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THE VERB

Gramatica












ALTE DOCUMENTE

Verbul
VERBUL
VERBUL
pronumele
verbe frazale
Engleza: Verbe - Top 10
VERBES IRRĖGULIERS
Timpurile trecutului si viitorului
THE RADIO AND THE TELEVISION
Vocabularul


THE VERB

Affirmative




Interrogative

Negative

PRESENT SIMPLE

S + V/V...s. (pers. a III sg.)

Do/Does + S + V ?

S + don't/doesn't + V.

We write a composition every week.

He usually writes good composition.

Do you write compositions every week ?

Does he usually write good compositions ?

We don't write comp. every day.

He usually doesn't write bad comp.

It is used to express

Translation

lactiuni obisnuite, repetate. Se foloseste cu:

every day/week/year,etc. once/twice a week/a month,etc usually,always,never,often,seldom,etc.

prezent

PRESENT CONTINUOUS

S + am/is/are + V...ing.

Am/Is/Are + S + V...ing ?

S + ain't/isn't/aren't + V...ing.

We are studying English now.

Is he studying English now ?

I am not studying Biology now.

It is used to express

Translation

lactiuni in desfasurare in momentul vorbirii. Se foloseste cu: now,at the moment,at present,etc.

prezent

PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE

S + have/has + Verb 3rd.

Have/Has + S + Verb 3rd ?

S + haven't/hasn't + Verb 3rd.

He has drunk his tea.

They have just said " Good-bye".

Has he already seen the photographs ?

Have you seen him lately ?

He hasn't been here since November.

We haven't talked to her this week.

It is used to express

Translation

A.lo actiune terminata al carei moment nu este precizat exact

lo actiune trecuta incheiata recent.Se foloseste cu: just,lately,recently already,yet adverbe de frecventa

lo actiune terminata intr-o perioada de timp care nu s-a incheiat. Se foloseste cu: today,this week/year,etc.

perfectul compus

B.lo actiune inceputa in trecut care continua in prezent. Se foloseste cu: since,for

prezent

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS

S + have/has + been + V...ing.

Have/Has + S + been + V...ing ?

S + haven't/hasn't + been + V...ing.

We have been looking a photo's for 2 hrs.

Have you been living here since 1978 ?

They haven't been reading all this time.

It is used to express

Translation

lo actiune inceputa in trecut care continua in prezent.

prezent

PAST SIMPLE

S + V...ed/Verb 2nd

Did + S + V ?

S + didn't + V

Yesterday,he reached school at 7.30 am.

He went to school when he was younger.

Did he reach school at 7.30 am yesterday ?

Did he go to school when he was younger ?

He didn't reach school at 7 yesterday.

He didn't go to school when he was y...

It is used to express

Translation

A.lo actiune savirsita si incheiata intr-un moment trecut. Se foloseste cu:

yesterday,last ..... ago in 1980,on Monday,etc.

perfectul compus

B.lactiune obisnuita, repetata in trecut. Se foloseste cu: often,frequently,usually,etc.

imperfect

PAST CONTINUOUS

S + was/were + V...ing

Was/Were + S + V...ing ?

S + wasn't/weren't + V...ing

He was teaching at 9 am yesterday.

We were waiting for him when he arrived

Was he teaching at 9 am yesterday ?

Were you waiting for him when he arrived

He wasn't teaching at 7 yesterday.

We weren't reading, when he arrived.

It is used to express

Translation

lo actiune in desfasurare intr-un moment trecut. (specificarea momentului trecut e obligatorie)

Momentul trecut se exprima prin: adverb (locutiune): by 6 o'clock,Saturday,etc.

subordonata temporara: at this time, yesterday

imperfect

PAST PERFECT SIMPLE

S + had + Verb 3rd

Had + S + Verb 3rd ?



S + hadn't + Verb 3rd

We had already left when you arrived.

Had he left before they arrived ?

He hadn't left by 6 p.m. yesterday.

It is used to express

Translation

lo actiune din trecut anterioara unui moment in trecut sau a unei alte actiuni din trecut.

Momentul trecut se specifica prin: adverbe (locutiuni): by 6 o'clock,Saturday,etc.

subordonate temporale: at this time, yesterday

mai mult ca perfect

PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS Situation: Yesterday afternoon at 4 Mary started practicing the piano. At 5 o'clock when her sister arrive from work she was still practicing.

S + had + been + V...ing

Had + S + been + V...ing ?

S + hadn't + been + V...ing

She had been practicing for an hour when her sister came from work.

Had she been practicing for an hour ?

She hadn't been practicing for an hour.

It is used to express

Translation

lo actiune inceputa inaintea unui moment sau actiuni din trecut, continuind pina in acel moment sau

pina la acea actiune. Se foloseste cu: since, for

imperfect

FUTURE SIMPLE

S + shall/will + V

Shall/Will + S + V ?

