chemi­stry.

F. I'dlike them to...

What would you like other people to do? Say two things that

you would like each of these people to do: your friend; your parents (father/ mother); your brother (sister).

I'm bored

Jenny: Hi. How are you?

Amanda: Bored. What are you going to do today?

Jenny: Well, do you want to play tennis?

Amanda: My racket's broken and I can't afford to buy another one.

Jenny: Do you feel like swimming?

Amanda: I can't stand swimming. You get all wet.

Jenny: Jane has invited us to go riding with her.

Amanda: I don't know how to ride. Tom offered to teach me once but the horse kicked me as soon as I went near. I refused to carry on.

Jenny: Nick wanted us to go to the zoo with him ...

Amanda: I'm against keeping animals in zoos. I stopped visi­ting zoos two years ago.

Jenny: I don't know what to suggest. You don't want to do anything.

Amanda: Exactly! That's why I'm so bored.

A. Recall the sentences with the gerund and the infinitive.

B. Study and roleplay the conversation.

C. Complete the story about the inventor Thomas Edison with to + infinitive or an -ing form.

Thomas Edison was one of the greatest inventors of all time. But as a child, he didn't enjoy (go) to school. When Edison was only seven, the headmaster decided (expel) him because he refused (do) his school work. He only went to school for three months, but he never stopped (learn). His mother managed (teach) him the most important things, and she persuaded him (read) about science. He didn't mind (stay) at home and he enjoyed (read). He couldn't afford (buy) the books ' needed, so at twelve he began (sell) newspapers and sweets in trains.

He loved (do) experiments, and he set up a laboratory in the luggage van of a train. When he was older, he invented the phonograph and the light bulb,

Do you know the story of Edison and the egg? He wanted (boil) his egg himself, so he asked his housekeeper (bring) an egg and a pan of hot water to his laboratory. She told him (not forget) about the egg. He seemed (listen) to her. But when she returned half an hour later he was boiling his watch and timing it with the egg.

D. Use the verbs in brackets with to + infinitive or an -ing form to complete the questions.

1. Are you for (smoke) in public places? 2. Are you against (advertise) cigarettes? 3. Do you dislike (breathe) other people's smoke? 4. Would you refuse (let) people smoke in a car? 5. Do you mind people (smoke) around you? 6. Do most people start (smoke) too young? 7. Should shopkeepers refuse (sell) cigarettes to children? 8. Can most smokers manage (stop) smoking? 9. Do smokers risk (damage) their health? 10. Are most teenagers persuaded (smoke) by their friends?

'Planning a "Wedding "Reception Lynn is talking to Gina's fiance, Frank.

Lynn: You know, I love going to weddings - especially the

receptions. I like to have a good time, and I love to

dance. Frank: Well, I hope you'll have a good time at our wedding. I

prefer to have a big wedding, but Gina wants a small

one. Lynn: Oh, a small wedding will be nice. When are you going

to start planning the reception. Frank: Soon, I think. In fact, I think Gina is going to ask for

your help. You know Gina - she hates organizing

parties. Lynn: Yeah, and she'll probably continue to work until the

last minute, too, so she'll need some help. Frank: You're right. Lynn: Well, I'd be glad to help. In fact, I'm going to begin

thinking about it right now. Frank: That's great, because I can't stand to plan parties


A. Both answers in each sentence are correct, but which ones did you hear? After you check your choices, read the conversation two ways, once with infinitives and once with gerunds.

Lynn: You know, I love (to go/going) to weddings-especially

the receptions. I like (to have/having) a good time, and

I love (to dance/dancing). Frank: Well, I hope you'll have a good time at our wedding. I

prefer (to have/having) a big wedding, but Gina wants

a small one.

Lynn: Oh, a small wedding will be nice. When are you going

to start (to plan/planning) the reception? Frank: Soon, I think. In fact, I think Gina is going to ask for

your help. You know Gina - she hates (to organize/

organizing) parties. Lynn: Yeah, and she'll probably continue (to work/working)

until the last minute too, so she'll need some help. Frank: You're right.

Lynn: Well, I'd be glad to help. In fact, I'm going to begin

(to think/thinking) about it right now. Frank: That's great, because I can't stand (to plan/planning)

parties either.

B. Study and practise the conversation.

A letter Dear Dennis,

We just wanted to say thank you for putting us up before we caught the plane last week. It was a lovely evening, and we enjoyed meeting your friends, Pete and Sarah. We managed to get to the airport with plenty of time to spare. We even tried to get an earlier flight, but it wasn't possible.

We had a wonderful holiday in Spain. We just loved driving through the countryside, and we often stopped to walk round a mountain village. We met our friends, Bill and Sue, and they invited us to have a meal with them. They wanted us to stay with them, but we couldn't, as we had already booked a hotel. The Weather was fantastic. The sun didn't stop shining all the time We were there. Leaving Spain was very sad. It made me want to cry. Anyway, we're looking forward to hearing from you, and

hope to see you soon. Let us know if you're ever in the area. You must call in.

Best wishes, Sandra

A. Analyse the use of the infinitive and gerund in the text.

B. Study and practise the text.

C. Make sentences with both "stop doing " and "stop to do "for each situation like this.

Lawrence Morrel was typing when his wife came in. "You must eat something," she said. He stopped and ate a sandwich. He stopped typing. He stopped to eat.

1. Everybody was working in the office. Then the tea-woman came in. 2. The painter finished a detail in the picture. Then he had a cigarette. 3. The gardener cut some more grass. Then he looked at the lawn. 4. Peter and his wife were arguing. Then the doorbell rang. 5. The speaker's throat became very dry. He drank some wine. 6. The director, in the middle of a sentence, lit his cigar. 7. The student threw his books down and went for a walk. 8. The librarian put her book down and answered my question. 9. In the middle of the lesson, the teacher went over to the window and closed it.

I'd rather Watch a Soap

Gina: Do yon watch that show every week?

Victoria: Yes. Did you like it?

Gina: Not really. I don't care much for soap operas.

Victoria: What kind of programs do you like?

Gina: Well, I don't watch much television, but I like either news or science programs - programs with infor­mation for the audience. Soap operas are usually too confusing.

Victoria: I'd rather watch a soap. You don't have to think about it and it's entertaining.

Gina: Frank takes after you. He watches more soap operas and TV movies than anybody I know. He says his job is so demanding that he doesn't want to come home at night and think. He wants to be entertained.

Victoria: I can understand that.

Gina: Oh, I can, too. But I guess I like being both enter­tained and informed. For example, there was a prog­ram about Mexico on last week. On one hand, it sho­wed beautiful pictures of different places around the country. And on the other hand, it gave statistics about tourism and travel costs. Neither soap operas nor TV movies offer me that.

A. Questions

I. Who likes soap operas? 2. Who doesn't care for soap operas? 3. Who likes to be entertained? 4. Who likes to be informed, and learn things from TV programs?

B. Study and practise the conversation.

C. Choose the correct answer.

1. When I told Tim the news he seemed ...

A. surprise

B. to be surprised

2. Mrs Thompson is always willing to help, but she doesn't

want... at home unless there is an emergency.

A. to call

B. to be called

3. The children agreed... the candy equally.

A. to divide

B. to be divided

4. Janice is going to fill out an application. She wants ... for

the job.

A. to consider

B. to be considered

5.1 expected ... to the party, but I wasn't.

A. to invite

B. to be invited

6. The mail is supposed ... at noon.

A. to deliver

B. to be delivered

7.1 expect... at the airport by my uncle.

A. to meet

B. to be met

8. Mr Steinberg offered... us to the train station.

A. to drive

B. to be driven

9. The children appear... about the trip.

A. to excite

B. to be excited

10. Your compositions are supposed ... in ink.

A. to write

B. to be written

11. Instead of... about the good news, Tom seemed to be indifferent.

A. exciting

B. being excited

C. to excite

D. to be excited

12. The new students hope... in many of the school social acti­vities.

A. including

B. being included

C. to include

D. to be included

13. You'd better save some money for a rainy day. You can't count on... by your parents every time you get into financial difficulty.

A. rescuing

B. being rescued

C. to rescue

D. to be rescued

14. Please forgive me. I didn't mean ... you.

A. upsetting

B. being upset

C. to upset

D. to be upset

15.1 don't remember... of the decision to change the company policy on vacations. When was it decided?

A. telling

B. being told

C. to tell

D. to be told

16. Mrs Drake expects... about any revisions in her manuscript before it is printed.

A. consulting

B. being consulted

C. to consult

D. to be consulted

17. Sally gave such a good speech that I couldn't resist... loudly when she finished.

A. applauding

B. being applauded

C. to applaud

D. to be applauded

18. If you want to develop inner tranquillity, you have to stop ... by every little thing that happens.

A. bothering

B. being bothered

C. to bother

D. to be bothered

19. Anne hoped... to join the private club. She could make im­portant business contacts there.

A. inviting

B. being invited

C. to invite

D. to be invited

Why Are you Studying English?

Mrs Brennan: Why did you come to the United States, Ro­berto?

Roberto: To study English.

Mrs Brennan: Why do you want to learn English?

Roberto: So I can travel around the world.

Mrs Brennan: Do you want to do anything with your English besides travel?

Roberto: Well, of course I'm studying English in order

to do a better job. I'm a reporter and I meet people from many different countries. I often have to speak to them in English.

Mrs Brennan: How about you, Lynn?

Lynn: I'm here to learn English, too. I want to speak

English perfectly so that I can work here in the United States as a photographer.

Mrs Brennan: Why are you studying English, Lucy?

Lucy: So I can speak to my patients.

Mrs Brennan: Any other reasons?

Lucy: Yes. To speak to my kids and their friends and

teachers. We live here now and my kids speak better English than I do. And besides, you ha­ve to speak English in order to succeed in an English-speaking country.

A. Recall the sentences expressing purpose or reason.

B. Study and practise the conversation.

C. Match the two halves of the sentences.

eg 1. Sally's going to the airport

g) to meet a friend from New York

1 Sally's going to the airport

2. I've got to go to the library

3. Sam's gone to the station

4. I'm going to the newsagent's

a) to see Youcef s family.

b) to get the train to York.

c) to learn Italian.

d) to buy some aspirin.

5. We're going to the cafeteria

6. She's gone to the post office

7. I've got to go to the chemist's

8. She's gone to the medical centre

9. We're going to Algeria

10. They went to evening classes

e) to see the doctor.

f) to buy a magazine.

g) to meet a friend from New York. h) to post a parcel.

i) to return my books. j) to have a cup of tea.

C. to invite

D. to be invited

Why are you studying English?

Mrs Brennan: Why did you come to the United States, Ro­berto?

Roberto: To study English.

Mrs Brennan: Why do you want to learn English?

Roberto: So I can travel around the world.

Mrs Brennan: Do you want to do anything with your English besides travel?

Roberto: Well, of course I'm studying English in order

to do a better job. I'm a reporter and I meet people from many different countries. I often have to speak to them in English.

Mrs Brennan: How about you, Lynn?

Lynn: I'm here to leam English, too. I want to speak

English perfectly so that I can work here in the United States as a photographer.

Mrs Brennan: Why are you studying English, Lucy?

Lucy: So I can speak to my patients.

Mrs Brennan: Any other reasons?

Lucy: Yes. To speak to my kids and their friends and

teachers. We live here now and my kids speak better English than I do. And besides, you ha­ve to speak English in order to succeed in an English-speaking country.

A. Recall the sentences expressing purpose or reason

B. Study and practise the conversation.

C. Match the two halves of the sentences

eg 1. Sally's going to the airport

g) to meet a friend from New York

Sally's going to the airport

I've got to go to the library

Sam's gone to the station

I'm going to the newsagent's

a) to see Youcef s family

b) to get the tram to York.

c) to learn Italian

d) to buy some aspirin

We're going to the cafeteria

She's gone to the post office

I've got to go to the chemist's

She's gone to the medical centre

We're going to Algeria

They went to evening classes

e) to see the doctor

f) to buy a magazine.

g) to meet a friend from New York, h) to post a parcel

i) to return my books j) to have a cup of tea

D. Match the two parts of the sentences Then continue them with so (that) or in order to, changing words where necessary.

eg I The police use hidden cameras 2 She gave me her telephone number

Keep your voices down

We got up early

He shut the door quietly

I'm going on a diet

Take a map with you

My wife's working overtime

a) people won't hear our conversation

b) I want to lose weight

c) we can have a holiday this year

d) I could phone her at work

e) they want to catch speeding motorists

f) we wanted to catch the 8 o'clock train

g) he wouldn't wake the baby h) you won't get lost

E. Adam wrote a list of things to do. Use Adam's list to say what he has got to do.

Things to do

1. cash cheque

2. buy toothpaste

3. buy stamps

4. collect photos

5. buy birthday card for Mum

6. return video

7. buy newspaper

8. book ticket

eg He's got to go to the bank to cash a cheque.

Discuss other reasons why you can go to a bank, a post office a chemist's or a newsagent's.

A. You can go to a bank to get travellers' cheques. : Or to change money.

Make a list of five things you have got to do m the next few days at different places. Then talk about them.

A: I've got to go to the chemist's.

B. Really. Why?

A: To buy some aspirin and a new toothbrush.

F. Talk to your classmates and take notes.




1 . why they came to this school 2. why they are studying English

Lynn - to learn English so she can travel around the world and take pictures

Now report your findings to the class.

"What to "Do in Scotland

Maurice: I've been to see a travel agent. I asked him about whe­re to go in Scotland and what to do there on a first visit. He gave me all these brochures.

Enrico: Oh, fine. That's just what we need for our trip. "Whe­re to stay: bed and breakfast", "What to do in Edin­burgh", "How to find your way in the Highlands".

Maurice: And this will be very useful, too. I got it at that new bookshop. "Scotland: 1001 things to see". It tells you all about where to go, castles and museums to vi­sit, walks to take, and so on. In the agency they also told me who to write to for more publications - it's the Scottish Board in Edinburgh.

Enrico: Well, with all this information, we shall certainly know how to make the most of our holiday ...

Maurice:... and how to spend all our money!

A. Questions

1. What are Maurice and Enrico going to do? 2. What brochures did Maurice get? 3. What sort of information does the brochure "Scotland: 1001 things to see" contain?

B. Recall all the infinitives after question words used in the con­versation.

C. Roleplay the conversation

D. Do some exercises. Use the infinitive after question words

I 1. At the bank

Annegret- Where can I change money, please?

The bank clerk told her where to change money.

1. Who do I ask about money transfers? 2.Which counter shall I go to? 3. Where can I cash travellers' cheques? 4. How do I open an account? 5. Where must I sign the form? 6. How do I use a cheque book?

2. At the post office

AH: How do I register this parcel?

The assistant told him how to register a parcel.

1. Where can I get special issue stamps9 2. How do I make a telephone call to Egypt? 3. Where can I get a postal order? 4. How much postage do I have to put on this letter? 5. Where can I register this parcel? 6. Which counter can I send a telegram from?

3. A trip to Scotland

Mikis: Are you going to Scotland by train or plane? Maurice: We haven't decided yet whether to go by train or plane.

1. Are you going to hire a car?

2. Where are you going to stay?

3. When are you leaving?

4. How long are you staying?

5. Are you going to stay in hotels or bed and breakfast places?

6. Are you going to Shet­land Islands?

We haven't decided yet. We don't know. We haven't decided yet. We haven't decided. We don't know.

We haven't decided.

Fancy That!

(First Old Man=First; Second Old Man=Second; Bus Conductor Bus C.)

First: Did you see that schoolgirl who got off then?

Second: What about her?

First. She looked more like a boy than a girl!

Second: I think it's the other way around. All the boys look

more like girls these days. It's all that long hair!

First: The trouble is these days they don't teach the girls how to cook or how to take care of children or even how to keep house!

Second: My granddaughter's going to university. She's lear­ning how to build bridges and things like that! Fancy that! A girl learning how to be an engineer!

First: Things aren't what they used to be, are they?

Second: No, they aren't. Everything's upside down these days. People haven't even got good manners any more. Look at the way children act.

First: That's right! Why don't they teach the girls to behave like ladies and the boys to behave like gentlemen!

Second: Exactly!

Bus C.: Excuse me. Would one of you give a passenger your seat? She's a mother with a baby and you're nearest the door. It'll only be for a few minutes!

First: What? Give up my seat? Me!

Second: Tell her to stand! I'm not giving up my seat to any­one!

A. Questions

1. What are some of the things one of the men thinks girls should learn? (cook/children/house) 2. What does the other man say about his granddaughter? 3. What is the first old man's question beginning with "Why don't they ...?" (girls/like ladies etc.) 4. Now mention some of the things you learned how to do in school. 5. What are some of the things you think schools should teach girls how to do? 6. What are some of the things you think everyone who gets a "modern" education should learn how to do?

B. Study the conversation and roleplay it in class

C. Make a sentence with show or tell or ask for these situations, like this.

Situation: A secretary does not know how to use a new machine. The representative of the firm that makes them is demonstrating it.

Response : He is showing her how to use it.

1. A man asked me where the bus station was. I said: "Go down the road, then turn right."

2. Larry is training two Indian machinists. He is operating a machine and they are watching.

3. A sergeant has two soldiers in front of him. He is taking a rifle to pieces, bit by bit.

4. Bert is trying to fix his brakes. He has a problem so he is going to phone a friend who knows a lot about such things.

5. The man who installed my new TV set pointed out all the controls and demonstrated them.

6. A week ago I had no idea how to do the new dance. Then Jane demonstrated it for me.

youth hostels

Peter: Have you ever stayed in youth hostels?

John: Yes, of course. It's a cheap way to see a country. But it

isn't a holiday for lazy people. You have your own beds

to make and your room to clean. Peter: And you sometimes get quite a lot of jobs to do. John: Yes, that's true. Sometimes it's a lot of fun. Last year

in a youth hostel in Germany, I was given 10 kilos of

potatoes to peel! I'm very good at it now! Peter: Yes, that's a terrible job. You usually get dirty dishes

to wash or floors to clean. John: At some youth hostels you always get a lot of work to

do, at others you only get a little. My friend has made

a list of the best youth hostels to stay at where there's

no work to do!

A. Recall the sentences with the infinitive after nouns.

B. Study and practise the conversation.

C. John would like to go to the cinema, but nobody has time to go with him. All the students have other things to do.

Helen is going to write some letters.

Helen: Sorry, but I have some letters to write.

1. Mary is going to iron some shirts. 2. Mike is going to finish some exercises. 3. Betty is going to learn a poem. 4. Dick is going

to write an essay. 5. Tom is going to keep an appointment in town. 6. Kate is going to make some phone calls. 7. Jane is going to clean her room. 8. Lucy is going to cook a meal for friends. 9. Bob is going to finish a library book. 10. Pam is going to wash some clothes. 11. Dan is going to repair his brother's bicycle.

D. Make similar sentences.

eg There are a lot of museums to visit, (which you can visit) I have an exercise to do. (which I must do)

We'll Be late

In the station buffet

Michael: Come on, Susan! Hurry up! Drink your coffee! The train's leaving in a minute. We'll be late!

Susan: I can't finish it. It's much too hot for me to drink.

Michael: Why don't you put some milk in?

Susan: I don't like white coffee ... oh... OK.

Michael: There! Is it cool enough for you to drink now?

Susan: Yes... but it tastes awful!

On the platform

Susan: Oh! There's the train ... bring the cases.

Michael: Ooh! What have you got in these cases?

Susan: Only clothes. Why? Are they heavy?

Michael: Yes, they are!

Susan: The taxi driver managed to carry them.

Michael: Well, they're too heavy for me to carry.

Susan: Well, I'm not strong enough to help you ... Porter!

On the train

Susan: Oh, Michael... I didn't tell you. My sister phoned yes­terday.

Michael: Oh? Which sister? Andrea?

Susan: Yes... she wants to get married.

Michael: Married! But she isn't old enough to get married. She's only seventeen. Who's she going to marry?

Susan: Basil Caraway.

Michael: Basil Caraway! I don't believe it! He's much too old for her. He's over sixty!

Susan: I know ... but she loves him!

At their destination

Susan: Oh, no! That was the last bus home! And we've mis­sed it!

Michael: Well, let's walk ... it's a nice, warm evening.

Susan: It's four miles! It's too far forme to walk. Call a taxi!

Michael: A taxi! My name isn't Rockfeller! We aren't rich enough to travel everywhere by taxi.

Susan: Michael! You've forgotten something!

Michael: What?

Susan: We've got three suitcases. Do you really want to walk? Michael: OK... OK... Taxi!.

A. Recall the sentences with too and enough + infinitive.

B. Study and practise the conversation.

C. Join the sentences using too and enough. eg He can't lift the table. It's very heavy.

The table is too heavy for him to lift.

1. They can't drink the tea. It's very hot. 2. She can't buy the coat. It's too expensive. 3. He can't answer it. It's very difficult. 4.1 can't see it. It's very small. 5. The soup is too salty. She can't eat it. 6. The text is very difficult. I can't translate it. 7. The problem is very complicated. We can't solve it. 8. The book is too boring. He can't read it.

eg My son is too young. He can't get married. My son is too young to get married.

1. I'm too busy. I can't go to the movies. 2. It's too cold. We can't go out. 3. She was too excited. She couldn't speak. 4. He was very weak. He couldn't walk. 5. We are too tired. We can't work.

eg He is clever. He will answer all the questions. He is clever enough to answer all the questions.

1. He isn't confident. He won't pass the driving test. 2. She works hard. She will pass the exams. 3. She isn't 16. She can't leave school. 4. He isn't tall. He can't play in the basketball team.

5. They didn't get home early. They didn't watch the chat show.

6. He is strong. He will lift the box. 7. She isn't hard-working. She won't be able to do this work. 8. They are not rich. They can't buy this house.

A Letter

Dear Pam,

I've just been staying with my cousin Kate in Egypt. We went to Luxor and got the chance to go up in a hot air balloon! I didn't have time to worry about being scared. We just climbed into the basket, impatient for the balloon to take off.

As soon as we were in the air, Kate started taking photographs, but she soon stopped to look at the breathtaking view. I wanted to take photographs too, but I hadn't remembered to take my camera with me. It was stupid of me to be so careless.

We floated over the Nile. What a feeling! The view of the boats below us was wonderful to watch.

We left very early in the morning. There was a gentle wind at first, but after an hour the sun started to shine. At the end of our trip we stopped looking at the view and began looking for a safe place to land. People shouted and waved to us on the way down and tourists stopped to watch us landing. I was happy to be on the ground again, but it was a day I'll never forget.



A. Study the text and practise it.

B. Make sentences beginning with the words in brackets, as in the example.

eg You lent me the money. (It was kind) It was kind of you to lend me the money.

1.1 forgot my keys. (It was stupid) 2. She sent me a birthday card. (It was nice) 3. He opened your letter. (It was wrong) 4. You found the answer. (It was clever) 5. I left my keys at home. (It was careless) 6. She helped me. (It was kind)

C. Complete the sentences using the to-infinitive form of the verbs in the box.

eg Are you hungry? Would you like something to eat?

say unlock catch wear eat write tell

1. Have you got a key ... this door? 2. Can we meet today? I've got something important... you. 3. I'm staying at home this evening. I've got some letters... 4. "Why are you so quiet?" "1 haven't got anything..." 5.1 need some new clothes... to the party. 6.1 really must go now. I've got a train...

D. Complete the sentences with infinitives.

1.1 was glad... a letter from you. 2. Sue is lucky... alive after the accident. 3. The children are anxious... to the circus. 4. Dick didn't feel like going anywhere. He was content... home and... a book. 5. The teacher is always willing... us. 6. The students are motivated... English. 7. Be careful not... on the icy sidewalks! 8. Sally is afraid... home alone. 9. Ann is proud... the top student in her class. 10.1 was surprised ... Mr Robinson at the meeting. 11. We were sorry... the bad news. 12.1 was happy... my friend at the club.

E. Rephrase the sentences. Use the words brackets + for + object + to-infinitive, as in the example.

eg You needn't explain. (It isn't necessary) It isn't necessary for you to explain.

1. You needn't pay me back the money. (It's unnecessary) 2. We must leave immediately. (It's essential) 3. She isn't normally late for work. (It's unusual) 4. Everyone should try to keep calm. (It's important) 5. He doesn't normally complain. (It's unusual)

F. Rephrase the sentences.

eg It's very hard to deal with my uncle. My uncle is hard to deal with.

1. It isn't easy to do this work. 2. It's pleasant to look at her. 3. It is difficult to recognize him. 4. It is interesting to talk to him. 5. It is difficult to please you. 6. It is hard to get this book.

G. Complete the sentences with the words in brackets. Use to + infinitive or an -ing form

1. Mr Bell used to smoke, but he stopped (smoke) ten years ago. 2. Mrs Bell must remember (phone) the butcher to order meat for the weekend. 3. The milkman thinks that Mrs Bell forgot to pay him, but she can remember (pay) the bill. 4. Mr Blake

asked the class to stop (talk). 5. Nick can remember (go) to school for the first time. 6. Ben didn't remember (oil) his bicycle. The breaks still squeak. 7. On his way to the station Mr Bell stopped (post) a letter. 8. Jenny, stop (bite) your nails! Don't be so nervous!

There'll Be a R.ise for You

Life was beginning to get Linda down. London sometimes seemed intolerably noisy and dirty. At times she felt very lonely. But now there was something worse. There were rumours going about that the EBC was in financial trouble, and would have to cut down on staff. Linda knew that since she had been one of the last to come, she would probably be one of the first to go. Then, one Friday afternoon, she was told that Wilson wanted to see her. Her heart sank. People always got the sack just before the weekend.

Wilson looked uncomfortable. He said he had meant to tell her something earlier but had forgotten. Linda almost broke down. She went very pale. She could feel her heart thumping. Wilson asked her if she was all right. She bore up somehow and asked him to go on. Then he said that the department had certain difficulties and that he would like to explain them to her. She sat back and waited for the blow to come.

"We're expanding the department; taking on new staff. But there's a shortage of space. I wonder if you'd mind sharing your office with two new reporters. It's only temporary," he said. Linda was so relieved she hardly knew what to say. Then Wilson mentioned that he would like to put her in charge of training the new reporters. "There'll be a rise for you, of course," he added.

A. Questions

1. Which things were getting Linda down? 2. What were the rumours? 3. Why did she think she would get the sack? 4. Why did her heart sink that Friday? 5. How did the interview begin? 6. What were Linda's feelings? 7. What exactly was it that Wilson said that made her feel relieved?

B. She had been one of the last to come.

In the same way say that she did these things among the last.


started work

2. heard the rumours

3. went out to lunch

4. was told about it

5. was given a rise

6. saw Wilson that day

C. You are writing an essay on "Pioneers in Science, Art and Technology ". List some of the people or countries who were the

first to do certain things.

D. She waited for the blow to come.

What did she wait for if she thought that:

1. he would give her the sack

2. her heart would stop thumping

3. the phone would ring

4. the weather would clear up

E. You went to the Olympic Games. Describe the excitement and expectation in phrases like, "The crowd sat there, waiting for a new world record to be made. " For example, say what happened before .

1. the gates opened

2. the flame was lit

3. the 100 metre race began

On the Way to Dallas

Gina: It was nice to run into your mother.

Frank: Yeah. I'm sorry we can't stay for dinner.

Gina: Me too, but I really have to get back to Dallas. I don't want to miss class.

Frank: I know. And I should go home and work on that report, anyway. It's due on Monday and I still have to go to the library to look for some information.

Gina: That reminds me. I have ten words to look up in the dic­tionary. I have to find out their meanings and make up sentences with them.

Frank: That doesn't sound like fun.

Gina: It isn't. But it's a good way to learn vocabulary.

Frank: Shall we stop and get something to eat on the way ho­me? We could try out that restaurant we passed on our way here. I hear they have good hamburgers and French fries.

Gina: Frank, you really should cut down on fried foods. You're getting fat.

Frank: I am not! I'm in great shape. And did you know that I've kept up my jogging for over three months now?

Gina: I'm only kidding about getting fat. But I'm not kidding about fried food. It's not good for you. Anyway, let's eat at home. I don't really want to stop at a restaurant.

Frank: Fine. But first we'd better stop at a gas station or we'll run out of gas.

A. 1. Where is the scene taking place? 2. Where are Gina and Frank going? 3. Why are they in a hurry to get back to Dallas? 4. What does Frank suggest? 5. What does Gina say?

B. Refer to the conversation and match these two-word verbs with the definitions on the right.

1. run into

2. get back

3. look for

4. look up

5. find out

6. make up

7. try out

8. cut down (on)

9. keep up

10. ran out (of)

a. find information in a book

b. return

c. invent

d. decrease

e. meet by chance

f. test

g. find

h. discover information i. use all of something j. continue

C. Study and practise the conversation.

D. Respond using had better + infinitive without to

Alan and Bill have got work abroad for a year and each is taking his car. They mean to leave together, but Bill is a bit behindhand with his preparations.

A: I've rung my parents.

B: Oh, I'd better ring my parents. (Stress on my)

1. paid my bills.

2. said goodbye to my colleagues.

3. sub-let my flat.

4. told my landlord.

5. written to my new boss.

6. applied for my visa.

7. stopped my newspapers.

8. bought my maps.

9. worked out my route.

10. read my instructions.

11. had my injections.

12. collected my traveller's cheques.

13. insured my luggage.

14. put on my roof rack.

15. adjusted my brakes.

16. tested my lights.

17. checked my tyres.

18. changed my money.

19. done my packing.

E. Complete the sentences using the correct form of the words in the box.

eg Goodbye. It was very nice to meet you.

impossible/finish pleased/hear safe/go nice/meet easy/use interesting/plan

1. My new video recorder looks complicated, but it's actually very ... 2. That is a very dangerous part of the city. It isn't... out there at night. 3.1 was...that you had passed your exam. 4.1 don't like package holidays. I think it's much more... your own holiday. 5. It's... all that work today. There just isn't enough time.

E. Make up completions to the following. Express the purpose of the action.

eg I went to Chicago to visit my relatives.

1. I went to the market.... 2.1 went to the doctor... 3.1 swim

every day... 4. He came here... 5. He stopped... 6.1 have to go to the bank... 7. He went to the store... 8.1 came to this school...

G. Complete the sentences using the infinitive as attribute (take the words from the box):

lose see laugh at follow speak to do worry about eat answer talk about wash type go

1. This is just the man... 2. There is no time... 3. Here are some instructions... 4. There is nothing... 5. Packing was the first thing. 6. She will always find something... 7. The best place... in out town is the Art Gallery. 8. There was nothing... 9. These are the letters... 10.1 have a lot of dishes... 11. Is there anything... ? 12.1 have several articles... 13. When is a good time...

An Unusual Shopping

As soon as Linda went into the department that sold raincoats, she sensed there was something unusual in the atmosphere.

First of all, there was a salesman there and not a saleswoman. That was very unusual in the women's coat department. He asked if he could be of any help. But when she said she was just looking he did not seem to be listening. He did not look very much like a salesman, either.

A second later a raincoat caught her eye. She asked him a question about it. He did not even hear her at first. She asked again. She wanted to know if he had any coats like it with a detachable lining. He did not seem to understand what a detachable lining was. She explained. Then she went on looking. She noticed that the salesman seemed to be watching another customer in the department all the time. The other customer, a middle-aged woman, left the department. The salesman immediately went to the phone and told somebody on the other end that the woman had gone and had definitely taken two leather belts without paying for them. Then he turned to Linda and explained that he was not a salesman at all but a store detective. Later, Linda read in the paper that a woman had been arrested for stealing some belts from a department store, or, in other words, for shoplifting.

. Questions

1. What was the first unusual thing Linda noticed? 2. What was the first thing Linda said? 3. What was the salesman's reaction? 4. What did she ask him a few seconds later? 5. What was strange about the salesman's reaction then? 6. What did Linda notice then? 7. What happened after that?

