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GRAMMAR: PASSIVE VOICE

grammar




GRAMMAR: PASSIVE VOICE

Illustrative Situations

/. Compare the following situations:




Mr Smith teaches well, (the subject is the doer of the action, the verb "teach" is in the Active Voice) The students are taught well, (the subject is the receiver of the action; it is acted upon, the verb "teach" is in the Passive Voice)

The Passive is used:

a) to give factual information:

The musical "Cats" is based on the poems of T. S. Eliot. It was composed by Andrew Lloyd Webber.

b) when what is/was done is more important than who is doing/did the action:

Wine from California is exported to France.

c) to introduce general opinions:

It is now recognised as one of the most successful musicals of all time.

d) to express rules. Smoking is not allowed here.

It is forbidden to walk on the grass.

e) to describe processes: Bread is made from flour

The doer of the action in the passive constructions is introduced by the preposition "by". It is very seldom used.

When Mrs Brown was crossing the street she was stopped b> a policeman. Nowadays washing is done by washing-machines

Here are some examples of the other tense forms used in the Passive Voice: I. I think Jack will be invited to the party.

2. You won't be allowed to use these books.

3 The school was built in 1867. The rooms are small and dark and it looks like a prison. It is still being used although the local authorities have recently promised it will be pulled down.

Yesterday on my way home I dropped into the repair shop. I wanted to find out if my typewriter was ready. But it was still being repaired. They asked me to come in two days.

5. Richard's wife saw very good alarm clocks at special prices in a department store last week. She has gone back there today, but ail the clocks are gone. "I'm sorry, Madam", the salesgirl is saying. "All the clocks have been sold".

6. Patrick Connor has gone back to Ireland for a few days. Dublin has changed a lot. Patrick is talking to an old friend now. "A lot

of fine old buildings have been pulled down!" he says.

7. The chief engineer invited the heads of the departments to his office. He wished to know if his instructions had been carried out.

8. When I arrived the family were in the sitting-room. Tea had been cleared away and the curtains had been drawn. The wife and husband were going to watch TV. Mary, their daughter, was looking for something in the book-case. Her brother Robert was making a telephone call to his friend.

9. Come at 11, please. The papers will have been signed by that time.

SIMPLE PRESENT PASSIVE

Practice

/. Listen and imitate:

1. The post is delivered every morning. 2. Steel sinks when it is put into water. 3. Smoking is not allowed here. 4. He is often sent parcels. 5 Coffee is imported from Brazil. 6. Wine is produced in many parts of France. 7. Accidents are often caused by careless­ness. 8. Newspapers are sold at the newsagent's. 9. Clothes are washed at the launderette. 10. Films are shown at the cinema. 11. Bread is sold at the baker's. 12. Milk goes sour when it is left for three days. 13. Your report is highly spoken of. 14. The children are well looked after. 15. The machines are inspected every day. 15. Flowers die when they are not watered. 16. Lost time is never found again. 17. This article is often referred to. 18. He is paid a lot of money for his work. 19. What is made at this factory? 20. When is breakfast served here? 21. Where are bananas sold? 22. Who is invited to their parties? 23. What foreign languages are you taught at the Institute? 24. Are you allowed to use this library?

//. Substitute the stimulus nouns:

e.g. This museum is visited by thousands of people every year, (gallery)

This gallery is visited by thousands of people every year.

1. These articles are recommended for your work, (journals) 2. The documents are kept in the safe, (the money) 3. Many books are received by this library, (magazines) 4. New schools are built in our city every year, (offices) 5 Butter is made from milk, (cheese) 6. Books are published there, (newspapers)

///. Substitute the stimulus verbs:

e.g. The library is opened at 9. (close) The library is closed at 9.

1. The hall is cleaned on Saturday, (wash) 2. She is often sent interesting books, (give) 3. The documents are signed by Mrs Smith, (photo-copy) 4. Bread is bought at the baker's, (sell) 5. Meat is kept in the fridge, (put) 6. Trucks are produced at this plant, (make)

IV. Paraphrase the following sentences. Give two variants if possible.

e.g. They often show us foreign films at the Institute.

We are often shown foreign films at the Institute.

Foreign films are often shown to us at the Institute. 1. They grow rice in this area. 2. They publish newspapers here. 3. They deliver mail in the morning. 4. They import tea from India. 5. They sell shoes in that shop. 6. They speak Italian in Italy. 7. They produce butter on farms. 8. They often send us letters 9. They pay him a lot of money. 10. They don't allow us to smoke here. 11. They teach English, French and German a 343j922d t the courses. 12. They build a lot of houses in our town every year. 13. They hold conferences in the assembly-hall. 14. They give us three les­sons a day. 15. They don't tell us about their work. 16. They announce news every day. 17. They make lorries at that plant

V. Give negative answers to the following questions:

e.g. - Does Mrs Green deliver the post?

