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VERBUL

Gramatica




VERBUL

Are 3 categorii:

A.      Auxiliare

B.     Modale




C.     Restul

A. Verbele auxiliare (to be si to have)

Sunt verbe deosebit de puternice

Au forme distincte pt. prezent si trecut

Intra in alcatuirea altor timpuri verbale:

to be la toate formele de continuu

to have la toate timpurile perfecte

Nu-si pot forma participiul nedefinit (forma in "ing") cu exceptia situatiei cand verbul "to have" pierde sensul de a avea, a poseda si intra in alcatuirea alocutiunilor verbale (to have a bath, to have a shower, to have a rest, to have talk, to have a walk, to have lunch).

Isi fac singure interogativul prin inversarea cu subiectul

Isi fac negativul prin adaugarea negatiei "not"

Isi fac singure intrebarea disjunctiva si raspunsul scurt

Ex: He has a car. Hasn't he? Yes, he has.

Trecutul verbelor auxiliare

Pt. to be - was la pers I si a II-a singular, were pt. toate celelalte

Pt. to have - had

B. Verbele modale

Verbe puternice

Au forme distincte pt. prezent si trecut

Nu au infinitiv lung (adica cu to in fata)

Ex: I can (fara to) go

Nu permit dupa ele verbe la infinitiv lung

Nu apar niciodata singure, cu exceptia raspunsului scurt

Nu pot avea forma in "ing"

Nu isi pot forma toate timpurile

Au inlocuitori

Isi fac interogativul prin inversare cu subiectul

Isi fac negativul prin adaugarea negatiei "not"

Isi fac singure intrebarea disjuncta si raspunsul scurt

CAN

1. Can = pot ca abilitate (1) fizica si (2) mentala.

Ex: (1) I can speak English.

(2) I can do this job.

2. Se mai poate folosi cu verbe de perceptie atunci cand sugerez o actiune ce se desfasoara in momentul vorbirii.

Ex: I can see the plane. (!si nu I am seeing)

3. Pentru a exprima posibilitatea cand exista o circumstanta in acest sens

Ex: We can go to the theatre if my friends come.

4. Pentru a exprima o cerere politicoasa

Ex: Can you help me please?

5. Pentru a exprima o imposibilitate

Ex: Can Carmen make such a thing?

6. La negativ are doua forme: can't si cannot (!nu exista "can not")

7. La trecut

Can+have+participiu trecut

precum si could mai mult pt conditional

Ex: I can have done it.

I could do it.

8. Inlocuitori: to be able to, to be capable to

MAY

1. = pot, am permisiunea, mi se da voie; (In toate cazurile depind de altcineva)

Ex: May I open the window?

2. Exprimarea improbabilitatii

Ex: It may rain.

3. Exprimarea unei interdictii

Ex: People may not bring dogs into the hotel.

4. Exprimarea unei urari

Ex: May all your dreams come true.

5. Dupa verbele "to hope" si "to trust"

Ex: I hope you may find tickets for the cinema.

6. La forma negativa are doar forma "may not" (nu exista forma contrasa mayn't)

7. La trecut are forma may have+participiu trecut si "might" - mai ales pt conditional.

8. Inlocuitori: "to be allowed to", "to be permitted to"

MUST

= trebuie, arata obligativitatea

Ex: I must go now.

Arata o deductie logica

Ex: As she left at four she must be at home now.

Negativ: mustn't (nu trebuie), needn't (nu este necesar).

4. Trecut: must + have + participiu trecut si had to.

5. Inlocuitori: to have to, to be obliged to, to be compelled to (toate = a fi obligat)

6. Diferenta dintre must si have to.

Must => arata obligativitatea din punctul meu de vedere;

Have to => arata obligativitatea impusa de altii.

Ex: I must go now.

I have to wear uniform.

NEED

1. Are 2 valori: (a) verb lexical, (b) verb modal.

(a)   Verb lexical - este un verb regulat

Ex: I need a new car. Do I need a new car?

(b)   Verb modal - se foloseste numai in propozitii interogative si negative.

Ex: Need she get up early?

She needn't go there.

Totusi "need" se poate intalni si in afirmative ca modal - propozitii in care exista de regula never, hardly, barely, scarcely

Ex: He hardly need mention his name.