B. Study and practise the text.

C. Join two sentences into one by using without.

eg She left. She did not pay. She left without paying.

1. She came in. She did not knock.

2. He walked five miles. He did not stop.

3. He spoke for ten minutes. He did not pause. 4.1 lay there for five hours. I did not go to sleep.

Z). Mr X. thinks the train is leaving, but he is not absolutely sure. He says:

"The train seems to be leaving now." What does he say if he thinks:

1. the train is running late

2. it is waiting for something

3. the other passengers are getting angry

4. they are arguing with the conductor

5. all the trains are running late

E. The woman had stolen some belts and was arrested, in other words:

She was arrested for stealing some belts. What were these people arrested for?

1. A bank clerk stole £5000.

2. A woman threw some paint at the Prime Minister.

3. A man cheated people.

4. A man kidnapped a child.

5. Two Irishmen got into a fight and smashed up a pub.

I Knew Her "W ll

Shopkeeper: I knew Mrs Carter very well. She was a tall, handsome woman who used to come into the shop at least twice a week. She lived alone in a large house on an old farm - about three miles from here. People ask me if I am certain she did it. The answer is yes. I was absolutely certain, otherwise I would never have called the police. In the first place, I saw her do it. I watched her put the things into her bag and I watched her walk out of the store. In the second place, we found the things in her bag, and finally, she had done it before. It wasn't the first time.

A. Recall the sentences with the infinitive after the verbs of perception.

B. Retell the text.

Oh, No!

It was quite late on a Saturday night and we were having supper in our new house. Things still felt a bit strange so we didn't take much notice when we heard someone moving about noisily in the house next door - the house was semi-detached. We thought it was a bit strange that our neighbours should be doing their housework so late on a Saturday night but thought no more of it. Then we heard men's voices talking softly. From the window ! could see figures moving backwards and forwards in the front garden. We assumed that our neighbours were having some sort of party. Not long after, we heard the front door slam shut. Then complete silence. We thought this was a bit strange, because we naturally expected to hear other people leave/leaving and say/ saying goodbye. However we went to bed and forgot all about it. At breakfast time, early the next day, we heard someone shouting "Oh, no!" Our neighbours had just arrived back home from holiday to discover that thieves had taken all their furniture and valuables from the house.

A. Recall the sentences with the infinitive and participle after the verbs of perception.

B. Retell the text.

C. Choose the correct form of the verb in brackets to complete these sentences.

1.1 looked out of the window and watched the children (play/ playing) in the yard for a few minutes. 2. I saw Linford Christie (win/winning) the 100 metres final at the Barcelona Olympics. 3.1 heard a wild animal (cry/crying) out suddenly, as if it had been caught in a trap. 4. We heard someone (play/playing) loud music in the flat above us well after midnight last night. 5. She ran into the kitchen because she could smell something (burn/burning). 6.1 can feel something (crawl/crawling) down my back! 7.1 jumped when I heard the door (slam/slamming). 8. They saw the boy (fall/ falling) into the water. 9. I saw Sue (drop/dropping) the bag and (pick/picking) it up again. 10. As I walked past the room, I heard two people (argue/arguing). 11. We stopped for a moment and watched them (build/building) the new hospital. 12. Did you see someone (break/breaking) the window? 13. We watched them (climb/climbing) up to the top of the hill and then come down again. 14. We saw the man (post/posting) a letter and walk down the street. 15. As I looked out of the window I noticed the woman (repair/repairing) her car. 16. I turned roimd because I suddenly felt someone (grab/grabbing) my sleeve. 17. As we walked through the streets of the city, we were shocked to see so many people (sleep/sleeping) in shop doorways. 18.1 was driving down the road when I saw a woman (walk/ walking) straight in front of a bicycle. 19.1 woke up because I heard people (shout/shouting) in the street. 20. All of a sudden I heard the branch (break/breaking) 21. When I was downtown yesterday I saw the police (chase/chasing) a thief. 22.1 like to listen to the birds (sing/singing) when I get up early in the morning. 23. While I was waiting for my plane, I watched other planes (land /landing) and (take off/taking off). 24. Do you hear someone (call/ calling) for help in the distance? - I do.

Text Exercises

I. David has just met an old friend of his called Nigel. They're having a cup of coffee together. Nigel has some bad news. Complete the conversation by putting in an infinitive with to or without to. Use these verbs: answer, borrow, catch, do, find, go, hear, know, lend, look, make, pay, see, spend, stay, think. (You

will need to use some of the verbs more than once.). After you have done the exercise, roleplay the conversation.

David: Are you still working for Electrobrit, Nigel? Nigel: No, I'm not. I'm afraid I lost my job there. And Polly's lost her job too. We're having rather a difficult time at the moment.

David: Oh, dear. I'm sorry... that.

Nigel: I've been out of work for six months now. I expected.. a new job fairly quickly, but it isn't so easy, I've dis­covered.

David: Jobs are hard... these days.

Nigel: With Polly not working we've very little money... Af­ter I lost my job I managed... my bank manager... us so­me money, but he won't let us... any more now. And there are lots of bills... I really don't know what... David: Do you think you might... a job if you moved some­where else?

Nigel: Well, perhaps. We've talked about it of course. We've even wondered whether... abroad. We could always., a fresh start in a different country. Polly wants me... for a job in America. And I've written to Australia Hou­se, although I'm still waiting for them.... David: Do you like the idea of living abroad? Nigel: I don't know really. I think on the whole I'd rather... he­re if I had a job. But the situation has made us... carefully about our future. We decided we ought... out what opportunities there are. I've agreed... about all the possibilities.

David: Well, I hope you find something soon. Nigel: I simply must... a job soon, or I don't know what we


David: Well, let me... what happens, won't you? Look, here's my new address and phone number. Give me a ring some time.

Nigel: OK, David, I'd better... now. I've got a bus... David: I hope... you again soon. Nigel: Bye, David.

II. Grandy United is a very successful football club. It's got a

good club chairman and the team manager, Bill Grace, is one of the best in the country. Tim Bennett of the Daily Talk is interviewing people at the club. He's going to write an article about United. Write out Tim's notes as full sentences using verb + object + infinitive. Put to with the infinitive if necessary.

eg the players don't miss a training period - Bill doesn't al­low it

Bill doesn't allow the players to miss a training period.

eg they train five days a week - he makes them He makes them train five days a week.

1. they work very hard - Bill makes them

2. they take the game seriously - he forces them

3. the players feel proud of the club - Bill wants that

4. they play well together - Bill teaches them

5. they watch films of other teams - he makes them

6. they can relax after the game - Bill lets them

7. the players have to behave - the club expects it

8. they don't go to night clubs - Bill doesn't allow it

9. the team does well - the fans want that

10. the club can't win everything - but that's what the fans would like

11. schoolboys visit the club - Bill invites them

12. local companies are giving money to the club-the chair­man has persuaded them


Discuss the function of a teacher in a class of students. What do you expect a teacher to do? How does a teacher want students to behave? What should a teacher make students do or allow them to do?

III. Kelly is a seven-year-old girl whose parents have been killed in a road accident. She's living in a children's home, but she isn't happy there. Two social workers, Valerie and Roy, are talking about Kelly. Rewrite the underlined parts using for + noun phrase + infinitive. Roleplay the conversation.

eg It'll be the best thing for her to live in a family.


Use for + noun phrase +infinitive to talk about parties. Do you enjoy parties? Do people have parties in your country? Say what they're like. (It's usual...) What makes a good party? (It's best.../ It's important...) What makes a bad one ? (It's a mistake...).

VI. Amanda is a secretary. She's got a new job, but she doesn't like her boss. She's telling her friend about him. Rephrase using an infinitive or an -ing form.

eg The boss insists on everyone being in the office at nine o'clock. He doesn't allow us to make personal phone calls.

Amanda: Everyone has to be in the office at nine o'clock. The boss insists on it. And we can't make personal phone calls because he doesn't allow it. We don't have coffee breaks because he's stopped that. We have to work hard - that's what he's always telling us. People can't work at their own speed; he doesn't agree with that. I have to work late because he quite often wants me to. If he asked me occasionally, I wouldn't mind. But I have to spend my life at the

office. He seems to expect it. And he watches me all the time, which I don't like. People can't be friendly with him - he hates that. Activity.

Write three or four similar sentences about your boss or about your parents. Say what they expect (or don't expect) you to do, or what they insist (or don't insist) on you doing, and so on.

V. Complete the newspaper article by putting in the infinitive or the -ing form of the verbs in brackets. After you have done the exercise retell the text.

Weenie WiC£ Stay

Milchester Council has decided (let) 82-year-old Mrs Nellie Battle go on (live) at her home at 29 Croft Street. The Council had wanted (knock) down all the old houses in the street because they were planning (build) a new car park there. The future of this plan is now uncertain.

The story began five years ago when the people of Croft Street agreed (move) to new homes. Unfortunately the Council forgot (ask) Mrs Battle. When they finally remembered her, everyone else had already gone. But the Council failed (persuade) Nellie to do the same. "My grandson's just finished (decorate) the sitting-room for me," she said at the time. "I can't imagine (leave) now."

The Council offered (pay) Mrs Battle i 1000 and promised (give) her a new house, but she still refused (move). "I can't help (like) it here," she told our reporter. "I miss (see) the neighbours of course. I enjoyed (talk) with them." Croft Street has stood almost empty for the last five years. There seemed (be) no way anyone could move Nellie from number 29.

Now comes the Council's new decision. Mrs Battle is very pleased. "I kept (tell) them I wouldn't move," she said today. " I don't mind (be) on my own any more. And I expect (live) till I'm a hundred. I hope (be) here a long time yet."

We have also heard this week that the Council cannot now afford (build) the car park. One or two of the people who used (live) in Croft Street have suggested (repair) the old houses so that they can move back into them. They dislike (live) in the new houses they moved into five years ago.

VI. Peter and Sue are in the shopping centre. Complete their conversation by putting the verbs in brackets into the infinitive or the -ing form. After you have done the exercise roleplay the conversation.

Peter: Have we done all the shopping now?

Sue: Yes, I think so. I must remember (post) this letter.

Peter: I remember (pass) a postbox somewhere.

Sue: Just a minute, where's my purse? It isn't in my handbag.

Peter: Did you forget (bring) it?

Sue: No, I had it not long ago. And my credit card is in there.

Oh, my God, what are we going to do? Peter: Just stop (worry) and think. You must have put it down

somewhere and forgotten (pick) it up. Try (remember)

when you had it last.

Sue: I remember (have) it in the shoe shop. Peter: Then you stopped (buy) a newspaper... Sue: Oh, it's all right. It's here in the shopping bag. Sorry. I

can't remember (put) it there. Peter: You could try (chain) it to your hand next time.

Activity A

Can you remember things you did when you were very young? Give examples of things you remember doing.


Do you ever forget to do things such as turning off lights or locking doors? Give examples.


What advice would you give to someone who wants to stop smoking? Use the verb try.


TOPIC : JOBS AND WORK Listen, read and practise.

She Seems to Be the Best Qualified

A vacancy had arisen in Mr Kay's small office. His secretary, who

was pregnant, was suddenly advised by her doctor to give up

working. Mr Kay had to find a replacement quickly and he

advertised her post in the press. He placed an advertisement in

; three newspapers. Several girls (and a few men) applied for the

^ job. He looked through their applications and discussed them with

his assistant, Mr Samuel, when he came back from his time off

that afternoon. There were some good candidates, some not so

good. One girl wrote that she had been trained as a cook but she

didn't like working in hot kitchens. One man wanted to work as a

salesman but thought that working as a secretary was the best way

to start. One was a college student who wanted to earn some money

to support herself in the university vacation. She only wanted to

work part-time. But eventually Mr Kay made the appointment.

Dialogue A

Mr Kay: Twenty applicants that's not bad for one advert.

I've made a shortlist of five, so we'd better call

them for interview. Mr Samuel: Will next Monday do? Mr Kay: Monday, all right. I'll see this one first, Janita

Ling. She seems to be the best qualified. Mr Samuel: Is she the graduate in business studies? Mr Kay: Yes, and I hope she's good at typing as well.


Mr Kay: Now, Miss Ling, about your qualifications. I see

that you have fluent French as well as English and that you were working with your last com­pany for four years. Tell me, why did you leave?

Candidate (A): Actually, I didn't leave. The company closed down.

Mr Kay: Closed down?

Candidate (A): Yes, it went bankrupt. So I was out of job. Mr Kay: see. And have you been doing anything since?

Candidate (A): I had a couple of temporary jobs, and now I really need something permanent.


Mr Kay: So tell me, why are you applying to work in my

company? Candidate (B): Well, I was trained in book-keeping and office

practice and I'd like to use my secretarial skills. Mr Kay: I see. And apart from typing what experience

do you have with office machinery? Candidate (B): I know how to use the telex machine and the

photocopier. Mr Kay: All right. Well, I'll think it over and we'll get in

touch with you in a day or two. Thank you for


Dialogue D

Mr Kay: Now let me tell you a few things about the job. You know the salary already. We pay a bonus twice a year and we give three weeks' holiday a year. Office hours are nine to five thirty and we work a five-day week. Do you have any ques­tions?

Candidate (C): Er, yes. Well, I insist on a doctor's certificate if staff are away for longer than a couple of days.

Dialogue E

Mr Kay: Miss Ling is still my first choice, so could you give her a ring and I'll offer her the job. If she ac­cepts I'll write to the others straight away so as not to keep them waiting.

Mr Samuel: Are you going to take up her references?

Mr Kay: No, there's no need to do that. I'm pretty sure we can trust her. If she accepts I'll write her a letter of appointment.

A. Questions

What post did Mr Kay advertise and why? Was Mr Kay pleased with the number of applicants? How many applicants was Mr Kay going to interview? Does Miss Ling have a degree? Why was she out of work? What particular skills was Mr Kay looking for in his applicants? How many hours a week does Mr Kay's office work? Was Mr Kay offering a full-time or apart-time job?

B. Ask and answer questions about a) the vacancy in Mr Kay s office b) the candidates who applied for the job c) the interview

C. Retell the text and roleplay the conversations.

D. Special Difficulties

I. Translate the following sentences.

This sort of work won't do for him. He will do for us. This hat will do. Will these brown shoes do? This room will do for an office. Can I have a bottle of red wine? Will port do? When shall we meet? Will Friday do?

II. Answer the questions as in the example.

eg What does your father do?

He works as an engineer at one of the city plants.

What does your husband do? What is your brother's job? What does your sister do? What do you do? What does Henry do? What does your mother do? What is your friend's job?

III. Make up sentences. Do it as in the example. eg Travelling is the best way to make friends.

IV. Respond giving reasons.

eg Shall we send a telegram?

No, mere's no need to do that. She knows about our arri­val.

Shall I buy some meat? Shall I help her? Shall I phone him? Shall we tell her? Shall we take a taxi? Shall I write to her? Shall we have to start early?

V. Complete the sentences using had better and the verbs in the box.

eg The phone is ringing. I'd better answer it.

park stay hurry answer put out be not leave

This knife is very sharp. You... careful when you use it. Oh, no! Look! There's a "No Parking" sign here. We... somewhere else. You're not very well. I think you... in bed today. We're late. We.... There's a lot of crime in this area. We... any doors or windows unlocked. The plane is just going to take off. You... that cigarette.

People and their Jobs

Lucy works in a travel agency. Her salary is very low. She only gets three weeks' holiday a year and she works long hours. But Lucy doesn't mind, because she enjoys her work. She has a nice boss and she meets a lot of people during the day. Her work is interesting and varied. Also, every year her company gives her a free two-week holiday in Europe.

A. Imagine you meet Lucy. Ask her questions about her job.

B. Think of other jobs with good "perks ".

C. What are good working conditions?

Paul works on a car assembly line in a factory. He is a skilled worker and he does a lot of overtime; so at the end of each week he takes home quite a good wage. However, he doesn't enjoy his work. He finds it boring and monotonous. He gets four weeks' holiday a year, but because there are several public holidays and sometimes strikes in the factory, he doesn't usually work weeks a year.

A. Imagine you meet Paul. Ask him questions about his job.

B. Would you like to work in a factory? Why? Why not? Are there a lot of strikes in your country?

Tom is unemployed. He is a university graduate and he has a degree in sociology. However, Tom cannot find a good job. Each

week he receives some money from the government called "Social Security". With this money he pays the rent and buys his food, but at the end of the week he is always "broke".

A. Imagine you meet Tom. Ask him questions about his life.

B. Does your government give money to the unemployed? Are there many unemployed graduates in your country?

Mr Charles is a successful businessman. He is a company director. He earns a lot of money, and he also pays a lot of income tax. He is and next year he is going to retire. He will get a good pension from his company and also an old age pension from the state. He is looking forward to his retirement. He wants to read a lot and go fishing.

A. Ask Mr Charles some questions.

B. What is the usual retirement age in your country? Can you talk about pension schemes in your country?

Henry: I'm a pop star. I earn about a year. Being a pop star means all sorts of things. It means I don't have to worry about money any more. It means I can do what I want to do. For example, I hate having to get up early. I can't stand working in offices or in factories. I can't bear having to work at fixed hours. That's why I enjoy being a pop star. I like playing in front of large audiences. I even like all those young girls screaming and trying to tear my clothes off.

A Imagine you meet Henry. Ask him questions about his job.

B. Would you like to be a pop star? Do you think it is an interesting job?

Alice: I'm a nurse and I don't earn very much money at all. In fact, I have a lot of difficulty in just making ends meet, as we say. But I like being a nurse. I suppose it's because I enjoy helping people. Being a nurse is hard work. It means working all sorts of hours. And it isn't very pleasant sometimes. There are all sorts of things I don't enjoy. For example, I don't enjoy seeing people in pain. Working ten hours a day and more in a hospital isn't much fun, but at least you know you're doing something worthwhile. A. Imagine you meet Alice. Ask her questions about her job.

B. Tell your classmates about your job. Say what you like and what you don't like about your job.

C. Tell about your friend's (mother's, father's, etc.) job. Say whether she/he likes it or not. Say why.

John: The job that I have recently started is as a sales rep­resentative with a company that produces garden furniture. The company, called "Sunnosit", is based in Thornton, a small town in the Midlands. The area manager, who has been with the company for over thirty years, is due to retire next year, which means I might get his job if I do well. One great advantage is having a company car, which I have to have, because the job involves visiting different parts of the country. My colleagues, who I get on well with, are quite ambitious, which means the atmosphere at work is rather competitive. I don't mind. Apart from that, the job is fine.

A. Imagine you are John. Ask him questions about his job.

B. Are you ambitious? What are your colleagues like? Do you like your boss? What is he/she like? Is your work challenging?

Getting a 'Job

In Britain there is a special service for school leavers, the Careers Advisory Service, which helps young people who are looking for their first jobs. Careers Officers give practical advice on interview techniques, application forms, letters, pay, National Insurance and Trade Unions. This is an extract from a leaflet which is given to young people by Dorset Careers Service.

The interview

You've got an interview for a job good! So now for the hard work. To do well at an interview you need to put some thought first.

The employer wants to know if you are the person he wants, so you'll be asked about yourself. Think about it now:

What do I do well? What are my good points?

School activities? School subjects?

Why would I like this job? Spare-time interests? What is my family like? What do I like doing and why? What do I not like doing and why?

You will want to ask questions too.

The job itself? Training? Prospects? Further Education? Conditions?

Previous work? Saturday job?

Can I see where I would be working? Hours?

Write your questions down and take them with you. Before the interview

Find out what you can about the firm.

Find out the interviewer's name and telephone number.

Find out where the interview is.

Find out how long it will take to get there.

Make sure you know what the job involves.

Dress to look clean and tidy.

At the Interview

Do arrive early. Phone if you're held up.

Do try to smile.

Do show interest in the job and ask questions.

Do be polite.

Don't panic, even if faced by more than one person.

Don't slouch around and look bored.

Don't smoke or chew.

Don't give one word answers or say you don't care what you do.

Look at these job advertisements.

Trainee computer programmer

Good opportunity for a start in computers. Ability at maths is essential. Application forms to: Personnel Department, Continental Computers, Honeywell Rd., Bournemouth.

Fernside Engineering

Require a junior clerk for the accounts department. Apply in writing to: The Personnel Officer, Fernside Engineering, Western Rd., Poole.

Shop assistant

A vacancy for a smart, lively young person.

Good prospects. Please write to:

Mrs J. Frost, "Cool Boutique", High St., Dorchester

Applying by letter

Remember that first impressions are important.

Write clearly and neatly on good notepaper, unlined if possible.

Check for spelling mistakes. Use a dictionary if you are not sure of a word.

Describe yourself, your qualifications and your experi­ence clearly.

If the advertisement asks you to write for an application form you will not need to give detailed information in your letter.

Address the letter and the envelope clearly.

Deepdale Road, Boscombe, Bournemouth, BH92 7JX 4th April,

The Personnel Department, Continental Computers, Honeywell Road, Bournemouth

Dear Sir or Madam,

I read your advertisement in yesterday's "Evening Echo". I am interested in training as a computer programmer. Could you please send me an application form, and any further details. Yours faithfully, Joanne Evans

A. Questions

Have you ever had an interview for a job? Is there a Careers Advisory Service in your country/school? How do people find jobs? How would you find a job?/How did you find your first job? Where can you find job advertisements?

B. Ask students to re-read the "Before the interview" section. Ask questions.

What would you want to find out about the firm? (Discuss in pairs, make up a list and report back size, location, business, etc.)

What would you wear? Would you wear jeans?/a suit?/ a tie?/ a dress?

C. "At the interview. " Askstudens to re-read this section. Do you agree with the advice? Why?/Why not?

D. "The interview. " Ask individuals questions. (Ask him/her/me/each other.)

What are your spare-time interests? What's your family like? Have you got any brothers or sisters? How many? How old are they? What do they do? Do they like their jobs? What do you like doing? Why? What don't you like doing? Why? What subjects have you studied at school? Did you study...? Uo/Did you enjoy studying history/ geography/mathematics/etc.? Do/Did you enjoy learning English/French/etc.? What do you do well? What do you do badly? What are your good points? (I'm friendly, honest, sensible, practical, etc.) What school activities do/did you do? (sports, clubs, etc.) Have you worked before? Have you done a part-time job? (in the English leaflet it is a "Saturday job".)

E. Focus attention on the rest of "The interview" (the questions to ask). Ask students to suggest questions using the prompts (a) in pairs (b) to the class. Draw up a list of possible questions, and ask a few individuals.

What does the job involve? What are the working hours? What are the holidays? Is there a restaurant? Is there any training? What is it? Will I get any qualifications? Can I see where I would be working? What's the salary? What are the prospects for promotion? Is there a pension?

F. Focus attention on the job advertisements. Ask:

Which would you apply for? Why would you like this job?

G. Pair work. Students role-play an interview, using the leaflet and the job advertisement (select one job for each pair).

H. Focus attention on "Applying by letter". Do you agree with the advice? Why/Why not?

Applying for a Job Before Your Interview

Here are some questions to think about. Your answers will help you choose the right job. Your answers will also help you answer the interviewer s questions.

Do you have the right skills?

If you want to be a salesperson, do you enjoy travelling, and are you good at meeting people? Are you aggressive?

If you want to be a secretary, are you interested in working in an office? Can you type and file quickly? Are you patient?

If you want to work in a store or restaurant, do you like helping people? Are you good at working with numbers? Are you friendly? What skills do you need for the job you would like to have?

Are you responsible? Do you work hard? Do you always do the best job you can? Do you help your co-workers?

Are you reliable? Do you start working on time? Do you come to work every day? If you begin working on something, do you finish it?

What are your strengths?

For example, do you work well with people? Are you good at math? Can you type fast? Do you learn quickly? Are you reliable? Can you work independently?

What are your weaknesses?

For example, perhaps your English is still not very good, but you're taking a class to improve it. Perhaps you are impatient because your co-workers do not work very fast, but you are learning to be more patient.

A. You and your partner want to hire a new salesperson for your company. The salesperson will sell school supplies to colleges and universities. Look at the chart and study the likes, dislikes and experience of the applicants. Discuss the applicants with your partner. Decide which applicant you want to hire. Read the example.





Georgia Hall

responsibility working with people

clerical work working with numbers

worked in a school

Greg Otero

working inde­pendently responsibility

large companies travelling by plane

worked in a college bookstore

Susan White

travelling big companies

selling working at night

worked as a bookkeeper

Albert Wu

selling helping people

working alone travelling

was a salesman in a shoe store

eg A: What do you think about hiring Greg Otero?

B: I think he could do the job. He enjoys working inde-

pendently, and he likes having responsibility. Also, he

used to work in a college bookstore. A: Yes, but he hates working for large companies, and he

isn't interested in travelling by plane.

A letter of Application

Paulo has read this advertisement in "Health and Fitness" magazine.

Keen on sport? Busy health club requires outgoing person for part-time work (including late hours). June to September. Good command of English. Must be adaptable. Please write to: The Manager, Sundance Health Club, Harbour Lane, Chichester, Sussex, PO1 2JE including a recent photograph.

This is Paulo's letter of application.

Ruade Gloria Coimbra Portugal 15th April

The Manager, Sundance Health Club, Harbour Lane, Chichester, Sussex, PO1 2JE

Dear Sir/Madam,

I'm writing in reply to your advertisement in "Health and Fitness" magazine for general part-time work in your health club. I am a 20-year-old Portuguese student and I come from Coimbra in the north of Portugal. At present I am still studying at college but I am taking my final exams in May. I have studied English for six years but I want to spend some time in England in order to improve my spoken English.

I am interested in sport and fitness and at home I go to a sports centre three times a week. I am also a member of the college swimming team. I get on very well with people and I like making new friends. I don't mind doing any sort of work including cleaning, washing up and helping in the gym.

I am prepared to work any hours but ideally I would like to work in the afternoons and evenings only so that I can attend English classes in the mornings. I have friends who live in Chichester, so accommodation is not a problem. My term ends on 28th May, so I would be able to start on 1st June.

I look forward to hearing from you. Yours faithfully, Paulo Freitas

A. Study and practise the text.

B. You want to go to Britain in the summer and would like to earn a little money while you are there. Read the following job advertisement.

Winsdor Leisure Centre

Stowell Road, Winsdor

wants part-time summer helpers

The employer: runs two leisure centres and employs about ten casual staff

Season: July to September

Work period: evenings, weekends and holidays

The work: setting up and taking down sports equipment; involvement in children's summer activity programme; working as lifeguards

Pay and conditions: per hour

Qualifications: lifeguards must be strong swimmers, preferably trained in first aid. Life saving training will be given. Good knowledge of English is essential.


Application: to the manager at the above address

Now in pairs discuss the information you need to include in your letter of application for the job. Make notes under the following headings.

you and your personal details

knowledge of English

current course of study or current job

stability for job


any questions

Write a letter to the manager of the Winsdor Leisure Centre applying for the job. Use Paulo s letter as a guide.

Your career history

A CV ("curriculum vitae" or "resume") is essential if you're applying for a new job or for promotion within your own company, or even to register as a delegate at a conference. Some information might be given in your CV, some in your letter of application and perhaps some on a Supplementary Information sheet (giving information relevant to the particular job you're applying for). There are no fixed international rules about this: different countries have different practices.

Work in pairs. Decide where you in your country and in your line of business would normally give this information:

Your name, address and telephone number.

The title and reference number of the job.

Your date of birth.

Your marital status.

The name and address of present (or last) employer.

Your hobbies and leisure interests.

The sports you play.

Details of all the jobs you have had.

The languages you speak, read or write.

Details of the examinations you passed at school.

Details of the professional diplomas or degrees you ha­ve gained.

Details of training courses you have attended.

13. Details of your achievements and responsibilities in your working career.

Your suitability for the job advertised.

Your reasons for applying for this job.

When you are available for interview.

Details of your present (or last) job.

Your current (or last) salary.

The salary you would expect to receive.

The names and addresses of two or three referees.

in your CV or resume?

in your Letter of Application?

on a Supplementary Information sheet?

or on an Application Form?

Out of Work

In Britain a lot of people are out of work. Tracey Chapman is and she left school a year ago. She lives in the North East, an area of high youth unemployment. She hasn't been able to find a job yet.

"My dad just doesn't understand. He started working in a steel mill when he was Things are different now, but he thinks I should start bringing home some money. Oh, I get my unemp­loyment benefit, but that isn't much and I'm fed up with queuing for it every Thursday. I hate having to ask my mum and dad for

money. Oh, mum gives me a couple of pounds for tights now and then, but she can't stand seeing me at home all day. I've almost given up looking for a job. I buy the local paper every day but I'm really tired of looking through the "Situations Vacant" column. There are applicants for every job. I was interested in being a dentist's receptionist because I like meeting people, but now I'd take any job at all. People ask me why I don't move to London, but I don't want to leave my family and friends. Anyway I'm scared of living on my own in a big city."

Tracey Chapman went to the Careers Advisory Service. She had to complete this questionnaire.


Are you seeking

a) full-time employment?

b) part-time employment?

Which of these is most important for you?

money? job satisfaction?

people? an interesting job?


Do you like Yes No

a) meeting people?

b) working alone?

c) working with other people?

d) working with your hands?

e) travelling?

What do you like doing in your free time?

George Morley is Until last year he was a production manager in the textile industry. He had worked for the same company since he left school. He had a good job, a four-bedroomed house and a company car. When his company had to close because of economic difficulties, he became redundant.

"It's funny really... I don't feel old, but it isn't easy to start looking for a job at my age. I've had so many refusals. Now I'm frightened of applying for a job. All the interviewers are twenty years younger than me. You see, I'm interested in learning a new

skill, but nobody wants to train me. I can see their point of view. I'll have to retire in ten years. It's just... well, I'm tired of sitting around the house. I've worked hard for nearly forty years and now I'm terrified of having nothing to do. When I was still with Lancastrian Textiles I was bored with doing the same thing day after day, but now I'd really enjoy doing a job again... any job really. It's not the money... I got good redundancy pay, and the house is paid for... and I've given up smoking... no, it's not just money. I just need to feel... well, useful... that's all."

A. Play the cassette of the introduction about Tracey Chapman. Answer the questions.

What's her name? How old is she? She isn't a student, is she? Where does she live? Does she work? Why not? Is she happy? Why not?

B. Play the cassette again. After each sentence with an -ing form pause to ask questions, for example

Cassette: He thinks I should start bringing home some money. (Pause)

T: What does he think?

St: He thinks she should start bringing home some mo-

ney, etc.


Where did he start working? What does he think? What's she fed up with? What does she hate? What can't her mother stand? What has she almost given up? What's she tired of? What was she interested in? What does she like? What's she scared of?

C. Read the text. Speak about Tracey Chapman. Use the -ing forms.

D. Play the cassette of the introduction about George Morley. Answer the questions.

What's his name? How old is he? What was his job? How long had he worked there? Why did his company have to close? What happened to him?

E. Play the cassette pausing as in "B ".


What isn't easy? What's he frightened of? What's he interested in? What's he tired of? What's he terrified of? What would he enjoy? What's he given up?

F. Read the text. Speak about George Morley Use the -ing forms.

G. Focus attention on the "Questionnaire ".

Pair work. Students complete the questionnaire for a partner. Ask a few students about their partners answers. H. Exercise

like meeting people. Make sentences about yourself with: love/enjoy/don't like/dislike/hate/can't stand. Exercise

I'm scared of living on my own. Make sentences about yourself with: afraid of/frightened of/terrified of. Exercise

I'm bored with doing the same thing. Make sentences about yourself with: fed up with/tired of/interested in.


I gave up smoking.

Make sentences about yourself with:

start/begin/stop/give up.

Conversation Practice


Name: Present address

Telephone: Date of Birth: Place of birth:

Stephen Lo

South Sierra Drive,

San Diego, California, CA

Oakland, California

Education: Millard Fillmore Elemen-

tary School, Oakland, Calif.