- No, the post isn't delivered by Mrs Green. 1. Does Mary type the documents? 2. Does the chief engineer sign the papers? 3. Does Jack repair the type-writers, too? 4. Does the boss write the letters himself? 5. Do the teachers prepare the lunch? 6. Does the secretary dictate the letters? 7. Do the salesmen inspect the machines?

VI. Ask general questions.

e.g. - Mr Smith is often sent to London on business. (Mr White)

- Is Mr White often sent to London, too? 1 We are given a lot of work to do. (you) 2. We are allowed to use this laboratory, (you) 3. Footwear is sold in this shop, (tex­tile) 4. They are taught Spanish. (French) 5. Bags are repaired there, (umbrellas) 6. Rice is grown here, (wheat)

VII. Ask special questions:

e.g. Breakfast is served early here, (when) When is breakfast served here?

1. They are taught two foreign languages, (what foreign lan­guages) 2. This journal is not published in Minsk, (where) 3. She is sometimes sent money orders, (how often) 4. Mr Brown is highly paid, (how much) 5. This work is not done by Mr Brown, (by whom) 6. The library is closed late, (when) 7. We are not invited to their parties, (who)

VIII. Make up sentences using the passive voice:

e.g. Books - sell - bookshop

Books are sold in that bookshop.

1. We - pay - twice a month 2. Coffee - serve - in the morning 3. Meetings - hold - that hall 4. Tickets - usually - book - in advance. 5. Letters - deliver - a postman 6. He - often - send - abroad 7. These taperecorders - use - our students 8. Important problems - discuss - our meetings 9. En­glish - speak - Australia

IX. Translate into English (self check):

SIMPLE PAST PASSIVE

Practice

/. Listen and imitate:

Those paintings were sold for 500 pounds each 2 That's a good book. It was written by George Orwell. 3. I was offered an interesting job yesterday. 4. The doctor was immediately sent for 5. His car was not fixed in time, so he couldn't go to the city 6. Ro me wasn't built in a day. 7. Some coffee was brought to our room 8. The car was parked there. 9. I was frightened to death when I drove through Paris last month. 10. He was asked to give a speech at the party. 11. The woman was taken to hospital. 12. Our car was stopped because we were driving too fast. 13. He couldn't get into the room as the door was locked. 14. The ring was no! found. 15. The article was much talked about. 16. Everything wa~, done in time. 17. The letters were not signed yesterday. 18. I was given a book as a present.

//. Substitute the stimulus words:

e.g.: The watch was sold yesterday morning, (ring) The ring was sold yesterday morning.

1. Mary was given a ten days' leave. (John) 2. Mr Black was sent a visa. (Mrs Robinson) 3. The letter was brought in the eve­ning, (telegram) 4. The key was lost some days ago. (book) 5. The documents were left in the drawer, (money) 6. The oranges were put into the refrigerator, (apples) 7. Mary was promised help. (Dick)

///. Answer the questions:

e.g. - I think Mary baked the cakes, didn't she? - Yes, the cakes were baked by Mary

1. Betty cleaned the flat, didn't she? 2. Roger sent the parcel, didn't he? 3. I think Lucy typed the article, didn't she? 4. I think Steve photo-copied the papers, didn't he? 5. I think Susan transla­ted the text, didn't she? 6.1 think Donald caught that big fish, didn't he?

IV. Transform the following sentences with two objects:

e.g. They offered me a job at the hospital. 1 was offered a job at the hospital. A job was offered to me.

1. They showed the scientists a new research centre. 2. She gave me a pound of sugar. 3. He told the children fairy-tales 4. They paid him only part of the money. 5. The doctor prescribed me a lot of medicine. 6. They promised us seats in the first row.

7. The doctors advised him to take a long holiday. 8. She recommen­ded me a rest in the south.

V. Answer the questions using the prompts:

e.g. Who inspects the machines? the man who laughed so much Who explained the joke? the foreman The machines are inspected by the foreman. The joke was explained by the man who laughed so much.

1. Who made the biscuits? the manager

2. Who wraps the chocolate boxes? my wife

3. Who dictated that letter? the girls in the factory

4. Who prepared the medicine? the Chocolate Makers' Association

5. Who sells the newspapers? his secretary

6. Who brought the menu? the chemist

7. Who publishes the Chocolate Makers' Magazine? the newsagent

8. Who opens Mr Burbank's letters? The waiter

VI. Respond to the following:

e.g. They didn't ask me any questions. And Jack? Jack wasn't asked any questions either.

1. They didn't promise him help. And Robert? 2. They didn't send Dick a visa. And Alec? 3. They didn't invite John to the picnic. And Roger? 4. She didn't inform me about her arrival. And you?

