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Universitatea Spiru Haret" Lect.univ.drd. Manuela Stroescu

Facultatea de Drept si Administratie Publica

Specializarea: Drept - anul II FR



1. In common law and civil law states, the courts are the central means for dispute resolution, and it is generally understood that all persons have a right to bring their claims before a court.

2. People accused of a crime do not have the right to present their defense before a court.

3. Some trial courts may function with a judge and a jury: juries make findings of fact under the direction of the judge who makes findings of law and, in combination, this represents the judgment of the court.

4. The two major models for courts are: the civil law courts (based upon the judicial system in France) which function under an inquisitorial system and the common law courts (based on the judicial system in Great Britain) that follow the adversarial system.

5. The adversarial (or adversary) system of law is generally adopted in common law countries, that relies on the skill of the different advocates representing their party's positions and not on some neutral party, usually the judge, trying to ascertain the truth of the case.

6. The inquisitorial system that is usually found on the continent of Europe among civil law systems (i. e. those deriving from the Roman or Napoleonic Codes) has a judge (or a group of judges who work together) whose task is to investigate the case before them.

7. As an accused is not compelled to give evidence in a criminal adversarial proceeding, he may not be questioned by prosecutor or judge unless he chooses to do so.

8. An inquisitorial system (used mostly in Western Europe and Latin America) is a legal system where the court or a part of the court is actively involved in determining the facts of the case, as opposed to an adversarial system where the role of the court is solely that of an impartial referee between parties.

9. The judge does not hear witnesses and suspects and does not order searches for other investigations.

10. The European Union (EU) - established under that name in 1992 by the Maastricht Treaty is an intergovernmental and supranational union of 27 democratic member states from the European continent.

11. The rules and procedures for EU decision-making are not laid down in the treaties.

12. The most important EU institutions do not include the Council of the European Union, the European Commission, the European Court of Justice, the European Central Bank and the European Parliament.

13. The three main decision-making institutions are not the European Parliament, the Council of the European Union and The European Commission.

14. The European Parliament (EP) represents the EU's citizens and is directly elected by them.

15. The Council of the European Union represents the individual member states.

16. The European Commission does not seek to uphold the interests of the Union as a whole.

17. The Court of Justice upholds the rule of European law, and the Court of Auditors checks the financing of the Union's activities.

18. The European Union's activities cover all areas of public policy, from health and economic policy to foreign affairs and defence, resembling a confederation or an international organisation.

19. In principle, The European Commission proposes new laws, and The European Parliament and Council enact them (pass the laws).

20. The European Council means the heads of State or government (i.e. presidents and/or prime ministers) of all the EU countries.

21. The Council of the European Union (formerly known as the Council of Ministers) consists of government ministers from all the EU countries.

22. The Council meets regularly to take detailed decisions and to pass European laws.

23. The Council of Europe is not an EU institution at all; it is an intergovernmental organisation which aims to protect human rights, to promote Europe's cultural diversity and to combat social problems such as racial prejudice and intolerance.

24. The Council of Europe drew up the European Convention on Human Rights and set up the European Court of Human Rights.

25. The Council of Europe has its headquarters in Strasbourg, France.

26. The European Parliament (EP) is elected by the citizens of the European Union to represent their interests.

27. The Council of the European Union is the EU's main decision-making body.

28. The European Commission represents and upholds the interests of the EU as a whole.

29. The civil servants who work for the EU institutions come from all member countries of the EU and beyond.

30. The Council of the European Union represents the member states, and its meetings are attended by one minister from each of the EU's national governments, in Brussels, Belgium.

31. The whole body of EU law is together called the acquis communautaire, broken into 31 chapters for purposes of accession negotiations.

32. The Court of Justice of the European Communities (often referred to simply as 'the Court') is based in Luxembourg.

33. The Court of Justice of the European Communities makes sure that EU legislation is interpreted and applied in the same way in all EU countries, so that the law is equal for everyone.

34. The European Ombudsman does not act as an intermediary between the citizen and the EU authorities.

35. The European Ombudsman is not entitled to receive and investigate complaints from EU citizens, businesses and organisations.

36. The Constitution is the basic law from which the United States government gets all its power.

37. The US government has four branches: the legislative, the executive and the judicial.

38. The legislative branch of government enacts (makes) laws.

39. The executive branch of government enforces the laws.

40. The judicial branch of government interprets the laws.

41. The legislative branch of the US government is called Congress.

42. The executive branch of government makes laws.

43. The judicial branch of government makes the laws.

44. The US legislative branch - Congress - is made up of two groups of legislators - the Senate and the House of Representatives.

