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IMPERATIVUL - PASSIVE VOICE (DIATEZA PASIVA)

Gramatica












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Verbul. Notiuni introductive.


IMPERATIVUL

- nu se poate forma decat pentru persoana a II-a sg si pl din infinitivul scurt al verbului

- nu are nevoie de subiect




- pentru celelalte persoane se formeaza din

let + pronume personal in AC + V infinitiv scurt

- imperativul negativ are in fata negatia "don't"

- pentru subliniere se poate pune "do" si la persoana a II-a

Ex: Do sit down! (stai dracului jos!)

propozitiile impersonale care contin un pronume nehotarat (somebody, someone, etc.) ca subiect, vor putea pune subiectul si in fata si dupa verb

Ex:   Someone give us a helpful hand!

Answer the phone, someone!

orice propozitie imperativa are tag question in viitor

Ex: Listen carefully, won't you?

Tag-ul se poate folosi si in afirmativ

Ex: Just write your exercise, will you?

orice propozitie imperativa devine in vorbirea indirecta infinitiv lung

Ex: Come here! => He told me to come.

PASSIVE VOICE (DIATEZA PASIVA)

- in diateza activa, subiectul face actiunea

- in diateza pasiva, actiunea facuta de subiect se repercuteaza asupra acestuia

Subiectul din diateza activa devine complement de agent, iar CD din diateza activa devine subiect in pasiva.

Ex:   1) I write the letter.

S  CD

2) The letter is written by me.

S C agent

Diateza pasiva presupune un verb "to be", iar verbul de baza va fi la forma:

V III + by + C agent

o propozitie care are atat CD cat si CI are 2 forme de pasiv, fiecare complement devenind pe rand subiect

Ex: I give him my book.

CI CD

devine

The book is given to him by me.

S

He is given the book by me.

S

Aspectul si timpul predicatului din activa se mentin in pasiva.

complementul de agent poate sa lipseasca daca este un pronume

Ex:   I read the book.

The book is read (by me). - poate sa lipseasca

daca subiectul este impersonal (somebody / someone), el poate de asemenea sa lipseasca

DIATEZA ACTIVA DIATEZA PASIVA

1) I eat an egg. An egg is eaten.

2) I am eating an egg. An egg is being eaten.

3) I have eaten an egg. An egg has been eaten.

4) I have been eating an egg. -

5) I ate an egg. An egg was eaten.

6) I was eating an egg. An egg was being eaten.

7) I had eaten an egg. An egg had been eaten.

8) I had been eating an egg. -

9) I shall eat an egg. An egg will be eaten.

10) I'm going to eat an egg. An egg is going to be eaten.

11) I am to eat an egg. An egg is to be eaten.

12) I'm about to eat an egg. An egg is about to be eaten.

13) . I should eat an egg. . an egg would be eaten.

14) I shall have eaten an egg. An egg will have been eaten.

atentie la prepozitiile care se aseaza la final (vor rezulta 2 prepozitii una dupa alta)

Ex:   They sent for the doctor.

The doctor was sent for by them.

Everybody laughed at him.

He was laughed at by everybody.

anumite verbe (to eat, to feel, to wear, to wash, to sell, to read, to perform) nu pot avea forma pasiva cand vrei sa spui ca sunt de foarte buna calitate / se vand singure / se poarta singure, etc.

Ex:   These books sold quickly. (si nu have been sold)

The shoes wore comfortably. (si nu have been worn)

verbul "to grow" nu poate avea sens de diateza pasiva pentru ca este de la sine

INFINITIVUL

Este de 2 feluri:

a)       - scurt (fara "to" in fata) - care este prezent (to come) si perfect (to have come)

b)       - lung (cu "to" in fata)

Utilizare:

1) dupa verbele modale

Ex: I can do it.

2) dupa verbele de perceptie (to see, to hear, to feel) + (to make, to let, to help, to get)

Ex: Let her go!

3) dupa expresiile

had best

had better

would rather

had rather

would sooner

had sooner

need hardly

conditia este sa fie acelasi subiect ca sa punem infinitivul scurt

Ex: I would rather go there.

He would rather go there.

diferit de

I would rather you didn't go there.