5. They didn't tell me the news. And you? 6. He didn't allow me to use his dictionary. And you?

VII. Ask your partner when the parcel was brought; what was discussed at the last meeting; what mark he was given at his last English exam; if he is paid well; if he is often sent abroad; when he was last sent a letter; if he is often visited by his friends; what foreign language he was taught at school; by whom the text was translated; when the documents were photo-copied; when the newspaper was delivered; what is produced at that factory; when the tickets were booked; if his dictionary was found; when dinner is served; when the meeting was held; when America was disco­vered.

VIII. Translate into English (self check):

Где проходила конференция? 7. Когда был построен этот вокзал? 8. Сколько писем было получено вчера? 9. Нас не при­гласили на вечер. 10. Мне не предложили билет на концерт. 11. Кем была выполнена эта работа? 12. Гостям показали лабо-

ратории института. 13. Этот вопрос обсуждался на нашем по­следнем собрании. 14. Документы были отпечатаны в пятницу



Письмо было написано моим секретарем два дня назад

16. О фильме много говорили. 17. Кто перевел эту статью?

SIMPLE FUTURE PASSIVE

Practice

/. Listen and imitate:

The letters will be sent tomorrow. 2. You will be given a good present for your birthday. 3. The machines will be inspected by the foreman. 4. You will be shown all the places of interest in our town. 5. I think you will be asked to help them. 6. The job will be adverti­sed in the morning paper tomorrow. 7. He hopes he will be sent a visa soon. 8. The report will be typed in an hour. 9. The plan will be discussed at tomorrow's meeting. 10. They will be informed about it today. 11. The work won't be finished soon.

//. Respond using the prompts:

e.g. - When are they going to publish Mr White's book? (next month)

- It will be published next month, I think.

1. When are they going to send the parcel? (in the morning) 2. When are they going to bring our luggage? (in an hour) 3. When are they going to finish the work? (tomorrow) 4. When are they going to book the tickets? (today) 5. When are they going to pack the luggage? (in the morning) 6. When are they going to translate the text? (in two hours) 7. When are they going to post the letters? (on Friday) 8. When are they going to hold the meeting? (on Mon­day) 9. When are they going to test the device? (the day after to­morrow) 10. When are they going to discuss the plan? (at 10 o'clock)

///. Answer the questions:

e.g. - They won't invite Alec to the party. And Jack?

- Jack won't be invited either.

1. They won't take Helen to the cinema. And Susan? 2. They won't send the parcels today. And the letters? 3. They won't bring the records today. And the taperecorder? 4. They won't tell Dick about it. And his wife? 5. They won't deliver the letter today. And the telegram?

IV. Ask questions:

e.g. - Robert will be taught Spanish. (Clare)

- Will Clare be taught Spanish too?

*

1. Steve will be told about it. (Mary) 2. Dick will be sent an invitation. (Mike) 3. Mr Black will be met at the station. (Mr Smith) 4. The article will be typed today, (the letters) 5. A school will be built in this area next year, (a shop) e.g. - The suitcases will be brought by the porter, (when) - When will they be brought?

1. The meeting will be held in room 20. (at what time) 2. The article will be translated by Mr Green, (when) 3. Supper will be served soon, (where) 4. The documents will be signed by the boss, (when) 5. He will be paid a lot. (how much) 6. The talks will be held in May. (where) 7. Some of your colleagues will be invited to the conference, (who) 8. This article will be published soon, (where)

V. Translate into English (self check):

8. Я думаю, что вам дадут хороший номер в этой гостинице.

9. Я надеюсь, что работа будет завершена в срок. 10. Я уверен, что его пригласят на конференцию. 11. Где будет проводиться собрание? 12. Интересно, какой фильм будет демонстрироваться завтра. 13. Документы будут подписаны завтра. 14. Ей не скажут об этом.

Fluency

/. Listen and reproduce the following dialogues:

1. - What's the matter?

- I've just fallen off my bicycle.

- Oh, dear, is anything broken?

- I'm afraid the front wheel is buckled.

2. - What's the news?

- Michael is going to be sent to America to do research work.

- When did you hear that?

- It was announced yesterday.

3. - I envy Bill.

- Why?

- Because he'll be given a scholarship next year.

- Well, he deserves it.

4. Teacher: What do we get from sheep? Boy: Wool.

Teacher: And what do we make from wool?

Boy: I don't know.

Teacher: Well, what is your coat made of?

Boy: It was made from father's old coat.

5. Foreman: Come on, man, hurry up. Worker: Rome was not built in a day.

Foreman: May be not, but 1 wasn't foreman on that job.

6. Ken: I like your radio. Is it new?

Pat: Yes, I bought it last week. It's a Bisonic. Ken: Bisonic? I've never heard of it. Where was it made? Pat: I'm not sure. I think it was made in Japan. I'll have a look. No, I'm wrong. It was made in England.

//. Listen to the following texts. Ask and answer questions.