2. Exista 2 constructii cu "need" considerate arhaice.

a)      Must needs

Ex: I must needs see your teacher.

b)      Needs must - sugereaza ideea de sarcasm

Ex: She needs must bring me now when I have .

OUGHT TO

Arata obligativitatea morala de a-si face datoria

Ex: I ought to go (nu are acelasi nuanta cu "must")

Daca e urmat de have si verb la participiul trecut exprima o datorie care s-a indeplinit

Ex: You ought to have waited till 2 o'clock.

3. Nu are forma de sine statatoare de trecut. Se formeaza din:

ought + have + participiu trecut + to

Ex: Ought have invited to join the party.

4. Negativ: "oughtn't"

SHOULD Este mai moale ca ought to

Arata o datorie ca recomandare, e cel mai slab din cele care = trebuie

Ex: You should read this book.

Pt exprimarea supozitiei

Ex: For his age he should be taller.

Folosit daca e precedat de verbe ca: to suggest, to propose, to insist, to recommend, to advice

Ex: I suggest that you should learn English.

Folosit cand este precedat de o constructie impersonala: it is important/ necessary/ natural/ better

Ex: It is important that you should understand.

Folosit dupa constructii ca: so that, in order that, for fear that, lest (ca sa nu).

Ex: I got up early for fear that/ lest/ so that I should arrive in time.

Dupa verbe de stari emotionale: to feel sorry for, to be delighted, to be annoyed (uimit).

Ex: I feel sorry that he should go back. Imi pare rau ca trebuie sa se intoarca.

Dupa expresiile: don't know why, can't think why, see no reason why

Ex: I don't know why you should ask me that.

WOULD

Folosit pt. o cerere politicoasa

Ex: Would you give me your tel. number?

Urmat de like ca sa aiba inteles mai politicos

Ex: I would like to meet you.

Poate fi urmat de "rather" sau "sooner" pentru a exprima preferinta

Ex: I would rather sleep than go for a walk.

Pt. a exprima un obicei, actiune repetata in trecut

Ex: I would meet you whenever I crossed the road.

Pt a exprima probabilitatea

Ex: The man would be his neighbor.

USED TO

Arata un obicei trecut

Ex: I used to visit my grand parents when I was child.



A nu se confunda cu "to be used to" care cere dupa ea verbul in "ing"

Ex: I am used to getting up early. (sunt obisnuit cu sculatul de dimineata)

DARE

Are 2 valori: (a) modala; (b) lexicala.

(a)   Valoarea modala - in propozitii negative si interogative.

Ex: Dare you say this? (indraznesti sa spui asta)

I daren't go there (nu indraznesc sa merg acolo)

(b)   valoare ca verb lexical in propozitii afirmative fiind verb regulat.

Ex: I dare to ask you about my dog.

I dare say = I suppose

I dare say I will invite them to dinner.

I daresay = I accept

I daresay you are right again.

Pt a exprima indignarea se foloseste expresia: "How dare you"

Ex: How dare you come so late?

C. Verbe lexicale

Se impart in doua categorii de moduri: (1) Predicative; (2) Nepredicative.

Modurile predicative (pot sa fie predicat in propozitie):

a)      indicativ

b)      conditional

c)      subjonctiv

d)      imperativ

Modurile nepredicative:

a)      infinitivul

b)      participiul

c)      gerund

MODUL INDICATIV

Are 3 timpuri: - prezent

- trecut

- viitor

Prezentul are 4 aspecte: - Simplu

- Continuu

- Perfect

- Perfect continuu

PREZENTUL SIMPLU

Desemneaza o actiune repetata ce devine o obisnuinta

Adverbe specifice: usually, often, always, every, never

Ex: Every day I go to my office.

Desemneaza un adevar universal valabil, o lege

Ex. Fish swim.

Cu valoare de viitor cand actiunea depinde de un program.

Ex: The train arrives tonight.

Pt actiuni pas cu pas (instructiuni de utilizare, indicatii regizorale, comentarii sportive)

In naratiune

Ex: The boy enters the room, takes the ball and goes out.

Pt actiuni care, desi se desfasoara in momentul vorbirii, nu au durata (verbe nondurative): to start, to end, to finish, to stop, to quite, to cancel, to kill, to die, to shoot.

Cu verbe de perceptie senzoriala: to see, to hear, to taste, to smell, to sound, to feel etc.

Cu verbe de perceptie mentala: to think, to realize, to remember, to forget, to remind, to suppose.