45. The US Senate is often referred to as the Upper House.

46. The US Senate is often referred to as the Lower House.

47. The Lower House of the US legislative branch is the House of Representatives

48. The Upper House of the US legislative branch is the House of Representatives

49. The president is the nation's chief executive.

50. The president is not the nation's chief executive.

51. The US judicial branch consists of the federal courts.

52. The United States is not organized as a federal system.

53. The United Kingdom is a parliamentary monarchy - that is, the head of state is a monarch.

54. A parliamentary monarchy means that the head of state is a king or a queen.

55. The UK monarch is also called the Crown.

56. The Parliament in the UK is the legislature.

57. The UK Parliament consists of the House of Lords, the House of Commons, and the monarch.

58. The UK Parliament, the legislature, consists of the Senate and House of Representatives.

59. The chief executive in the United Kingdom is the prime minister.

60. The UK prime minister is a member of the House of Commons.


61. This was one of the few crimes he did not

a) achieve b) commit c) make d) perform

62. The . are still holding twelve people hostage on the plane.

a) bandits b) guerrillas c) hijackers d) kidnappers

63. He was charged with a(n) . of currency regulations.

a) break b) breach c) disrespect d) observance

64. Our insurance policy offers immediate . against the risk of burglary, accident or damage by fire.

a) care b) cover c) relief d) security

65. The man jumped out of the window and committed .. .

a) death b) homicide c) murder d) suicide

66. "Thieves will be

a) liable b) lifted c) persecuted d) prosecuted

67. The police said there was no sign of a . entry even though the house had been burgled.

a) broken b) burst c) forced d) smashed

68. The tourist's camera was . because he had brought it into the country illegally.

a) bereaved b) confiscated c) deprived d) extorted

69. He said he would sue us, but I don't think he'll . his threat.

a) achieve b) bring about c) carry out d) perform

70. The police caught the thief

a) in black and white b) in the red c) red-handed d) true blue

71. He was arrested for trying to pass . notes at the bank.

a) camouflaged b) counterfeit c) fake d) fraudulent

72. He offered me $ 500 to break my contract. That's

a) blackmail b) bribery c) compensation d) reward

73. The . sentenced the accused to 15 years in prison.

a) barrister b) counsel c) judge d) solicitor

74. If you can't resolve the dispute, it will have to be settled by

a) arbitration b) court c) election d) referee

75. They all thought he was guilty, but no one could . anything against him.

a) accuse b) ensure c) point d) prove

76. To protected victims of blackmail their names are often . in court.

a) covered b) erased c) hidden d) not given

77. The youth involved in the disturbance at the demonstration made a(n) . to the police.

a) account b) notice c) statement d) summary

78. I . to say anything unless I am allowed to speak to my solicitor.

a) deny b) neglect c) refuse d) resist

79. I should like to call two . who can testify on my client's behalf.

a) witnesses b) onlookers c) passers-by d) spectators

80. The case against Mary Wrongdoer was . for lack of evidence.

a) discarded b) dismissed c) refused d) resigned

81. The new law comes into . on May 15.

a) condition b) date c) force d) power

82. The . question in this case is whether the accused had a motive for this crime or not.

a) crucial b) forcible c) supreme d) valuable

83. The driver admitted that the accident was partly his own

a) blame b) cause c) evil d) fault

84. The suspect man has a . on his right cheek.

a) point b) scar c) sign d) trace

85. At the end of the trial he was . of murder.

a) condemned b) convicted c) convinced d) penalised

86. The judge will hear the next . after lunch.

a) case b) charge c) lawsuit d) trial

87. The suspect . that he had assaulted a policeman.

a) contradicted b) declined c) denied d) refused

88. To get into a building or car using force is to
a. break out b. break down c. break in

89. To steal money from a bank by using force is a
a. hold in b. hold down c. hold up

90. To destroy something with a bomb is to.
a. beat it up b. blow it up c. knock it over

91. To put someone in prison is to
a. lock them up b. do them in c. blow them up

92. To not punish someone for their crime is to
a. give them over b. let them off c. put them away

93. To succeed in not being punished for a crime is to. it
a. get away with b. make off with c. pick through

94. The high court judge will pass . next week.

a) justice b) punishment c) sentence d) verdict

95. It was impossible for her to tell the truth so she had to . a story.

a) combine b) invent c) lie d) manage

96. The suspect is not under arrest, nor have the police placed any . on his movements.

a) obstacle b) regulation c) restriction d) veto

97. The judge . the pedestrian for the accident.