1. At 5.05 on Saturday 19 th July there was an accident at the junction of Euston Road and St. Pancras Road when a boy of 16 was knocked off his bicycle by a delivery van. Luckily he was not seriously injured. Patrick Kay, the 16-year-old boy, was taken to St. Pancras Hospital where he was treated for shock and a bro­ken arm. The accident was witnessed by several people and it was reported minutes later by the driver of the van, Mr Ralph Ripley, 45, of Wimbledon. Both the youth and the driver of the van were questioned afterwards by the police, who took the names and addresses of three witnesses.

2. There was a terrible storm during the night. A lot of damage was done. Trees and telephone wires were blown down, windows were smashed and a roof was blown off. A car was even overtur­ned. All this happened last night.

3. An old man had many sons who were always quarrelling. One day the sons were called before their father. A bundle of sticks was given to them and they were ordered to break it. Each of the sons tried with all his strength but the bundle could not be broken At last it was untied by the old man and each son was given one stick. Of course, the sticks were broken easily. "My sons", said the old man, "if you are together, live in friendship and help each other, you can always be strong and needn't be afraid of enemies".

4. Programmes for students studying English will be broad­cast every day. They will be planned for the whole term. They will be designed for those who have recently begun to study English. The programmes will be mainly based on situations from students' life. Some of the programmes will be given in the form of dialogue. They say that suggestions for further programmes will be wel­comed.

Self check

/. Use the verbs in the proper tense and voice:

Our tourist group (arrive) in Moscow in the morning. A bus (take) us to the hotel "Ukraina". After breakfast and a short rest we (invite) for a sightseeing tour of Moscow. We (want) to see as much as possible as none of us (be) in Moscow before. We (show) and (tell) a lot of interesting things. Before our tour (co­me) to an end we (learn) much about Moscow. 2. When are you going to post this parcel? - It (post) in an hour I think. 3. What language you (teach) when you (study) at the University? - French. 4. Why they (not, come) to the party? - Well, I (not, know). They (send) the invitations about a week ago. 5. When the tickets (book)?- In a week. 6. When I (reach) the building I (stop) by a policeman who wanted to see my pass. 7. Students (allow) to use dictionaries at the exam? - No, dictionaries (not, allow). 8. A new stadium (build) opposite our house last year. 9. You (look) for your gloves? Ask the attendant, some gloves (pick) up and (give) to him a few minutes ago. 10. The mother (tell) not to worry about her sick boy. "He (examine) soon by the doctor. Everything (be) all right, I'm sure", said the nurse. 11. I wonder whether Alice (invite) to the conference. Her report is very interesting. 12. When examinations (hold)? - They (hold) at the end of every term. 13. The old man (fall) down and (break) his leg. He (take) to hospital by a passing motorist. 14. I (wake) by the noise in the street. 15. I've heard that Mr Smith (not, write) his own speeches, they (write) by his secretary. 16. These textbooks (use) in all schools? - No. 17. Where the journals (keep)? - In the safe. 18. Don't worry. Everything (do) in time. 19. Drinks (not, serve) here after midnight. 20. Who this article (write) by' 21. An interesting article (publish) in the next issue of the maga­zine. The author of the article (work) at it for a long time. 22. Ask the librarian about the new books which (receive) last week. You (give) all the necessary information. 23. He (ask) this question at the examination. He (give) an excellent mark for his answer. 24. This book (discuss) at the next meeting of our English club. A lot of students (take part) in the discussion. 25. Where (be) the secretary? - She (call) to the boss a few minutes ago. 26. Mr Short is a good lecturer. He always attentively (listen) to.

//. Translate into English:

PRESENT CONTINUOUS PASSIVE

Practice

/. Listen and imitate:

1. The film is being much talked about. 2. The road is still being repaired. 3. An office block is being built near our school. 4. Some building work is being done in Park Avenue. 5. A new machine is being tested in the lab. 6. This question is still being discussed. 7. This material is still being used, isn't it? 8. Do you know that your voice is being recorded? 9. Is the floor in the sitting-room still being polished? 10. The talks are still being held.

//. Respond to the following:

e.g. - Don't enter the room.

- Why? (paint the floor)

- The floor is being painted there.

1. Don't enter the work-shop, (carry out an experiment)

2. Don't enter the assembly-hall, (hold a scientific conference)

3. Don't ride this way. (widen the road) 4. Don't enter the kitchen, (install a gas-stove) 5. Don't switch on the light, (fix a lamp) 6. You can't take the taperecorder. (repair) 7. Don't go to the libra­ry today, (remove the furniture)

e.g. - What's going on in that room? (pack the things)

- The things are being packed there.

1. What's going on in the sitting-room? (lay the table) 2. What's going on in the park? (cut the grass) 3. What's going on in the laboratory? (test a new device) 4. What's going on in the, garage? (repair the car) 5. What's going on in the lecture hall? (discuss the production plan) 6. What's going on in the office? (polish the floor) e.g. - Can I have a look at the letter? (type)

- I'm afraid you can't. It is still being typed.