James Garfield High School,

Oakland, Calif.

College. U.C.L.A., Los Ange-

les, Calif.

Graduated with a B.S. in Business Admi-


Employment history: Summer vacations: Camp counsellor.

Camp Redwoods, Mendocino County,


Swimming instructor. present:  Administrative Assistant, Soledad Com-

puters. Pacific Beach, San Diego. Foreign languages: Chinese excellent, Spanish fair, \

I have a California driver's licence.

A 'Job 'Intetview (Mrs D=Mrs Dukakis)

Mrs D: Come in. Mr Lo, isn't it? Please have a seat.

Mr Lo: Thank you.

Mrs D: Did you have a good trip?

Mr Lo: Yes, thanks. I came up from San Diego yesterday.

Mrs D: And did you find a nice hotel?

Mr Lo: No. I'm staying at my parents' place in Oakland.

Mrs D: Oh, that's right, you're from the Bay area, aren't you?

Mr Lo: Yes. I was born and raised in Oakland.

Mrs D: When did you leave?

Mr Lo: I went to college in L.A. That was in

Mrs D: So, where are you presently working?

Mr Lo: Soledad Computers in San Diego. Have you heard of them?

Mrs D: No, not really. How long have you been with them?

Mr Lo: I've been working there since I graduated from college.

Mrs D: Why do you want to change jobs now?

Mr Lo I'd like to do some travelling. I want to use my langu­ages, and I want a better job.

Mrs D: Yes. I see here that you speak Chinese and Spanish.

That's OK.

Do you want to live closer to your parents? Mr Lo: That's not the reason why I want this job. But yes, I'd

like to live in this area again. Mrs D: Well, thank you, Mr Lo. We'll be in touch.

A. Questions

I. Where is Mr Lo presently working? What is he doing in Oakland? Where was Mr Lo born? When and why did he leave Oakland? Why does Mr Lo want to change his job? What languages can he speak?

B. Speak about Mr Lo.

C. Roleplay the conversation.

D. You are applying for a job. Write a brief description your interests, your character, any work experience you already have and your ambitions for the future.


Name: Address:

Crystal Rosemary Danziger

Stormont Avenue,

Long Beach, California, CA

Telephone number: Date of birth: Place of birth: Education (from High School on):

Previous Employment: Languages spoken: Driver's licence:

(Mrs Du=Mrs Dukakis; Mrs Da=Mrs Danziger)

Mrs Du: Come in Mrs Danziger. Please have a seat.

Mrs Da: Please call me Crystal. My, you have a nice office.

Mrs Du: Thank you. Did you have a good trip?

Mrs Da: It was OK. I got in on the early flight this morning.

Mrs Du: Ah, you're from Los Angeles, aren't you?

Mrs Da: I live in L.A. at the present time, but I'm originally

from New York. Of course, I'm not often in L.A. I've been to seven countries this year.

Mrs Du: Tell me about your present job.

Mrs Da: I'm a sales representative for a book publisher... Tra­vel Books Incorporated. We sell guide books and maps. I travel around Latin America. You see from my resu­me that I speak Spanish and Portuguese. I majored in Spanish for my Bachelors degree and then...

Mrs Du: Where did you get your degree?

Mrs Da: I got it from the University of Chicago. Then, after that, I did my Masters at the University of New Me­xico.

Mrs Du: How long have you been with Travel Books?

Mrs Da: Two years. Before that I was with the Disney compa­ny for a year in Florida, and before that I worked at a commercial stationery company in Dallas for six months.

Mrs Du: Have you ever sold computer software?

Mrs Da: No, but selling is selling. It's all the same to me.

Mrs Du: And do you speak any Asian languages?

Mrs Da: No, but I learn fast. I majored in languages. Now I want to ask you some questions about this job...

A. Crystal's resume is not completed. How much of her resume can you complete?

B. Speak about Crystal s career.

C. Roleplay the conversation.

D. Situation: You have applied for a job. At the moment you're being interviewed.

(I Interviewer; N = Nancy Mann)

I: Who do you work for at the moment, Mrs Mann? N: Um, I work for the BBC World Service. I: Ah, and how long have you worked for the BBC? N: I've been with the BBC for five years. Yes, exactly five


I: And how long have you been their German Correspondent? N: For two years. I: And what did you do before the BBC?

N: I worked as an interpreter for the EU.

I: As you know, this job is based in Geneva. Have you ever li­ved abroad before?

N: Oh yes, yes I have.

I: And when did you live abroad?

N: Well, in fact I was born in Argentina and I lived there un­til I was eleven. Also, I lived and worked in Brussels for two years when I was working for the EU.

I: Mmm... That's interesting. Have you travelled much?

N: Oh yes, yes indeed. I've travelled all over western and eas­tern Europe, and I've also been to many parts of South America.

I: Mmm... And why did you go to these places?

N: Well, mostly for pleasure, but three years ago I went back

to Argentina to cover various political stories in Buenos

Aires for the BBC.

A. Study and practise the conversation.

B. Here are some more events from Nancy Mann's life. She was born in Argentina in

She went to boarding school in England from to She studied French and German when she was at Oxford University.

She hasn't spoken Spanish since she was in Buenos Aires three years ago.

She's worked in both eastern and western Europe at various

times in her life.

She worked in Brussels for two years from to

She's worked for the BBC for the last five years.

She hasn't worked abroad since her son was born four years


She married for the first time when she was twenty-one. She's been married three times. She married for the third time last year. Speak about Nancy Mann's life and career. C. Speak about your life and career.

(I=Interviewer; Miss J=Miss Jones) I: Good morning, Miss...

Miss J: Miss Jones.

I: Miss Jones, yes, right. Hi. Urn... now, you'd like to

join our team, I gather. Miss J: Yes, I would.

I: That's very good. Er... I'd like to know a little bit

about you. Perhaps you could tell me a little bit about your education.

Miss J: Oh yes, right. Well, I left school at and for the first two years I went to Gibsons, you might know them, they're an engineering firm. Um... and after that, I wanted to do a course, so I did a one-year full-time PA course and went back to Gibsons. I was PA to the Export Director. I stayed there for two years and... and then moved on to my present company. That's Europa Marketing... um... Mr Adair, the marketing director, offered me a job because Gibson had worked quite a lot with Europa Marketing. And I've been with them for three years now... um... first working with the Marketing Director and now I'm with the Sales Director.

I: That's all very interesting, Miss Jones. Um... I'd like

to know, what did you enjoy most at school? What was the course that you enjoyed most? Miss J: Ah... foreign languages I liked best. We did French

and German. Yes.

I: Mhm. Are you quite fluent in those now or...?

Miss J: Yes, a bit rusty now, but... urn... obviously the more travel I can do the more I can use my languages and I'd like to learn another language. I'd like to add Ita­lian as well. I: Italian?

Miss J: Yes.

Very good, very good, that might be very useful. Now.

er... tell me a little bit about the work you're doing at present.

Miss J: Um... well... er... Europa Marketing is a marketing and public relations company and they do consultan­cy work for companies operating in the UK and Euro­pean markets. Er... our clients come from all over the world... um...we deal with some of them by post,

but most of them come to our offices at least once du­ring a project. I assist the sales director by arranging these visits, setting up meetings and presentations and I... I deal with her correspondence. I've not been able to go with her on any of her trips abroad, but I... I've been to firms in this country, several times on my own... um... to make these arrangements.

I: It sounds as if you're very happy there, Miss Jones.

I'm curious why you'd like to leave them and join our company.

Miss J: Well... um... I know the reputation of Anglo-European and it has a very good reputation. And I feel that I would have more scope and opportunity in your com­pany and that the work will be more challenging for me. I might be able to possibly travel and use my lan­guages because at the moment most of my work is... is rather routine secretarial-type and I like the idea of challenges in my life really...

A. Questions

I What is Miss Jones' educational background? What firm is she working for at present? What does she do? Why does she want to change her job?

B. Speak about Miss Jones career.

C. Roleplay the conversation between Miss Jones and the interviewer.

D. Interview your teacher or a person whom your teacher invites to class. Use the outline given below.

I. Professional life

A. Present teaching duties

B. Academic duties and activities outside of teaching

C. Past teaching experience

D. Educational background

II. Personal life

A. Basic biographical information (eg. place of birth, family background, places of residence)

B. Spare-time activities and interests

C. Travel experiences

That must be an exciting job

Peter: So you're a journalist. That must be an exciting job. Helen: It is, at times. It's certainly better than being a teacher! Peter: Oh, really? Helen: Yeah. I used to be a teacher, but I hated it! The worst

thing about teaching is correcting homework. That's

why I quit. Peter: I guess you travel a lot now and meet lots of interesting


Helen: Yes, that's one of the best things about my job. Peter: Sounds great. I wish I had a job like that. Helen: Where do you work? Peter: In an office. It's kind of boring. I'm stuck inside all day,

and I have to work long hours. Helen: Oh? What do you do? Peter: I'm a vice president.

A. What is Helen's job? Does she like her job? What did she use to do some time ago? What didn't she like about teaching? What does Peter do? What does he say about his job?

B. Roleplay the conversation.

C. Which do you think is more interesting, being a teacher or being a journalist? Why? Have you or has a family member ever quit a job? Why? Would you like to exchange jobs with your boss? Why or why not? What are five well-paid jobs in your country?

What are you doing?

Carlos: Julia!

Julia: Hi, Carlos. It's so good to see you!

Carlos: It's great to see you! How are you?

Julia: I'm terrific.

Carlos: It's been a long time! What are you doing now?

Julia: I got a new job. I'm a model.

Carlos: That's wonderful!

Julia: Oh, it is, it's terrific. There's lots of variety. I... I meet

very interesting people. I travel a lot. And the best thing is working with all these wonderful people. And I get a fabulous salary...

Carlos: Oh, that's great!

Julia: However, I have to tell you it's very long hours, and I have to work weekends sometimes. How about you? What are you doing?

Carlos: Oh, well. I'm still at the restaurant, but I was promoted. I'm a manager now.

Julia: Wonderful! And do you like it?

Carlos: Oh, I like it. It's a lot more challenging in a lot of ways. The salary is much better... I'm much better paid... it's a lot more interesting. You know, the worst thing about being a waiter was that, you know, I wasn't get­ting any tips. The salary was not as good.

Julia: Mmm...

Carlos: Now I have more responsibility... it's just a lot better. But one thing I really don't like is I have to wear a suit and tie every day.

Julia: Oh, no!

Carlos: So, but, you know, it's a small price to pay for being a


Julia: Oh, that sounds terrific! Carlos: So I'm having a great time. Julia: Great! Well, it was great seeing you again. Carlos: Oh, it was great to see you! Good luck with everything! Julia: Thank you. Carlos: OK. Julia: Bye-bye! Carlos: Bye!

A. Questions

What is Julia's job? Why does she like her job? What doesn't she like about it? What does Carlos do? Why is his present job better than his last job? What doesn't he like about his job?

B. Roleleplay the conversation.

C. What is your job? What do you like or dislike about it? Compare your present job with your last job.

D. Compare these jobs:

a teacher and a student a mechanic and an engineer a pilot and a flight attendant a nurse and a doctor

I'd rather Be on Commission

John: Have you thought about what you want to do after you

graduate, Rita? Rita: Oh, yeah. I think about it all the time. I've been looking

for some jobs in the newspaper, but I really need to

start interviewing soon. John: You know, I've heard there're some really good jobs

in the government. Those jobs are pretty secure and...

and you get excellent medical benefits. Rita: Yeah, but I'd rather not work for the government.

Those jobs seem so boring and the salaries are low.

I d prefer to find an interesting company to work for

where I could work on my own... John: Uh-huh...

Rita: You know, be creative and really use my skills. John: Well, what about something like saleswork? You could

be independent, creative... Rita: Well, yeah, I've thought of that... and I really like the

idea... I could meet lots of different people and... John: Sure!

Rita: do some travelling and maybe get out of the office. John: Yeah, sounds like it's right up your alley! I wonder

how much money you can make in sales, though. Do

you have any idea what starting salaries are like? Rita: Mmm, I don't know... but, actually, I think I'd rather

be on commission... John: Oh? Rita: so that way I'd get paid according to how successful


John: Ah?

Rita: I could make much more money that way. I think I'd prefer that to getting a salary.

John: Well, Rita, I think you've got a great future in sales.

A. Questions

What will Rita have to do soon? Why doesn't she want to work for the government? What kind of work would she prefer?

B. Roleplay the conversation.

C. Gmup work. Can you think of (a) three jobs where you can get commissions, (b) three jobs that are challenging, and (c) three jobs that have a lot of responsibility? Choose three of these jobs and list three advantages and three disadvantages for each.

D. homemaker teacher taxi driver travelling salesperson construction worker police officer How interesting are the jobs above?

On the way to Seoul,

Franco: Hello, Bill.

Bill:  Franco, hello.

TogetherWhat are you doing here?

Bill:  I'm flying to Seoul, of course. Well, well, this is a sur­prise! How are you?

Franco: Fine. Fine. What are you working for? Are you still with BTB?

Bill: Oh no. I'm with Macdonald Harris. I'm one of their project managers.

Franco: Really? I'm sorry I don't know them.

Bill:  We're part of Excel.

Franco: I see. So why are you going to Seoul?

Bill:  I have to visit a possible supplier of components. I'm checking the quality and the specifications and then I'm flying to Taiwan. There's an assembly plant there using some of our equipment and they're ha­ving some trouble with it.

Franco: Where are you staying in Seoul?

Bill:  At the Sheraton. For two nights.

Franco: So am I. Perhaps we get together, go out for a meal or something.

Bill: That sounds like a great idea. Anyway, how are you Franco? What are you doing in the Far East?

Franco: I'm visiting a friend.

Air hostess: Would passengers please return to their seats and fasten their seat belts?

Bill: Eh, Franco. I'd better get back to my seat. I'll catch you later.

A. I. Where are Bill and Franco flying? What is Bill going to do in Seoul? Why is he flying on to Taiwan? Where are the two friends staying in Seoul? What does Franco suggest?

B. Give a brief account of the conversation.

C. Roleplay the conversation.

D. Write a report on a business trip.

E. Speak about the company you are working for.

What's your Background? Klaus and Anna are speaking about their careers.

Klaus: What did you do at university?

Anna: Economics.

Klaus: Where was that?

Anna: At the University of Uppsala.

Klaus: Did you enjoy your time there?

Anna: Oh, yes. It's a very good university.

Klaus: Yes, it has a high reputation. And after that. What did

you do then? Anna: I worked for my father. He has a small engineering

business. I'd worked for him during the vacation, you know, while I was studying. But we didn't get along ve­ry well so I got a job in a post office. Klaus: A post office! I can't imagine you in a post-office! Anna: No, I didn't like it very much. It was very boring. Any­way, I finally got a job in the International Exchange Department at Svensaka. Klaus: How long were you in that job? Anna: Oh, about two and a half years. Then I answered an in­ternal advert for this job in the Purchasing Department.

Klaus: Do you like it?

Anna: Yes, I really enjoy it because you meet so many different

people and I often have to travel abroad. Anyway, how

about you? What's your background?

A. Study and practise the conversation.

B. Write a synopsis of Anna s career history.

C. Write a synopsis of your career history.

D. Situation: You and your classmate are speaking about your educational and business background.

"Do you enjoy r Work? (I=Interviewer)

I: What do you do?

Peter: I'm described as an area sales manager. I go round

visiting shops, maybe five or six per day when I'm tra­velling. The rest of the time I spend in the office, answe­ring queries from customers about sales and planning the next trip. My trips usually last about two or three weeks and I go mostly to Germany, Austria and Switzerland.

I: What do you find rewarding about the work?

Peter: Well, the travel as much as anything else. Um... the job is fairly badly paid, but the fact that I get free trips to the foreign countries more or less of my choice for most of the year does in some measure recompense for that.

I: What do you find frustrating or annoying about it?

Peter: Well, I've already mentioned the pay. Um... obviously frustrating is also customers that leave one waiting, but on the whole the frustrations of the job are minimal.

A. Questions

What does Peter do? What does he find rewarding about his work? What does he find frustrating about it?

B. Find out more about your partner s career. Ask about his or her:

Present job its rewards and frustrations.

Work experience previous jobs (or educational courses, if your partner hasn't worked. But do find out about any temporary or part-time jobs your partner has done.)

Education and training.

Ambitions and prospects for the future.

When you have both finished, join another pair and tell them what you have discovered about each other.

I'ii, take you on a little tour

Margaret: Mr Bronson, you wanted to see me? Mr Bronson: Oh... Margaret, yeah, thanks for coming down. This is Michelle Duhamel... er... Margaret Brown. Margaret: Hello Michelle. Michelle: Pleased to meet you. Mr Bronson: You'll be working with her. Margaret: Ah.

Mr Bronson: Margaret, ah... what I'd like you to do is to show Michelle around the offices, just so that she can get an idea where everything is. Is that OK? Margaret: Of course. Er... yes, I'll take her on a little tour,

shall I?

Mr Bronson: Yeah, good idea. I'll see you later this afternoon, Michelle. Let's say... at o'clock. OK? Bye bye now.

Margaret: All right, Michelle, let's go out into the corridor. Michelle: The trouble is I've noticed not all the doors have

got names on them, so it's all a bit confusing. Margaret: Well, I think the best thing is if we go back to Reception and then I'll take you round the of­fices on this floor.

Michelle: OK, that's a good idea... (Some minutes later)

Margaret: ...well here we are... er... back at the main en­trance. So let's go through Reception into the main corridor. OK? Michelle: Hm, hm.

Margaret: Right opposite us is the Post Room, you see? Michelle: Yes.

Margaret: Then if we go up the corridor... we come to Mr Gru-ber's office.

Michelle: Aha.

Margaret: He's the General Manager. His secretary is Mrs Santini. And we just passed the Personnel Mana­ger's office on the right, that's where we started from.

Michelle: What was all that noise coming from the room between Reception and the Personnel Manager's secretary's office?

Margaret: Aha, yes. That's the Photocopying Room. And that room on the right is the Accounts Manager's office. And the other door on the right is Bookkeeping. On the left is our Typing Pool as you can hear.

Michelle: Er... what's through the glass doors at the end?

Margaret: Ah, that's the Canteen.

Michelle: Er... just one more's the la­dies?

Margaret: Oh, I'm sorry, yes of course. The toilets are right opposite the Photocopying Room.

Michelle: Aha, fine.

Margaret: OK, here's the lift. Shall we go up to our floor?

A. Study and practise the conversation.

B. Talk about your place of work. This may include actually showing someone physically around the office or premises. Furthermore, people in business may often be called upon to describe to outsiders or friends what their company does; they may even be expected to talk about what their company has done in the past and about the contemporary developments of a firm.


Alecture of uncleTheo

My uncle Theo is a grey-haired man whose thoughts were always on learning and nothing else. Once he applied for a post in Camford University. It was a very good post and there were hundreds of candidates who applied for it, and about fifteen, including Theo,

were asked to come to Camford. There is only one hotel in Camford, and this was so full that they had to put the candidates two in a room. The man who shared the room with Theo was a fellow called Adams with a loud voice and a laugh that you could hear all over the hotel. But he was a clever fellow all the same.

Well, the Dean and the committee interviewed all the candidates and as a result of this interview, the number was reduced to two, Uncle Theo and Adams. The committee could not decide which of the two to take, so they decided to make their final choice after each candidate gave a public lecture in the college lecture-room. The lecture was to be given in three days' time.

For three days Uncle Theo never left his room. He worked day and night at that lecture almost without eating or sleeping. Adams didn't seem to do any preparations at all. He asked Theo how he was getting on with his lecture and then told him how he had spent the evening.

The day of the lecture came. And then Theo discovered, to his horror, that the typewritten copy of his speech had disappeared. The Dean said he would call on the candidates in alphabetical order, Adams first. Theo watched Adams calmly take his stolen speech out of his pocket and read it to the professors who gathered to hear it. He read it well. Now it was Theo's turn. But what could he do? He could only repeat the lecture, word for word in a low, dull voice. The Dean and the committee went out to decide who the successful candidate was, but everyone was sure what their decision would be. Then they came back. "Gentlemen," the Dean said, "the candidate we have chosen is Mr Theo." The audience were completely taken by surprise and the Dean continued. "I think I ought to tell you how we arrived at that decision. We were greatly impressed by the lecture of Mr Adams. But you will remember, Mr Adams read his lecture to us. When Mr Theo's turn came, he repeated that speech, word for word, from memory, though of course, he had never seen a line of it before. Now a fine memory is absolutely necessary for this post. That is why we decided that Mr Theo was exactly the man we wanted."

A. Questions

What post did Uncle Theo once apply for? Were there many candidates for that post? Who were the most successful candidates? How did the committee decide to make their final

choice? Who did Theo share his room with? How did they prepare for the lecture? What happened on the day of the lecture? Why did the committee choose Uncle Theo for that post?

A Dog

(after M. Twain)

A few days ago I met General Miles at my friend's house. General Miles was a very nice man and we became friends quickly.

"Did you live in Washington in 1887?" asked me the general. "Yes, I did', I answered. "Why didn't we meet then?" said the general. "General", I said, "you forget that you were already a great general then, and I was a poor young writer whom nobody knew and whose books nobody read."

"You do not remember me," I thought, "but we met once in Washington at that time."

I remember it very well. I was poor at that time. Once I needed three dollars. I don't remember why I needed those dollars but I remember well that I needed the money by the evening. I did not know where to go and how to get those dollars. For an hour I was walking along the streets of Washington and was very tired. At last I came to a big hotel. "I shall go and have a rest," I thought.

I went into the hall of the hotel and sat down on a sofa. I was sitting when a beautiful dog ran into the hall. The dog was very nice and I began to play with it.

I was playing with the dog when a man came into the hall. He wore a beautiful uniform and I thought: "That is General Miles." I knew him by the pictures in the newspapers.

"Oh, what a beautiful dog! Is it yours?" I did not have time to answer when he said, "Do you want to sell it?" When I heard those words I thought about the dollars which I wanted to get.

"Well, ...I... I think..."

"That is good," said the general, "how much do you want for it?"

"3 dollars," I answered at once.

"Three dollars?" he asked, "but that is very little. I can give you dollars for it."

"Oh, no, I want only dollars." "Well, it is your dog. If you want dollars for it, I shall be glad to buy your dog."

General Miles paid me 3 dollars, took the dog and went to his room.

A few minutes later an old man came into the hall. He looked round the hall. I saw he was looking for something. "Are you looking for a dog, sir?" I asked. "Oh, yes! Did you see it?" said the man. "I saw a man who took it. I'll be glad to help you to find it but it will take some of my time..." "I am ready to pay for your time," cried the man. "How much do you want for it?" "3 dollars," I answered. "Three dollars?" said the man. "But it is a very good dog. I can pay you 10 dollars." "No, sir, I want only 3 dollars," I said. Then I went to General Miles' room. I gave back his money saying that the dog wasn't mine and I must return it to its master. The general was very angry.

When I brought the dog back, its master was very happy and he paid me three dollars with joy. I was happy too because I had the money and I felt I had earned it.

A. Questions

1. Who did the writer meet at his friend's house? 2. What did the general ask him? 3. Had Mark Twain met the general before? 4. Where and when did they first meet? 5. How did Mark Twain earn the money he needed?


industry and the Workforce

By the end of the 1980s Britain's working population - the workforce was around 22 million (38 per cent of the total population). Those in employment include full-time, part-time and self-employed people.

People are employed in three sectors: primary, manufacturing and service. The primary sector is concerned with raw materials such as cereals and minerals. Processing these materials is the field of the manufacturing sector. The service sector provides services of various kinds such as transport or distribution, but does not manufacture goods. Employment is also often divided into sections according to types of work and social class. These categories include professional, manual and non-manual. A doctor, for example, would be classified as a professional in the

service sector, while a steelworker would be a manual worker (skilled or unskilled) in the manufacturing sector. The old distinction between white-collar (non-manual) and blue-collar (manual) has become less clear: fewer people now make cars or work in coal mines; more work for banks and hotels.

In 1951 96 per cent of the people in work in Britain had full-time jobs and the majority of these (70 per cent) were held by men. By 1988 25 per cent of jobs were part time and 45 per cent of workers were women: so one basic trend in employment in the 1980s was a general rise in the number of part-time jobs for women, particularly in service industries. The number of people who were self-employed also rose considerably, increasing by over half a million between 1983 and 1987. This was due to changing work patterns and to the high levels of unemployment of the 1980s.

As well as regional and occupational variations there are big differences in pay between men and women (whose average wage is around two-thirds of the male average wage) even when the same job is involved. Certain higly-paid occupations such as surgery are still almost exclusively confined to men.

A. Questions

1. How many people in Britain had jobs at the end of the 1980s? Which categories of work are mentioned? 2. In which industrial areas did the number of workers (a) decline and (b) increase? 3. What examples of jobs are given in the text and how are they classified? 4. Are there any differences between the average earnings of men and women in Britain?

B. Discussion

Explain the following: a white-collar worker, a surgeon, the workforce, self-employed.

Which sector of industry would the following people be involved in: a nurse, a shipbuilder, a waitress, a building-site foreman, a secretary, a farmer, a teacher, a factory worker, a bank manager?

Patterns of Unemployment

During the 1980s high unemployment was a political and social problem which refused to go away, although the number of people

without jobs began to fall from the mid-1980s onwards. One result was high government spending on unemployment and social security payments. For those without jobs the effects on health, family and prosperity were often serious.

When the Conservative government came to power in Britain in 1979 the number of people without work totalled approximately 3 per cent of the workforce. By 1986 this figure had increased to nearly 10 per cent with unemployment in some areas (Northern Ireland for example) being as high as 20 per cent. By 1988 the position had improved and government figures stated that the total number of people out of work and claiming benefit had dropped to around 7 per cent of the workforce, the lowest figure for eight years. Regional differences remained, with the South East having the lowest figures and the North of England and Northern Ireland still having much higher rates than the national average.

During the 1980s the government introduced a large number of different schemes to retrain older people and to give school-leavers and young people a better chance of getting a job. But despite these schemes, as in a number of other countries, the unemployment figures remained high and continued to be one of the major political issues of the 1980s.

A. Questions

1. How did unemployment change between 1979 and 1988

according to government figures?

2. What effects did unemployment have on:

a) government spending?

b) individuals?

3. Where was unemployment lower than the national average?

Where was it higher?

B. Discussion

1. Compare the rate of unemployment in Britain with other coun-


2. Which areas of your country have suffered most from unem­ployment? What sort of industries have had the most prob­lems? What new industries have appeared?

At Work

For many people with jobs, there was an improvement in pay and working conditions. The amount of holidays increased (for example over three-quarters of all manual employees had between four and five weeks' paid holiday per year) and the average working week, excluding overtime, fell to under 40 hours. Negotiations took place in a number of industries to reduce the retirement age from the traditional 65 for men and 60 for women.

For many, working conditions improved and under the "enterprise economy" some people did very well. Others, especially women and part-time workers in the service industries were not so lucky.

Britain had reputation during the 1970s for frequent strikes and bad industrial relations, although some other industrialised countries in fact had worse records. There was a dramatic decrease in the number of strikes m Britain during the 1980s but industrial relations continued to be an area of dispute. The Conservative government passed laws limiting the powers of the trade unions, which helped to reduce the numbers of people in unions. Some industrial action still occurred: miners, teachers, seamen and health workers were all involved in arguments overpay and conditions during the 1980s.

A. Questions

1. For most workers in Britain what has happened to:

a) the working week?

b) paid holidays?

c) the standard of living?

2. Who benefited least from the "enterprise economy"?

3. What sort of jobs are the best paid and the worst paid in


B. Discussion

1. What sort of jobs pay the most and the least in your country?

2. Is Britain's reputation as a country with lots of strikes still justified? What happens in your country when there is an industrial dispute? Are there any laws against strikes?

Jennifer's Career

This is Jennifer Bradbury. In this unit she describes some of her earliest memories and other things that happened to her when she was young.

I think my first memories start when I was about three or perhaps four years old. I remember falling from a tree and breaking my arm. I think I was playing in the garden of the big, old house we lived in. It was in a suburb of London. I can also remember starting school when I was five. There was a little boy called Thomas in the same class. He used to pull my hair when the teacher wasn't looking. One day I hit him over the head with a book and he began to cry. The teacher was very very angry with me. I remember him saying, "Little girls don't do things like that!" But Thomas never pulled my hair again.

Q What are some of Jennifer's earliest memories?

Even though I didn't have any brothers or sisters, I had a happy childhood. I don't remember feeling lonely or anything like that. I had a lot of friends. But I had to leave them all when I was eight. My father worked for a big international company and they sent him to Chicago, in the United States. Naturally my mother and I went with him. At first I didn't like Chicago at all.

The winters were terribly cold and the children at school there laughed at my "funny accent". But after a while I got used to my new life and began to enjoy it very much.

Q Why did Jennifer have to leave her friends? 3

We stayed in Chicago for six years. Then the company sent my father back to London and I had to get used to living in England all over again. I also had to think about what I wanted to do later. I remember a teacher asking us once what our ambitions were. I was sixteen at the time. Most of the other girls in the class said they wanted to get married as soon as possible or to get jobs as secretaries. I don't remember exactly what I said. But one thing

was clear to me even then. I didn't intend to be a housewife or a mother. And I certainly didn't want to spend the rest of my life behind a typewriter, either. I wanted some kind of career, but I didn't really know what it was.

At the age of eighteen I left school and took a job for the summer in a Tourist Information office. It was hardly a career. But something happened there which changed my life.

Q In what way was Jennifer different from most of the other girls in her class?

When Jennifer was eighteen, she took a job for the summer in a Tourist Information office. Something very important happened to her there.

It was the first time I had ever worked, so I was glad to have the experience. The job consisted mostly of dealing with letters, phone calls and tourists who came into the office. There was a young man called Howard who worked there, too. He was about a year older than I was. I think he was rather shy. I often saw him looking at me. When I looked back at him, he used to go red in the face. One day he asked me if I liked musicals. When I said I did, he told me he had two tickets for one and that he hoped I would go with him. I think I said I wanted to study that evening or something. But then he looked very sad and I felt sorry for him. Finally I said I would go with him after all.

Q Do you think Howard liked Jennifer very much? Give reasons for your answer.

After that, I went out with Howard several times. He was very kind and generous, and in a way I was rather fond of him, but that was all. Unfortunately, his feelings for me were much deeper than that. One evening he suddenly told me he loved me and that he hoped we would get married. At first I was so surprised that I just didn't know what to say. I didn't want to hurt him, so I finally told him that marriage was out of the question for me until I finished university. Later I realised that this was a mistake and that I should have told him the truth.

Q What was "the truth"?

Howard obviously hadn't understood what I was trying to say. He seemed to think we were almost engaged. Then, one day, a well-dressed American came into the office and asked for a list of good hotels. We started talking and he told me he was a professional photographer. He also said that he was looking for new faces. When he mentioned his name, I realised I had heard it before. He was Adam Sutherland and his photographs were used in all sorts of advertisements and in some very famous magazines. He said I had a fine face and that he would like to take a few pictures of me. Then he invited me to lunch later in the week.

Q Who was this "well-dressed" American and why did he invite Jennifer to lunch?

After he left, I saw Howard looking at me. He had been there all the time and had heard everything. "You're not really meeting that fellow for lunch, are you?" he asked. I could see that he was very jealous. I told him I wasn't sure. But I was really very eager to see Sutherland again. In fact, I could hardly wait! Somehow I knew it was a wonderful opportunity and I just couldn't afford to miss it.

Q What do you think this "wonderful opportunity" was?

Jennifer Bradbury is now a successful businesswoman in her thirties. She was recently interviewed for a magazine article about her earlier career as a model.