Cu verbe de perceptie afectiva: to like, to enjoy, to hate, to dislike.

Se formeaza din subiect + verb la infinitiv scurt ; pentru pers III sg se adauga "s"

Modificari ortografice la persoana a III-a:

a) Daca verbul se termina in "s", "ss", "sh", "ch", "tch", "x", "z" sau "o" se adauga "es"

Ex: to go => goes

wash => washes

b) Daca verbul se termina in "y" precedat de consoana se transforma "y" in "i" si se adauga "es".

Ex: cry => cries

13. Interogativul do/does + subiect + verb la infinitiv scurt

Ex: She cries a lot. Does she cry a lot?

Negativ subiect + don't/doesn't + verb la infinitiv scurt

Ex: She doesn't cry.

PREZENTUL CONTINUU

Desemneaza o actiune ce se desfasoara in momentul vorbirii (in this very moment/now/right now)

Ex: I am speaking now.

Se foloseste in descrieri

Ex: The sun is shinning.

Cu valoare de viitor cand actiunea depinde de subiect

Ex: I am leaving soon.

Pt. actiuni prezente paralele in desfasurare (when, while).

Ex: While I am talking he is sleeping.

Pentru actiuni care, desi nu se desfasoara in momentul vorbirii, constituie o rupere de ritm.

Ex: Every day I get up at 7, but on Sunday I am getting up at 9.

Pt. actiuni repetate care ma enerveaza

Ex: She always eats fruits before soup. (constatare obisnuita)

dar

She is always eating fruits before soup. (enervare)

Se formeaza din subiect + verbul to be + verb in "ing". (se conjuga doar "to be")

Verbul in "ing" = participiu prezent si are urmatoarele modificari ortografice.:

a)      Daca verbul se termina in "e" acesta cade inaintea lui "ing"

Ex: to dance => dancing

b)      Verbele terminate in "ie" transforma "ie" in "y"

Ex: to lie => lying

c)      verbele terminate in consoana precedata de vocala moale dubleaza consoana finala

Ex: to sit => sitting

Sufixul "ing" nu afecteaza "y" si "i" final al verbului

Ex: to play => playing

to ski => skiing

Interogativul - se formeaza prin inversarea auxiliarului cu subiectul

Ex: Am I sleeping?

Negativul - se formeaza prin adaugarea negatiei "not" la verbul "to be"

Ex: I am not drinking.

PREZENTUL PERFECT

1) desemneaza o actiune trecuta, care fie tocmai s-a incheiat, fie ca se desfasoara intr-un timp deschis, nedeterminat. Spre deosebire de trecut, care desemneaza tot o actiune trecuta, la prezent perfect momentul incheierii actiunii nu trebuie sa fie cunoscut

Ex: I saw her yesterday. (stiu cand => trecut)

dar

I have seen her lately. (nu stiu cand => prezent perfect)

Ex: Did you see "Gone with the wind"? (nu mai poti sa-l vezi)

dar

Have you seen "American Pie"? (mai poti sa-l vezi)

de multe ori la o intrebare in prezent perfect raspunsul vine in trecut daca precizez momentul cand a avut loc actiunea

Ex: Have you met her?

Yes, I have. I met her an hour ago.

(raspunsul trebuie sa contina "have"-ul din intrebare, dar trebuie sa precizez momentul, si atunci intra pe trecut).

Se formeaza din

have / has + verb III (participiu trecut)

Verbele se impart in: - regulate (a)

- neregulate (b)

(a) Verbele regulate

Au forma II si forma III identice, se formeaza cu sufixul "ed" adaugata la forma infinitivului scurt

Modificari ortografice

1) daca verbul se termina in "e", adauga doar "d"

2) daca verbul se termina in "y" precedat de consoana, transforma y in i si adauga "ed"

Ex: cry - cried

3) daca verbul se termina in "l", il dubleaza mereu

Ex: travel - travelled

cancel - cancelled

4) daca verbul se termina in "ic", adauga "ked"

Ex: panic - panicked

5) daca verbul se termina in consoana precedata de vocala moale (vocala intre 2 consoane), dubleaza consoana si adauga "ed"

Ex: to stop - stopped

(b) Verbele neregulate

Au forma II si forma III diferite.