1. Can I take the documents? (sign) 2. Can I see the visitors? (show round the plant) 3. Can I take the book? (read) 4. Can I use

the taperecorder? (repair) 5. Can I study here? (wash the floor) e.g. - Have they settled the problem yet?

- No, it's still being settled.

1. Have they built the school yet? 2. Have they written the article yet? 3. Have they started the test yet? 4. Has he translated the text yet? 5. Have they repaired the device? 6. Have they packed the suitcases? 7. Have they cooked supper? e.g. - They are widening our road.



- Oh, our road is being widened too.

1. They are repainting our bridge. 2. They are repairing our road. 3. They are widening our pavements. 4. They are changing our house numbers. 5. They are rebuilding our town hall. 6. They are re-opening our theatre. 7. They are closing down our local hospital. 8. They are moving our library. 9. They are replacing our street lights. 10. They are making our street one-way. 11. They are restoring our old church.

///. Ask your partner where the meeting is being held; what problems are being discussed at the meeting; if the documents are still being typed; what film is being spoken about; what texts are being recorded; if the lamp is still being fixed; who is being examined at the moment; what the student is being asked about.

IV. Translate into English (self check):

i

PAST CONTINUOUS PASSIVE

Practice

/. Listen and imitate:

1. Huge blocks of flats were being built all last year. 2. When we came the pool was being filled with water. 3. I was told that my article was still being typed. 4. The car was being repaired the whole day yesterday. 5. When I left the meeting the problem was still being discussed. 6. When I entered the hall the young speci­alists were being instructed what to do. 7. At 6 o'clock the floor was still being polished.

//. Transform the sentences using the Passive Voice'

e.g. - When I entered the hall they were holding a meeting

there.

When I entered the hall a meeting was being held there 1. When I joined the visitors the foreman was showing them round the machine shop. 2. When I entered the room they were still discussing the article. 3. At 5 o'clock the professor was still examining the students. 4. When we arrived in Kiev they were still building the underground. 5. When I left the laboratory the} were still testing the device.

///. Complete the situations:

e.g. None of the actors were free then, (rehearse the play) The play was being rehearsed.

1. It was very noisy upstairs, (polish the floor) 2. We couldn't enter the library, (remove the furniture) 3. An appetizing smell was coming from the kitchen, (roast a goose) 4. The guests were upstairs, (show the laboratories) 5. We didn't see the museum that time, (repair the building)

IV. Make complex sentences:

e.g. enter the kitchen, cook my favourite dish

When I entered the kitchen my favourite dish was being

cooked.

1. arrive in Minsk, build the Underground 2. switch on TV, show an interesting film 3. arrive at the airport, see off the dele­gation 4. enter the Personnel Department, interview a new eco­nomist 5. leave the meeting, discuss the resolution

V. Respond to the following phrases using the Present and Past Continuous Passive.

e.g. What's going on in the yard?

Trees and bushes are being planted there.

The flowers are being watered there, etc. 1. Where is the noise coming from? 2. We couldn't use the telephone. 3. Don't enter the lab. 4. The boy looked proud. 5. The children were very excited. 6. What is going on in the lecture hall? 7. Can I study here? 8. Why did she look so worried? 9. We can't use the taperecorder. 10. I had to wait for half an hour.

VI. Translate into English (self check):

PRESENT PERFECT PASSIVE

Practice

/. Listen and imitate:

1. Mary is proud. Her work has been praised. 2. -What's happened? - The window has been broken. 3. Jane hasn't been told about it. 4. Many new buildings have been built in our town lately. 5. His report has been much spoken about. 6. Dick is happy. His dog has been found. 7. There isn't any food left. All of it has been eaten. 8. I can't find my car anywhere. I think it has been stolen. 9. The house looks quite new. It has been painted. 10. Have those letters been typed yet? 11. Have you ever been interviewed on television? 12. Today's post hasn't been brought up yet, has it?

//. Respond to the following:

e.g. - Shall I type the letters for you?

- They've already been typed. Thank you.

1. Shall I help you unload the car? 2. Shall I introduce you to him? 2. Shall I show you Dick's drawings? 3. Shall I translate the article for you? 4. Shall I test the device? 5. Shall I fix the lamp? 6. Shall I repair the car? 6. Shall I buy the book for you?, e.g. - I think I ought to help you find your raincoat.

- Don't worry about it. It has already been found.

1. I think I ought to help you wash the dishes. 2. I think we ought to post that letter to Dr Davis. 3. I think I ought to give him some money. 4. I think I ought to repair the typewriter. 5. I think we ought to clear out the garage. 6. I think I ought to clean the flat. e.g. - Can I see today's paper? (receive)

- I'm afraid you can't. It hasn't been received yet.

1. Can I read the telegram? (not to deliver) 2. Can you give me the book? (not to bring) 3. Can I have dinner? (not to cook) 4. Can I take the documents? (not to sign) 5. Can I look through your report? (not to finish) 6. Can I use your phone? (not to fix) e.g. - Will you please send the documents?