Five years ago, Jennifer Bradbury was a famous model at the top of her profession. Her face was used to sell everything, from beauty soap to fast sports cars. Ten years before that she had been "discovered" by the fashion photographer, Adam Sutherland. She was working in a Tourist Information office in London at the time. One day, Sutherland came in and saw her. He immediately realised she had exactly the kind of face he was looking for. A few days later he photographed her in a rose garden and called

the series of pictures English Roses. They were a great hit when they were later published in an American magazine. Other photographers saw the pictures and wanted to use Jennifer as well. "I was amazed at how much I could earn and started modelling full-time," she says.

Q How and why did Jennifer become a model?

But Jennifer soon discovered that a model's life is not all wine and roses. Often, after a late party or a hard day's work, she had to get out of bed feeling, as she puts it, "like death warmed up". But she still had to look as fresh and beautiful as a morning flower. However, she admits there were some advantages, too. "Itravelled a lot. and saw all sorts of places I would never have seen otherwise. I worked in Rome, Frankfurt, New York, Paris and even Tokyo. But there wasn't much time for sightseeing. And after a while I got tired of looking into a camera and smiling all the time!"

Q What did she like about being a model? What did she dislike?

About five years ago Jennifer gave up her career for a number of reasons. "First of all," as she says, "I wanted to finish while I was still at the top, and after the age of thirty there is a lot less work for a model. Secondly, I just wasn't enjoying the work very much any more." A third reason was undoubtedly her bad experience with her agent, Murray King. Almost all models work through an agent. The agent finds work for them and the money they earn is usually paid to the agent first. "I had always trusted Murray. I realise now that was foolish of me. I didn't know that he was a big gambler and that he owed a lot of people a great deal of money. One day he disappeared. His body was later found in the river. When he disappeared, he still hadn't paid me over r2,000. After that, I decided I had had enough of being a model and that it was time to do something else."

Q Who was Murray King? What happened to him?

Q This is part of another magazine article about Jennifer


More and more women today can be found in the top positions in business and industry. An example of this trend is Jennifer Bradbury. After a very successful career as a model, she became a clothes designer. Then, with money she had saved and borrowed, she bought part of a small company that manufactured sportswear and became one of its directors. As she says, it was then that "the real battle began". The other directors often asked her opinion about the design and the colour of the company's products, but they refused to believe she understood anything about the "hard side of business". Jennifer gives an example.

"The company sold its sportswear only through small, specialist shops. I was sure we would never increase our sales unless we sold through big department stores and even supermarkets. The other two directors didn't like the idea at all, at first. They were afraid we would lose some of our traditional customers if we did what I wanted. I think part of the trouble was they didn't take the idea very seriously simply because it came from a woman!"

Q What exactly was Jennifer's idea?

But Jennifer and her ideas are certainly taken very seriously now. Under her leadership, the company has increased its sales and the number of customers. It also manufactures a much wider variety of sportsclothes, many of them designed by Jennifer herself. One of the other two co-directors has resigned. She has far fewer problems with the one who remains. But there are still many things that annoy her about being a woman in business. "For example, I don't really like it when men compliment me about my clothes or appearance, especially at business meetings. Perhaps this sounds strange. But I know those same men wouldn't like it if their secretaries or another woman told them they liked their haircuts or the suits they were wearing, or the colour of their socks! In this respect, women still aren't treated as equals!"

Q What kind of things doesn't Jennifer want to hear at business meetings?

Jennifer Bradbury says she has found great satisfaction in business. But what about some of the other things in life that are still very important to many women? Things like marriage and children. Does she regret not having time for these things? Jennifer thought about the question for a moment and then answered very calmly. "I'm the sort of person who is happy in a serious relation­ship. But I don't like the idea of being tied down, and I've never really wanted children."

^ What are some of the things Jennifer hasn't had time for in her life?

Self check

I. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense. Dear Peter,

You by any chance (know) where Bob is? I (like) to find out because I just (hear) of a job that exactly (suit) him, but if he (not apply) fairly soon of course he (not get) it.

I last (see) him about a month ago, when he just (leave) his job with the film company. He (say) he (go) to France for a holiday and (promise) to send me a postcard with his French address as soon as he (find) a place to stay. But I (hear) nothing since then and (not know) even whether he (go) to France or not.

If you (know) his address I (be) very grateful if you (phone) me. I (try) to phone you several times but your phone (not seem) to be working.

Yours, Jack

II. Here are sentences about t\venty-one people travelling to work on the London Underground Just write the verbs in brackets in the correct form, using the other words given and putting in prepositions where necessary

Peter objects (start) work at 9.00 and wants to start at 9.30. Mary doesn't approve (the new typist take) such long tea breaks.

Jane wishes her boss wouldn't insist (she not eat) sandwiches in the office. John's thinking, "I hope they'll have repaired my car by the time I get home this evening. I've got no wish (travel) on the underground again tomorrow." Ann's angrily thinking about the man next to her who's smoking a pipe, "Some people seem to take a delight (spoil) the comfort of other people." Chris has just received his telephone bill, "It's far too high. I've got a good mind (not pay) it." Mr Martin is standing because he offered his seat to a lady; he takes pride (be) a gentleman. Mrs Bell is having difficulty (read) her newspaper because she forgot her glasses. Barry's going to work in spite (have) a very bad cold. Sam sitting next to Barry, is worried (catch) his cold. Philip sometimes looks up and then carries (read) his newspaper. Simon is good (do) crosswords and usually finishes the one in his paper before he gets off. Jack can't stand the underground and is thinking (go) to work by bus. Denis, who owes his bank £500, thinks, "There's no point (worry) about it." Kate's wondering whether she can afford (buy) some expensive perfume or not. Mr Caner is looking forward (his daughter get) married next week. Jenny isn't used (travel) on the underground and feels a bit ill. Mr Combes doesn't believe (be) late and always gets to work very early. Martha is very pleased because her boyfriend has invited her (go) to the opera. Ron's eating sweets because he resolved at the beginning of the year (give up) smoking. Larry's pleased because he ran for the train and just managed (get on).

III. Here s a little story of someone who decided to work on an oil rig.

Martin decided to get a job on an oil rig in the North Sea. He was fed up with working in a factory and wanted to try something completely different. He wasn't married, so there were no family problems. A month later he was working on a rig. It was hard, often dangerous work, and he had to be careful to make sure that he didn't injure himself. The men were careful and there were no accidents. In the evening there was plenty to do to stop the men getting bored. Martin usually watched films or read. The food wts top-class. No one ever complained about the food. The rooms were top-class too. The oil company had made sure that the men would be comfortable, and that was why they worked so well.

Three weeks later Martin finished his first period of work. The system was simple, three weeks' work, followed by three weeks' holiday. Three weeks on the rig was long enough. The men didn't get too tired that way. As Martin got into the helicopter to fly back to Scotland he decided that he felt satisfied with things and that life wasn't boring any more.

Now imagine that a few months later Martin is describing what happened. For each of the spaces in Martin's description below, write a few words in the past conditional.

'"I was bored with factory work. If I hadn't been bored 1(1), but I'd had enough. Of course, if I'd been married (2), but luckily I wasn't. When I started I found it was hard work. If (3) I would have injured myself. But we were all very careful. If we hadn't been careful, (4). It was nice relaxing in the evenings. We had plenty to do. If we (5) plenty to do, we (6). I usually watched cowboy films, or read. The food was marvellous. I've never eaten so well. If it (7) top-class, of course, (8). You can't do a full day's work if the food's not good. They knew how to look after us. The oil company knew that if (9) we (10). That three-weeks-on three-weeks-off is a good system. If (11) we would have got too tired. Anyway, I'm glad I changed jobs. Life would have been boring if 1(12), and I (13) as satisfied as I did when I got into that helicopter. I enjoyed that feeling."


. Form

a We form passive verbs with the different tenses of be (eg is, vas, is being, have been) + past participle.

Present simple: am/are/is + past participle

The office is locked every evening.

Present continuous:  am/are/is + being + past participle

The house is being painted at the mo­ment.

Past simple: was/were + past participle

My car was stolen last night.

Past continuous: . was/were + being + past participle.

The bridge was being repaired last week.

Present perfect simple: have/has + been + past participle

Sarah has been invited to the party.

Past perfect simple:  had + been + past participle

I thought that you had been told the news.

Future Simple: will + be + past participle

The letter will be posted tomorrow.

Future Perfect Simple: will + have been + past participle

The texts will have been typed by 3 o'clock.

Perfect continuous passives are very uncommon.

b The rules for choosing tenses in the passive are the same as in the active. For example, to talk about something that is in progress now, we use the present continuous.

The house is being painted at the moment.

2 Use

a We often use the passive when we do not know who or what does something.

My car was stolen last night. (I do not know who stole the car.)

b We also use the passive when we are not interested in who or what does something.

The factory was painted last year. Sarah has been invited to the party.

In these sentences we are interested in the factory and Sarah, not who painted the factory, or who invited Sarah.

c We also use the passive when we do not want to say who or what does something. Compare:

Active: I made a mistake. Passive: A mistake was made.

Verbs with two objects in the passive

Some verbs eg give can have two objects.

Someone gave Jimmy the money. (The two objects are Jimmy and the money.)

In cases like this, we can make two different passive sentences.

Jimmy was given the money. The money was given to Jimmy.

In general, it is more usual for passive sentences to begin with the person.

Other verbs which can have two objects include send, offer, show, pay, teach, promise, tell and others.

I was sent a telegram. She will be told the news.

The passive with by and with

By + agent


Active: Columbus discovered America. Passive: America was discovered by Columbus. Active: The strong winds blew down a number of trees. Passive: A number of trees were blown down by the strong winds.

We sometimes use the subject of an active sentence (eg Columbus, the strong winds) as "the agent" in a passive sentence. When this happens, we use by to introduce the agent in the passive.

We only use by + agent when it is important to say who or what is responsible for something.

With + instrument

We use with to talk about an instrument which is used by the agent to do something. Compare:

I was hit with an umbrella. I was hit by an old lady.

With + material

We also use with to talk about materials or ingredients.

The room was filled with smoke. Irish coffee is made with whisky.

Stative passive

a) I locked the door five minutes ago.

b) The door was locked by me five minutes ago.

c) Now the door is locked.

d) Ann broke the window.

e) The window was broken by Ann.

f) Now the window is broken.

The passive form may be used to describe an existing situation or state, as in (c) and (f). No action is taking place. The action

happened before. There is no "by phrase." The past participle functions as an adjective.

When the passive form expresses an existing state rather than an action, it is called the "stative passive."

Self check

I. Supply the correct form of the verb in brackets.

1. There isn't any food left. All of it (eat)! 2.1 couldn't wear my suit last Saturday. It (clean). 3. We didn't go to the party on Saturday because we (not/invite). 4. Wine (produce) in many parts of France. 5.1 can't find my car anywhere. I think it (steal). 6. By the time I arrived at the concert hall, there were no tickets left. They (all/sell). 7. How many languages (speak) in Switzerland? 8. The Tower of London (build) at the beginning of the eleventh century. 9. "What's going on in the hall?" "The windows (wash)". 10. Our house (break into) last week. 11. We couldn't use the photocopier yesterday morning. It (repair). 12. When (television/ invent)? 13. A compass (use) for showing direction. 14. Have you heard? The old police station (repaint). 15. The 1986 World Cup for soccer (play) in Mexico. 16. Millions of cars (export) from Japan every month. 17. Football (play) all over the world.

18. I (frighten) to death when I drove through Paris last month.

19. His car (damage) in an accident last month. 20. "What's happened?" "The window (break)." 21. "Can I take the documents?" "I'm afraid not. They (not/type) yet." 22. An island (surround) by water. 23. The electric bulb (invent) by Thomas Edison. 24. Even though construction costs are high, a new dormitory (build) next year. 25. The class was too large, so it (divide) into two sections. 26. A bracelet (wear) around the wrist. 27. The Johnsons' house burned down. According to the inspector, the fire (cause) by lightning. 28. "Is the plane going to be late?" "No. It (expect) to be on time." 29. The new highway (complete) sometime next month. 30. The World Cup soccer games (televise) all over the world. 31. The Washington Monument (visit) by hundreds of people every day. 32.1 had to wait a little. When I came the students (test). 33. Last week I (offer) a job at a local bank, but I didn't accept. 34.1 read about a hunter who (kill) by a wild animal. The hunter's fatal accident (report) in the newspaper

yesterday. 35. My sweater (make) in England. 36. Language skills (teach) in every school in the country. 37. Beethoven's Seventh Symphony (perform) at the concert last night. 38. This com­position (write) by AH. That one (write) by Yoko. 39. Paper, the main writing material today, (invent) by the Chinese. 40. When (the room/clean)? 41. How (the window/break)? 42. (anybody/ injure) in the accident?. 43. My brother (bite) by a dog last week. 44. How often (these rooms/clean)? 45. Many foreign movies (show) on television. 46. "Is this an old movie?" "Yes, it (make) in 1949." 47. Tony (bear) in Rome. Where (you/bear)? 48. The documents (type) by the time you return. 49. The accident (see) by several people. 50. The books (send) tomorrow. 51. There are a lot of students in the hall. A new film (show). 52. Maria is happy. She (offer) a good job. Peggy is also very happy. She (award) a scholarship. 53. Rice (grow) in many countries. 54.1 (tell) to be here at ten o'clock. 55. "(you/send) an invitation to the wedding?" "No." 56. Dinner (serve) at six. 57. A test (give) in the next room right now. 58. You (send) a bill at the end of the month. 59. Fred is pleased. He (pay) five hundred dollars in consulting fees. 60. Don't water the plants. They just (water). 61. The news (announce) tomorrow. 62. The fanner's wagon (pull) by two horses. 63. That play (write) by Shakespeare. 64.1 think Ann (invite) to the party tomorrow. 65. A new idea (suggest) by Shirley. She is very proud of it. 66. The librarian said that the book (return) to the library some days ago. 67. By this time tomorrow, the announcement (make). 68. (that course/teach) by Prof. Jackson? I know that it (not/teach) by Prof. Adams. 69. There is a nasty smell coming from the sitting-room. The floor (paint) there. 70.1 (interview) by the assistant manager. I was very excited during the interview, but I got the job. 71. America (discover) by Christopher Columbus.

II. Change the sentences from active to passive. Include the "by-phrase " only if necessary.

1. Bob Smith built that house. That house was built by Bob


2. Someone built this house in 1904. This house was built in 1904. (by someone = unnecessary)

3. People grow rice in India. 4. People speak Spanish in Venezuela.

5. Do people speak Spanish in Peru? 6. Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone. 7. When did someone invent the wheel? 8. People sell hammers at a hardware store. 9. People use hammers to pound nails. 10. The president has cancelled the meeting. 11. Some­one has cancelled the soccer game. 12. Someone will list my name in the new telephone directory. 13. Someone serves beer and wine at that restaurant. 14. Something confused me in class yesterday. 15. Something embarrassed me yesterday. 16. Someone has changed the name of this street from Bay Avenue to Martin Luther King Way. 17. Someone filmed many of the Tarzan movies in the rain forest in Puerto Rico. 18. My uncle will meet you at the airport. 19. Lightning didn't cause the fire. 20. Mr Snow hasn't taught that course since 1990. 21. The best chess player will win the match. 22. A special committee is going to settle the dispute. 23. Did the army surround the enemy? 24. The Persians invented windmills around 1 500 years ago. 25. No one will collect the garbage tomorrow. 26. People spell "writing" with one "t". 27. People spell "written" with two "t's." 28. The University of Minnesota has accepted me. 29. People held the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul, Korea. 30. No one delivers the mail on holidays. 31. My grandmother made that table. 32. Did my directions confuse you? 33. A maid will clean our hotel room. 34. A doctor has examined the sick child. 35. The police arrested James Swan. 36. The news will amaze you. 37. The news will shock Steve. 38. Did Johnny break the window? 39. They are fixing my car today. 40. Look! Someone is feeding the seals. 41. People didn't build Rome in a day. 42. Someone cut down that tree last week. 43. Sally made that pie. 44. Someone is considering Jack for that job. 45. Three continents surround the Mediterranean Sea. 46. Where do they file that information? 47. Before we arrived, someone had chained the dog to the fence in the backyard. 48. Did the noise from the neighbour's apartment annoy you last night? 49. Do they make those tractors in this country, or do they import them?. 50. They will not provide pencils at the test, so please bring your own. 51. Someone has offered Mike the opportunity to study abroad. 52. When I was living in Kuwait, my neighbour taught me Arabic. 53. Someone awarded Jason a medal for distinguished service in the military. 54. The real estate office will send you a copy of the sales contract. 55. Someone handed me a telegram when I opened the door. 56. People gave Mr

Finch a gold watch upon his retirement from the company. 57. So­meone was making the coffee when I walked into the kitchen.

58. Translators have translated that book into many languages.

59. Jim's daughter drew that picture. My son drew this picture.

60. The judges will judge the applicants on the basis of their originality. 61. Is Professor Rivers teaching that course this semester? 62. The mail carrier had already delivered the mail by the time I left for school this morning. 63. Someone established this school in 1900. 64. The police caught the bank robber. 65. So­meone discovered gold in California in 1848.66. There is a party tomorrow night. Someone has invited you to go to that party. 67. People used candles for light in the seventeenth century. 68. So­meone had already sold the chair by the time you returned to the store. 69. They will tell you the result tomorrow. 70. We pay for your return ticket. 71. Nobody told me that George was ill. 72. His colleagues gave him a present when he retired. 73. We will send you your examination results as soon as they are ready. 74. They didn't ask me my name. 75. They don't pay Jim very much. 76. They didn't offer Ann the job. 77. Somebody stole my bag in the shop. 78. The police have arrested three men. 79. The bill includes service. 80. They cancelled all flights because of the fog. 81. So­mebody accused me of stealing the money. 82. They are building a new ring-road round the city. 83.1 didn't realise that someone was recording our conversation. 84. They have changed the date of the meeting. 85. Brian told me that someone had attacked and robbed him in the street. 86. They promised Robert an interview for the job. 87. They showed Sarah the photographs. 88. Normally, they pay me salary every month. 89.1 think that they have sent us the wrong tickets. 90. I hope that someone will give Sally the message. 91. They didn't ask me for my address. 92.1 thought that someone had told you about the meeting. 93. First we send you a letter inviting you to an interview. 94. Has anyone answered your question? 95. Somebody found your keys on top of the photocopier. 96. A scientist discovered penicillin in 1928.97. They didn't look after the children carefully. 98. He hasn't slept in this bed. 99. They threw him out. 100. Burglars broke into the house. 101. They took down the notice. 102. People often take him for his brother. 103. This college is already full. We are turning away students the whole time. 104. The crowd shouted him down. 105. We called in the police. 106. You are to leave this here. Someone will

call for it later on. 107. They sent for the doctor immediately. 108. People always laugh at him. 109. He is a good specialist. Everybody speaks highly of him. 110. The students always listen attentively to this lecturer. 111. Everybody insisted on his arrival. 112. We didn't hear of her for some time. 113. Nobody paid any attention to his behaviour. 114. I hope they will approve of my work. 115. They always read to her because she has poor sight. 116. The children took great care of the dog. 117. They never refer to this book. 118. The milkman brings the milk to my door but the postman leaves the letters in the hall. 119. People steal things from supermarkets every day; someone stole twenty bottles of whisky from this one last week. 120. Normally men sweep this street every day, but nobody swept it last week. 121. The postman clears this box three times a day. He last cleared it at 2.30. 122. Women clean this office in the evening after the staff have left; they clean the upstairs offices between seven and eight in the morning. 123. We never saw him in the dining-room. A maid took all his meals up to him. 124. Someone left this purse in a classroom yesterday; the cleaner found it. 125. We build well over 1,000 new houses a year. Last year we built 1,500. 126. We serve hot meals till 10.30, and guests can order coffee and sandwiches up to 11.30. 127. Passengers leave all sorts of things in buses. The conductors collect them and send them to the Lost Property Office. 128. An ambulance took the sick man to hospital. 129. The hall porter polishes the knockers of all the flats every day. - Well, he hasn't polished mine for a week. 130. They are repairing my piano at the moment. 131. They invited Jack but they didn't invite Tom. 132. The guests ate all the sandwiches and drank all the beer. They left nothing. 133. Has someone posted my parcel? 134. Why did no one inform me of the change of plan? 135. I'm afraid we have sold all our copies but we have ordered more. 136. They haven't stamped the letter. 137. They didn't pay me for the work; they expected me to do it for nothing. 138. She didn't introduce me to her mother. 139. Theythrew away the rubbish. 140. A Japanese firm makes these television sets. 141. An earthquake destroyed the town. 142. We ask tenants not to play their radios loudly after midnight. 143. They brought the children up in Italy. 144. They have taken down the For Sale notice, so I suppose they have sold the house. 145. We have warned you. 146. A lorry knocked him down. 147. They returned

the keys to me; someone had picked them up in the street. 148. They have tried other people's schemes. Why have they never tried my scheme? 149. We use this room only on special occasions. 150. They are pulling down the old theatre. 151. Why didn't they mend the roof before it fell in? 152. The burglars had cut a big hole in the steel door. 153. The organizers will exhibit the paintings till the end of the month. 154. Who wrote it? 155. He expected us to offer himajob. 156. They showed her the easiest way to do it. 157.Lightning struck the old oak. 158. The lawyer gave him the details of his uncle's will. 159. Students are doing a lot of work. 160. They will wear evening dress. 161. People used the house as a hospital during the war. 162. People are poisoning millions of fish in the North Sea.

163. They suddenly realised that someone was following them.

164. They have recently made redundant a lot of people in our town. 165. Someone had given her the wrong number. 166. So­meone will announce the winners of the competition next week. 167. They usually mark the papers in July. 168. When we got to the airport, we heard that they had cancelled all the flights. 169. When are they going to finish the new ring road? 170. People must not leave bicycles in the hall. 171. Members may keep the books for three weeks. After that they must return them. 172. You should open the wine about three hours before you use it. 173. You must not hammer nails into the walls without permission. 174. No one can do anything unless someone gives us more information. 175. You can't wash this dress; you must dry-clean it. 176. Passengers shouldn't throw away their tickets as inspectors may check these during the journey. 177. You must keep dogs on leads in the garden. 178. Visitors must leave umbrellas in the cloakroom. 179. We can't repair your clock. 180. We have to pick the fruit very early in the morning; otherwise we can't get it to the market in time. 181. The police shouldn't allow people to park there. 182. You mustn't move this man; he is too ill. You'll have to leave him here. 183. We had to give the books back; they did not allow us to take them home. 184. You shouldn't leave these documents on the desk. You should lock them up. 185. You will have to finish this work by Friday. 186. Good news! They may offer me a job soon. 187. People cannot control the weather. 188. Someone ought to repair this broken window. 189. People can pick tomatoes before they are completely ripe. 190. You shouldn't put bananas in the freezer. 191. Jack has a right to know. You ought to tell him the

news immediately. 192. Don't worry. We can repair your watch very easily.

III. Use active or passive, in any appropriate tense, for the verbs in brackets.

1. A valuable painting (steal) from the Central Art Gallery late last night. The thieves (enter) the gallery through a small upstairs window. 2. Walt Disney (creat) the cartoon character Mickey Mouse. 3. This problem (discuss) at the last meeting. 4. In 1964 Martin Luther King (win) the Nobel Prize. In 1968 he (assassinate) in Memphis, Tennessee. 5. The president (arrive) in Rome yesterday afternoon. Later he (interview) on Italian TV, 6. Teachers (give) a new pay rise by the government. The news 1 (announce) earlier today. 7. These photos (take) by my sister. 8. The I game (win/probably) by the other team tomorrow. They're a lot better than we are. 9. There was a terrible accident on a busy downtown street yesterday. Dozens of people (see) it, including my friend, who (interview) by the police. 10. In my country, certain prices (control) by the government, such as the prices of medical supplies. However, other prices (determine) by how much people are willing to pay for a product. 11. Yesterday the wind (blow) my hat off my head. I had to chase it down the street. I (want, not) to lose it because it's my favourite hat and it (cost) a lot. 12. Right now Alex is in the hospital. He (treat) for a bad burn on his hand and arm. 13. Yesterday a purse-snatcher (catch) by a dog. While the thief (chase) by the police, he Gump) over a fence into someone's yard, where he met a dog. The dog (keep) the thief from escaping. 14. The first fish (appear) on the earth about 500 million years ago. Up to now, over 20,000 kinds offish (name) and (describe) by scientists. New species (discover) every year, so the total increases continually. 15. The morning paper (read) by over 200,000 people every day. 16. Last night my favourite program (interrupt) by a special news bulletin. 17. That's not my coat. It (belong) to Louise. 18. Our mail (deliver) before noon every day. 19. The "b" in "comb" (pronounce, not). It is silent. 20. A bad accident (happen) on Highway 95 last night. 21. When I (arrive) at the airport yesterday, I (meet) by my cousin and a couple of her friends. 22. Yesterday I (hear) about Margaret's divorce. I (surprise) by the news. Janice (shock). 23. A new house

(build) next to ours next year. 24. Radium (discover) by Marie and Pierre Curie in 1898. 25. When (your bike, steal)? - Two days ago. 26. A: (you, pay) your electric bill yet? B: No, I haven't, but I'd better pay it today. If I don't, my electricity (shut off) by the power company. 27. A: Did you hear about the accident? B: No. What (happen)? 28. The Eiffel Tower (be) in Paris, France. It (visit) by millions of people every year. It (design) by Alexander Eiffel (1832-1923). It (erect) in 1889 for the Paris exposition. Since that time, it (be) the most famous landmark in Paris. Today it (recognize) by people throughout the world. 29.1 don't have my car today. It's in the garage. It (repair) right now. 30. Kate didn't have her car last week because it was in the garage. While it (repair), she took the bus to work. 31. I'm sorry, but the computer job is no longer available. A new computer programmer (hire, already). 32. What products (manufacture) in your country? 33. The examination papers are scored by machine. The students (tell) their results next week. 34. The organizers (exhibit) the paintings till the end of the month. 35. The teacher (assist) by two graduate students during the exam yesterday. 36. A: Where (buy, you) that beautiful necklace? B: I (buy, not) it. It (give) to me for my birthday, (like, you) it? 37. Soon after I (apply) for a job with the United Nations two years ago, I (hire). 38. Yesterday we went to look for an apartment. I really liked it, but by the time we got there, it (rent, already). 39. There's going to be a story in the local newspaper about my neighbour, Mrs Morris. Tomorrow she (interview) by one of the local reporters about her doll collection. Over the years, she (collect) more than 400 dolls all over the world. 40. Ali and Mustafa (complain) to the landlord many times since they moved into their present apartment, but to date nothing (do) about the leak in the roof and the broken window in the bedroom. 41. The darks' living room (redecorate) in blue and white. They want it to look nice for their daughter's wedding reception. 42. The old clock wasn't ticking because it (wind, not). Someone forgot to do it. 43. The news of the victory (broadcast) throughout the country over the radio and television. Everyone (hear) about it almost as soon as it (happen). 44. Only coffee and dessert (serve) at the reception yesterday. 45. Kim wants very badly to make the Olympic team next year. She (train) hard for the last two years. 46. Mark is a genius. By the time he (graduate), he (offer) jobs by a dozen computer companies. 47. When

I (finish) my work, I'm going to take a walk. 48. After the test papers (return) to the students in class tomorrow, the students (give) their next assignment. 49. The Olympic Games (begin) in 776 B.C. in Olympia, a small town in Greece. At that time, only Greeks (allow) to compete in them. 50. "Miss Jones, please type those letters before noon." "They (already, type). They're on your desk." 51. "Can't we do something about the situation?" "Some­thing (do) right now." 52. "Has the committee made its decision yet?" "Not yet. They (still, consider) the proposal." 53. Something funny (happen) in class yesterday. 54.1 (agree) with you on that subject. 55. Let's go ahead and do it now. Nothing (accomplish) by waiting. 56. "When can I have my car back?" "I think it (finish) late this afternoon."

IV. Supply the stative passive of the given verbs. Use the Simple Present or the Simple Past.

1. It is hot in this room because the window (close). 2. Yes­terday it was hot in this room because the window (close). 3. Sa­rah is wearing a blouse. It (make) of cotton. 4. The door to this room (shut). 5.We can leave now because class (finish). 6. The lights in this room (turn on). 7. This room (crowd, not). 8. We can't go any farther. The car (stick) in the mud. 9. We couldn't go any farther. The car (stick) in the mud. 10. My room is very neat right now. The bed (make), the floor (sweep), and the dishes (wash). 11. We are ready to sit down and eat dinner. The table (set), the meat and rice (do), and the candles (light). 12. Where's my wallet? It (go)! Did you take it? 13. Hmmm. My dress (tear). I wonder how that happened. 14. Don't look in the hall closet. Your birthday present (hide) there. 15. Excuse me, sir. Could you give me some directions? I (lose). 16. That's hard work, I (exhaust). I need to rest for a while. 17. The children (excite) about going to the circus. They're looking forward to seeing the elephants, the clowns, and the acrobats. 18. George (dress) in his best suit today because he has an important interview this afternoon. 19. Lousie is probably sleeping. The lights in her room (turn off). 20. Carolyn and Joe were married to each other for five years, but now they (divorce). 21. You told me one thfhg and John told me another. I don't know what to think. I (confuse). 22.1 love my wife. I (marry) to a wonderful woman. 23. I thought I

had left my book on this desk, but it isn't here. It (go). I wonder where it is. We can't eat this fruit. It (spoil). We'll have to throw it away. Vietnam (locate) in Southeast Asia. A: "The TV set doesn't work." B: "Are you sure? (it/plug in)?" 1 (accustom) to living here. 1 (satisfy) with the progress I have made. I (not acquaint) with that man. Do you know him? Mark Twain (know) for his stories about life on the Mis­sissippi. My car (equip) with air conditioning and a sun roof.

V. Translate from Russian into English.

1. Об этом фильме много говорят. Я думаю его стоит по­смотреть. 2. Он очень сердит. С ним никогда так не разговари­вали. 3. Вам не придется ждать. Документы будут проверены и письма напечатаны, когда вы придете. 4. Роман написан мо­лодым талантливым автором. 5. Не говори таких вещей. Над тобой будут смеяться. 6. Когда пришел директор, все было го­тово: документы были проверены и письма были напечатаны. 7. Почему так холодно в зале? - Его как раз проветривают. Читальный зал проветривается несколько раз в день. 8. Он квалифицированный врач. О нем хорошо отзываются. 9. Мож­но взглянуть на документы? - Их все еще печатают. 10. Де­тей поведут в театр в воскресенье. 11. Дворец Спорта еще стро­ился, когда я приехал в Минск. 12. Эта картина нарисована неизвестным художником. 13. К вечеру работа была законче­на. 14. Поторопись. Тебя ждут 15. Где будет построена новая библиотека? 16. Что производится на этой фабрике? 17. Пись­мо не может быть отправлено сегодня, так как оно еще не под­писано директором. 18. Иностранным студентам показали ау­дитории, лаборатории и общежитие Московского универси­тета. 19. Его прервал шум в коридоре. 20. Стекло бьется очень легко. 21. В котором часу закрывается читальный зал? - Он закрывается в 10 часов вечера. 22. Этот вопрос сегодня обсу­ждаться не будет. 23. Я не хочу показывать вам свою статью, пока она не будет закончена. 24. Как только журналы будут получены, мы покажем их вам. 25. Какой вопрос обсуждался на собрании, когда вы пришли? 26. К сожалению, ничего не было сделано, чтобы помочь ему закончить работу. 27. Доку­менты уже подписаны? - Нет еще. 28. Когда был воздвигнут этот памятник? 29. Интересная проблема обсуждается сейчас


Listen, read and practise.