Adverbele specifice prezentului perfect

Intre cele 2 verbe (auxiliar si verb) avem

- adverbe de frecventa definita: (often, seldom, ever, never, usually, sometimes)

- adverbe de frecventa indefinita: (just, recently, already)

Ex: I have just met her.

yet - se aseaza doar pe finalul propozitiei si numai in propozitii interogative si negative. In interogative are sensul de "deja":

Ex: Have you met her yet? (daca ar trebui transpusa in propozitie afirmativa, "yet" ar deveni "already") => I have already met her.

In negativa are sensul de "inca":

Ex: I haven't met her yet.

for - timp de (arata durata actiunii, fara a preciza momentul de inceput si de final). In propozitie are pozitie aproape finala.

Ex: I haven't met her for 2 years.

since - incepand din (arata momentul de inceput, fara a preciza durata sau momentul de final). Pozitia este spre finalul propozitiei.



Ex: I haven't met you since Monday.

dupa "since" urmeaza intotdeauna trecut daca mai urmeaza o propozitie

Ex: I haven't met her since I came. (este o actiune mai trecuta decat cea cu intalnirea)

Pe pozitia finala mai avem adv de timp deschis (lately, today, this year / month / week).

prezentul perfect corespunde in romana trecutului (perfectul compus)

Ex: A nins = It has snowed (nu stiu cand)

dar

A nins acum o ora = It snowed an hour ago.

Interogativul - avand in constructie auxiliarul "to be", se obtine prin inversia acestuia cu subiectul

Ex: Has it snowed?

Negativul - prin adaugarea negatiei "not" la auxiliarul "have"

Ex: It hasn't snowed.

PREZENT PERFECT CONTINUU

- corespunde in romana prezentului

Ex: Ninge de 2 zile. (ninge = prezent; de 2 zile = actiunea a inceput in trecut si continua pana in prezent)

have / has + been + V-ing

- desemneaza o actiune trecuta care s-a desfasurat necontenit si care fie tocmai s-a incheiat, fie se desfasoara intr-un timp nedeterminat

Ex: It has been snowing for 2 days.

se foloseste doar cu verbe durative - care au o durata de actiune (nu poti sa spui ca moare de 2 ore)

se foloseste cu verbe meteo

are caracter subiectiv (nu pot spune despre altul ca doarme de 2 ore)

cu: to work

to live

to study nu se poate folosi forma continua decat daca precizez anumite conditii

Ex: NU ! - I have been working all my life. (verb existential = pleonasm)

DA - I have been working in this company all my life.

daca precizez de cate ori s-a desfasurat o actiune, nu mai pot folosi forma continua, pentru ca practic se fragmenteaza actiunea.

Ex: Citesc cartea asta de cand am venit (nu stiu de cate ori)

I have been reading this book since I came.

dar

Am citit cartea asta de 2 ori de cand am venit.

I have read this book twice since I came. (am inceput, am terminat, iar am inceput, etc.)

Adverbe specifice - sunt de continuitate (since si for)

Interogativul si negativul - cu auxiliarul "have"

TRECUTUL

Timpul trecut are 4 forme: - simplu (I)

- continuu (II)

- perfect (III)

- perfect continuu (IV)

I. Trecutul simplu

Forma: verbul la forma II

1) desemneaza o actiune trecuta, repetata, devenita obisnuinta (in romana corespunde cu perfectul compus)

Ex: I used to visit my grandparents last year.

2) desemneaza o actiune la care momentul incheierii ei este bine precizat

Adverbe specifice - yesterday, the day before yesterday, 3 days ago, last year / month, the other day, when, etc.

Ex: I visited them yesterday.

3) are valoare de prezent la trecerea de la vorbirea directa la vorbirea indirecta

Ex: She said, "I want to win".

devine

She told me that she wanted to win.

(Virgula are valoare de 2 puncte inainte de cuvintele cuiva si nu exista linie de dialog, ci ghilimelele de sus).

Interogativ - Did + (S) + V infinitiv scurt

Ex: Did you watch TV?

Negativ - (S) + didn't + V infinitiv scurt

Ex: I didn't watch TV.

II. Trecutul continuu

Corespunde imperfectului in romana (vorbeam, scriam, citeam)

Forma: was / were + V-ing

desemneaza o actiune trecuta ce se desfasoara intr-un anumit moment bine definit sau intr-un moment trecut raportat momentului vorbirii (ieri pe vremea asta = this time yesterday)

Ex: I was writing this time yesterday / yesterday at 5 o'clock.