- As a matter of fact they have already been sent.

1. Will you please fix the tent? 2. Will you inform them about the meeting? 3. Will you instruct him how to do it? 4. Will you repair the TV set? 5. Will you please iron the suit? 6. Will you please translate the letters?

e.g. - I think we must repair our house.

- Oh, yes. It hasn't been repaired for years.

1. We must paint the doors. 2. We must clean the windows. 3. We must wash the curtains. 4. We must change the wall papers in the sitting-room. 5. We must clear up the dining-room table. 6. We must polish the floor, e.g. - Let's go to Peter's birthday, (invite)

- How can we? We haven't been invited.

1. Let's look through today's newspapers, (not to deliver) 2. Let's listen to Text 10. (not to record) 3. Let's unpack the lugga­ge, (not to bring) 4. Let's play the piano, (not to tune) 5. Let's have dinner, (not to cook) 6. Let's watch TV. (the TV set, not to repair) e.g. - Why does Lucy look so upset?

- Don't you know? She has been given a bad mark.

1. Why hasn't your friend come? (send to Moscow) 2. Why doesn't Uncle George smoke any more? (advise to give up smo­king) 3. Why is it so cold in the room? (break the window) 4. Why does Dick look so pale? (operate on) 5. Why is the child crying? (damage his new toy) 6. Why is Mary so sad? (scold by the tea­cher)

///. Ask if the following actions have really taken place:

e.g. - They say the document has been used.

- Has it really been used?

1. They say the luggage has been marked. 2. They say the mail has been delivered. 3. They say the car has been parked. 4. They say the letter has been signed. 5. They say the books have already been sold.

IV. Ask your secretary if the documents have been typed; if they have been photo-copied; why the letters haven't been posted yet; if the journals have been received; how many copies have been received; if a table at the restaurant has been reserved; if all the people have been invited.

V. Your mother is talking to you over the telephone. She's asking you not to forget:

1. to clear the table; 2. to wash the dishes; 3. to sweep the floor; 4. to make the bed; 5. to air the room; 6. to put the books in order; 7. to cook supper Tell her that all this has already been done.

VI. Respond to the following using the Present Perfect Pas­sive:

e.g. - Where's my old umbrella?

- I am afraid it has been thrown away.

(It has been given to the old man next door, etc.) 1. Why don't you take part in the conference? 2. Will you book the tickets? 3. What has become of your bicycle? 4. Can I work in the study? 4. Where's my grey suit? 5. Shall I fix the lamp? 6. I think we ought to tell him about it. 6. The room looks untidy. 7. You can't take the documents. 8. Why doesn't he join us? 9. Where are the papers? 10. She looks upset. 11. I think we must clean the windows.

VII. Translate into English (self check):

PAST PERFECT PASSIVE

Practice

/. Listen and imitate:

1. All the tickets had already been sold out by the time John and Mary arrived. 2. When I returned home my wife told me that all the things had already been packed and they were ready to start. 3. The room had been prepared for the Hunts but they didn't come. 4. I had a letter from my sister some days ago. She wrote she had been accepted to college. 5. By 5 o'clock the experiment had already been completed. 6. They realized that the telegram hadn't been received.

//. Respond to the following using the prompts:

e.g. She was angry, (lose the tickets)

The tickets had been lost.

1. He came too late, (discuss the question) 2. She looked happy, (praise for good work) 3. He was surprised, (not, invite) 4. He was worried, (not, send a visa) 5. I had to wait a little, (not, sign the papers) 6. Mr Smith was angry, (damage his car)

///. Make up sentences using the prompts:

e.g. He returned to the city, (build the stadium)

When he returned to the city the stadium had already been built. 1. She came to the Institute, (show the new film) 2. I got up.

(cook breakfast) 3. She came home, (put the child to bed) 4. arrived at the airport, (announce the flight) 5. He returned to the lab. (finish the test) 6. 1 rang up the secretary, (sign the docu­ments) e.g. All the books were sold, (by 5 o'clock)

All the books had been sold by 5 o'clock. 1. He was not sent a visa, (by July) 2. The letters were posted (by the evening) 3. The tests were checked, (by the end of the lesson) 4. The articles were translated, (by Friday) 5. The sink was fixed, (by the time I returned home) 6. The letters were typed, (by the end of the working day) e.g. Everything has been arranged. (I didn't know)

I didn't know everything had been arranged. 1. The article has been published. (I didn't know). 2. The books haven't been delivered yet. (the librarian said) 3. The journal was lost a few days ago. (we didn't know) 4. The contract has already been signed, (the boss said) 5. The key was not found, (she told me) 6. He was forbidden to drive the car. (we didn't know) 7. The bi­cycle was broken. (I didn't know) 8. The picture was brought back some days ago. (I learned) 9. He has been told about it several times, (she said) 10. Jane wasn't allowed to take part in the expe­dition. (I knew) 11. Everything was prepared for the party. (I thought) 12. The letters were posted. (I was sure) 13. The text wasn't recorded. (I was told) 14. The chief engineer was sent for. (the secretary said) 15. The date of the conference has already been fixed, (they told me)

IV. Translate into English (self check):



FUTURE PERFECT PASSIVE

Practice

/. Listen and imitate:

1. The factory will have been completed by the end of the month. 2. The car will have been repaired by Saturday. 3. The work will

have been tinished before you come back. 4. The documents will have been typed by the time the boss returns.