I Need Some Information

A: Hello?

B: Oh, hello. I need some information. What currency is used

in Japan? A: Where? B: In Japan.

A: I'm not sure. Isn't it the yen? B: Oh, yes. And do they drive on the left or the right? A: I think the left, but I'm not sure. B: Oh. Well, is English spoken much there? A: I really have no idea. B: Uh? Well, what about credit cards? Are American Express

cards used there? A: How would I know? B: Well, you're a travel agent, aren't you? A: What? A travel agent? This is Linda's Hair Saloon. B: Oh, sorry, wrong number.

A. Study and practise the conversation.

B. Complete these sentences using the passive and suitable verbs below.

eat grow make up manufacture speak teach wear

Both cars and computers... in Korea. English... in many schools in Russia. A great deal of cotton... in Egypt. Frogs

and snails... in France. Canada... of ten provinces and two territories. Kimonos... sometimes... in Japan. French... not Great Britain.

Now use the verbs above and write sentences like these about your country. Use the passive. Then compare with a partner.


Nick: Jenny, listen to this. Over million tons of paper are used in Britain every year, but only some of it is recyc­led. One ton of rubbish is thrown away every year by the average British family of four like us!

Jenny: I know. Only a little waste glass is recycled. Plastic isn't recycled at all. And last year over billion drink cans were thrown away.

A. Use the present passive of the verb in brackets.

billion cups of tea (drink) in Britain every year. A billion litres of fruit juice (buy) by the British every year. million litres of milk (drink) every day. million chickens and turkeys (kill) every week. Not everybody eats meat. Meat (not eat) by three per cent of British people. litres of water (use) by the average British family every week. In Britain over million newspapers (read) every day. Over million television sets (own) by British families. Every day enough rubbish (produce) to fill Trafalgar Square up to the top of Nelson's Column!

B. Nick is doing a project on rainforests. He has made notes. Put his notes into sentences like this'

eg rainforests find along the equator Rainforests are found along the equator.

thousands of square kilometres of rainforest destroy every year trees cut down every hour wood sell to many countries wood make into furniture rain­forests burn down by farmers animals kill by the fires houses destroy by the fires many kinds of animals and plants lose when the rainforests disappear some medici­nes make from rainforest plants weather change by the destruction of the rainforests

Isn't This Country Incredible

Victor: What a nice camera!

Roberto: Thanks. It's Japanese.

Victor: Isn't this country incredible? It seems like everything

is imported.

Roberto: Yeah, TVs, stereos, and cameras are often made in Japan. You can get running shoes from Korea. Clothes are made in Hong Kong and Taiwan. Watches are imported from France and Switzerland. Victor: Even fruit and vegetables are imported from Mexico

and Chile during the winter.

Roberto: Yes. And a lot of cars are imported, too. I think Ame­ricans are fascinated by foreign products. Victor: Well, sometimes they're designed better. And some­times they're a lot cheaper, too.

Roberto: Say, have you got the time? I want to take some pic­tures before class tonight. Victor: It's

Roberto: Oh, I'd better go. It's getting late. Victor: Yeah. I'd better go, too. I haven't done my homework yet.

A. Correct the statements that are wrong. Say "That's right" or "That's wrong."

Americans often buy foreign cameras, TVs, stereos, and cars.

Koreans sometimes buy American running shoes.

American clothes sometimes come from Hong Kong and Taiwan.

Americans never import watches from Europe.

Americans import onions and potatoes from Mexico.

Other countries often make cheaper cars, stereos, and clothes than the United States.

Roberto thinks he should go so he'll have enough time to

take some pictures before class.

Victor thinks he should go so he can take a shower before , class.

Finding a Job

If you have left school and haven't got a job, don't despair. Jobs are advertised in the local papers under "Situations Vacant". Go to your local Job Centre or Employment Office. If they haven't got a suitable job for you, at least good advice is given there. Also, remember to read notices. Job vacancies are posted up on notice boards outside firms and factories. Local jobs are displayed on cards in shop windows and at post offices. When you have found a job that interests you, make an appointment for an interview. Sometimes, an interview is arranged by telephone, but often a written application is required. Application forms are provided for this purpose by the firms. Sometimes, the applicant is tested at the interview. Don't be nervous, do your best.

Don't feel that you have to take the first job that is offered to you. Go to the Careers Office and ask about the Youth Training Scheme. Many on-the-job courses and schemes are organized by the Youth Training Scheme and they pay you during the training.

A. How can you find a job in your country?

They where surprised

Jewellery and coins were stolen last night from the home of Mr and Mrs G. Sinclair of Clark Street, Bristol. At about a.m., a young man was seen in the Sinclairs' garden by a neighbour. The police were informed immediately by the neighbour's wife. Ten minutes later, the man was caught as he was leaving the garden and was taken to the police station for questioning. His pockets were searched. Rings and gold coins worth over were found. When the man was questioned about the theft, he said, "It was easy. A window was open and the safe wasn't locked."

The jewellery and coins were returned to the Sinclairs the next morning. A policeman said, "They were surprised. They hadn't noticed the theft."

A. Do you know a story about a theft?

'Where was this Taken?

Olga: You know, we've never seen the pictures you took of New York.

Roberto: No? Didn't I show them to you after I got back?

Victor: No.

Roberto: Well, I have them with me.... This is the Empire State Building. It's probably the most famous building in New York. It was built in less than two years. It was begun in and finished in

Susan: Isn't that incredible?

Roberto: This is the United Nations.

Olga: It was built sometime after World War I ended, wasn't it?

Victor: After World War II.

Olga: I mean World War II. Where was this taken?

Roberto: From the top of the World Trade Center. Did you know the Statue of Liberty was designed by a Frenchman?

Victor: Uh-huh. Bartholdi. It was given to the United States by France on the 00th birthday of U.S. independence.

Susan: You know a lot about history.

Victor: History was my favourite subject in school after mu­sic, that is!

I   Note: center centre

A. Correct these statements.

Roberto hasn't been to New York. The Empire State Building isn't very famous. The Empire State Building was built in less than a year. The UN was built after World War I. The Statue of Liberty was given to the United States by England.

B. Bring to class a picture of your favourite building, painting, or sculpture or a copy of your favourite book. Work with a group. Your classmates will ask you questions about your picture or book.

What's this called? Where was it done?

When was it done? Who was it done by?

Youth Hit by Van

At p.m. on Saturday July, there was an accident at the junction of Euston Road and St. Pancras Road when a boy of was knocked off his bicycle by a delivery van. Luckily, he was not seriously injured. Patrick Kay, the 6-year-old boy, was taken to St. Pancras Hospital where he was treated for shock and a broken arm. The accident was witnessed by several people, and it was reported minutes later by the driver of the van, Mr Ralph Ripley, of Wimbledon. Both the youth and the driver of the van were questioned afterwards by the police, who took the names and addresses of three witnesses.

A. Have you ever witnessed an accident? What was it like?

An interview

Joe Burns is a famous racing-driver. He is being interviewed on a sports programme.

Reporter: You've had a very dangerous life, haven't you, Joe? I mean, you've almost been killed several times, ha­ven't you?

Joe:  Yes. I suppose that's right.

Reporter: When was your worst accident?

Joe: d say last year. It was during the British Grand Prix.

I smashed into a wall. The car was completely ruined and my left leg was broken. Luckily, nobody was killed.

Reporter: Is that the only time you've been... er...close to death?

Joe: No. Once, during the Mexican Grand Prix, two cars in front of me had a bad accident. One of them ran into the other. I swerved to avoid them and hit a fence My car was badly damaged but luckily I wasn't even hurt.

Reporter: You must enjoy danger. I mean, you wouldn't be a ra­cing-driver if you didn't, would you?

Joe: I don't know about that. I had a very frightening ex-

perience quite recently. I was frightened to death! I thought I was going to be killed at any moment.

Reporter: Really? When was that? During your last race? Joe: No. It was on my way to this studio. I had to drive

through London during the lunch hour. A. Questions

What has almost happened to Joe several times? When was his worst accident? Describe it What happened during the Mexican Grand Prix? What did Joe think was going to happen to him very recently? When did his last experience take place?

B. Discuss your personal experiences using the present perfect passive and the past simple passive of the verbs in the phrases below.

eg A: Have you ever been stopped by the police? B: No, I haven't but my brother has. A: Really? Why? B: He was stopped for speeding on the motorway.

stop by the police interview on television give a surprise party fine for parking search by customs ask to give a speech involve in a road accident

Let Me Quiz You

A: Have you studied for the test tomorrow?

B: Yes, I have.

A: OK. Let me quiz you on the Panama Canal.

B: All right. Go ahead.

A: Who was the canal built by?

B: It was started by the French and completed by the Americans.

A: Right! And when was it completed?

B: It was completed in

A: No! It was completed in

B: Oh, that's right.

A Complete the phrases in column A with suitable information in column B.

a) The novel

b) The pyramids

...was designed by Bartholdi. ...was written by George Orwell.

c) The Statue of Liberty were built by the ancient Egyp-


d) The mural in the Sistine was written by Margaret Mit-Chapel in Vatican City chel.

e) The novel Gone With  was painted by Michelangelo.

the Wind

B. Now change these active sentences into passive sentences with by.

a) Leonardo da Vinci painted the Mono Lisa.

b) Marie Curie discovered radium.

c) Mildred and Patty Hill wrote the song "Happy Birthday to You."

d) Mark Twain wrote the American novel Huckleberry Finn.

e) Thomas Edison invented the phonograph and the light bulb.

C. Think of six questions about famous buildings, paintings, boob, or musical compositions.

eg Who was Starry Night painted by? Who was War and Peace written by? Who was Carmen composed by?

Take turns asking your questions. Who got the most correct answers?

A very exciting

In January Martha was hired by the Fernwood Company as a secretary. In March she was sent to school by the company to study statistics and accounting. In April she was given her first raise. Just two months later, she was promoted to the position of supervisor of her department. In August she was chosen "Employee of the Month." In October she was given another raise. In November she was invited to apply for a position in the company's overseas office in England. And in December she was given the new job and was flown to London to begin work.

Martha certainly has had a very exciting year. She can't believe all the wonderful things that have happened to her since she was hired just twelve months ago.

A. Ask and answer questions on the text.

B. Speak about your career history.

Can I help y

Mrs Jones: Is this Joe's Auto Repair Shop?

Man: Yes, it is. Can I help you?

Mrs Jones: Yes, please. This is Mrs Jones. I'm calling about

my car. Has it been repaired yet? Man: Not yet. It's being repaired right now.

Mrs Jones: I see. Tell me, when can I pick it up? Man: Come by at four o'clock. I'm sure it'll be ready by


A. Respond to the following.

eg Has the lamp been fixed? No, it is still being fixed.

Have the floors been painted? Have the things been packed? Has the table been laid? Have the dogs been fed? Has the letter been typed? Has the radio-set been repaired? Has the furniture been removed?

Make up your own sentences using this model.

A burglary

Tom: The newsagent's has been broken into. About has been taken.

Nick: Has the thief been found?

Tom: No, not yet. The theft was only discovered an hour ago. There's a room at the back of the shop where the money is kept in a safe. This morning the cleaner noticed that the window had been broken, so she told the owner. A few people have been questioned by the police, but no­body knows much. An officer said that any information will be welcomed.

Nick: Will there be a reward?

A. Make up short dialogues using the words prompted. Prompt: dust/the furniture

Has the furniture been dusted yet?

Not yet.

hang up/the picture cut/the grass fix/the brakes mend/ the shoes type/the documents photo-copy/the letters find/ the book clean/the room iron/the suit

B. When the pupils went back to school after the summer holidays, a lot of things had been changed.

eg New desks (buy).

New desks had been bought.

A lot of trees (plant). New lights (put in). The classrooms (paint). A tennis court (build). The fence (take down). Five new classrooms (add). New equipment (buy) for the chemistry lab. Showers (install) in the changing rooms. New blackboards (put up) in the classrooms. The whole school (modernize).

She Only Wanted a Haircut

Alan: Have you always been interested in photography?

Carla: Oh, yes! I was given a camera for my eighth birthday.

Alan: So you became a photographer immediately after school, I imagine.

Carla: Oh, no. I did lots of different things.

Alan: What kind of things?

Carla: Well, I went to college and studied design. Oh, and on­ce I was given a job at a hairdresser's.

Alan: How long did you do that for?

Carla:Not long. I was sacked after three weeks.

Alan: Sacked? Why?

Carla:! dyed a lady's hair green.

Alan: What was wrong with that?

Carla: She only wanted a haircut.

A. Study and practise the conversation.

Qoing by fube

Laura usually leaves the office at about five o'clock, but last Monday she left at half past five. She wanted to get home by and she ran to the bus stop but she couldn't get on a bus. There

were too many people and not enough buses. Laura was desperate to get home so she decided to go by tube.

In the station she went to one of the automatic ticket machines but she didn't have enough change, so she had to join the queue at the ticket window. She bought her ticket and ran to the escalator. Laura went to the platform and waited for the tube. It arrived and the crowd moved forward. Laura was pushed into the train. It was almost full but she was given a seat by a man with a moustache. Laura thanked him and sat down. She started to read her newspaper. In the tunnel the train stopped suddenly and Laura was thrown to the floor together with the man with the moustache. Somebody screamed. The lights went out. It was quarter past six on a cold wet December evening.

A. Ask and answer questions on the text. Retell the text.

Fishermen Found Safe and Sound

Three Taiwanese fishermen were rescued yesterday from a small uninhabited island in the South Pacific. The men had been lost for more than three months.

They had left Taiwan in a small fishing boat and planned to be gone for only a week. But on the fifth day they ran into a typhoon, and it badly damaged their boat. Fortunately, none of the men was hurt. After the storm passed, however, they found that the engine wouldn't start. So their boat just drifted at sea for a month. During this time, the fishermen caught fish to eat and drank rainwater to stay alive.

Finally, the boat drifted toward a small island. When it got close enough, the men jumped overboard and swam to the shore. On the island, they found fresh fruit and vegetables to eat, and they continued to live off any fish they could catch.

The fishermen lived on the island for another two months before they were rescued by a passing ship. Although the three men had lost a lot of weight, they were still in fairly good health after their long ordeal. Their families were very happy to hear that the men had been found "safe and sound" and that they would soon be home.

A. Ask and answer questions on the text. Retell the text.

An Earthquake

An earthquake was reported in San Francisco at this evening. Most of the damage was felt in the downtown area. Electric lines were cut but telephone service was not interrupted in most areas. It appears that no damage was done to the new earthquake-proof buildings, but, unfortunately, windows were shattered in some of the older buildings and the famous old clock in Union Square was destroyed. The clock, which is years old, was popular with tourists. No injuries were reported so the Red Cross was not called to help. Also, no damage was reported in the suburbs.

A. Choose the correct answer.

The earthquake was reported

a. at night.

b. during the day.

Electric lines

a. were cut.

b. weren't cut.

Telephone service in most areas

a. was interrupted.

b. wasn't interrupted.

Windows were shattered in some of the

a. old buildings.

b. new buildings.

The old clock

a. was almost destroyed.

b. was destroyed.

How many injuries were reported?

a. No injuries were reported.

b, A lot of injuries were reported.

B. Put the verbs in brackets into the past simple passive. Retell the text.

Did you know that the greatest explosion in the world (cause) by a volcano? Krakatoa, an island in Indonesia, erupted in More than half the island (destroy). The explosion (hear) in India and Australia. Rocks (throw) more than kilometres high into the air. Surprisingly, only a few people (kill), but a huge wave, metres high, (create) by the explosion. Several small islands

(cover) by the wave. villages (destroy) and people (drown). Dust (carry) all round the world, and the weather everywhere (affect) for many years afterwards.


Now and in the Future

A computer is an electronic device. It makes calculations and processes information. Complicated problems can be solved very quickly. Millions of pieces of information can be processed in seconds. Nowadys, computers are used for many different purposes. Businesses use their computers not only to bill their customers, but also to send information to customers and to communicate with other businesses. In industry, many com­plicated machines are controlled by computers. Machines that produce chemicals, steel, and hundreds of other products are con­nected to computers. In transportation, airplanes, ships, and even spacecraft are guided by computers. In science, complicated prob­lems and scientific data are almost always analyzed by computers. Even earthquakes and hurricanes can be predicted by computers. In education, computers are used as teaching machines. In the home, people are buying computers to help them manage their households more efficiently. People can shop, make travel arrangements, and pay their bills using computers right in their own homes.

In the future, computers will be even more widely used in our offices, our homes, and our cars. Developments are being made every day that allow computers to solve more and more complex problems. It has been said by many experts that someday computers will be able to "think" creatively like human beings. For example, someday computers may be able to understand human language and to respond to it. In the near future, sophis­ticated forms of art and music may also be created by computers. Indeed, some forms of "computer art" and "computer music" have already been produced.

Note: someday some day

A. ask and answer questions on the text.

B. Speak about the use of computers.

Dr Lin, the author of "Computers: Now and in the Future", is talking to his wife.

Dr Lin: I have such a busy day today I don't know when I'll be home.

Mrs Lin: Oh, that's right. You have to speak at the High School of Science and Technology today.

Dr Lin: That will be finished by three o'clock. But then I ha­ve to go to the office and prepare my notes for my speech at the Computer Society's annual dinner tonight.

Mrs Lin: Well, at least your magazine article has already been written and submitted to your editor. It was due today, wasn't it?

Dr Lin: Yes, at least that's done. In fact, it should be published sometime next month.

Mrs Lin: Do you think you will be given time to eat tonight or will you have to spend the entire evening answering questions?

Dr Lin: I might be asked to speak as soon as everyone sits down for dinner. In that case, I guess I'll be pretty hungry when I get home.

Mrs Lin: Do you have any idea what time you'll be finished?

Dr Lin: None.

Mrs Lin: Well, I'll have something ready for you to eat when you get here. What about transportation?

Dr Lin: That's already been taken care of. The Computer So­ciety is sending a car for me. It's picking me up at the office at six and will bring me home after the mee­ting.

Note: sometime some time

A. Ask and answer questions on the text.

B. Give a brief account of the conversation.

C. Roleplay the conversation.


Listen, read and practise.

A glimpse of London

London is the capital of Great Britain. It is situated on both sides of the Thames and stretches for nearly miles from east to west and for nearly miles from north to south. London is one of the largest cities in the world. Its population is more than eight million.

London is a very old city. It is more than centuries old. The history of London goes back to Roman times. Traditionally London is divided into several parts: the City, Westminster, the West End and the East End. They are very different from each other.

The heart of London is the City its commercial and business centre. The Stock Exchange, the Royal Exchange, and the Bank of England are all there. The centre of the country's judicial system the Old Bailey is also in the City. Few people live in the City, but over a million come to work here.

Two famous historic buildings are located in the City the Tower of London and St Paul's Cathedral. The Tower of London was built in the -th century. It was used as a fortress, a royal residence and a prison. Now it is a museum of armour and also the place where Crown Jewels are kept.

A twenty minutes' walk from the Tower will take you to another historic building St Paul's Cathedral. It was built in the 17th century by the famous architect Sir Christopher Wren. Wellington, Nelson and other great men of England are buried in the Cathedral.

Westminster is the centre of government and justice. Here we can see the Houses of Parliament with the famous clock "Big Ben" on one of the towers. All government offices are in White­hall. The official residence of the Queen is Buckingham Palace. The residence of the Prime Minister is at Downing Street.

Opposite the Houses of Parliament stands Westminster Abbey. From Norman times British monarchs have been crowned here and since the 13th century they have been buried here. Many

other famous people are also buried in Westminster Abbey including statesmen, musicians and writers.

The West End is the name given to the area of Central London north from The Mall to Oxford Street. It includes Trafalgar Square, the main shopping areas of Oxford Street, Regent Street and Bond Street, and the entertainment centres of Soho, Piccadilly Circus, Leicester Square and Shaftesbury Avenue. Its name is associated with glamour and bright lights.

Trafalgar Square was built early in the last century to commemorate the Battle of Trafalgar. Admiral lord Nelson's statue stands on top of a column in the middle of Trafalgar Square. The square makes a good place for people to meet coaches pick up parties of visitors, marchers unite for protest meetings, and at Christmas time carol singers gather round a huge Christmas tree which is sent to Britain from Norway every year. Behind Nelson's Column is the National Gallery, an art gallery in which you can find many old masters. Not far from the National Gallery is the British Museum. It contains a priceless collection of different things (ancient manuscripts, coins, sculptures, etc.) The British Museum is famous for its library one of the richest in the world.

Most of London's big department stores are in Oxford Street and Regent Street. Piccadilly Circus is the centre of nightlife in the West End. To the north of Piccadilly Circus is Soho, which has been the foreign quarter of London since the 17th century. Now it has restaurants offering food from a variety of different countries, as well as "adult" entertainment.

London is famous for its live theatre, and there are over thirty theatres within a square mile. Naturally there is a great variety of shows to choose from: opera, musicals, drama and so on. If you want to know what is on in London, the best place to look is in a newspaper.

The East End is an industrial district of London. It is especially famous as the centre of the clothing industry. The Port of London is also in the East End.

A. Questions

What is the population of London? What is the City?

When was the Tower of London built? What was it used for?

When was St Paul's Cathedral built? What famous men are

buried in the Cathedral? In what district of London are most of the Government buildings located? What is Big Ben? What famous building stands opposite the Houses of Parliament? In whose memory was the monument in the middle of Trafalgar Square set up? What kind of museum is the British Museum?

Where are most of London's big department stores located?

In what part of London is the Port located?

B. Speak about London, the capital of Great Britain.

C. Have you ever been to London? What did you do? Did you like the city?


Washington, D.C. (District of Columbia) is the capital of the United States. It became the capital on December I, It was named after George Washington, the first president, and Christopher Columbus (America was discovered by Columbus in

Spring is the best season in Washington, and it is the most popular with tourists. In the spring you can see the flowers on hundreds of cherry trees. The trees were given to the United States in They were a gift of friendship from Japan.

Washington has something for everyone historic monu­ments, interesting museums, beautiful parks, and excellent hotels and restaurants. Some of the most important and most interesting sights are:

The Jefferson Memorial. This monument is dedicated to the third president, Thomas Jefferson. It was designed by John Russel, and it was dedicated in Inside there is a statue of Jefferson by sculptor Rudolf Evans.

The Lincoln Memorial. This beautiful monument is dedicated to Abraham Lincoln, the sixteenth president of the United States. It is made of marble, and it was built in In the great hall I there is a huge statue by Daniel Chester French.

The National Gallery of Art. The National Gallery contains one of the world's best collections of European and American > painting and sculpture. The newest building, the East Building, is made of pink marble and glass. It was designed by I.M. Pei, and it was opened in

The Washington Monument. The Washington Monument was completed in It is dedicated to the first president, George Washington, and it is feet high. You can take an elevator to the top or you can climb the steps!

The White House. The White House is the official home of the president. It was designed by James Hoban. The first building was burned by the British in the War of but it was rebuilt in It was also first painted white at that time.

A. Questions

Who was Washington, D.C. named after? Where did the cherry trees come from? How tall is the Washington Monu­ment? When was the White House painted white? Who is the Jefferson Memorial dedicated to? Who designed it? What is the Lincoln Memorial made of? Who designed the statue of Lincoln? What does the National Gallery of Art contain? What is the East Building made of?

B. Speak about the most interesting sights in Washington.

C. Have you ever been to Washington? What do you think of it? Answer your friends' questions about the city.

New Yourk

Everyone knows something about New York the Statue of Liberty, the skyscrapers, the beautiful shops on Fifth Avenue and the many theatres on Broadway. This is America's cultural capital, and her biggest city, with a population of nearly eight million. In the summer it is hot, hot, and in the winter it can be very cold, but there are hundreds of things to do and see all the year round.

There are five "boroughs" in New York: Brooklyn, the Bronx, Manhattan, Queens and Richmond. Only one of them, the Bronks, is not an island.

Manhattan, the smallest island in New York, is the real centre of the city. When people say "New York City" they usually mean Manhattan. Most of the interesting shops, buildings and museums are here, and Manhattan is the scene of New York's night life.

In the first Europeans came to Manhattan from Holland. They bought the island from the Native Americans for a few glass necklaces, worth about today.

Only people live in Manhattan, but five million people work here every day. Many live in the suburbs and come to work on the subway.

Wall Street in Manhattan is the financial heart of the USA and the most important banking centre in the world. It is a street of "skyscrapers", those incredible, high buildings which Ameri­cans invented, and built faster and higher than anyone else. Per­haps the two most spectacular skyscrapers in New York are the two towers of the New York World Trade Center. When the sun sets, their floors shine like pure gold.

Like every big city, New York has its own traffic system. Traffic jams can be terrible, and it's usually quickest to go by subway. The New York subway is easy to use and quite cheap. Take a look at the map. The subway goes to almost every corner of Manhattan. But be careful. It's better not to go by subway late at night.

You see more, of course, if you go by bus. New York buses are also easy to use. The "Shoppers' Shuttle" (Monday to Friday) and the "Culture Loops" (Saturdays and Sundays) stop at some of the best known stores and tourist places. You can get on and off as many times as you like in one day with only one ticket.

There are more than taxis in New York. They are easy to see, because they are bright yellow and carry large TAXI signs. Taxis do not go outside the city but they will go to the airports. People give the taxi driver a "tip" of extra.

If you really have to drive in New York, remember that nearly all the east-west streets and most of the north-south streets are one way only. This can be difficult for the visitor who does not know his way. Try to get a map that shows the direction of the traffic, and good luck!

A. Questions

What do many people know about New York? What is the population of New York? What is the weather like? What are the five "boroughs" in New York? Which of them is not an island? What is the real centre of the city? Who was the first to come to Manhattan? When? How many people live in Manhattan? How many people work there? What street is the financial heart of the USA? What are the two most spectacular skyscrapers in New York? What is the New York traffic system like? What colour are the taxis in New York?

B. Speak about New York.

C. Has anyone in your group visited New York? Answer your friends' questions about New York.


Madrid is the capital of Spain, and is located right in the centre of the country. It's also the largest city in Spain, with over three million residents.

Madrid is a centre for government and finance, and is an important manufacturing centre for the automotive and aircraft industries. In addition, it's one of the major publishing centres for the Spanish-speaking world.

The people of Madrid are called Madrilenos. Many Madrilenos work from a.m. to p.m. Then, at two o'clock, many stores and offices close. The custom started so that people could take an afternoon nap or siesta. Those who take a siesta go back to work again from five to eight o'clock. However, recently, many businesses have stopped closing for siesta; instead, they follow the semanta inglesa, or English week, and stay open from nine to five o'clock. Nevertheless, many people still work late, until eight in the evening. Like many people throughout Spain, Madrilenos eat dinner late, usually between 10p.m. and midnight, and theatres and cinemas begin performances late. The local style is to keep late hours, especially in the summer. During the hot months of July and August, the temperature is often over a hundred degrees Fahrenheit, or thirty-eight degrees Celsius. But Madrilenos have a variety of ways to stay cool. For example, they stroll up and down the streets or sit and talk at outdoor cafes; they can also go to discos that have an outdoor swimming pool.

Madrid has many attractions. Soccer is the most popular sport in Madrid, and the city has two major soccer teams. In addition, the largest bullring in Spain is located in Madrid. It's called Las Ventas, and it's the place where all novice bullfighters get their start. And, of course, there are world-famous art museums, such as the Prado Museum, which is the home of masterworks by artists such as El Greco and Goya.

A. Do you remember what the speaker says on each of these topics?






B. Speak about Madrid, the capital of Spain.

C. Choose an interesting city or place to give a talk on. Speak about the cost of living, employment, housing, industry, location, population, size, weather, etc. Be ready to answer any questions about the place you are talking about.

Mr Brown in Edinburgh

Mr Brown was in Edinburgh on business for his bank. He had caught a train from King's Cross Station in London at ten o'clock that morning and now he had arrived in Edinburgh. It was five o'clock in the evening. He had enjoyed a comfortable journey and had had a good lunch on the train. He had booked a room at the Queen's Hotel a few days before, so when he got out of the train at Waverley Station, he took a taxi straight to the hotel.

When he got to the hotel he signed the book, the clerk told him the number of his room and the porter gave him his key. He went up to the third floor in the lift and the lift-boy showed him to his room. It was a comfortable room with a good bed. That night Mr Brown slept well until the maid brought him some tea at seven-thirty next morning.

Mr Brown had not been in Edinburgh for many years, and he was looking forward to seeing the city again. So when he had finished breakfast he decided to go for a walk before keeping his first appointment at o'clock. He came out from his hotel into Princess Street, one of the widest and most beautiful streets in the world. It has fine shops on one side and gardens on the other, with Edinburgh Castle high on its Rock and Arthur's Seat beyond. The Scots are very proud of their capital city. As Mr Brown walked along, he remembered some of the exciting events that had happened here and some of the great men who had walked along these same streets the things they had done, and the books they had written. He was surprised when he looked at his watch and saw that it was almost eleven.

His first appointment was with an old friend John Macdonald, the manager of the Edinburgh branch of his bank. Mr Macdonald

spent some time showing him round the city. During the three days he was there, Mr Brown saw most of the places of interest. He visited St Giles' Cathedral and the royal palace which is called Holyroodhouse; he walked along the narrow streets of Old Edinburgh and up to the grey castle. He found, too, that Edinburgh does not live only in the past. New Edinburgh has modem houses and wide streets. His friend told him that every year in September a Music and Drama Festival is held, to which people come from all over the world; new plays can be seen and new music can be heard, and visitors can meet people from other countries and talk about the things that interest them.

When at the end of his visit, he sat in the train which was carrying him south to London he made up his mind that he must come back soon to spend a holiday in this city in which the past comes so close to the present.

A. Ask and answer questions on the text.

B. Take turns asking each other about an interesting city or place you have visited. Use these questions or other questions of your own.

What's an interesting city or place you have visited? How big is it? What's the weather like there? Is there much unemployment? And what about industry? What's the transportation like? Is there any pollution there? What's the cost of living like? What kind of housing do people have? Are rents expensive? What can you do there? Are there many tourist attractions? What's good to buy there? What's the nightlife like? What else do you like about it?

C. Write about your trip to an interesting city or place.

Small Towns and big Cities

Today, people all over the world are moving out of small towns in the country to go and live in big, noisy cities. They are moving from the peaceful hills, mountains, fields, rivers and streams of the countryside to the busy world of streets, buildings, traffic and crowds. This movement from rural areas to urban areas has been going on for over two hundred years.

In many countries, the main reason people come to live in towns and cities is work. After one or two large factories or

businesses have been built in or near a city, people come to find work, and soon an industrial area begins to grow. There is usually a residential area nearby, where the factory workers can live. The families of these workers need schools, hospitals and stores, so more people come to live in the area to provide these services and so a city grows.

In every major city in the world, there is a business district where the big companies have their main offices. In the United States, this is usually in the downtown area of the city. It is here that you can see the huge skyscrapers containing many floors of offices. The people who work here often travel a long way to work each day. Many of them live in the suburbs of the city, far away from the industrial and business areas. Some suburbs are very pleasant, with nice houses and big yards. There are usually parks for children to play in and large department stores in shopping malls where you can buy all you need.

But what is the future of the big cities? Will they continue to get bigger and bigger? Maybe not. Some major cities have actually become smaller in the last ten years, and it is quite possible that one day we will see people moving out of the major cities and back into smaller towns.

A. Decide whether these statements are true or false according to the passage.

Many people from small towns go to live in big cities.

Urban areas contain mainly hills, mountains, rivers and streams.

Many people go to live in urban areas to find work.

Factories are built inside residential areas.

Business districts are usually in the downtown area of the city.

Workers often live in skyscrapers in the suburbs.

The suburbs of a city usually contain more trees and parks than the downtown areas.

The movement from country to city will definitely continue in the future.