2) se foloseste in descrierile pe trecut

Ex: That day the wind was blowing hard.

pentru naratiune se foloseste trecutul simplu.

Ex: The child got the ball and put it into the box.

3) desemneaza actiunile trecute paralele in desfasurare (cu "when" si "while")

Ex: While I was talking, you came.

4) desemneaza o actiune trecuta, repetata, care ma enerva

Ex: He was always asking me to help him!

Interogativul si negativul - prin auxiliarul "to be"

Ex: Was I dancing when you came?

III. Trecutul perfect

Corespunde in romana cu mai mult ca perfectul (cantasem, vorbisem, citisem).

Forma: had + verb III

1) desemneaza o actiune trecuta, incheiata inaintea unei alte actiuni trecute

Ex: O vazusem inainte sa plece = (inainte am vazut-o si dupa aceea a plecat)

I had seen her before she left.

2) desemneaza o actiune trecuta, incheiata inaintea unui moment trecut

Ex: O vazusem inainte de 1989.

I had seen her before 1989.

3) este specifica constructiilor cu hardly, barely, scarcely, no sooner, mai ales in inversie.

Ex: I had met her before she left.

cu inversie devine

Hardly had I met her when she left.

Adv specifice - after, before, hardly, barely, scarcely, just, already, by the time, for, since

Ex: I had just invited her to dinner when you arrived.

Interogativul si negativul - cu auxiliarul "had"

IV. Trecut perfect continuu

Forma: had + been + V-ing

Desemneaza o actiune trecuta desfasurata necontenit si incheiata inaintea unei alte actiuni trecute sau al unui moment trecut

Ex: I had been waiting for you 2 hours before you came.

Adverbe specifice - for, since, after si before

nu se foloseste decat cu verbe durative, are caracter subiectiv doar cand actiunea are o specificatie de genul

Ex: I had been living in this house for 5 years before we moved.

daca precizez de cate ori s-a desfasurat o actiune, nu se mai poate folosi forma continua

Interogativul si negativul - cu auxiliarul "had"

VIITORUL

Viitorul simplu

Forma: shall (I sg, pl) / will + V infinitiv scurt (in SUA - will la toate persoanele)

Prescurtare: 'll

Ex: You'll be home soon.

1) desemneaza o actiune viitoare ce se va desfasura intr-un moment bine definit

Adverbe specifice - tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, next ., the following .

2) desemneaza o actiune viitoare desfasurata in mod repetat, devenita obisnuinta

Adverbe specifice - always, usually, often

Ex: I shall always think of you.

daca in propozitia principala am viitor, in secundara nu pot avea decat prezent. Acest prezent poate sa fie:

a) simplu - daca depinde de un program

Ex: I shall come when the train arrives.

b) continuu - daca depinde de subiect

Ex: I shall come when I am finding the ticket.

c) prezent perfect - cand actiunea este anterioara momentului viitor

Ex: I shall come when I have saved enough money.

propozitiile secundara introduse prin temporale (when, while, before, after, as soon as, till, until, etc.) si if, nu pot sa contina viitor si contin prezent.

Interogativul - prin inversia auxiliarului shall / will

Ex: Will you take this car?

Negativul - shall + not = shan't

will + not = won't

Viitorul continuu

Forma: shall / will + be + V-ing

1) desemneaza o actiune viitoare ce se va desfasura intr-un moment viitor raportat momentului vorbirii sau intr-un moment viitor raportat momentului precizat (tomorrow this time / tomorrow between 3 and 5).

2) actiuni viitoare in desfasurare (paralele) - when, while

Ex: While I'm watching TV you will be sleeping.

atentie, nu pot avea viitor in ambele (when si while nu permit viitor)

Interogativul si negativul - cu auxiliarul viitor "shall / will"

Viitorul de intentie

Forma: to be going to + V infinitiv scurt

(se conjuga doar verbul "to be")

1) desemneaza intentia (am de gand sa, intentionez sa), o actiune viitoare ce urmeaza sa aiba loc intr-un moment viitor apropiat

Ex: I think it's going to rain.

nu se poate folosi cu verbul "to go" si "to come", ci cu "to leave" si "to return"

Interogativul si negativul - cu auxiliarul "to be"

Viitorul apropiat

Desemneaza o actiune viitoare ce se va desfasura datorita unei porunci, ordin, rugaminte, sau intr-un moment imediat urmator.