a) accused b) blamed c) charged d) sued

98. The police asked if I thought I could . the man who stole my car if I looked at some photos.

a) certify b) identify c) justify d) verify

99. The police who were . the crime could find no clues at all.

a) enquiring b) investigating c) researching d) seeking

100. The police have not yet found a possible . for the murder.

a) example b) motive c) principle d) understanding

101. After the accident the policeman asked if there had been any

a) observers b) onlookers c) spectators d) witnesses

102. The community was angered by the . punishment given their friend.

a) august b) austere c) severe d) vigorous

103. Those acting for the defendant propose to appeal . the sentence.

a) against b) for c) out d) to

104. Mr. Tipsy was . 20 £ for drinking and driving.

a) charged b) fined c) ordered d) penalized

105. After considering the case, the judge put the young offender . for two years.

a) in charge b) in control c) on probation d) on trial

106. Despite the seriousness of his crime he only received a . sentence.

a) light b) little c) small d) soft

107. The young offenders were warned never . with the members of any gang.

a) to assign b) to assimilate c) to associate d) to assume

108. As it was her first offence, the judge gave her a . sentence.

a) kind b) lenient c) severe d) tolerant

109. The woman . for her husband's life when he was found guilty of murder.

a) bid b) debated c) disputed d) pleaded

110. The accused man was able to prove his innocence at the trial and was

a) absolved b) acquitted c) forgiven d) pardoned

111. Jack the Ripper was a hardened criminal without a scrap of . for his crimes.

a) penance b) pity c) remorse d) reproach

112. His sentence has been commuted to five months on the . of failing health.

a) bases b) causes c) grounds d) reasons

113. The prisoners had spent almost a month digging a . before the guards discovered it.

a) pipe b) pass c) subway d) tunnel

114. He was thrown into prison and . of his property.

a) confiscated b) denied c) deprived d) removed

115. The officer COMPELLED the prisoner to do exactly as he wished.

a) trial b) procession c) sentence d) charge

120. People who examine evidence to decide if a trial is necessary are the

a) witnesses b) grand jury c) onlookers d) passersby

121. People who give evidence in a trial are the

a) witnesses b) grand jury c) onlookers d) passersby

122. To give evidence is to

a) try b) testify c) verify d) charge

123. An accusation of a crime is called

a) trial b) process c) sentence d) charge

124. Money paid to guarantee that someone freed from jail will return to the trial represent a

a) trial b) fine c) bail d) charge

125. Someone who is making a claim against someone, or defending themselves against a claim in a court of law is a

a) arrogant b) turbulent c) litigant d) innocent

126. A serious crime

a) misdemeanor b) felony c) bail d) charge

127. The legal right of belonging to a particular country

a) citizenship b) friendship c) shipment d) fellowship

128. A crime that is not very serious

a) misdemeanor b) felony c) offence d) charge

129. A serious argument or disagreement

a) controversy b) heresy c) contumacy d) philosophy

130. Formal agreement between two or more countries or governments

a) trial b) treat c) try d) treaty

131. An illegal action or a crime

a) misdemeanor b) felony c) offence d) charge

132. The act of officially accepting a plan or decision

a) trial b) approval c) denial d) removal

133. There is no doubt about the outcome of the trial. The man is a . criminal.

a) self-centred b) self-confessed c) self-conscious d) self-contained

134. When the detectives finally trapped him, he had to . to lying.

a) recourse b) resort c) resource d) retort

135. The judge recommended more humane forms of punishment for juvenile

a) convicts b) delinquents c) sinners d) villains

136. The murderer proved to be an apparently well-behaved . middle-aged woman.

a) inoffensive b) offensive c) unoffending d) unsuspicious

137. He found some people living illegally in his house so he asked the court for a speedy

a) discharge b) ejection c) eviction d) expulsion

138. The witness . the statements made by the accused man.

a) agreed b) confessed c) corroborated d) testified

139. A prominent local figure was . as co-respondent in a divorce case.

a) accused b) cited c) nominated d) quoted

140. After considering the evidence for a few hours, the Jury came to a(n) . verdict.

a) unambiguous b) unanimous c) undivided d) united

141. It was a reasonable . to draw in the light of the evidence.

a) assessment b) conclusion c) interpretation d) verdict

142. Ms Stickyfinger was charged with . the funds of the organization.

a) misappropriating b) mislaying c) mistaking d) misplacing

143. What is the US Supreme Law of the Land?

a) the Senate b) the Constitution c) the Cabinet

144. Obstruction of justice means:

a) committing crimes

b) with­holding evidence about a crime

c) helping the police catch a criminal.