B. Do you live in a rural area, a town, or a big city? Where would you like to live? Why?

Living in the City

Living in a city has both advantages and disadvantages. On the plus side, it is often easier to find work, and there is usually a choice of public transport, so you don't need to own a car. Also, there are a lot of interesting things to do and places to see. For example, you can eat in good restaurants, visit museums, and go to the theatre and to concerts. What is more, when you want to relax, you can feed the ducks or just sit on a park bench and read a book. All in all, city life is full of bustle and variety and you need never feel bored.

However, for every plus there is a minus. For one thing, you might have a job, but unless it is very well-paid, you will not be able to afford many of the things that there are to do, because living in a city is often very expensive. It is particularly difficult to find good, cheap accommodation. What is more, public transport is sometimes crowded and dirty, particularly in the rush hour, and even the parks can become very crowded, especially on Sundays when it seems that every city-dweller is looking for some open space and green grass. Last of all, despite all the crowds, it is still possible to feel very lonely in a city. In conclusion, I think that city life can be particularly appealing to young people, who like the excitement of the city and don't mind the noise and pollution. However, many people, when they get older, and particularly when they have young children, often prefer the peace and fresh air of the countryside.

A. Ask and answer questions on the text.

B. Give the synonymous words from the text to the following:

in spite of pros and cons

another point is that  one advantage is that all things considered for instance to sum up in my opinion

one disadvantage is that especially

moreover finally

C. Do you live and/or work in a city? Is it very big? How many advantages and disadvantages of city life can you think of?

Write them down.

Write about the pros and cons of living in the country.

Discussion: Advantages and disadvantages of living in a big city and in the country.

Write a few lines about your hometown

Conversation Practice Listen, read and practise.

My hometown.

Woman: So tell me about your hometown, Joyce.

Joyce: Well, it's a real small town...

Woman: Really? What's it like there?

Joyce: Oh, I think it's a very boring place.

Woman: Why?

Joyce: Well, there's nothing exciting to do. No good restau­rants. No nightlife of any kind. I really get bored there.

Woman: Oh, that's too bad.

Joyce: Yeah, but lots of people love it there because it's so pretty.

Woman: Yeah?

Joyce: Uh-huh. It has lovely scenery lots of mountains, ri­vers, lakes, trees...

Woman: Well, I don't know, Joyce, it sounds like a nice place!

Joyce: Well, yeah, if you like to go hiking in the summer and skiing in the winter. But, you know, I'm not the outdoor type! I'm a real city person!

Woman: Do you come from a big city, Lou?

Lou: Oh, yes, I do. It's pretty big.

Woman: What's it like there?

Lou: Oh, it's a really great place! It has some fantastic art museums, and wonderful theatres, and terrific res­taurants of all kinds... like Greek, Russian, French, Thai, Japanese...

Woman: Ah. really? And how are the prices? Is it expensive?

Lou: Yeah, yeah, I guess so. Food costs a lot... both in the supermarket and in restaurants. And apartments!

They're so hard to find... and the rents are pretty high. Woman: Yeah, I guess it's expensive everywhere these days.

Man: Hey, Nick. Are you going home for the holidays?

Nick: No way!

Man: Oh, why not?

Nick: I don't like my hometown. Too many people, too many buildings, too many factories. It's big and it's ugly! IH-" ke places that are small and quiet. Like here!

Man: Is your hometown as bad as that?

Nick: Yes, it's pretty bad. It doesn't even have any good res­taurants.

Man: No, c'mon, Nick! No interesting theatres or nightlife?

Nick: No, not really.

Man: It sounds like a terrible place.

Nick: Yeah, it really is.

A. What do they say? Write Yes or No.

Interesting Big Expensive Beautiful Joyce Lou 3.Nick

B. Talk about your hometown. Ask questions like these and other questions of your own.

What's your city or hometown like? Is it an interesting place? Is it safe? What's shopping like there? Is it expensive? Is the transportation good? Does it have good restaurants? What are the things you like most about your hometown? What are the things you don't like about it?

C. Have a conversation about your hometown.

Linda: Whereabouts in Canada are you from?

Steve: I'm from Toronto.

Linda: I've never been there. What's it like?

Steve: It's a great city! It has good museums and wonderful

restaurants. And the nightlife is exciting, too. Linda: Really? Is it expensive there? Steve: Well, it's not bad, but apartments are fairly expensive. Linda: Toronto sounds like a nice place. I've heard it has a

good subway.

Steve: Oh, yeah. It's excellent. And the buses are good, too. Linda: And what about shopping? Steve There are some great shopping centres and department

stores. Do you know the Euton Centre? Linda: The Euton Centre? No. What's that? Steve: Huh! It's one of the biggest shopping centres in the

world. It has everything, and the prices are pretty good,


Linda: Well, I hope some day I'll get a chance to go there. Steve: I hope so, too. If you ever go, I'll show you around the


Linda: You will? Great! Thanks! Steve: OK.

A. Questions

Where is Steve from? What does Steve think of Toronto? What does Steve say about the transportation and shopping in Toronto?

B. What places of interest would you show your foreign guest if she/he came to your hometown?

C. Situation Your friend from London has come to your home­town. At the moment you are showing him/her around the town. You are a good guide, you know your hometown very well.

Andy: Whereabouts are you from, Carla?

Carla: I'm from Santa Fe, New Mexico.

Andy: Oh? What's it like there?

Carla: Well, it's a beautiful little tourist town, and the climate's great. Actually, it's a centre for American Indian cul­ture, and there are also lots of artists there. Georgia O'Keeffe, the famous painter, used to live there.

Andy: Really? It sounds like an interesting place! I'd like to go there sometime.

Carla: Yeah, you'd enjoy it, Andy. And whereabouts in Eng­land are you from, Andy?

Andy: I'm from Bath.

Carla: Really? Where's that?

Andy: It's near Bristol. It takes about an hour and a half to get there by train from London.

Carla: You know, I've always wondered why it's called "Bath". How did you get that name?

Andy: Because of its famous hot springs. Throughout history, people have gone there to bathe that's why it's called

Bath. Carla: Ah! Is it an old city, then?

Andy: Oh, yes. In fact, it's an old Roman city, with lots of lo­vely old stone buildings.

Carla: Andy, it sounds really interesting! I'd love to visit Bath some day.

Andy: Well, just let me know when you plan to come and my family and I'll take care of you.

Carla: Really? Thanks! And I'd do the same for you if you ever visit my hometown of Santa Fe.

Andy: OK, then, that's a deal!

A. Questions

Where is Carla from? What's it like there? Where is Andy from? Where is Bath? How did it get that name? Is Bath a new or an old city?

B. Take turns talking about your favourite city. Talk about it like this and answer any questions other students may have.

My favourite city in North America is Santa Fe. It's in New Mexico. It's an old city with lots of interesting Spanish and Indian buildings. It's fairly small, and it's really beautiful...

'What's Mexico like?

David: Can you tell me a little about Mexico? Maria: Yes, sure. What would you like to know? David: Well, when's the best time to visit? Maria: Mmm, you should go in the winter or spring. The wea­ther is nice then. It's not very hot.

David: Really? And does Mexico have good beaches?

Maria: Yes, the beaches are excellent.

David: Oh, good! And what places should I see?

Maria: Well, you should go to Mexico City. And you shouldn't

miss the Mayan ruins. They are very interesting. David: Great! I can't wait to go there.

A. Questions

When is the best time to visit Mexico? Why? What are the beaches like? What is worth seeing?

Tell Me about Brazil

Man: I'm thinking of going to Brazil next year, Maria.

Maria: Oh, great! I'm sure you'll have a good time.

Man: What places do tourists visit in Brazil?

Maria: Well, a lot of people go to Rio for Carnival. And nowa­days, lots of people are visiting the Amazon to take river trips.

Man: Oh, really? That sounds interesting. And when's a good time to visit?

Maria: Well, I like Rio in the spring or fall because it's not too hot then.

Man: And what other cities are worth visiting in Brazil?

Maria: Well, I'd suggest Brasilia first.

Man: OK.

Maria: It's been the capital city of Brazil since nineteen sixty...

Man: Uh-huh.

Maria: It's not very big, but very, very modern. The architec­ture is very interesting. Most of the buildings were designed by Niemeier, a famous Brazilian architect.

Man: It sounds really interesting.

Maria: Yeah, it really is... and then there's Sao Paulo.

Man: Oh? Tell me about that.

Maria: It's the biggest city in Brazil and an important commer­cial centre. So lots of people go there on business... and there are not too many tourists.

Man: Oh! That's good!

Maria: It is! The restaurants are excellent great food and nightlife in Sao Paulo is out of this world!

Man: Sao Paulo really sounds great! You know, actually, I'd be very interested in seeing an old city, too. Uhm... whe­re would you suggest?

Maria: Mmm... I think you'd enjoy Salvador in Bahia. It's on the northeast coast of Brazil and it's Brazil's oldest city.

Man: Oh-huh.

Maria: It has a lot of beautiful old Portuguese architecture, and it's also the centre of African culture in Brazil.

Man: Really?

Maria: And the food! My gosh, it's so good! Spicy, but deli­cious!

Man: Oh, I love spicy food. It sounds really interesting. I can't wait to go there! Do you know a good travel agent?

A. Ask and answer questions on the text.

B. A visitor wants information about your country. What places do tourists like to visit? Why? Roleplay a conversation like the one above.

Execellent Suggestions

Alex: You've been to Paris, haven't you?

Brian: Yes. As a matter of fact, I used to live in Paris.

Alex: Well, I'm planning to visit there soon. I was wondering if you could recommend some things to do.

Brian: Sure. You should definitely go to Notre Dame Cathed­ral. You also ought to see the Palace of Versailles. And you must visit the Louvre.

Alex: Those sound like excellent suggestions. Can you recommend any good places to eat?

Brian: Yes. Make it a point to eat at "Maxim's". And if you go there, I suggest that you order the duck. It's delicious.

Alex: That sounds good.

Brian: Oh, and one more thing. Be sure to have someone take your picture in front of the Eiffel Tower.

Alex: I'll do that.

Brian: Is there anything else I can tell you about?

Alex: I don't think so. You've been very helpful. Thanks a lot.

Brian: Send me a postcard, will you?

Alex: Okay.

A. Ask and answer questions.

B. Give a brief account of the conversation.

C. Roleplay the conversation.

D. Situation: Your friend has come to your hometown. /she wants to go sightseeing. You are telling your friend what is worth Seeing.

Going Places

Mike is planning to visit London. He is asking a Londoner for advice.

Mike: So, Mary, where are you from?

Mary: Well, I'm from Holland, originally... but now I live in

London. Mike: Oh, really? You know, I'm planning to go to London

on vacation some time next year. What time of the year

is best for sightseeing? Mary: Well... you should go either in spring or in autumn. You

see the weather is quite nice and warm then... Mike: Ah! Mary: In winter, it's just too cold and wet and in summer there

are too many tourists.

Mike: I see. And what do you think I should see in the city? Mary: Well, you must go to the theatre. Mike: Of course!

Mary: There are lots of West End shows... Mike: Mm hmm. Mary: You know, musicals... drama... Mike: Sounds great! What about other cultural events? Mary: Well, there's dance... ballet, modern dance, lots of inter­national companies... Mike: Brilliant! Mary: and opera... and some very good London orchestras...

and often international ones, too. Mike: Uh-huh. What museums should I see? Mary: Well, you ought to see the British Museum a^d the

National Gallery. Mike: Yes.

And then there's the Tate, if you like modern art. Mike: Definitely!.

Mary: They're all wonderful! And you must sample the res­taurants!

Mike: Of course! Mary: Londoners love eating all different kinds of food... Greek...

Chinese... Indonesian... Thai... Mike: Can't wait!

Mary: ...and some of them are really cheap! Mike: Good.

Mary: And then, of course, you should see the usual sight. seeing attractions... The Tower of London... StPaul's Cathe­dral... Big Ben... Mike: ...and Oxford Street? Mary: Well, Oxford Street isn't very exciting these days. Soho

is much more interesting...

Mike: But is it true that I mean, everyone says Soho is dan­gerous...

Mary: I don't think so, really. Mike: No?

Mary: It's not nearly as bad as you see on TV and in films. But all the same you shouldn't carry too much money on you, or walk around by yourself very late at night anywhere just like in any other big city. Make: That makes sense! Thanks for the advice, Mary. I'm su­re I'll have a great time.


What time of the year is best for sightseeing in London? Why?

What is worth seeing in London?

B. Has anyone in your group visited an interesting country or city? Find out more about it. Start like this and ask questions like the ones below.

A: I visited Spain last summer. B: Did you enjoy it?

What's the best time of the year to visit? What's the weather like then?

What should tourists see and do there? What's the food like? What's the shopping like? What things should people buy? What else should visitors do there?

C. Situation: You have returned from a foreign country. Your friend is going to that country in a week. /she is asking you about the things to see and do there.

D. What are the most popular cities and places in your country for foreign visitors? What are the three places you would most like to visit in the world?

E. Bring to class the pictures of a city you visited. Tell your classmates about the city.

F. How many capital cities have you been to? Which do you like the most/the least? Why?

G. What are the problems facing the capital cities that you know? What is being done about these problems?

Think of a place you have visited recently or which you would like to visit soon. Imagine you are there now. Write a postcard to your friend. Be sure to cover all these points:

a) Say where you are and describe something you have seen or done.

b) What are your impressions of this place?

c) What do you like or dislike about it?

d) What are you looking forward to doing?

e) Think of a few words to write at the end.


A Quiet life

When Mr Brown retired, he bought a small cottage in a seaside village. The cottage was built in fifteen eighty eight, but was in very good condition. Mr Brown was looking forward to a quiet life, but in the summer holidays he got a shock. Hundreds of tourists came to the seaside village. Mr Brown's cottage was the most

interesting building in the village and many of the tourists came to see it. From morning till night there were tourists outside the cottage. They kept looking through the windows and many of them even went into Mr Brown's garden. This was too much for Mr Brown. He decided to drive the unwelcome visitors away, so he put a notice in the window. The notice said: "If you want to satisfy your curiosity, come in and look round. Price: ten pence." Mr Brown was sure that the visitors would stop coming but he was wrong. The number of the visitors increased and Mr Brown spent every day showing them round the cottage. "I came here to retire, not to work as a guide," he complained. In the end, he sold the cottage and bought a small modern house. It is an uninteresting little place and no one wants to see it. But it is certainly quiet and peaceful.

A. Questions

When was Mr Brown's cottage built? Why had Mr Brown bought it? Where was the cottage? Why didn't Mr Brown like living there? How did Mr Brown try to stop the visitors from coming? What did Mr Brown do with the cottage? What did he buy? Why is he pleased with his small modern house?

Scottish Humour

A Scottish gentleman was spending his holidays in Vienna. The town was very beautiful and his guide was a very beautiful young lady too. She was his guide in the town and in the country. "I will have the best memories of her," he thought. Before he left he decided to give her some present to thank her for her kindness. He wanted to be sure that the present was something that she'd like. And he asked her what present she'd like best of all. "You know very well," she said, "that I like to look beautiful and to put on beautiful things. Give me something for my neck, for my fingers or for my ears." Next morning the Scottish gentleman appeared with a present. A diamond ring? A golden bracelet? No, it was a piece of soap.

A. Questions

Where was the Scottish gentleman spending his holidays? Who was his guide? Did he like her? What did he decide to do to thank her for her kindness? What present did the girl want to have? What did the Scottish gentleman give her?

The Mayor's Order

Long ago, when there were no street lamps in towns and cities, the mayor of a town ordered the people not to go out without lanterns. The next night he met a man in a street and said to him, "Do you know my order?" "Yes, I do," answered the man. "But you have no lantern," said the mayor. "Yes, I have," said the man. "But there is no candle in your lantern," said the mayor. "The order said nothing about candles," answered the man.

The next day the people of the town learnt a new order. The order said that people must put candles in their lanterns. In the evening the mayor met the same man. "Where is your lantern?" he asked. "Here it is," said the man and showed his lantern to the mayor. "But there is no candle in if," cried the mayor. "There is," said the man and showed the candle. "But you didn't light your candle," cried the angry mayor. "The order did not say that we must light the candles."

So the mayor gave a new order. It said that the people must light candles in their lanterns.



London has been a capital city for nearly a thousand years, and many of its ancient buildings still stand. The most famous of these are the Tower of London, Westminster Abbey and St Paul's Cathedral, but most visitors also want to see the Houses of Parliament, Buckingham Palace (the Queen's London home) and the many magnificent museums.

Once, London was a small Roman town on the north bank of the Thames, but slowly it grew into one of the world's major cities with more than eight million people. Fewer people live in the centre now, but the suburbs are still growing.

Places now in the heart of London, like Westminster, once stood in the middle of green fields. Many small villages, like Hampstead, Chelsea and Mayfair, became part of London, but they still keep some of their old atmosphere. Different areas of London seem like different cities. The West End is a rich man's world of shops, offices and theatres. The old port area is now

called "Docklands". The great ships have gone, and the area is changing very fast. There are huge new office buildings and thousands of new flats and houses.

Other parts of London are changing, too. Some of the poorer areas have become fashionable, and people with more money are

moving into them.

A hundred years ago, the river was crowded with ships, leaving for Java and Japan, New Zealand and New York, but now people travel by air, and London's main airport, Heathrow, is one of the

busiest in the world.

Like all big cities, London has streets and concrete buildings, but it also has many big parks, full of trees, flowers and grass. These parks are both in the centre of the city and further out. It is the central parks which are the most famous.

St James's Park was first opened years ago. It is very close to Buckingham Palace, and to the government offices in Whitehall. St James's Park is one often royal parks in and around London which are owned by the Crown but are open to the public free of charge. It is very attractive, with a long, narrow lake, which is occupied by ducks and other water birds.

Each park has its own character. Hyde Park, for example, was originally a hunting forest and is still popular with horseriders. Now it's famous for the Serpentine the lake, and for Speakers' Corner, where you can listen to people giving their views on a variety of topics to anyone who will listen.

Kensington Gardens is next to Hyde Park, and it is very popular with both the old and the young. On warmer days there are always people at the Round Pond, where they come to sail their model


Regent's Park, which was originally a hunting park, is now the home of London Zoo, and an open air theatre which delights summer audiences with performances of Shakespeare's plays.

Many people live outside the centre of London in the suburbs, and they travel to work in the shops and offices by train, bus or underground. The trains are full and expensive and the roads are crowded with cars, but every day a million people make the journey. Some people come from far out of London, even from the coast, and spend up to four hours travelling every day.

Most people work from a.m. to p.m. From until every morning, and to every evening, the trains are crowded

with people, and after the morning "rush hour" the shoppers come. By day the whole of London is busy. At night, the offices are quiet and empty, but the West End stays alive, because this is where Londoners come to enjoy themselves. There are two opera houses here, several concert halls and many theatres, as well as cinemas, and in nearby Soho the pubs, restaurants and nightclubs are busy half the night.

Many people think that London is all grey, but in fact red is London's favourite colour. The buses are red, the letter boxes are red and the mail vans are all bright, bright red. London is at its best when people are celebrating. Then the flags, the soldiers' uniforms, the cheering crowds and the carriages and horses all sparkle in the sunshine if it's not raining, of course!

London has many large department stores, which sell eve­rything: shoes and shirts, paper and perfume, footballs and frying pans. The most expensive department store is Harrods in Knight-sbridge. You can buy almost anything in Harrods, and you know you're getting the best.

The smartest and most expensive shops are in Knightsbridge, but more people come to Oxford Street, London's most popular shopping centre. Most of the hundreds of shops sell clothes or shoes. The street is more than a mile long. There are several big department stores in Oxford Street. The best known are Selfridges, John Lewis and Marks and Spencer.

Oxford Street has the most shops, but in some ways King's Road in Chelsea is more fun. This is where fashionable young Londoners buy their clothes in the many small "boutiques".

You can buy what you like in the big shops, but the small markets have a lot to offer too. There are several big street markets in London, and many small ones. Some markets are open only one day a week. Go to Portobello Road on Saturday, or to Petticoat Lane on Sunday. Covent Garden market is open every day. Come here for antiques, old clothes, hand-made jewellery and many other rather special things.

British restaurants have not always been famous for their good food. Too often, they offered only fried food and chips with everything. But now, healthy food is in fashion and so is international cooking.

The British have taken good ideas from all over the world. You can eat Chinese, Indian, French, Italian and Greek food in

any big city, and in London there's a fantastic variety of restau­rants.

Most British families only go to restaurants on special occasions, like birthdays, or wedding anniversaries. The restaurants' best customers are business people, who meet in them to talk business in a relaxed atmosphere away from the telephone. They can eat what they like because the company pays the bill! But when a man and a woman want to get to know each other better, they often go out to a restaurant together. After all, it's easier to talk in a quiet atmosphere, with soft music, wine and good food.

For visitors to London, eating out can be fun. Try Rules in the West End. The traditional menu and decor are just like they were in Queen Victoria's day, a hundred years ago. Or take a walk round Soho or Covent Garden where there are dozens of small restaurants.

But if you want that special London feeling, go to the Ritz in Piccadilly for tea any afternoon at about half past four. Too expensive? Then try England's favourite food fish and chips. Take it away and eat it where you like in the park, on the bus or while you walk down the street. That's what Londoners do!

Self check

I. First read these rather gloomy comments made by an unhappy town resident.

"Recently they've built a lot of skyscraper blocks here. I think they've made the town look ugly. And they're going to build more. They're going to demolish an area of terraced houses, and build flats, offices, a car park and a shopping area. In fact, when I walked past the area yesterday they were demolishing the first house. They're destroying the town, these council planners. People have sent in hundreds of protests, but it hasn't had any effect. They've taken their decision, and that's that. They're destroying the quality of life in the town."

Now, basing your answers on the passage, finish the sentences below, using the passive.


More skyscraper blocks...


More skyscraper blocks are going to be built.

A lot of skyscraper blocks... The town... An area of terraced houses... A shopping area... When I walked past the area... The town... by these council planners. Hundreds of protests... Their decision... The quality of life in the town...

II. Insert the correct articles (if necessary).

Black Gold

A. For many years Aberdeen has been one of most important towns in Scotland. On north-east coast, it has been important for fishing and for its port for long time. Forestry, paper-making and textiles are also important, and so is manufacture of whisky.

In some ways it is similar to many other towns. But there is more. It has old and famous university, one of oldest in Europe and some of best scenery on British Isles.

In Britain produced its first oil from North Sea. Since then Aberdeen has changed. Between and oil and gas industry brought more than new companies into city. Since start of oil industry harbour has become larger and much busier.

For last fifteen years or more Aberdeen has been international city. You can hear Americans and Euro­peans in shops and hotels. number of air passengers has increased per cent since and port is biggest in world.

Since this city of quarter of million people has been educational centre. It is now also industrial and entertainment centre for north-east Scotland, and more than that, it's oil capital of Europe.

B. Jim Stewart is returning to Aberdeen after twenty years. His old school friend meets him at airport.

Jim: Am I in wrong place? This doesn't look like old airport. What's happened?

Friend: Eh, you've been away for several years, Jim. Since they

found oil this place hasn't been same. Jim: Ah, but you haven't changed a bit! Friend: I've got bit less hair and few more inches around

waist. Mary's good cook. Here, let's getyour bags... Jim: That building's new, isn't it? Friend: Yes, it's one of new oil companies. It's been there

since, oh, I forgot date. Anyway, for quite long


Jim: It's fantastic! Friend: Oh, I remember now. It's been there since about

It was old cinema before that. Jim: Oh, I remember that cinema. I took Fiona there...


Present participle (as adjective)

Jim: That banging door is getting on my nerves. I ha­ven't slept at all tonight. I might as well get up and make a cup of tea.

Jean: That's an interesting idea. You could close the door at the same time.

Jim: Oh! What's that flashing light over there? My goodness! It's a police car. What do they want?

Policeman (at the door): Sorry to disturb you, sir, but have you noticed a strong burning smell? I'm afraid your garage has already burned to the ground!

|USE1| In front of nouns

eg The amazing thing about the whole situation was that they were able to live for so long without water.

|USE2| After be

eg It is exciting.

The news sounds alarming. She looks appealing.

The most common present participles as adjectives are:

amazing exciting shocking

amusing frightening surprising

confusing interesting tiring

embarrassing pleasing worrying

Present partici -t (introducing an adjectival phrase)

Forester: Do you see those pine trees standing to the right of us?

The whitish-looking ones with no leaves. Tourist: Yes. Why do they look different from all the


Forester: The leaves lying on the ground give us the ans­wer. And the little insects running around all over the tree trunks will kill off the trees here. Within the next six months you will be standing in a graveyard containing only a few rotten tree trunks. Tourist: Can't the authorities do anything about it?

[USE] We can use a present participle to introduce an adjectival phrase in order to give extra information about a noun.

eg The man swimming through the water is my uncle. The man who is swimming through the water is my uncle.) The train arriving on platform four is one hour late. The train which is arriving on platform four is one hour late.)

Present participle (introducing an adverbial phrase)

Shouting loudly and waving his arms, the fat shopkeeper ran down the road. A few feet in front of him a small, thin man was sprinting away. Laughing loudly, he shouted back to the shopkeeper: "You'll never catch me. You'll never get your money back." Concentrating on his conversation with the shopkeeper, the thief had not noticed the small boy playing with his roller skates.

Bending quickly, the boy unstrapped a skate and rolled it in front of the man. The thief put his foot on to it and fell flat on his back with a bang.

| USE) Showing how, why or when

The present participle (-ing) is used to talk about an action that happens at the same time as another action, (a simultaneous action)

I walked out of the room smiling to myself. When I walked out of the room I was smiling to myself.)

I had an accident driving to work. I had an accident while I was driving to work.)

The present participle as an adverbial modifier may come after the conjunctions while or when:

Jane ate her dinner while sitting in front of the television.

You can also use an -ing phrase to explain the reason why something happens.

Knowing you wanted to go to the concert, I bought a ti­cket for you. because I knew you wanted to go to the concert)

Not having a car, she finds it difficult to get around. because she doesn't have a car)

Perfect participle (introducing an adverbial phrase)

[USE I Showing how, why or when

The perfect participle (having done) is used when one action happens before another action, (a prior action)

Having found a hotel, they looked for somewhere to ha­ve dinner.

Having finished our work, we went home.

You could also say After ing:

After finishing our work, we went home.

If the second action happens immediately after the first, you can use the simple -ing form (doing instead of having done):

Taking a key out of his pocket, he opened the door. These structures are used mainly in written English.

Present participle (after verbs of perception)

Jane: One lunchtime Jim and I left the office and went right down to the harbour. It was lovely. We wat-

ched boats sailing by and listened to the birds


Sally: Weren't you worried that you'd be late back? Jane Not at all. We even paddled and felt the cool w ater

rolling over our feet! It was idyllic. Sally: Very romantic! But what happened? Did you get

back on time? Jane: Not quite, but fortunately nobody noticed us

coming in.

I USE I Perceiving/sensing an action

When we use a present participle after verbs like see, hear, watch, notice and feel we emphasize experience of part of an action:

They watched the athletes running. while they were running)

At work yesterday, I heard someone shouting at Mr Le­wis in the next room.

Do you see Mary walking up the street? Isn't that her, the woman in the red dress?

When we want to emphasize the experience of the complete action we use an infinitive without to after the verb of perception.

I remember it distinctly. At yesterday afternoon, I saw Jim walk to his car, open the door, and get in.

Past participle (as adjective)

Charles: I've said this before, I know, but look at this flat. It really is the last time we have a party here! There are four smashed glasses and three broken plates and there seem to be bits of unea­ten food everywhere.

David: You're right and look at the rag. It's ruined. There's red wine all over it.

Martin: Come on stop feeling so disgusted. We'd bet­ter get on and clean the place up.

I USE 1| In front of nouns

eg There were a lot of excited fans at the stadium. He answered through the locked door.

[USE After be (or some other verbs)

The picture is damaged.

He sounds interested.

The victims remained forgotten.

Past participle (introducing an adjectival phrase)

The town, almost deserted since the battles with the enemy, stood black and half-ruined. Many houses, hit and dest­royed by bombs and gun-fire, were nothing more than piles of stones. There were still a few people left amongst the buildings. Now, after the soldiers had gone away, they were beginning to creep out. Shocked by what they saw around, they stood silently.

| USE I With or without relative pronoun

We can use a past participle to introduce an adjectival phrase in order to give extra information about a noun. The phrase may or may not include a relative pronoun:

The town, deserted since the battles, stood black and half ruined. c> The town, which had been deserted since the battles, stood black and half-ruined.

There were still a few people left amongst the buil­dings. e> There were still a few people who had been left amongst the buildings.

Ray, depressed after his unfortunate road accident, decided to go for a holiday.

Have something done

a) We use the structure have something done to talk about some­thing which we arrange for someone else to do for us.

I'm having a garage built at the moment. Compare:

I'm building a garage at the moment. (I'm building the garage myself.)

I'm having a garage built at the moment. (I arranged for someone else to do this for me.)

More examples:

I had my carpet cleaned by a professional carpet cleaner. We didn't do it ourselves.

I usually have my car serviced at a garage in East Street.

b) We can also use have something done when we do not arrange for someone else to do something for us.

I had my leg broken in a football match.

We had our fence blown down in a storm last week.

We often use have something done in this way when something unpleasant or unexpected happens to someone.

Note that we can often use get something done instead of have something done, eg I must get this jacket cleaned.

Practice Participial adjectives

The problem confuses the students.

(a) It is a confusing problem.

The present participle conveys an active meaning. The noun it modifies does something. In (a): The noun "problem" does something; it "confuses." Thus it is described as a "confusing problem."

The students are confused by the problem.

(b) They are confused students.

The past participle conveys a passive meaning. In (b): The students are confused by something. Thus, they are described as "confused students."

I. Complete the sentences with the present or past participle.

eg The class bores the students. It's a boring class.

eg The students are bored by the class. They are bored students.

The game excites the people. It is an game. The people are excited by the game. They are people. The news surprised the man. It was news. The man was surprised by the news. It was a man. The child was frightened by the strange noise. The child sought comfort from her father. The strange noise frightened the child. It was a sound. The work exhausted the men. It was work. The men were exhausted. The men sat down to rest under the shade of a tree. The story amuses the children. It is an story. The children are amused by the story. They are children. Mike heard some bad news. The bad news depressed him. a) Mike is very sad. In other words, he is... b) The news made Mike feel sad. The news was... Nancy's rude behaviour embarrassed her parents, a) Nancy's rude beha­viour was... b) Nancy's parents were... The nation's leader stole money. The scandal shocked the nation, a) It was a ...scandal. b)The... nation soon replaced the leader. I like to study sea life. The subject of marine biology fascinates me. a) I'm by marine biology, b) Marine biology is a subject.

II. Choose the correct form (-ing or-ed) of the words in brackets.

Don't bother to read that book. It's (boring, bored). The students are (interesting, interested) in learning more about the subject. Mrs Green doesn't explain things well. The students are (confusing, confused). Have you heard the latest news? It's really (exciting, excited). 1 don't understand these directions. I'm (confusing, confused). I read an (interesting, interested) article in the newspaper this morning. 1 heard some (surprising, surprised) news on the radio. I'm (boring, bored). Let's do something. How about going to a movie? Mr Sawyer bores me. I think he is a (boring, bored) person. Mr Ball fascinates me. I think he is a (fascinating, fascinated) person. Most young children are (fascinating, fascinated) by animals. Young children think that animals are (fascinating, fascinated). 1 was very (embarrassing, embarrassed) yesterday when I spilled my drink on the dinner table. That was an (embarrassing, embarrassed) experience. read a (shocking, shocked) report

yesterday on the number of children who die from starvation in the world every day. I was really (shocking, shocked). The children went to a circus. For them, the circus was (exciting, excited). The (exciting, excited) children jumped up and down.