S + shan't/won't + V

We shall go to the seaside next summer.

Our friends wil come with us if they can.

Shall I find them home if I go now ?

Will he arrive next week ?

We shan't be there when he arrives.

She won't come back tomorrow.

It is used to express

Translation

lo actiune care are loc intr-un moment viitor. Momentul viitor se exprima prin:

adverbe: tomorrow,next week/month/year,etc. subordonate temporale

lo actiune viitoare a carei act. e conditionata de alta actiune. Conditia se exprima prin subordonata conditionala(if)

viitorul simplu

FUTURE CONTINUOUS

S + shall/will + be + V...ing

Shall/Will + S + be + V...ing ?

S + shan't/won't + be + V...ing

They will be visiting the Village Museum.

Will they be waiting for me when I arrive?

They won't be standing outside...

It is used to express

Translation

lactiune in desfasurare intr-un moment viitor. Se foloseste cu:

adverbe(locutiuni): this time,tomorow,at 5pm,on Monday

viitor

Situation:The 9th form pupils are standing outside the V. M.Peter who is always late hasn't arrived yet.The form teacher is buying the tickets. In a few moments (aff).(neg) any longer when Peter arrives.On his way to the museum Peter is wondering (int)

DIRECT SPEECH

INDIRECT SPEECH after a verb in Past Tense !

Imperative

Affirmative: Tell me the poem !

Negative: Don't play now !

He asked me to tell him the poem.

He asked me not to play.

Imperative

Present Tense

I don't know what to say.

He said he didn't know what to say.

Past Tense

Present Perfect

I have learnt it.

He said he had learnt it

Past Perfect

Past Tense

I learnt the poem yesterday.

He said he had learnt the poem the day before.

Past Perfect

Future Tense

I shall learn the poem tomorrow.

He said he would learn the poem the next day.

Future in the Past

Should / Would +Verb

In Indirect Speech you must remember that after a verb in the Past Tense !

direct speech

indirect speech

direct speech

indirect speech

direct speech

indirect speech

now

then

yesterday

the day before

today / tonight

that day / night

this

that

two day ago

two days before

tomorrow

the next day

these

those

last week

the week before

next week

the next week

Direct Speech Questions

Indirect Speech Questions

BE, HAVE, CAN, MAY, WILL (Yes / No Questions)

Is he ill ?

I asked if/weather he was ill.

Has he any books to read ?

I asked if/weather he had any books.

Can you go out ?

I asked if/weather he could go out.

May I see you him ?

I asked if/weather I might see him.

Will he get better soon ?

I asked if/weather he would get better soon.



DO, DOES, DID..., (WH...Questions)

When do you want to see him ?

I asked when he wanted to see him.

How does he know about it ?

I asked how he knew about it.

When did he phoned you yesterday ?

I asked when he had phoned you the day before.

CONDITIONAL SENTENCE TYPE 1

Tense

PRESENT TENSE

if X happens

FUTURE TENSE

Y will follow

sequence

IF CLAUSE (sub. conditionata)

MAIN CLAUSE (prop. principala)

Example

If the teacher agrees,

we shall go to the T. Museum next Sunday.

State of facts

Perhaps he will agree.

Then we shall go to the Technical M.next Sunday

Translation

Daca profesorul va fi de acord,

vom merge la M. T. duminica viitoare.

CONDITIONAL SENTENCE TYPE 2

Tense

PAST TENSE

if X happened

PRESENT CONDITIONAL (Would + Verb)

Y would follow

sequence

IF CLAUSE (subordonata cond.)

MAIN CLAUSE (propozitia prin.)

Example 1

If the weather were, fine,

they would go for a swim.

State of facts

The weather is not fine.

They would not go for a swim.

BE WERE

Translation

Daca vremea ar fi buna,

s-ar duce sa inoate.

Example 2

If you did not get up late,

you would not reach school late.

State of facts

You get up late.

You reach school late.

Translation

Daca nu te-ai scula tirziu,

nu ai ajunge tirziu la scoala.

CONDITIONAL SENTENCE TYPE 3

Tense

PAST PERFECT TENSE

if X happened

PAST CONDITIONAL (Would + Have+3rd Verb)

Y would have followed

sequence

IF CLAUSE (sub. conditionata)

MAIN CLAUSE (prop. principala)

Example 1

If the weather had been, fine,

they would have gone for a swim.

State of facts

The weather was not fine.

They did not go for a swim.

Translation

Daca vremea ar fi fost buna,

ne-am fi dus sa inotam.

Example 2

If you had not got up late,

you would not have reached school late.

State of facts

You got up late.

You reached school late.

Translation

Daca nu te-ai fi sculat tirziu,

nu ai fi ajuns la scoala tirziu.

Future Simple is not used in adverbial clauses of time and conditions after this words:

if

when

till

until

before

after

unless

as soon as

Present Perfect is used instead.










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Accesari: 1942
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