145. The three branches of the federal government are:

a) the Executive, the Legislative and the Judicial

b) the Congress, the Senate and the House of Representatives

c) the Preamble, the Document, the Amendments

146. In a . system of government, the governing powers are divided between the state governments and the na­tional government.

a) judicial b) radical c) federal

147. A proposed law that is being considered by a legislative body is called a ... .

a) bill b) veto c) void

148. President Nixon ... from office before he could be impeached.

a) resigned b) vetoed c) retired

149. The first 10 ... to the U.S. Constitution are called the Bill of Rights.

a) Representatives b) Senators c) Amendments

150. A ... idea is one that suggests very great changes.

a) radical b) judicial c) legislative

151. What branch of government interprets the laws of the nation?

a) the Executive b) the Legislative c) the Judicial

152. The nation's chief executive is:

a) the President b) the Vice-President c) the Secretary of State

153. The US Congress is the . branch of government.

a) executive b) legislative c) judicial

154. Free speech means

a) it doesn't cost anything

b) people have the right to express all kinds of ideas

c) there is no charge to hear speeches made by senators.

155. The United States Senate and the House of Representatives make up the . branch of government.

a) executive b) legislative c) judicial

156. What branch of government enforces the laws of the nation?

a) the Executive b) the Legislative c) the Judicial

157. The Senate and the House of Representatives make up:

a) the Congress b) the Cabinet c) the Constitution

158. The US Constitution has three parts:

a) the Executive, the Legislative and the Judicial

b) the Congress, the Senate and the House of Representatives

c) the Preamble, the Document and the Twenty-six Amendments

159. What is the US highest court of the land?

a) the Supreme Court b) the Presidential Tribunal c) the Appellate Court

160. The Supreme Court is the "Last Court of Appeal." What does this mean?

a) No other court has higher decision-making power.

b) Its decision can be appealed to lower courts.

c)All other courts have higher decision-making power.


161. A person who steals is a

162. A person who steals purses and wallets is a

163. A person who gets money by threatening to disclose personal information is a . .

164. A person who seizes airplanes is a

165. A person who takes things from shop without paying is a

166. A person who kills people is a

167. A person who steals from houses or offices is a

168. A person who steals from banks or trains is a

169. A person who takes people hostage for a ransom is a

170. A person who steals government secrets is a

171. A person who willfully destroys property is a

172. A person who marries illegally while being married is a

173. To get into a building or car using force is to break

174. To steal money from a bank by using force is a hold

175. To succeed in not being punished for a crime is to . away with it.

176. The four major legal systems of the world today consist of civil law law

, customary law, and religious law.

177. Common law originally developed under the inquisitorial system in England from judicial decisions that were based in tradition, , and precedent.

178. A person who causes damage or disturbance in public places is a

179. A person who makes money by dishonest business methods, e.g. by selling worthless goods

180. A person who steals from his own company is a

181. A person who attacks and robs people especially in public places is a

182. A person who kills for political reasons or reward is a

183. A person who brings goods into one country from another illegally is a

184. A person who makes false money or documents is a

185. Smugglers consistently . import regulations.

186. Law is the body of official rules and ., generally found in constitutions, legislation, and judicial opinions, used to govern a society and to control the behavior of its members.

187. Jurisprudence is the . and philosophy of law.

188. In human societies, law is a set of

189. The man was . for the murder of his wife and baby.

190. Public law is the law governing the relationship between . and the state.

191. Criminal law (also known as penal law) is the body of statutory and common law that deals with and the legal punishment of criminal offenses.

192. The interests of the state are represented by a ., while the interests of the defendant are represented by his defense attorney.

193. The interests of the state are represented by a prosecuting attorney, while the interests of the defendant are represented by his

194. Private law is that part of a legal system which involves relationships between

195. In the common law, a . is a document by which a person (the testator) regulates the rights of others over his property or family after death.

is defined as the unlawful killing of a human being by a person who had an intent to kill.

197. The common law definition of . is breaking and entering the dwelling house of another in the nighttime with the intent to commit a felony therein.

198. . is defined as giving or promising to give a public official something of value with a corrupt intent to influence the official in the discharge of his or her official duty.

The . sentenced the accused to 15 years in prison.

200. I should like to call two . who can testify on my client's behalf.

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