III. Complete the sentences with the present or past participle of the verbs in brackets.

The (steal) car was found in the woods. Success in one's work is a (satisfy) experience. The tiger was a (terrify) sight for the villagers. The (terrify) villagers ran for their lives. 1 found myself in an (embarrass) situation last night. A kid accidentally threw a ball at one of the school windows. Someone needs to repair the (break) window. A (damage) earthquake occurred recently. People are still in the process of repairing the many (damage) buildings and streets. I elbowed my way through the (crowd) room. No one lives in that (desert) house except a few ghosts. The thief tried to open the (lock) cabinet. The (injure) woman was put into an ambulance. bought some (freeze) vegetables at the supermarket. The (expect) event did not occur. A (grow) child needs a (balance) diet. There is an old saying: Let (sleep) dogs lie. At present, the (lead) candidate in the senatorial race is Henry Moore. Any (think) person knows that smoking is a destructive habit. 1 still have five more (require) courses to take. (Pollute) water is not safe for drinking. 1 don't have any furniture of my own. Do you know where I can rent a (furnish) apartment? No one may attend the lecture except (invite) guests. The (suggest) remedy for the common cold is to rest and to drink plenty of fluids. Because we have a (write) agreement, our landlord won't be able to raise our rent for two years. (Ex­perience) travellers pack lightly. They carry little more than neces­sities.

IV. Change the adjective clauses to adjective phrases.

eg Do you know the woman who is coming toward us?

Do you know the woman coming toward us? eg I come from a city that is located in the southern part of the


I come from a city located in the southern part of the


The man who is talking to John is from Korea. The ideas which are presented in that book are interesting. Anyone who wants to come with us is welcome. The people who are waiting for the bus in the rain are getting wet. The children who attend that school receive a good education. The scientists who are researching the causes of cancer are making progress. The fence which surrounds our house is made of wood. They live in a house that was built in We have an apartment which overlooks the park. Did you get the message which concerned the special meeting? Be sure to follow the instructions that are given at the top of the page. The conclusion which is presented in that book states that most of the automobiles which are produced by American industry have some defect. The photographs which were published in the newspaper were extraordinary. There is almost no end to the problems that face a head of state. The psychologists who study the nature of sleep have made important discoveries. The experiment which was conducted at the University of Chicago was successful. David Keller, who is a young poet who is known for his sensitive interpretations of human relationships, has just published another volume of poems. Any student who doesn't want to go on the trip should inform the office. He read "The Old Man and the Sea", a novel which was written by Ernest Hemin­gway. My uncle Elias, who is a restaurant owner, often buys fish and shellfish from boats that are docked at the local pier. Customers come from miles around to dine on a seafood feast that is considered to be the best in all of the northeastern United States. The children attended a special movie program that consisted of cartoons that featured Donald Duck and Mickey Mouse.

V. Complete the newspaper story about an earthquake in a city called Kitamo. Put in either an -ing form or an -ed form. Use these verbs: break, burn, cry, damage, fall, frighten, injure, smoke. (You have to use one of the verbs twice.)

There was an earthquake in the Kitamo region at ten o'clock yesterday morning. It lasted about a minute. Many buildings collapsed. people ran into the streets. Many were injured by bricks and stones. After the earthquake, buildings in many parts

of the city caught fire. The heat was so great that firemen could not get near many of the buildings. Hundreds of people have died. The hospital is still standing, but there aren't enough beds for all the people. Things look very bad in Kitamo now. There are hundreds of badly houses, and those that caught fire are now just ruins. The streets are covered with glass, and trees block the way. Everywhere there is the sound of... children.

Present participle and perfect participle (introducing an adverbial phrase)

I. Join the sentences using an -ing clause, as in the example.

eg I was sitting in the park. I was writing a letter. I was sitting in the park writing a letter.

The woman was driving along. She was listening to her car radio. I arrived at the examination hall. I was feeling very nervous. He came into the room. He was carrying a suitcase.

They were walking down the street. They were holding hands.

She was sitting in an armchair. She was reading a book. Jill was lying on the bed. She was crying. 1 got home. I was feeling very tired. The old man was walking along the street. He was talking to himself.

II. In these sentences one thing happens during another.

eg Jim was playing tennis. He hurt his arm. Jim hurt his arm playing tennis.

Ann was watching television. She fell asleep. The man slipped. He was getting off the bus. The boy was crossing the road. He was knocked over. He fell off a ladder. He was changing a light bulb. Dick burnt himself. He was cooking his dinner. He broke a cup. He was doing the washing-up. He ran out of petrol. He was driving to work. She lost her keys. She was getting out of her car.

III. This time make sentences beginning Having...

eg We finished our work. We went home. Having finished our work, we went home.

We bought our tickets. Then we went into the theatre. They had dinner. Then they continued on their journey. She did all her shopping. Then she went for a cup of coffee. I finished the washing up, then I sat down and watched TV. He typed the letters, then he put them all in envelopes. I did all the housework, then I went out for a walk. He got out of bed, then he had a shower. She locked all the doors, then she went to bed.

IV. Rephrase the sentences using an -ing clause, as in the examples.

eg Because she didn't want to miss the train, she ran all the way to the station.

Not wanting to miss the train, she ran all the way to the station, eg Because I had just eaten, I wasn't hungry. Having just eaten, I wasn't hungry.

Because she is a little deaf, she wears hearing-aid. Because I don't like classical music, I didn't go to the concert. Because she is rich, she can afford expensive holidays. Because I had finished the book, I decided to take it back to the library. Because they had gone to bed so late the night before, they felt quite tired the next day. Because he had failed the exam the first time, he decided to take it again. Because I didn't know his address, I couldn't contact him.

V. A reporter has made some notes about afire on a passenger aircraft. Combine eachpair of sentences. Use the -ed form, -ing form or perfect-ing form.

eg The plane was delayed by technical problems. It took off one

hour late.

Delayed by technical problems, the plane took off one

hour late, eg The passengers saw smoke. They became alarmed.

Seeing smoke, the passengers became alarmed, eg The pilot had travelled only a short distance from Heath­row. He decided to turn back.

Having travelled only a short distance from Heathrow, the

pilot decided to turn back.

The airport fire service was warned by air traffic control. It prepared to fight a fire. The passengers believed the aircraft was going to crash. Some of them shouted in panic. The pilot brought the plane down safely. Then he felt very relieved. Eve­ryone was worried by the risk of fire. They hurried to get out. The firemen used chemicals. They soon put out the fire. Most of the passengers had had enough excitement for one day. They put off their journey.

VI. Complete the story in the Mudford Gazette about a girl who paints pictures. Put each verb in brackets into the -ing form or -ed form.

13-year-old Annabel Waites of Mudford has won first prize in a national art competition. Her (win) picture is a painting of Mudford Hill.

I talked to Annabel at her home in Embury Road. At the moment she has a (break) arm, which she got (play) netball. Fortunately it's her left arm, so she can still paint. Annabel usually listens to music while (paint). And she always paints (stand) up because she feels more comfortable that way. "I often feel very tired after (finish) a picture," she told me. "It takes a lot out of me."

Annabel was working on a half-(fmish) picture of horses in a field. And on the wall was a beautifully (draw) portrait of her dog Beezer. (Be) an animal lover, Annabel often paints pictures of animals. On another wall I noticed a picture of a lawn (cover) with (fall) leaves. (Encourage) by her success, Annabel hopes to make painting her career, although she knows it will not be easy. But (help) by her art teacher, Mrs Emma Goodenough of Portway School, she has developed an individual style.

Annabel has many other hobbies, and she often goes (skate) with her friends.

VII. Join each of the following pairs of sentences, using either a present participle eg knowing, a past participle eg known, or a perfect participle eg having known.

He got off his horse. He began searching for something on the ground.

Getting off his horse, he began searching...

I had seen photographs of the place. I had no desire to go there.

Having seen photographs of the place, I had no desire... The speaker refused to continue. He was infuriated by the interruptions. Infuriated by the interruptions, the speaker refused...

I knew that he was poor. I offered to pay his fare. We barricaded the windows. We assembled in the hall. She became tired of my complaints about the programme. She turned it off. He found no one at home. He left the house in a bad temper. She hoped to find the will. She searched everywhere. He realized that he had missed the last train. He began to walk. He was exhausted by his work. He threw himself on his bed. He had spent all his money. He decided to go home and ask his father for a job. He escaped from prison. He looked for a place where he could get food. She didn't want to hear the story again. She had heard it all before. She entered the room. She found them smoking. 1 turned on the light. I was astonished at what I saw.

We visited the museum. We decided to have lunch in the park.

He offered to show us the way home. He thought we were lost.

She asked me to help her. She realized that she couldn't move it alone. He fed the dog. He sat down to his own dinner. 1 have looked through the fashion magazines. I realize that my clothes are hopelessly out of date. We were soaked to the skin. We eventually reached the station. One day you will be sitting by the fire. You will remember this day. I didn't like to sit down. I knew there were ants in the grass. She believed that she could trust him absolutely. She gave him a blank cheque. 1 had heard that the caves were dangerous. I didn't like to go any further without a light.

I. Respond to the following using spend time -ing.

eg A: Do you ever work in the garden?

B: Yes. I spent all yesterday afternoon working in thegar-den.

Do you ever...

tidy up?

wash the coffee cups?

remove the empty bottles?

sweep up the broken glass?

empty the ashtrays?

clean your flat?

beat the carpets?

make the beds?

replace the broken bulbs?

apologize to the landlord?

tune the piano?

shake the mats?

take the dog for a walk?

pay your bills?


write letters?

II. Complete the following.

eg We had a lot of fun... games at the picnic. We had a lot of fun playing games at the picnic.

1 have trouble Mrs Maxwell when she speaks. She talks too fast. 1 spent five hours my homework last night. Martha is standing at the corner for the bus. Michael is sitting in class notes. Mrs Anderson is a commuter. Every work day, she spends almost two hours to and from work. It was a beautiful spring day. Dorothy was lying under a tree to the birds sing. We wasted our money to that movie. It was very boring. Joe spent all day ready to leave on vacation. Ted is an indecisive person. He has a hard time up his mind about anything. I wondered what the children were doing while I was gone. When I got home, I found them TV. When Mr Brown walked into the kitchen, he caught the children some

candy even though he'd told them not to spoil their dinners. A: My friend is going to Germany next month, but he doesn't speak German. What do you suppose he will have difficulty...? B: Well, he might have trouble... A: Did you enjoy your trip to New York City? B: Very much. We had a good time... A: This is your first semester at this school. Have you had any problems? B: Not really, but sometimes I have a hard time... A: What did you do yesterday? B: I spent almost all day...

III. Make sentences from the given combinations.

eg have a difficult time understand

I have a difficult time understanding the teacher's explana­tions in calculus.

have trouble remember stand (place) wait have a hard time learn sit (place) think have a good time play lie (place) dream have difficulty find have fun sing and dance find (someone) study spend (time) chat waste (money) try catch (someone) take

Present participle (after verbs of perception)

I. In each of these situations you and a friend saw, heard or smelt something. This is what you said at the time:

Look! There's Ann! She's waiting for a bus. Look! There's Sue! She's playing tennis. Look! There's Tom! He's having a meal in that restaurant. Listen! That's Bill. He's playing the guitar. 1 can smell something! The dinner's burning! Look! There's Dave! He's talking to Charles. Listen! Jack is snoring. Listen! The dog is barking. Look! Kate is dancing.

Later you tell someone what you saw, heard or smelt. eg We saw Ann waiting for d bus.

II. Answer these questions beginning in the way shown.

eg "Does Tom ever dance?" "I've never seen him dance (or dan­cing)!" eg "How do you know I came late?" "I heard you come in late."

"Does Ann ever smoke?" "I've never seen..." "How do

you know the man took the money?" "I saw..." "Did Jack lock the door?" "Yes, I heard..." "Did the bell ring?" "I'm not sure. I didn't hear..." "Does Tom ever swear use bad language)?" "I've never heard..." "How do you know Ann can play the piano?" "I've heard..." "Did Bill kick the dog?" "Yes, I saw..." "Did the boy fall into the water?" "I didn't see..."

III. Complete these sentences. Use one of the following verbs in the correct form.

ran explode burn slam sit open tell crawl

cry happen climb

Can you smell something...? I saw the accident... We listened to the old man... his story from beginning to end. Listen! Can you hear a child...? We watched the two men across the garden, a window and through it into the house. Everybody heard the bomb... It was a tremendous noise. Oh! I can feel something up my leg! It must be an insect. 1 heard someone the door in the middle of the night. It woke me up. We couldn't find Tom at first. In the end we found him in the garden.

Have something done

I. In this exercise you have to answer the questions in the way shown.

eg "Did Ann make that dress herself?" "No, she had it made."

"Did you cut your hair yourself?" "No, I..." "Did they paint the house themselves?" "No, they..." "Did Jim cut down that tree himself?" "No,..." 4. "Did Sue repair the car herself?" "No,..." 5. "Did you tune the piano yourself?" "No,..."

III. This time you have to complete the sentences. Use the words Jfn brackets.

eg We (the house/paint) at the moment.

We are having the house painted at the moment, eg (you/your hair/cut) last week?

Did you have your hair cut last week?

Your hair is too long. I think you should (it/cut). How often (you/your car/service)? The engine in Tom's car couldn't be repaired, so he had to (a new engine/fit) (you/your news­paper (deliver) or do you go to the shop to buy it? A: What are those workmen doing in your garden? B: Oh, I (a swimming pool/ build.). Is it true that many years ago he (his portrait/paint) by a famous artist? Are you going to (these shoes/repair) or shall I throw them away? I must (my glasses/ mend). They keep falling off. Where do you (your hair/do)?

III. Something unpleasant happened to each of these people last week. Make sentences using "have something done ".

eg Kate (her wallet/steal) from her bag while she was out shop­ping.

Kate had her wallet stolen from her bag while she was out shopping.

Peter (his flat/burgle) while he was out at work. Mr and Mrs Woods (the roof of their house/damage) in a storm. Lynne (the radio/ steal) from her car. My brother (his nose/break) in a football match. Fred (his hat/blow off) in the wind.

Self check

I. Supply an appropriate form for each verb in brackets.

Edward stood on the beach (look) out over the ocean. Why don't you let him (make) up his mind? Jean sat on a park bench (watch) the ducks (swim) in the pond. Sara is going to spend next year (study) at a university in Japan. The sad expression on his face made me (feel) sorry for him. 1 didn't know how to get to Harry's house, so I had him (draw) a map for me. The little boy had a lot of trouble (convince) anyone that he had seen a mermaid. The teacher had the class (open) their books to page It was a hot day and the work was hard. I could feel sweat (trickle) down my back. 1 had the brakes of my car (repair) at Morgan's Garage. 1 got my roommate (help) me (prepare) for my final exam in physics. The soldier spent an hour (polish) his boots. To please my daughter, I had her old bicycle (paint) bright red. Many people think Mr Peel will win the election.

He has a good chance of (elect). Mr Flynn is good at (tell) the difference between diamonds and cut glass. I found a penny (lie) on the sidewalk. 1 was tired, so I just watched them (play) volleyball instead of (join) them. You can lead a horse to water, but you can't make him (drink). finally told him (be) quiet for a minute and (listen) to what I had to say. You shouldn't let children (play) with matches. Mary Beth suggested (go) on a picnic. 1 was terribly disappointed (discover) that he had lied to me. I admit (be) a little nervous about the job interview. I don't know what (expect). We sat in his kitchen (sip) very hot, strong tea and (eat) cheese. When Shelley needed a passport photo, she had her picture (take) by a professional photographer. If you hear any news, I want (tell) immediately. He's at an awkward age. He's old enough (have) adult problems but too young (know) how (handle) them. There's a great difference between (be) a freshman and (be) a senior. My English is very good, but sometimes I have trouble (understand) lectures at school. 3( Let's (have) Ron and Maureen (join) us for dinner tonight, okay? have finally collected enough information (begin) writing my thesis.

I don't see how she can possibly avoid (fail) the course.

Emily stopped her car (let) a black cat (ran) across the street.

He's a terrific soccer player! Did you see him (make) that last goal? We spent the entire class period (talk) about the revolution. The number of apartment houses (build) for the population of our city is rapidly growing. What is the number of apartment houses (build) in the past few years? She smiled (remember) the joke. Isabel expected (admit) to the university, but she wasn't. When Franko went to the barber shop (get) his hair (cut), he had his beard (trim), too. (Enter) the hall you will see a staircase (lead) to the basement. I hope you will write soon, (explain) your intention. My children enjoy (allow) to stay up late when there's something special on TV. We are looking forward to (take) on a tour of Athens by our Greek friends. (See) so little of the country, I'm afraid I cannot give exhaustive answers to all your questions. (Know) how fond he is of good music, I brought him a few records. (Know) him from school, I have never heard anyone (speak) badly of him. John admitted (surprise) by the unexpected birthday party last night. We had a lot of fun (plan) it. Now I remember your (ask) me to bring sandwiches to the picnic. Your complaints about my (forget) things seem justified.

I'm sorry. I wasn't tired enough (sleep) last night. For a long time, I just lay in bed (think) about my career and my future. Art smelled something (burn). When he ran into the kitchen, he saw fire (come) out of the oven and panicked. After I decided (have) a garage (build) next to the house, I hired a carpenter (do) the work. Jeff applied to medical school many months ago. Now he's so concerned about (accept) into medical school that he's having a difficult time (concentrate) on the courses he's taking this term. My son is playing in his first piano concert this evening. I'm looking forwardto (hear) him (play), but I know he's worried about (forget) the right notes and (make) a fool of himself. I told him (relax) and (enjoy) himself. There's not much point (waste) a lot of time and energy on that project. It's likely (fail) no matter what we do. Spend your time (do) something more worthwhile. (Ask) what he thought of the innovation, the engineer said he approved of it. (Arrive) at the gallery, he paid his entrance fee, picked up a catalogue and entered. Our house needs (clean). The floors need (sweep). The dishes need (wash). The furniture needs (dust). However, I think I'll read a book. (Read) is a lot more interesting than (do) housework. He accepted the cut in salary without complaint because he was afraid (complain). He was afraid of (lose) his job. Next time we go (house-hunt), remember (ask) the agent for clear directions. I wasted hours (look) for the last house. Tom: Let's (go) for a swim. Ann: I'm not particularly keen on (swim). What about (go) for a drive instead? After (spend) two days (argue) about where to go for their holidays, they decided (not go) anywhere. He is talking about (give) up his job and (go) (live) in the country. I was just about (leave) the office when the phone rang. It was my wife; she wanted me (call) at the butcher's on my way home. He said, "I'm terribly sorry to (keep) you (wait) " I said, "It doesn't matter at all," but he went on (apologize) for nearly five minutes! (Promise) assistance they felt more assured. My father thinks I'm not capable of (earn) my own living, but I mean (show) him that he is wrong. Tom: I can't get my car (start) on cold mornings. Jack: Have you tried (fill) the radiator with hot water? That sometimes helps. We stopped once (buy) petrol and then we stopped again (ask) someone the way. When I caught them (cheat) me, I stopped (buy) petrol there and started (deal) with your garage instead. The people

(wait) for the doctor have been sitting here for a long time. Do you feel like (dine) out or would you rather (have) dinner at ho­me? I'd like (go) out. I always enjoy (have) dinner in a restaurant. Your hair needs (cut). You'd better (have) it done tomorrow. 1 tried (convince) him that I was perfectly capable of (manage) on my own, but he insisted on (help) me. 1 always try (come) in quietly but they always hear me (go) upstairs. It's impossible (climb) an old wooden staircase without (make) a noise. (Go) down the steps she suddenly stopped as she remembered that she had left the gas (burn) He knows the language better than a foreigner usually does, (live) in France for a long time. If you want the milkman (leave) you milk in the morning, remember (put) a milk bottle outside your door. Mr Shaw is very busy (write) his memoirs. He is far too busy (receive) callers, so you'd better just (go) away. Would you like me (turn) down the radio a bit? No, it's all right. I'm used to (work) with the radio on. Would your children mind (keep) quiet fora moment? I'm trying (fill) in a form. It's no use (ask) children (keep) quiet. They can't help (make) a noise. Let's (go) (fish) today. There's a nice wind. What about (come) with us, Ann? No, thanks. I'm very willing (cut) sandwiches for you but I've no intention of (waste) the afternoon (sit) in a boat (watch) you two (fish). After (spend) a week in the cottage, he decided that he didn't really enjoy (live) in the country and began (think) of an excuse for (sell) the cottage and (return) to London. Vegetables (grow) in hot-houses are not so rich in colour and taste as vegetables (grow) in natural surroundings. She stayed (lock) in her room, (refuse) to come downstairs. He had a good practical knowledge of the language, (work) as an interpreter for many years. She never did a thing without (ask) somebody's advice.

II. Translate from Russian into English.

Participles as adjectives and adjectival phrases

Машина, которая следовала за нами, была серого цвета.

Participles introducing adverbial phrases

Вы должны быть очень внимательны, играя в шахматы.

Они быстро шли, разговаривая о чем-то с большим инте­ресом. 3. Капитан стоял на палубе, давая распоряжения матросам. 4. Оставив вещи в камере хранения, мы пошли осматривать город. 5. Оставшись один, он начал распаковывать веши. 6. Так как он прожил в Лондоне много лет, он знал город хорошо. 7. Он не согласился пойти с нами на концерт, сказав, что он занят. 8. Она стояла и думала, что ответить. 9. Я не позвонил ему, думая, что он занят. 10. Путешествуя по стране, мы познакомились со многими достопримечательностями. 11. По­няв, что не сможет выполнить всю работу одна, она попросила меня о помощи. 12. Зная, что у меня достаточно времени, чтобы дойти до кинотеатра, я не спешил. 13. Услышав, что ее сестра не может приехать к ней, Анна расстроилась. 14. Он смотрел на нее, улыбаясь. 15. Она провела все утро за уборкой квартиры. 16. Прибыв в город, мы отправились в гостиницу. 17. Прорабо­тав в больнице более десяти лет, он стал опытным врачом. 18. Просматривая старые журналы, я нашла интересную статью о Великобритании. 19. Ожидая трамвая, я увидел старика, который пристально смотрел на меня. 20. Прочитав письмо, он положил его в ящик стола. 21. Будучи очень усталым, я решил остаться дома. 22. Не зная грамматики, он делал очень много ошибок. 23. Он взял словарь, не спросив разрешения. 24. Не получая от нее писем, он послал ей телеграмму. 25. Не зная, как пройти к вокзалу, я обратился к полицейскому. 26. Она вышла, не взглянув на нас. 27. Будьте осторожны, переходя улицу. 28. Будучи очень рассеянным, он сделал несколько ошибок, переписывая текст. 29. Проработав над докладом весь день, он чувствовал себя очень усталым. 30. Он понял свою ошибку и перестал спорить. 31. Получив телеграмму, я немедленно выехал домой. 32. Мы хорошо провели время, купаясь и загорая на солнце.

Participle after verbs of perception

.Have something done

Fluency Listen, read and practise.


It was Friday January The Samsons had just moved into an old house in Borley in Essex.

The house, built about two hundred years earlier, had once belonged to a man called Boyson. Some people in the village said the house was haunted. They said that Boyson's daughter Mary had fallen in love with Harold, a blacksmith from the village. Knowing that her father would not allow them to marry, Mary had planned to run away with Harold. But her father, having overheard their plans, locked Mary in her room and shot Harold. When Mary found out, she hanged herself. Her father, realizing that he had done something terrible, died of a broken heart.

One night, John Samson was lying in bed reading. Suddenly he heard a strange moaning noise, like a man crying. Seconds

later, the cigarette he was smoking went out and the room turned cold. Again he thought he heard someone crying and moving about. Having searched all the rooms, he decided it must have been the wind. Being very tired, he fell asleep, with a lighted cigarette in his hand... He dreamt that he could hear someone knocking loudly and that he could smell something burning. But it wasn't a dream. The bedroom curtains were on fire! Samson ran out of the house.

Fifty people from the village gathered outside, watching the burning house. A policeman thought he saw a young woman trapped in an upstairs room, knocking at the window, but there was nobody in the house. Several people saw two figures wearing dark clothes walking through the flames. An old man with a beard stood crying at the door...

No bodies were found in the ruins. No one was surprised.

A. Ask and answer questions on the text.

B. Retell the text. Use the participial constructions.

C. Say the sentences using a participle instead of a relative clause.

eg The story which has been told in Borley for over a hundred years is true. The story told in Borley for over a hundred years is true.

The old house which had been built two hundred years earlier had once belonged to Boyson. John Samson heard the noise of a man who was crying. The woman who was seen at the window was the ghost of Mary Boyson. The strange moaning noise which had been heard by John Samson on the night of the fire was Boyson's ghost crying. The two figures who were wearing dark clothes were the ghosts of Mary Boyson and Harold. The old man who was standing at the door crying was the ghost of Mary's father.

E. Make one sentence using a participle, without changing the meaning.

eg The ghosts appeared and disappeared. They left no trace. The ghosts appeared and disappeared, leaving no trace.

The Samsons arrived in Borley. They knew nothing about I the ghosts. Mr Samson ran out of the burning house. He shouted

loudly. Some neighbours came. They were carrying buckets. The villagers gathered. They watched the fire. Three firemen arrived. They brought fire equipment. A young woman was standing at the window. She was knocking at the window. An old man was standing in the door. He was crying. The Samsons moved to London. They left behind the ruined house.

Not a Cold Mine

Dreams of finding lost treasure came true recently. A new machine called "The Revealer" has been invented and has been used to detect gold which has been buried in the ground. The machine was used in a cave near the sea-shore where it is said pirates used to hide gold. The pirates would often bury gold in the cave and then fail to collect it. Armed with the new machine, a search party went into the cave hoping to find buried treasure. The leader of the party was examining the soil near the entrance to the cave when the machine showed that there was gold under the ground. Very excited, the party dug a hole two feet deep. They finally found a small gold coin which was almost worthless. The party then searched the whole cave thoroughly but did not find anything except an empty tin trunk. In spite of this many people are confident that "The Revealer" may reveal something of value fairly soon.

A. Questions

Is "The Revealer" a new machine or an old machine? What is it used for? Where was this machine used recently? Did the search party find any gold? Do many people believe that the machine may reveal something of value soon or not?

B. Complete the sentences from the text

Dreams of finding treasure almost came true recently. A new machine... "The Revealer" has been invented. with the new machine, a search party went into the cave to find treasure. the party dug a hole two feet deep.

C. Study and practise the text.

D. Complete using "used to" or "would" where possible.

When I was young I have a lot more free time than I do now. I live near my work and always get home early. I do a bit of gardening or go for a long walk. Now I never have time for anything like that.

A. Dangerous Place

Paula had always wanted to go to New York and now she had the chance at last. She was a journalist, and her newspaper was sending her there to do a series of articles on the city. But before she left her home in London, several friends warned her to be careful and not to go out alone at night in New York. "It's a dangerous place. People get robbed or even killed in broad daylight!" they told her.

But when she got there, the only thing she was afraid of was exhaustion. It was such an exciting city that she never got any sleep. It took her two weeks to do the articles and she had to interview a lot of people but she enjoyed every minute of it. She completely forgot all her friends' warnings until the day she went back to London. It all began in a bar.

She was having lunch there when she suddenly felt someone watching her. She looked up and noticed a man sitting at a table opposite her. He was staring at her, but looked away. She noticed that he had a scar on his cheek. He was about and had short, curly hair. Paula was not worried at all. She had to go to an airline office to re-book her flight home. She wanted an afternoon flight instead of a morning one, as originally planned. On her way there, she stopped to look at something in a shop-window. To her surprise she saw the man follow her. She could see his reflection in the glass. He had stopped just behind her. Suddenly she felt afraid. She walked on. Then she stopped and looked behind her again. But this time she could not see him. Just then she noticed she had come to the airline office. She went in and after she had finished her business, decided to phone a friend from a telephone booth there. She was carrying a small, portable but very expensive tape-recorder. It was in a black case in which she kept her money and passport as well. But the booth was so small that she had to leave the case outside. When she came out, it had disappeared. Then she saw the red-haired man hurrying out of the office. He had the case in his hand. She shouted but it was too late.

A Questions

Why did Paula go to New York? What did her friends warn her about before she left London? What made Paula forget her friends' warnings? What did Paula notice while she was having lunch? What surprised Paula? Why did she have to go to the airline office? What happened while Paula was phoning her friend?

B. Complete the sentences from the text.

She was having lunch there when she suddenly felt some­one... She looked up and noticed a man... To her surprise, she saw the man... Then she saw the red-haired man...

C. Study and practise the text.

D. Complete the sentences with the words in the list. Use both possible forms.











It was a thrill to see my brother the chess tournament last year. Uncle Jake is in his bedroom right now. I can hear him... When I glanced out of the window I saw Jack toward my house. When I heard the principal of the school my name at the graduation ceremony, I walked to the front of the auditorium to receive my diploma. Last night while I was trying to fall asleep, I could hear the people in the next apartment and...

When I walked past the park, I saw some children baseball.

Polly was working in the garden, so she didn't hear the phone...

There was an earthquake in my hometown last year. It was just a small one, but I could feel the ground... Do you smell something...?

E. Complete the sentences by using an appropriate form of get and the past participles of the verbs in the list.

break hire hurt lose pack worry tear

1 had a terrible day. First the heel of my shoe broke off, then my dress got torn in the elevator door. I'm glad the day is over!

Oh! Look at that beautiful vase on the floor. How did it

A: You're late. What happened?

B: We... We took the wrong exit from the highway, and it took a long time to figure out where we were.

A: I really need a job.

B: Why don't you apply for a job at the fast-food restau­rant? They're looking for help. I'm sure you'll...

A: Did Susan when she fell down the stairs?

Not badly. Just a few bumps and bruises. She'll be fine.

A: You're here! I about you. What happened that made

you so late. B: I couldn't start my car. The battery was dead.


Keiko: Hey, you look different. Did you get your hair cut? Sandra: Yeah. It's a little short, isn't it? Keiko: No, I think it looks great! Where did you get it cut? Sandra: At Short Cuts on Third Street. They usually do a nice

job and they're reasonable. Keiko: That's good to know. Speaking of reasonable, do you

know where there's a good shoe repair shop? I have

to get some shoes repaired.

Sandra: There's a little shoe repair shop on Fourth Street. Keiko: You mean the place next to the bookstore? Sandra: Yeah, that's the one. I know they're good and they're

fast, but they might be a little expensive. Keiko: Well, if they are good, I guess they're worth it. Any­way, time to get back to work. Doing anything for

lunch? Sandra: Yeah. I've got a dentist's appointment. I've got to have

a tooth filled. Keiko: Lucky you! Sandra: Yeah, really! And my car isn't working today either.

Something's wrong with the brakes so I have to get

them fixed, too.

. Complete the sentences from the text. Did you your hair...? Where did you it...? 1 have

to some shoes I've got to a tooth so I have to them too.

B. Study and practise the conversation.

I'll help you.

(Mrs W=Mrs Williams; Mr W=Mr Williams)

Mrs W: Can you take me into town on Saturday morning, dar-

ling? I want to have my hair done. Mr W: Yes, I can. I've got to go there anyway. I'm going to

have my car serviced. Mrs W: Good. If we leave early, I can have my hair dyed. And

you can pick me up at the hairdresser's when the car

is ready. Mr W: All right. I'll have the car washed by the time. And

when we return home I'll paint the garage doors

maybe you could help me. Mrs W: We only had the garage repainted a few months ago;

surely it isn't necessary yet.

Mr W: I'm afraid so. The paint is peeling off already. Mrs W: All right. I'll help you.

A. Complete the sentences from the text

1 want... I'm going... 1 can... I'll by the time. We only a few months ago.

