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EXPRESSING A CHANGE IN THE STATE

grammar




EXPRESSING A CHANGE IN THE STATE




to get/turn/go+ adjective

With reference to either a general situation (time ,weather,etc.), or a particular one ( person, thing) we use to get + adj.,

e.g.:

It has suddenly got dark. I'm afraid I've got a little tired.

Naturally,as it's getting late. Everyone gets old.

It will get cold soon.  It will get easy/easier later.

Life gets hard when you're old.  He is getting better.

I hoped that getting old means getting wiser. It seems you've got bored.

In order to express a progress in the change we use the double comparative or ever + comparative ,

e.g.: Things are getting worse and worse.

It will get (be) more and more difficult as you go on reading.

Things are getting ever worse.

It will also get more and more interesting, I hope.

As you see, the verb to be may also be used in this case, with the slight difference that it emphasizes the state rather

than the progress itself(as is the case with to get ).

If the change is a mater of growth, we may use the verb to grow : to grow old / rich / fat/ etc.

The verb to turn may also be used,

e.g.: She turned pale the antonym is to blush)

The weather has turned cold; soon the leaves will turn yellow.

I suppose he will turn angry, so you'd better not tell him you've turned communist.

As she turned professional her colleagues' scorn turned to admiration.

I can't imagine him turning a traitor.

If two states change simultaneously / in parallel, these are rendered by the + comparative ,

e.g.: The more you learn, the less you seem to know.

The harder she works, the better she feels.

The higher you'll climb, the finer the landscape will seem.

If the verb is in both cases to be, then it can be omitted, as in : the sooner , the better ; the harder the market ,

the lower the purchases ; the better the quality, the higher the price.



EXPRESSING EMPHASIS

Statements may be neutral. In this case the word order is the commonly accepted one: Subject, Predicate, Direct Object, (to)Indirect Object, Adverbial Modifiers (manner, place, time) ,

e.g.: Samuel sent a large parcel to my elder sister, from Chicago about a month ago.

I know everything about everyone in this laboratory.

Several word (group) may be emphasized :

a)      The verb may be emphasized only in the Simple Present and Past affirmative by using the auxiliary to do,

e.g.: Samuel did send a large parcel to my elder sister, from Chicago about a month ago.

I do know everything about everyone in this laboratory.

b) Any other words (group) will be emphasized by using introductory emphatic it(is) ,

e.g.: It is Samuel who sent a large parcel to my elder sister, from Chicago about a month ago.

a large parcel Samuel sent to my elder sister, from Chicago about a month ago.

to my elder sister Samuel sent a large parcel , from Chicago about a month ago.

It is that

from Chicago  Samuel sent a large parcel to my elder sister about a month ago.

about a month ago Samuel sent a large parcel to my elder sister, from Chicago.

The connection with the rest of the sentence is who if the subject is emphasized, and that if any other part of the sentence is emphasized.

A sentence may also be emphasized with introductory emphatic It(is) ,

e.g.: You suggested that they should withdraw their money from our bank. becomes

It's a fact that you suggested that they should withdraw their money from our bank.

In order to emphasize that "that person - nobody else" performed / suffered an action we use the Reflexive Pronoun ,

e.g.: Lucy washes the laundry herself, which is tiring and takes a lot of time.s

We never call a plumber, we fix the taps ourselves.

The manager himself suggested the change.

I myself prefer the classical music.

Adverbs are sometimes placed at the beginning of a sentence7 clause for emphasis; this requires an inversion (of Subject and Predicate),

e.g.: Hardly had she sat down when the bell rang again.

No sooner had he finished his speech than they assaulted him with questions.

Only then did she realize who I was that I told her when we had first met.

So unusual were their questions that he found it difficult to answer them.

Rarely have they enjoyded a performance, as the one you took them to on Sunday.

Little did she make a sign of approval that they all rushed to asked her a photo with her signature.










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