Are 2 forme: a) to be to + V infinitiv scurt (folosit pt ordine, comenzi)

Ex: You are to read the book before midnight.

b) to be about to + V infinitiv scurt (= a fi pe punctul de a)

Ex: He is about to cry.

Interogativul si negativul - cu auxiliarul "to be"

Viitorul in trecut

Forma: should / would + V infinitiv scurt

Este un timp sintetic care nu poate sa apara in propozitia principala, ci in secundara atunci cand in propozitia principala am un verb la timpul trecut si vreau sa sugerez o actiune ulterioara acelui moment trecut.

Ex: I-am spus ca ma voi duce la film.

(trecut) viitor (in rom)

I told her that I should go to the movie.



daca actiunea ce urmeaza sa se desfasoare in propozitia secundara are durata, voi folosi forma continua => should / would + be + V-ing

Ex: I told him that I should be waiting for him.

Celelalte forme de viitor in trecut (viitor de intentie in trecut / viitor apropiat in trecut) apar cand am un verb la trecut in principala, iar in secundara trebuie sa sugerez o actiune ulterioara. In acest caz verbul "to be" apare la trecut.

Ex: I-am spus ca am de gand sa cumpar masina.

I told him that I was going to buy the car.

Viitorul perfect

Forma: shall / will + have + verb III

Este o actiune viitoare desfasurata intr-un moment viitor anterior inceput.

Ex: Pana la sfarsitul anului voi fi invatat toate verbele. (incep sa invat mai de mult si pana la momentul viitor de reper, actiunea va fi terminata).

I shall have learned all the verbs by the end of the year.

daca exista actiune cu desfasurare necontenita, folosesc o forma continua

shall / will + have + been + V-ing

Ex: Te voi fi asteptat 2 ore pana la sfarsitul zilei.

I shall have been waiting for you 2 hours by the end of the day.

Viitorul perfect si viitorul perfect continuu nu se folosesc decat in vorbire (nu le intalnim in TOEFL decat la listening !!!)

Interogativul si negativul - cu auxiliarul

CONDITIONALUL

Are 3 forme: 1) viitor (conditie reala, posibil de realizat in viitor)

In principala - conditional viitor (shall / will + V inf scurt)

In secundara - prezent simplu (daca depinde de un program)

Ex: I shall come if the plane lands on time.

- prezent continuu (daca actiunea depinde de mine)

Ex: I shall come if I am desiring this.

- prezent perfect (daca actiunea este anterioara)

Ex: I shall come if I have done my homework.

Acest conditional corespunde regulii de la viitor (viitor in principala - prezent in secundara), diferenta constand in faptul ca am conjunctia "if".

2) prezent (actiune ireala, dar posibil de realizat in prezent sau viitor)

In principala - conditional prezent (should / would + V inf scurt)

In secundara - subjonctiv trecut / trecut simplu

(diferenta subj - trecut este ca "to be" are la subj. forma identica were) Ex: As veni daca as avea timp.

I should come if I had time.

Daca as fi in locul tau as citi cartea.

If I were you I should read the book.

3) trecut (actiune ireala si imposibil de realizat, tine de un moment trecut)

In principala - conditional perfect (should / would + have + V III)

In secundara - subjonctiv trecut perfect / trecut perfect

Ex: M-as fi dus acolo daca as fi stiut adresa.

I should have gone there if I had known the address.

"if" poate fi omis pentru cazurile 2 si 3. Omisiunea se face prin aducerea propozitiei secundare in fata si inversia subiectului cu predicatul.

Pentru conditionalul 2:

I should go there if I had time.

devine

Had I time should I go there.

Pentru conditionalul 3:

I should have gone there if I had known the address.

devine

Had I known the address I should have gone there.

daca in conditionalul 2 nu am un verb auxiliar sau modal care sa poata face inversia cu subiectul, ma voi folosi de "should".

Ex: I should go there if I knew the address.

devine

Should I know the address, I should go there.

(este singura data cand avem 2 de "should")

If poate fi inlocuit prin alte expresii ca:

unless

but for

in case

so long as

providing that

provided that

supposing that

suppose that

unless (=daca nu) - se foloseste pt propozitii negative

Ex: I shouldn't go there if I didn't know the address.