B. Study and practise the conversation.

C. What kinds of things can you have done at these places?

shoe repair shop barbershop (beauty saloon) tailor's workshop dry cleaner's garage camera shop optometrist watch repair shop


shoes/repaired hair/cut clothes/made trousers/pressed

pictures/developed brakes/fixed eyes/checked watch/repaired

On Christmas Eve

One afternoon just before Christmas an old gentleman was walking through the city centre. The gaily illuminated shops were packed with good things and crowded with cheerful shop­pers. Suddenly in the middle of the crowd he noticed a dirty little boy sitting on the pavement, weeping bitterly. When the kind old man asked him why he was crying, the little boy told him that he had lost a ten penny coin that his uncle had given him. Thrusting his hand into his pocket, the old man pulled out a handful of coins. He picked out a shiny, new ten penny coin and handed it to the child. "Thank you very much," said the little boy, and, drying his eyes, he cheered up at once. An hour or so later the old man was making his way back home by the same route. To his astonishment he saw the same dirty little boy in precisely the same spot, crying just as bitterly as before. He went up to the boy and asked him if he had lost the ten pence he had given him as well. The little boy told him that actually he had not lost the second coin, but he still could not find his first ten pence. "If I could find my own ten pence," he said tearfully, "I'd have twenty pence now."

A. Study and practise the text.

A Meeting in the Park.

Cliff and Celia met by chance one sunny morning. They were sitting side by side on a bench in the park. She was reading, and he was just sitting in the sunshine, enjoying doing nothing. There was a rather cross-looking elderly lady sitting on the other side of her. Cliff liked the look of Celia right from the start. He tried hard to get into conversation with her, but she was not very encouraging.

"Isn't it a lovely day?" he said.

"It is, yes."

"Hardly a cloud in the sky."


"It's nice to have some decent weather for a change, isn't it?" Celia did not reply to this at all. She turned over a page of her book, and went on reading.

"What are you reading?" Cliff was determined to keep the conversation going.

"Madame Bovary."

"What's it like?"

"They say it is rather good," Celia said, without looking up from her book.

"I don't know much about French literature," Cliff said.

Celia closed her book and stood up. "I don't either," she said. "That's why I'm trying to read some. Well, good bye."

Cliff was sorry to see her go, but he could not think of a way of preventing her. He watched her walking away across the grass. Suddenly he noticed a white cardigan lying on the bench beside him. It must be hers. He picked it up and ran after her.

"You forgot this," he said, holding out the cardigan.

"You left it on the seat."

She looked at it in surprise. "It isn't mine," she said,

"What are you doing with my cardigan?" a furious voice behind them said.

Cliff turned. It was the cross-looking elderly lady. She looked even crosser now.

"I'm terribly sorry," he said. "I thought..."

"You'll end up in prison if you're not careful," the lady snap­ped.

"Running off with clothes that don't belong to you."

She snatched the cardigan and walked away, muttering to her­self. Celia was smiling. "You looked terribly guilty," she said.

"Have you got time for a cup of coffee?" Cliff said.

"I think so."

A. Questions

Where did Cliff and Celia meet? Where were they sitting? What was the weather like? Where was the elderly lady? What did Cliff try hard to do? Did he succeed? How did Cliff feel when he saw Celia go? What did he do to stop her? Why was Celia surprised? Who did the cardigan belong to? Where did the elderly lady say Cliff might find himself? How did the story end?

B. Study and practise the text. Observe the use of the verbals.

C. Make up sentences using these models:

There is a man waiting outside.

There were fifteen people living in that house.

She was sitting in the park enjoying the fine weather.

They watched her crossing the road.

I heard him singing in the bath.

I saw him leave.

He stood smiling.

She sat reading.

He went away singing to himself.

Cliff saw a pretty girl sitting on a bench.

Smoking in bed is risky.

There was no way of avoiding the accident.

He stopped for a moment and then went on reading.

He left without saying good-bye.

He was determined to win.

We were surprised to find the door locked.

D. Note: We never use adverbial phrases of place after forget. We often use them after leave: She forgot her book. She left it at home. He often forgets things. Yesterday he left his umbrella on the bus.


Listen, read and practise.

Sports and Pastimes

Athletic sports include running, boxing, rowing, jumping, diving, swimming, weightlifting, putting-the-shot, skating, wrestling, etc. To become proficient in these sports one must practise constantly. They are encouraged in schools, universities and clubs all over the world.

Other popular outdoor sports (field sports) are hunting, shooting, fishing, horse-racing, motor racing and mountain climbing (moun­taineering).

The most popular outdoor games are football, cricket, hockey and tennis. Indoor games include billiards, card games, chess, draughts.

England is the home of sport. Many of the games now played all over the world originated in Britain. We have a proverb, "All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy." We do not think that play is more important than work; we think that Jack will do his work better if he plays as well, so he is encouraged to do both. Most people in England are engaged in sedentary occupations; they would feel that life was hardly worth living if they were unable in the evenings, or at the weekends, to pursue their favourite sport.

What is a sportsman? He is one who is interested in sport. But that is only one meaning of the word. Even if a person is not interested in any sport, and has no opportunity or inclination to play any game, he may be called a sportsman if he has something called the "sporting spirit." This "sporting spirit" is something that the playing of games develops in people, though a person may have it who plays no games. It is the ability to endure hard knocks without getting angry or seeking revenge; the ability to smile in times of danger and hardship, the ability to win without boasting afterwards, and to lose without complaining. A sportsman forgets himself in his loyalty to his own side; he refuses to be disheartened when the game is going against him; he goes on fighting when the battle seems already lost.

Some people hate playing if there is no crowd to applaud them, some play only to win prizes, others are unwilling to play against stronger opponents for fear of defeat. Such people are not sports­men in the best sense of the word, but if they go on playing they may become sportsmen in time. We should all try to become "good losers," to accept our disappointments cheerfully. Everyone has disappointments at some time or other; sportsmen smile when they occur and refuse to be disheartened by them.

Fishing is practised by thousands of people of moderate means. Some of the fishing streams and rivers are reserved, others are open to the public. It requires great skill and much practice to "land" a heavy fish with a light rod. Fishing is a very quiet and peaceful occupation and is an excellent pastime for those who dislike noise and crowds. Horse racing is practised in many countries of the world. The horses are specially trained and are ridden by professional "jockeys."

The sport of mountain climbing appeals to many adventurous people. As there are few high mountains in Britain, many people go to Switzerland, which is the centre of European mountai­neering. Every year there are fatal accidents, but every year finds bold young men and women arriving in Switzerland ready to risk their lives among the high mountain peaks. An expedition was organized some years ago to India to climb Mount Everest, one of the highest mountains in the world. After many weeks of travel a small party came within sight of the summit, and two young men left the camp in a supreme effort to conquer the mountain. They were last seen fairly near the top, going slowly, cutting holes in the ice for their feet. A storm came on and hid them from the view of their friends, who because of intense cold and lack of food had to retire. The two men were never seen again and nobody knows what happened to them. Everest was finally conquered in by a British expedition, no trace of their bodies was found.

The most popular game in the world is certainly football. A team is composed of a goalkeeper, two backs, three half-backs and five forwards. This is the game that is played in nearly all countries. There is another game called rugby football, so called because it originated at Rugby, a well-known English school. In this game the players may carry the ball. There is also an American kind of football, different again from the other two. Hockey is fairly popular

in England and some other countries. Tennis, played with stringec1 rackets on a marked-out court, is an international game.

A. Questions

What do athletic sports include? What are popular outdoor sports? What are popular outdoor and indoor games? Are English people fond of sports? What does one of the English proverbs say? What is the "sporting spirit"? Who can be called a sportsman in the best sense of the word? Are fishing and horse-racing popular pastimes? What sport appeals to many adventurous people? How was Everest conquered? What is the most popular game in the world?

B. Study and practise the text.

C. Special Difficulties

I. Use one instead of you.

Note: We can use "one" instead of "you" to mean people in general, including you and me.

eg You can easily lose your way in Rome. One can easily lose one's way in Rome.

"You" is informal, "one" is more formal.

The moment you get into the mountains, you are on your own. You have to rely on yourself for everything. This means you have to carry all your own food, though, of course, you can get pure drinking water from mountain streams. You won't see any local people for days at a time, so you can't get help if you are lost. You have to do your best to find sheltered places to spend the night.

II. Complete according to the model.

eg To be fit...

To be fit one (you) must go in for sports.

To win the first prize... To become a student... To be healthy... To master a foreign language... To achieve this result... To break the world record...

III. Put the verbs in brackets into the present simple passive, the past simple passive, the present perfect passive or the future passive.

Do you know how often the Olympic Games (hold)? They (hold) every four years. The first Olympic Games (hold) at Olympia, in ancient Greece, nearly years ago. The tradition (continue) from BC to AD Even wars (postpone), so that everyone could travel safely to the Games. The Games (ban) in

In the modern Games (found) by a Frenchman called Baron de Coubertin in Athens.

Originally, the Games (set up) for amateurs. Amateurs are people who (not pay) to play the sport whereas professionals (pay). Since some professional athletes, such as football players, (allow) to take part.

Before the Games begin, the Olympic torch (light) at Olympus by a mirror reflecting the sun. Then it (carry) by runners to the city where the Games (hold). Sometimes by the time the last runner enters the stadium, the torch (carry) half-way round the world. Do you know where the next Olympic Games (hold)?

Note: AD anno Domini BC Before Christ

IV. Complete the sentences with by or with.

These photos were taken a very cheap camera. These photos were taken... my sister. My desk was covered paper. The garage was painted... a friend of mine. The garage was painted... anew kind of paint. The cake was made... dried fruit. The cake was made my aunt.

V. Now you have to make sentences with hardly. Use the words in brackets.

eg George and I have only met once, (know/each other) We hardly know each other.

I'm very tired this morning, (slept/last night)I night. You're speaking very quietly, (can/hear) I can you. I met Keith a few days ago. I hadn't seen him for a long time. He looks very different now. (recognized) I... They were really shocked when they heard the news, (could/speak). They...

VI. Choose the right word in each sentence.

Farm workers have to work very. during the harvest, (hard/ hardly)

Farm workers earn enough money to pay their bills, (hard/ hardly)

1 tried to remember his name but I couldn't, (hard/hardly) 1 enjoyed driving this morning. There was any traffic.

(hard/hardly) 1 hate this town. There's... anything to do and anywhere

to go. (hard/hardly) anyone passed, (hard/hardly)

VII. Change the adjective clauses to adjective phrases.

Only a few of the movies that are shown at the Gray Theatre are suitable for children. Only a few of the movies shown at the Gray Theatre are suitable for children.

Jasmine, which is a viny plant with white flowers, grows only in warm places. Jasmine, a viny plant with white flowers, grows only in warm places.

The couple who live in the house next door are both college professors.The couple living in the house next door are both col­lege professors.

A throne is the chair which is occupied by a queen, king, or other rules. We visited Belgrade, which is the capital of "Yugoslavia Antarctica is covered by a huge cap that contains percent of the earth's fresh water. Astronomy, which is the study of planets and stars, is one of the world's oldest sciences. Two out of three people who are struck by lightning survive. Simon Bolivar, who was a great South American general, led the fight for independence in the early 9th century. hi hot weather, many people enjoy lemonade, which is a drink that is made of lemon juice, water, and sugar. 1 was awakened by the sound of laughter which came from the room which was next door to mine at the motel. Two-thirds of those who are arrested for car theft are under twenty years of age. When we walked past the theatre, there were a lot of people who were waiting in a long line outside the box office. The opinions that were (are) expressed by the critics greatly differ. At the national park, there is a path that leads to a spectacular waterfall. My favourite place in the world is a small city that is located on the southern coast of

Brazil. The sunlight which is coming through the window wakes me up early every morning.

VIII. Make sentences with either in spite of or because of, like this.

eg They went out. The weather was bad.

In spite of the bad weather, they went out. eg They didn't go out. The weather was bad.

They didn't go out because of the bad weather.

His work was good. He didn't get a promotion. His work was good. He got a promotion. Everybody admires hum. He has talent. Nobody admires him. He has talent. The \veather was wonderful. She stayed inside. The price w^s low. Everybody bought it. The price was low. Nobody bought it.

IX. You like your job. You are telling someone this. You say things like: "I like my job because of... " or "I like my job in spite of "

The hours are long. The people are pleasant. "Jne pay is low. The work is interesting.

Think of more things you might say!

X. Transform using gerunds.

eg She left. She did not pay. She left without paying.

She came in. She did not knock. He walked five miles. He did not stop. He spoke for ten minutes. He did not p^use. 1 lay for five hours. I did not go to sleep. He left. FJe didn't answer my questions.

Sport in Britain

The British are a sporting nation. Like everyone else they love foot­ball in fact, they invented it. Most British towns and cities have a-football team. Every year, each team plays in the Football Association competition. The two best teams play in the Cup final at \Vembley Stadium in London. Some fans pay up to for a ticket for the Cup Final. It is one of the biggest sporting events of the y^ar.

Tennis is another popular game in Britain. Every su^nmer June, the biggest international tennis tournament takes place at

Wimbledon, a suburb of London. There are strawberries and cream for sale, and everyone hopes the rain will stay away.

The British play many sports that are unknown in most other countries, for example: cricket, squash and netball.

Cricket is a typically British sport which foreigners have difficulty in understanding. The game looks slow, but it can be exciting if you understand what's going on. There are two teams of eleven players: one man (the "bowler") throws the ball, and the "batsman" hits it with his bat.

Cricket is a very long game. Matches last from one to five days. Squash is another British invention. It is a form of tennis. There are two players and they use rackets similar to tennis rackets and a small, black rubber ball. They play indoors. It is a very fast and tiring sport!

Netball is similar to basketball. There are seven players (usually girls or women) in each team and the object of the game is the same as in basketball: to throw the ball through a net at the top of a three-metre post.

Swimming is very popular in Britain and there are many public swimming baths.

Many British people who live near the sea, a lake or a river enjoy sailing. If you are really enthusiastic, and rich enough to buy your own boat, you can take part in one of the annual sailing races or "regattas" at Cowes, near Portsmouth, for example, or at Henley on the river Thames.

Golf is becoming increasingly popular. Athletics is growing all the time.

Winter sports such as skiing are generally impossible in Britain (except in Scotland) owing to the unsuitable climate, but more and more people spend winter holidays on the Continent in order to take part in them.

Sport in British schools is compulsory and schoolchildren spend at least one afternoon a week playing sport. These are some of the sports played in most British secondary schools. In winter boys play football (or "soccer" as it is colloquially called) or rugby* and go cross-country running, while girls play netball or hockey. Some boys' schools also teach rowing. In summer boys play cricket, do athletics or go swimming, while girls play rounders (a British version of baseball), do athletics or go swimming. Tennis is also played in summer in some schools by boys and girls.


football (coll. soccer) a game in which there are eleven players on each side, using a round ball which must not be touched with the hands.

rugby (coll. rugger) a form of football in which the players use their hands for carrying the ball The game is played with fifteen men on each side, and an oval-shaped ball is used.

A. Questions

What are the most popular sports in Britain? Why is skiing not popular? What are some of the sports played in most British secondary schools?

Sport in the USA

Baseball is the most popular summer sport in America. The first American baseball match was in in New York, but some people think that baseball comes from a much older game called rounders, played in Europe for many years.

To play baseball, you need two teams of nine players. The "pitcher" throws the ball, and the "batter" hits it with a bat.

Americans start playing baseball young. There are "leagues" which children of eight can join. The top players become big stars and earn a lot of money every year.

Americans play tennis, hockey and most other international sports, but they do not play football in the same way as the rest of the world. American football is a very different game. The players can run with the ball, touch and push each other. The field looks different, and even the ball is a different shape. Players wear special clothes for American football, with helmets on their heads, because the game can be dangerous. Like international football teams, American teams have eleven players.

Basketball is another popular game in America. Only five people play in each team. One American basketball team, the Harlem Globetrotters, are famous all over the world. These extraordinary sportsmen, all very tall, have shown the world that sport can be funny as well as exciting.

Americans love winter sports, and ice hockey is a great favourite. This game, the national sport of Canada, is very fast,

and can be dangerous. So if you play ice hockey, remember to wear your helmet!

A Ask and answer questions on the text. Speak about sport in the USA.

B. What sports are popular in your country? Is sport compulsory in schools? What sports do children play?

C. Describe the sport activities at your school (university).

Sport Facilities and Athletics

There is a big sports centre near my home. There are football pitches, tennis and basketball courts, swimming pools, a sports hall with two boxing rings and even a skating rink. There is also a separate athletics stadium, where spectators can watch the track events on the track and the field events, such as jumping and throwing, in the grass centre. The athletes get ready in modern changing rooms and the officials time and measure the events with modern equipment. A huge electronic Scoreboard shows the results.

A. Study and practise the text.

B. Describe any sports centre you visited.

C. Speak about sport in your life.

My Favourite Sport

I love many sports, but best of all skiing. I first skied when I was six years old, and lived in Canada, and then for many years, in fact decades, I wasn't able to ski again because I was living in hot places. But since I've been living in England, I've resumed skiing and it's even better than it was. For me now the place to ski is the Alps, and particularly France. I live in England and the winters are gloomy, and there's not much sun, so one of the wonderful things about skiing for me is the light and the brilliant sunshine that you find high, high up in the mountains. A lot of other people like it, too, and it can be rather crowded, especially around the lifts because you now have mechanical lifts that take you zooming up, flying up the mountains like a god, whereas in Canada I had to walk up if I wanted to ski down.

" 236

The equipment you need... skis, and boots, and poles. Many people own their own equipment but I hire mine in the resort. I do have my own clothes though, and clothes are very important because skiing is quite a fashion-conscious sport. Also, it's necessary to have clothes that will protect you because the weather can be very severe. You need a ski-suit, a hat, goggles to protect your eyes, socks, mittens, and a rucksack is useful to carry around your bits and pieces. Now at this point, I have to confess that I am not the world's greatest skier. I would say I am a respectable skier, I'm a safe skier, but that doesn't stop you having a wonderful time. Also, there is the social life that is such an important part of skiing. You can eat and drink as much as you want because you know you're burning it all off. And then at the end of the day there's the evening, food and wine with friends and everybody talking about their excitements during the day. I love it!

A. Study and practise the text.

B. Speak about your favourite sport.

Sports at the Olympics

The first modern Olympic games were held in Athens in There were nine sports: cycling, tennis, gymnastics, swimming, track and field, weightlifting, rowing, wrestling and shooting. Sailing was also to have taken place, but had to be cancelled because of bad weather at sea. At that time, as today, most people were interested in the track and field events in the main stadium.

In the first Olympics there were no real team sports. Then, slowly, a few team sports joined the program. Soccer and field hockey were the first team sports introduced into the Olympics in London in Then in at the Berlin Olympics, the Germans brought in handball and the Americans had basketball accepted as an Olympic sport.

It often happens that the country that introduces a new sport into the Olympics then goes on to win the gold medals. In at the Olympics in St. Louis, the Americans introduced boxing and won all seven events. Five horseback-riding events were introduced into the Stockholm Olympics, and Swedish riders won four of them. And in at the Tokyo Olympics, two sports which are very popular in Japan were introduced: judo and

volleyball. The Japanese won all three gold medals in judo, and also won the first women's volleyball competition.

Some new sports have recently been added to the Olympics. In Los Angeles, in baseball was introduced and windsurfing became an Olympic sport. In Seoul, Korea, in there was table tennis for the first time, and tennis returned as an Olympic sport. Unlike tennis, some sports, such as golf and rugby, have been tried in the Olympics but have never returned.

The Olympic games continue to get bigger and bigger. They also get more and more expensive. Now many people are asking the questions: Are the Olympics too big? Will the Olympics continue? Should the Olympics continue?

A Ask and answer questions on the text. Speak about sports at the Olympics.

B. Which sports are you best at? How good are you? How long have you been playing? How often do you play?

Do you support a particular team? Which one? How often do you go to a sports event?, or do you prefer to watch sports on television?

Think of your favourite sport.

Which sports do you think are the most dangerous?

Do you think the Olympics should continue?

Did you watch the last Olympics on TV? Who showed the best results at the Olympic games? Do you know where the next Olympic games will be held?


I play football for my local team against other sides in the area. Of course the players aren't paid, we're just amateurs. But anyway we train very hard in the evenings and we're lucky because we can use the gymnasium of a local school. On the day of the match we arrive early, change and put on track suits to keep warm. Then the referee, dressed in black, calls the two captains to the centre to toss a coin to decide who will play in which direction. Not many people come to watch the game. We usually have a crowd of only one or two hundred. But we enjoy it, whether we win, lose or draw.

A. Study and practise the text.


Last Saturday afternoon David Brown and his father went to a football match at the Bishopton Football Ground. The Browns and many other Bishopton people think that theirs is the best team in the South of England. There were fifteen thousand people there. They came from far and near because it was the most important match of the year at Bishopton.

At three o'clock the two teams came on to the field. The Bishopton team (the home team) were playing in blue and white shirts, the Easthampton City players (the visiting team) were in red and white shirts.

The referee blew his whistle and the match began. For the first twenty minutes the Bishopton team were stronger and kept the ball in the Easthampton side of the field. Then, suddenly, an Easthampton player took the ball up the field and scored the first goal. The crowd shouted loudly. Soon after this, the referee blew the whistle because it was "half-time".

In the second half of the match the Bishopton team were again the better players. They tried hard, and after ten minutes they scored their first goal. They scored again after a quarter of an hour; then, before the last whistle blew, they scored a third goal and so won the match. All the Bishopton people in the crowd were very pleased, and went home happily to tea.

A. Ask and answer questions on the text. Speak about the football match at the Bishopton Football Ground.

B. Are you a football fan? Which team do you support? Are they in good shape this season? What are their chances of winning the cup this year? What was the last football match you saw like?

Conversation Practice Listen, read and practise.

A Champion's Memories

Jane is visiting the home of her new friend, Barbara. She sees something interesting in the living room.

Jane: Oh, what a beautiful statue!

Barbara: Thank you. It's a trophy I won years ago for running.

Jane: You must have been a good runner.

Barbara: Yes, I was, if I do say so myself. I was champion in the half-mile at the Oregon State Track Meet for two years.

Jane: Did you ever lose a race?

Barbara: I lost once or twice. But I usually beat my opponents.

Jane: It must have felt great to win.

Barbara: You're right about that. Victory is always a good fee­ling.

Jane: Do you still run?

Barbara: No, I haven't since I hurt my knee five years ago, but I still keep my old uniform hanging in the closet. Maybe you'd like to see it.

A. Study and practise the conversation.

B. Did you ever take part in any competitions? Did you ever win?

My favourite game

(I Interviewer; M Martin)

I: So Martin, what sports do you play?

M: I play football, volleyball, tennis, and table tennis but vol­leyball is my favourite game as it's a team game and you can play it with your friends, and enjoy it as a team.

I: Is it quite a fast game as well?

M: Yeah. It is a fast game and that's another reason why I en­joy it.

I: How exciting...

M: Yes.

I: Where do you play, then?

M: I play at local sports centres more during the winter and sort of play in tournaments around England. I also, in the summer, play beach volleyball.

I: Is beach volleyball different from the volleyball you play in the centres?

M: Yes, it's a very different game. Instead of six players on a

team, it's only two players.

I: You mentioned you played in tournaments now do you do quite well in the tournaments?

M: Yes, I've played for South West England and we've got through to the semifinals of different England tournaments, and for Wessex, my other volleyball team, we've actually won a few tournaments. So yes, I have done quite well.

I: Oh well done! What sort of equipment do you need?

M: Well, first of all you need the ball and the net, and ob­viously the court... but you may also need knee pads and your volleyball kit.

I: OK... knee pads because you fall on your knees a lot?

M: Yes... when diving and things like that.

I: Diving?

M: Diving... yeah.

I: It sounds like swimming, that means jumping to catch the ball?

M: Yeah, jumping to get a ball up in the air.

I: Yes, all right. So how often do you play volleyball then Martin?

M: Well during the season, which is about September to June, I play twice a week. One of those is training, and one of those is a match. And during the summer I play beach vol­leyball, but that's only once a week.

A. Ask and answer questions on the text.

B. Speak about Martin's favourite sport.

C. Situation- You and your friend are speaking about your favourite sports and pastimes.

I exercise every day (I Interviewer; H Henry)

I: Henry, you do a lot of sports?

H: Yes, I exercise every day.

I: How many sports do you do?

H: Five.

I: And what are they?

H: Swimming, tennis, cycling, yoga and jogging.

I: Why do you like swimming?

H: Because it's good for the back and it's fun.

I: And cycling? What's cycling good for?

H: The legs. I like it because it's not expensive and I think it's relaxing.

I: You also do yoga.

H: Yes, that's right. Yoga's good for many things, but very good for breathing. It's very good for the heart, too.

I: And tennis?

H: Yes, I like tennis very much. Tennis is fun, and sometimes it's very exciting. It's very good for the arms and legs. I li­ke it a lot.

I: When do you go to work?

H: Oh, I work as well, but I have time in the evenings and...

A. Study and practise the conversation.

B. Talk about the sports you like.

C. Talk about the most important sports event at your university or town during the last winter (summer).

A report from the Olympic Village

Karen Finch in the programme "Sportsworld" with her report from the Olympic village.

Karen: Well, I have two athletes with me in the studio. First

Bo Lundquist. Bo: Hey! Karen: Bo is a cyclist and he's here with the Swedish team.

This is your first Olympics, isn't it, Bo? Bo: Yes, it is.

Karen: And how do you feel about it? Bo: Happy, very happy. Karen: Let's talk about your training schedule, Bo. I imagine

it's pretty hard.

Bo: Yes, it is. I get up at five... Karen: Five! And do you start training then? Bo: Well, I have a cup of coffee first. I start training at

about five thirty. You know, it's quite cold then. Karen: Right! I'm sure it is. When do you finish training, Bo?

Bo: Well, I practise cycling on the track for about two ho­urs. Then I have a short break for breakfast. After that, I do exercises for another few hours. I suppose I finish at about midday.

Karen: So you're free after twelve. What do you do then?

Bo: You mean, what do I do in my spare time?

Karen: Right.

Bo: Well, we usually go swimming down at the beach in Malibi for the afternoon. That's all. I go to bed early. I want to win a gold for Sweden.

Karen: Well, I hope you do. Thank you, Bo Lundquist. Next with me in the studio is a British girl. She's a member of the swimming team. European champion in free sty­le Anne Cole. Hello, Anne.

Anne: Hello.

Karen: Anne, you heard Bo Lundquist talking about his trai­ning programme. Tell me about yours. For example, do you get up so early?

Anne: Well, not quite so early. I get up about six forty-five.

Karen: Do you start your training straightaway, Anne?

Anne: No, not exactly. I have a very light breakfast at seven and try to get to the pool by half past.

Karen: I see. How long do you train for?

Anne: All day.

Karen: You mean you swim all day?

Anne: (laughs) Oh, no! I swim for about four hours have lunch and then do track work and body strengthening-exercises in the afternoon. I suppose I train until four o'clock in the afternoon.

Karen: That's a long day.

Anne: It's all right.

Karen: What about your free time? What do you do?

Anne: Well, I like to relax when I'm training, so I read a lot and watch a lot of television I like American TV. I sometimes go dancing at the Olympic Club.

Karen: Dancing?

Anne: Yes, but I go to bed on most nights.

Karen: Thank you, Anne, and good luck to you.

This is Karen Finch at the Olympic Village in Los An­geles.

A. Ask and answer questions about Bo's and Anne's training schedules.

B. Speak about

i) Bo Lundquist and his training schedule, ii) Anne Cole and her training schedule.

C. Situation: You are interviewing a famous sportsman.

D. Who is your favourite sportsman? What do your know about him/her?



This afternoon I'm taking my cousin and my uncle to a football match. Simon's never seen a professional game. Uncle Guy hasn't seen one for years. Today's match is between Arsenal and Liverpool. Both of these teams are very good this season. They are often one of the best in the first division. I often go to football matches. I usually go to Highbury to see Arsenal. Their games are always good. I sometimes go to see Chelsea. Some of their games are good, others are bad. Rugby's another exciting sport, but I don't usually go to rugby games. The best sport's football.

Part II. The teams

Tim: Look, Simon. The teams are coming onto the field. Have

you ever seen Arsenal? Simon: No, I haven't.

Tim: What about Jane? Has she ever seen a football match? Simon: No, she has never seen one. She doesn't like football.

Have your parents ever seen a professional game? Tim: No, they haven't seen any professional games. Simon: Which ones are Arsenal? Tim: They are in red and white. Simon: Who's kicking off? Tim: Liverpool.

Simon: Are both teams good this season? Tim. Yes.

Simon: Which one's better?

Tim: Liverpool are usually better than Arsenal but this year

Arsenal are the best in the division. Simon: Do they ever lose? Tim: Oh, yes. They sometimes lose but they usually win.

They don't often have a bad day. Simon: Which team do you support? Tim: I've always supported Arsenal. Simon: Me too. Dad's never liked Arsenal.

A goal

Tim: Liverpool haven't scored yet... what's wrong?

Mr Hunt: I'm not worried yet. They've only been on the field for half an hour. This is only the first half.

Tim: Look, there's Moore. He's running up the wing. He's good.

Mr Hunt: No, he isn't; he's bad. He's worse than the other winger.

Tim: He's already scored one goal for Arsenal. Oh look! He's near the penalty area. And there's Blaire. He's Liverpool's worst defender. He's tackling Moore.

Mr Hunt: That's not Blaire; that's Blake. He's Liverpool's best player.

Tim: Collin's better than Blake. Look! Moore is in the pe­nalty area now. He usually scores... Yes, look at that... a goal!

Mr Hunt: What's the score now?

Tim: Arsenal two: Liverpool nil. What a game!

The end of the game

Simon: Who is winning now?

Tim: Arsenal are, three: nil. They've scored another goal.

Simon: Is this the last fifteen minutes?

Tim: Yes, it is.

Simon: Good. Liverpool can't score four goals in a quarter of

an hour. Mr Hunt: Yes, they can. Look! There's a man running up the

left wing. Now he's got the ball. Simon: Yes, that's Hedge. He plays for Liverpool. He al-

ways scores. Mr Hunt: Yes, you are right. Pass it, Hedge. No, he's trying

for a goal.

Shoot! Shoot! A goal! Simon: No, it isn't. Mr Hunt: Yes it is. What a goal! Simon: And that's the end of the game. Arsenal have won

again three: nil.

L Fans

Ted: What did you think of the game, Bill?

Bill: Dreadful! It was neither exciting nor skilful.

Ted: I agree with you. Of course the weather didn't help. They'd hardly kicked off when it started to pelt with rain. Our team are useless in the mud, and they were off form anyway.

Bill: Some of our team can't play football in either wet or dry conditions, and I've never seen them in form. I can't help laughing when I watch old Ford. Every time he gets the ball he either falls over or passes it to the opposition. I can't make out why they pick him.

Ted: He's too old really. He'd already been playing in the team for about ten years when I became a supporter and that was eight years ago.

Bill: Evans isn't much better. He's not only too slow, he's sca­red to tackle as well.

Ted: Yes, he's always afraid of getting injured. Neither Ford nor Evans is up to it. We need two new defenders and a new forward too.

Bill: But the management is too mean to spend money either

on new players or on improving the ground. Ted: Yes, that's true. The pitch is a disgrace. It isn't flat and the drains don't work. Every time it rains the pitch is co­vered with great puddles of water.

Bill: What we need, Ted, is not only new players but a new manager and a new pitch as well. Then perhaps we could win promotion to the Third division.

A. Ask and answer questions on the text.

B. Give a brief account of the text.

C. Situation: You and your friend have just been at the stadium. At the moment you are discussing the game and the chances of your favourite team.

D. Join these sentences using the words in brackets.