4) alte utilizari ale infinitivului

a) pronume/subst in AC + infinitiv - se foloseste dupa



verbe de perceptie

Ex: I saw her cross the street.

verbe de dorinta (to want, to desire, to intend, etc.)

Ex: I want you to understand the lesson.

verbe care arata o activitate mentala (to believe, to consider, to expect)

Ex: I imagine him to be right.

I know her to live in this flat.

verbe care exprima permisiunea (to allow, to order, to warn, to oblige)

Ex: My mother allowed us to leave.

in constructii impersonale (it is difficult, it is important, it is necessary)

Ex: It is difficult to understand this problem.

It is difficult for her to understand this problem.

dupa verbele (to advise, to convince, to choose, to enable, to challenge)

Ex: She advised me not to leave.

b) pronume/subst in N + infinitiv - se foloseste dupa

anumite verbe in diateza pasiva

to believe

to expect

to hear

to imagine

to know

to notice

to say

Ex: You are known to be a very good teacher.

anumite verbe in diateza activa

to chance

to appear

to happen

to prove

to seem

Ex: You happened to be there.

You seem to know the answer.

in constructiile impersonale

to be lucky

to be unlucky

to be fortunate

to be unfortunate

to be likely

to be sure

to be negative / positive

Ex: I'm lucky to be your friend.

Alte ulitizari ale infinitivului

in ordine / comenzi

Ex: Go and close the window!

pentru a exprima un scop

Ex: I went to the doctor to cure my desease.

dupa adjective (brave, curageous, foolish, generous, kind)

Ex: It's kind of her to say this.

dupa numeralul ordinal

Ex: He is the first to come.

dupa adjectiv la superlativ

Ex: He is the best to do it.

dupa adjectivele de genul (dangerous. hard, difficult)

Ex: It si difficult to get there.

dupa "the only"

Ex: He is the only person to understand me.

dupa "too"

Ex: It's too hot to breathe there.

dupa "enough"

Ex: You are clever enough not to do it again.

in proverbe

Ex: To forgive is to forget.

in vorbirea indirecta (dupa imperativ)

GERUNZIUL
Forma V + ing

Are mai multe valori:

substantiv

Ex: Reading is important.

participiu prezent (in constructia timpurilor continue)

Ex: I'm doing my homework.

gerunziu

Ex: Reading, I understood all my problems.



Urmatoarele verbe cer gerunziu:

admit

advise

anticipate

avoid

begin

consider

continue

delay

denny

detest

dislike

enjoy

escape

excuse

finish

forgive

forget

hate imagine

intend

involve

like

love

mind

miss

omit

postpone

practise

recollect

remember

regret

resist

risk

save

start

stop

suggest

try

understand

Expresii cu verbe:

accuse of

aim at

agree with

approve of

consist in

count on

excuse from

insist on

prevent from

rely on

result in

succeed in

think of

be afraid of

be agreeable of

be annoyed at

averse to

be capable of

be intent on

be interested in

be responsible for

be suitable for

be surprised at

be tired of

get used to / be used to

get accustomed to / be accustomed to

go on

keep on

give up

put off

can't help

can't stand

it's no good / it's no use

be looking forward to

be worth

feel like

Expresii cu substantive:

appology for

art of

change of

dissapointment at

experience in

habbit of

necessity of

objection to

opportunity of

pleasure of

possibility of

process of

reason for

right of

skill in

surprise at

way of

Dupa prepozitiile:

as

than

like

as well as

Ex: Living here is like dying little by little.

Atentionari / indicatoare:

no parking / no smoking

CORESPONDENTA TIMPURILOR

daca in principala avem prezent, in secundara putem avea orice

Ex: I know she is / will be / was here.

daca in principala avem viitor, in secundara avem prezent

a)       simplu - daca depinde de un program

b)       continuu - daca depinde de subiect

c)       perfect - daca a inceput intr-un moment anterior

daca in principala avem trecut, in secundara avem 3 raporturi:

a)       simultaneitate (actiuni paralele) => in secundara avem trecut

Ex: While I was dancing, he took my hand.

b)       anterioritate => in secundara avem past perfect

Ex: I told him I had met her before.

c)       posterioritate => in secundara avem future in the past

Ex: I told him I should go there.

pt adevaruri universal valabile nu se respecta regula cu trecutul

Ex: He told me that the sun rises from East.



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