I shouldn't go there unless I knew the address.

but for - se foloseste atunci cand in propozitia secundara am verbul "to be" cu valoare de predicat verbal la sensul negativ (il y a). But for nu se poate folosi decat pentru conditionalul 2 si 3.

Ex condit. 2: I should go for a walk if it weren't for the rain.

pred verbal neg

But for the rain, I should go for a walk.

Ex condit. 3: I should have invited them if it hadn't been their choice.

pred verbal neg

But for their chioce, I should have invited them.

in case - se foloseste numai cu conditional viitor

Ex: I shall return if I find the ticket.

In case I find the ticket I shall return.

so / as long as - se foloseste cand sugerez ideea de restrictionare

Ex: I shall give you the book if you take care of it.

So /as long as you take care of the book, I shall give it to you.

providing that / provided that - tot pentru restrictie

supposing that / suppose that - (presupunand ca)

SUBJONCTIVUL

Subjonctivul are 2 forme: - sintetic (1) a) prezent

b) trecut (simplu si perfect)

- analitic (2)

1.a) Subjonctivul sintetic prezent

Identic ca forma cu infinitivul scurt; foarte folosit in engleza americana

1) se foloseste in urari

Ex: May all your dreams come true.

Long live the Queen.

2) la injuraturi

Ex: Damn you!

Curse this rain!

God bless you!

3) in propozitii secundare introduse prin "that" daca in principala am o dorinta, o obligatie, o necesitate:

to suggest

to recommend

to order

to demand

to urge

Ex: I urged that she sit down.

4) in propozitii care contin urmatoare;e expresii impersonale:

it is necessary

it is essential

it is important

Ex: It is impossible that he arrive in time.

1.b) Subjonctivul sintetic trecut

Simplu

Este forma a II-a a verbului, numai ca verbul "to be" are mereu forma "were".

Utilizare:

1) in propozitiile conditionalului 2

Ex: I should take it if I were you.

2) dupa verbul "wish"

Ex: I wish you were here.

3) dupa constructiile

it's time

it's high time

as if

as though

even if

even though

would rather

would sooner

suppose that

Ex: It's time you went there.

I would rather didn't go there.

I talk as if I didn't know you.

Perfect

Identic ca forma cu trecutul perfect (had + verb III)

Utilizare:

1) in conditionalul 3

Ex: You would have invited them if you had found enough space.

2) dupa verbul "wish" atunci cand actiunea este trecuta si regretata (sensul propozitiei trebuie se fie negativ)

Ex: I wish I hadn't said that.

2. Subjonctivul analitic

Se formeaza dintr-un verb modal (should / would / might / could) + V infinitiv scurt. El a luat oarecum locul subjonctivului sintetic prezent; este intalnit atat in propozitia principala, cat si in cea secundara.

Forma shall + V infinitiv scurt

- se foloseste in principala cu sensul de "vrei?"

Ex: Shall I help you? (sa te ajut?)

- se foloseste in secundara cu sensul de "trebuie"

Ex: I have decided that they shall help her.

Forma should + V infinitiv scurt

- se foloseste in principala cu sensul de "daca e necesar"

Ex: Why should you come so early?

- se foloseste in secundara dupa:

a) expresiile impersonale:

it is important

it is necessary

it is essential

Ex: It is necessary that you should understand the problem.

b) in propozitiile care contin constructiile:

for fear that (de teama ca)

lest (ca sa nu)

in case

Ex: I got up early lest I should miss the train.

c) cu urmatoarele verbe:

to demand

to command

to suggest

to recommend

to request

to insist

Ex: I insisted that you should learn this lesson.

d) atunci cand sunt introduse de:

although

whatever

though

Ex: Whatever she should say don't interrupt her.

Forma may / might + V infinitiv scurt

1) se foloseste cand se exprima o urare

Ex: May your dreams come true!

2) in subjonctive introduse prin:

it is likely

it is probable

it is possible

Ex: It is possible that they might invite us to dinner.

3) in propozitii introduse prin:

so that

that

in order that

Ex: I put the perfume in front of you so that you might smell it.

Forma would + V infinitiv scurt

- se foloseste dupa "wish"

Ex: I wish you would call on you. (to call on = a vizita)

Forma could + V infinitiv scurt

- se foloseste pentru a exprima o certitudine

Ex: We studied a lot so that we could pass TOEFL.

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