//. Change the sentences into the Future Perfect Passive:

e.g. The office will be built in a few months, (by September) The office will have been built by September. 1. The tests will be checked in an hour, (by the end of the les­son) 2. The book will be published soon, (by the end of the year) 3. The suitcases will be packed after dinner, (by the time the taxi comes) 4. The invitation cards will be sent on Sunday, (by Sunday) 5. The telephone will be repaired on Tuesday, (by Tuesday) 6. The work will be done tomorrow, (by tomorrow) 7. The papers will be signed at 5 o'clock, (by 5 o'clock) 8. The computer will be tested in a few days, (by the end of the work day) 9. The letters will be typed today, (before you come back) 10. The problem will be dis­cussed on Wednesday, (by Wednesday) 11. The roof will be pain­ted in the evening, (by the evening) 12. Everything will be arran­ged in time, (before he comes) 13. The newspapers will be delivered at 9. (by 9)

///. Translate into English (self check).

Fluency

/. Listen to the following texts. Ask and answer questions on the texts:

1. We have an old musical instrument It is called a clavichord. It was made in Germany in 1681. Our clavichord is kept in the living-room. It has belonged to our family for a long time. The instrument was bought by my grandfather many years ago. Re­cently it was damaged by a visitor She tried to play jazz on it! She struck the keys too hard and two of the strings were broken.

My father was shocked. Now we are not allowed to touch it. It is being repaired by a friend of my father's.

2. There has been another rail crash in Scotland. The crash occurred last night in freezing fog outside Glasgow. Four people

were killed and at least ten people were injured. The railway lines have not yet been cleared and a number of trains have been delayed.

3. Heavy snow has fallen in the North of England. Many roads

have been blocked arid traffic has been brought to a standstill One town, Castlepool in Yorkshire, has been completely cut off Supplies will be dropped into the town by air this afternoon.

4 The office of Mr Arthur Tigers, the prominent industrialist, was broken into during the weekend. A small amount of money was taken and the office itself was left in what the cleaning woman described as "a terrible mess". The burglary was discovered b\ cleaners early this morning. Mr Tigers is away on holiday in South America and has not yet been located.

5. Ted Robinson has been worried all the week. Last Tuesday he received a letter from the local police. In the letter he was asked to call at the station. Ted wondered why he was wanted by the police, but he went to the station yesterday and now he is not wor­ried any more. At the station he was told by a smiling policeman that his bicycle had been found. Five days ago, the policeman told him, the bicycle was picked up in a small village four hundred miles away. It is now being sent to his home by tram. Ted was most surprised when he heard the news. He was amused too, be­cause he never expected the bicycle to be found. It was stolen twenty years ago when Ted was a boy of fifteen!

6 The Olympic Games will be held in our country in four years' time. As many people will be visiting the country, the go­vernment will be building new hotels, a large stadium, and a fine new swimming pool. They will also be building new roads and a special railway-line. The Games will be held just outside the capi­tal and the whole area will be called "Olympic City". Workers will have completed the new roads by the end of this year. By the end of next year they will have finished work on the new stadium. The fine modern buildings have been designed by Kurt Gunter. Every­body will be watching anxiously as the new buildings go up. We are all very excited and are looking forward to the Olympic Games because they have never been held before in this country.

7. The whole village soon learnt that a large sum of money had been lost. Sam Benton, the local butcher, had lost his wallet while taking his savings to the post-office. Sam was sure that the wallet had been found by one of the villagers, but it was not returned to him. Three months passed, and then one morning, Sam found his wallet outside his front door. It had been wrapped up in a newspa­per and it contained half the money he had lost, together with a note which said: "A thief, yes, but only 50 per cent a thief!" Two months later, some money was sent to Sam with another note: "Only 25 per cent a thief now!" In time, all Sam's money was paid back in this way. The last note said: "I am 100 per cent honest now'"

8. An American in London was taken sightseeing by a guide and was shown many beautiful buildings. "Did it take you long to

build that house?" he asked when they were, passing a hotel. "About six months", said the guide. "A building like that is built during a month in New York", the American said. Then he was shown a new office building. "Did it take you long to build that?" he asked. "About a month", said the guide. "Such a place can be built in a couple of days in New York". Some minutes later they came to the Houses of Parliament. "That's not a bad place. When was it built?" asked the American. "You may not believe me but that building was not there when I crossed the street last night", said the guide smiling.

