- nu se poate forma decat pentru persoana a II-a sg si pl din infinitivul scurt al verbului
- nu are nevoie de subiect
- pentru celelalte persoane se formeaza din
let + pronume personal in AC + V infinitiv scurt
- imperativul negativ are in fata negatia "don't"
- pentru subliniere se poate pune "do" si la persoana a II-a
Ex: Do sit down! (stai dracului jos!)
propozitiile impersonale care contin un pronume nehotarat (somebody, someone, etc.) ca subiect, vor putea pune subiectul si in fata si dupa verb
Ex: Someone give us a helpful hand!
Answer the phone, someone!
orice propozitie imperativa are tag question in viitor
Ex: Listen carefully, won't you?
Tag-ul se poate folosi si in afirmativ
Ex: Just write your exercise, will you?
orice propozitie imperativa devine in vorbirea indirecta infinitiv lung
Ex: Come here! => He told me to come.
- in diateza activa, subiectul face actiunea
- in diateza pasiva, actiunea facuta de subiect se repercuteaza asupra acestuia
Subiectul din diateza activa devine complement de agent, iar CD din diateza activa devine subiect in pasiva.
Ex: 1) I write the letter.
2) The letter is written by me.
S C agent
Diateza pasiva presupune un verb "to be", iar verbul de baza va fi la forma:
V III + by + C agent
o propozitie care are atat CD cat si CI are 2 forme de pasiv, fiecare complement devenind pe rand subiect
Ex: I give him my book.
The book is given to him by me.
He is given the book by me.
Aspectul si timpul predicatului din activa se mentin in pasiva.
complementul de agent poate sa lipseasca daca este un pronume
Ex: I read the book.
The book is read (by me). - poate sa lipseasca
daca subiectul este impersonal (somebody / someone), el poate de asemenea sa lipseasca
DIATEZA ACTIVA DIATEZA PASIVA
1) I eat an egg. An egg is eaten.
2) I am eating an egg. An egg is being eaten.
3) I have eaten an egg. An egg has been eaten.
4) I have been eating an egg. -
5) I ate an egg. An egg was eaten.
6) I was eating an egg. An egg was being eaten.
7) I had eaten an egg. An egg had been eaten.
8) I had been eating an egg. -
9) I shall eat an egg. An egg will be eaten.
10) I'm going to eat an egg. An egg is going to be eaten.
11) I am to eat an egg. An egg is to be eaten.
12) I'm about to eat an egg. An egg is about to be eaten.
13) . I should eat an egg. . an egg would be eaten.
14) I shall have eaten an egg. An egg will have been eaten.
atentie la prepozitiile care se aseaza la final (vor rezulta 2 prepozitii una dupa alta)
Ex: They sent for the doctor.
The doctor was sent for by them.
Everybody laughed at him.
He was laughed at by everybody.
anumite verbe (to eat, to feel, to wear, to wash, to sell, to read, to perform) nu pot avea forma pasiva cand vrei sa spui ca sunt de foarte buna calitate / se vand singure / se poarta singure, etc.
Ex: These books sold quickly. (si nu have been sold)
The shoes wore comfortably. (si nu have been worn)
verbul "to grow" nu poate avea sens de diateza pasiva pentru ca este de la sine
Este de 2 feluri:
a) - scurt (fara "to" in fata) - care este prezent (to come) si perfect (to have come)
b) - lung (cu "to" in fata)
1) dupa verbele modale
Ex: I can do it.
2) dupa verbele de perceptie (to see, to hear, to feel) + (to make, to let, to help, to get)
Ex: Let her go!
3) dupa expresiile
conditia este sa fie acelasi subiect ca sa punem infinitivul scurt
Ex: I would rather go there.
He would rather go there.
I would rather you didn't go there.
4) alte utilizari ale infinitivului
a) pronume/subst in AC + infinitiv - se foloseste dupa
verbe de perceptie
Ex: I saw her cross the street.
verbe de dorinta (to want, to desire, to intend, etc.)
Ex: I want you to understand the lesson.
verbe care arata o activitate mentala (to believe, to consider, to expect)
Ex: I imagine him to be right.
I know her to live in this flat.
verbe care exprima permisiunea (to allow, to order, to warn, to oblige)
Ex: My mother allowed us to leave.
in constructii impersonale (it is difficult, it is important, it is necessary)
Ex: It is difficult to understand this problem.
It is difficult for her to understand this problem.
dupa verbele (to advise, to convince, to choose, to enable, to challenge)
Ex: She advised me not to leave.
b) pronume/subst in N + infinitiv - se foloseste dupa
anumite verbe in diateza pasiva
Ex: You are known to be a very good teacher.
anumite verbe in diateza activa
Ex: You happened to be there.
You seem to know the answer.
in constructiile impersonale
to be lucky
to be unlucky
to be fortunate
to be unfortunate
to be likely
to be sure
to be negative / positive
Ex: I'm lucky to be your friend.
in ordine / comenzi
Ex: Go and close the window!
pentru a exprima un scop
Ex: I went to the doctor to cure my desease.
dupa adjective (brave, curageous, foolish, generous, kind)
Ex: It's kind of her to say this.
dupa numeralul ordinal
Ex: He is the first to come.
dupa adjectiv la superlativ
Ex: He is the best to do it.
dupa adjectivele de genul (dangerous. hard, difficult)
Ex: It si difficult to get there.
dupa "the only"
Ex: He is the only person to understand me.
Ex: It's too hot to breathe there.
Ex: You are clever enough not to do it again.
Ex: To forgive is to forget.
in vorbirea indirecta (dupa imperativ)
Forma V + ing
Are mai multe valori:
Ex: Reading is important.
participiu prezent (in constructia timpurilor continue)
Ex: I'm doing my homework.
Ex: Reading, I understood all my problems.
Urmatoarele verbe cer gerunziu:
be afraid of
be agreeable of
be annoyed at
be capable of
be intent on
be interested in
be responsible for
be suitable for
be surprised at
be tired of
get used to / be used to
get accustomed to / be accustomed to
it's no good / it's no use
be looking forward to
Expresii cu substantive:
as well as
Ex: Living here is like dying little by little.
Atentionari / indicatoare:
no parking / no smoking
daca in principala avem prezent, in secundara putem avea orice
Ex: I know she is / will be / was here.
daca in principala avem viitor, in secundara avem prezent
a) simplu - daca depinde de un program
b) continuu - daca depinde de subiect
c) perfect - daca a inceput intr-un moment anterior
daca in principala avem trecut, in secundara avem 3 raporturi:
a) simultaneitate (actiuni paralele) => in secundara avem trecut
Ex: While I was dancing, he took my hand.
b) anterioritate => in secundara avem past perfect
Ex: I told him I had met her before.
c) posterioritate => in secundara avem future in the past
Ex: I told him I should go there.
pt adevaruri universal valabile nu se respecta regula cu trecutul
Ex: He told me that the sun rises from East.
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