9. During a sea trip on board a steamer a young girl was courted by five young men. The poor thing was at a loss whom she should choose. She was advised to jump overboard and then marry the one who would jump in after her. The girl did as she was told. Next morning when all the five admirers were on deck she jumped into the sea. She was immediately followed by four of the men. When the girl and her admirers were fished out of the water she found herself even more at a loss than before. "What should I do with these four wet men?" she asked the captain. "Take the dry one", was his advice. This time again the girl did as she was told.

//. Listen to the conversation and answer the questions: Mr Palmer is looking for a new house. He's tired of living in the city and he wants to live in a quiet village. He's with the estate agent now. Estate Agent: Well, Mr Palmer. This is the house that

I told you about... Number 26, Richmond Road The

owners are away, but I've got a key. Mr Palmer: Hmm... when was it built? Agent: It was built in 1950.

Mr Palmer: Who built it?

Agent: I'm not really sure Is it important?

Mr Palmer: No, not really. Is that a new roof? It looks nev Agent: It is nearly new. It was put on last year.

Agent: You can see that it's in very good condition The

previous owner was a builder. Mr Palmer: It's quite an old house. I'm worried about the elecu'-

cal wiring. Has it been rewired? Agent: Yes, it has.

Mr Palmer. Oh, when was it done? Agent: Five years ago. It has also been redecorated. Central

heating has been put in, and a new garage has been

built.

Mr Palmerr Oh, when was that done? 

Agent: Last year . I think.

It's a very solid house. It's built of brick with a tiled roof...

Mr Palmer: It's a long way from a big town. What are the ser­vices like?

Agent: Hold on .. I've got the details here. Yes ..let me see.,

the dustbins are emptied every Thursday.

Mr Palmer: It's important for rne to see the post before I go to work. When is it delivered?

Agent: It's usually delivered at about 7.30. The milk is de-

livered about six o'clock . . so you'll have fresh milk for breakfast.

Mr Palmer: It's certainly very cheap. I've seen a lot of similar houses... and they're more expensive.

Agent: Ah, yes. . it's a real bargain.

Mr Palmer: Are there any plans for the area?

Agent: Pardon? Plans... well, a new school is going to be

built in the village next year ..

Mr Palmer: Anything else?

Agent: .. and a new road, a motorway actually, will be

built next year, too. You'll be able to get to London easily.

Mr Palmer: Where exacth will the motorway be built?

Agent: Well, actually, it'll be built behind the house. A bridge

will be constructed over the house. It'll be very inte­resting. You'll be able to watch the traffic. Questions: What is Mr Palmer looking for? Who is he talking

to at the moment? Is the house old or new? Is it in good condition'

The house isn't very expensive, is it? Why?

///. Listen to the conversation again and reproduce the phrases used in the Passive Voice.

IV. Tell about the house, the services and the plans for the area

V. Role-play the conversation.

Self check

/. Use the verbs in the proper tense and voice:

1 Where (be) the contract? - It (type) now. It (bring) in a few minutes. 2. When we returned the door already (lock). 3. Trucks and tractors (produce) at this plant. 4. Not a word (say) by the newcomer. 5. Susan is upset. Her favourite record (break) 6 The house (paint) and looks quite new. 7. I want to call the police - Why? - Because my watch (steal).- I hope it (find)

soon. 8. What's going on in the lab? - The results of the experiment (discuss) there. 9. The secretary told us that the documents (not, sign) yet. 10. He looked very excited when I saw him.- No wonder, his device (test). 11. I just (offer) a ticket for the cup game. I'm sure it will be very interesting. 12. How much money you (send) yesterday?-300 pounds. 13. Where the conference (hold)? - In London.-How long it (last)? -For a week.- You (hear) any interesting reports? - Quite a lot. 14. This typewriter is quite new. It never (use). 15. The school (build) by September. 16. The article (translate) by the time you return. 17. John (live) in Man­chester. His girl-friend Mary (study) French in Paris. She (stay) there for 5 weeks. The week before last John (go) to Paris to visit his girl-friend. He (be) back in Manchester now. He just (receive) this reply from her.

Dear John,

It (be) nice to see you last week. After you (go) I (feel) so lonely. I really (enjoy) seeing you again.

Two days ago I (take) my final exam and it (be) pretty dif­ficult. The papers (mark) now. If 1 (pass) I (get) a certificate. I (be able) to get a better job. You (not, tell) me much about your new job last time. You (say) you (work) hard.

Last night we (have) a farewell party. We (go) to a new res­taurant that (open) last month. Everyone (be) in high spirits because the course (complete). I (be going) to miss all the new friends I (make) here. See you next week. I hope you (meet) me at the airport.

All my love,

Mary

//. Translate into English:

He










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