Documente online.
Username / Parola inexistente
  Zona de administrare documente. Fisierele tale  
Am uitat parola x Creaza cont nou
  Home Exploreaza
Upload




























15 HOURS TO A POWERFUL ENGLISH VOCABULARY

grammar




15 HOURS TO A POWERFUL ENGLISH VOCABULARY

MODULE 1 (of 30)

If you wish your speech and writing to have impact, you must choose precise, dynamic verbs.

Here are twelve precise, dynamic verbs used in context. Study them carefully and try to guess their meanings. The definitions are given below.




1. I deprecate the exploitation of unskilled workers.
2. While he
procrastinated, someone else bought the property.
3. The bystanders
corroborated his story.
4. They have become
inured to poverty.
5. She has
apprised her husband of her intention to change her hairstyle.
6. While she hesitated, he
vacillated between withdrawing his offer and urging her to accept.
7. A cash payment will
expedite the delivery of the goods.
8. How dare you
impute such monstrous intentions to me!
9. Following its television advertisement, the company was
inundated with orders.
10. The tragedy
galvanized the government into action.
11. With a shrug, she
acquiesced in his proposal that they postpone their holiday.
12. The boys
disavowed any intention to set the building on fire.

deprecate - plead against, express earnest disapproval of.
procrastinate - defer action, be dilatory.
corroborate - confirm (person, statement) by evidence etc.
inure - accustom, habituate; come into operation, take effect.
apprise - give notice of, inform.
vacillate - swing or sway unsteadily; waver between different opinions etc.
expedite - assist progress of (measure, process, etc.); dispatch (business).
impute - attribute, ascribe, (fault etc. to).
inundate - overflow, flood (with water etc.).
galvanize - stimulate by or as by electricity, rouse by shock or excitement.
acquiesce - (often followed by in ) agree, especially tacitly; not object.
disavow - refuse to admit, confess, own or acknowledge; repudiate.

Referring to the list above only where necessary, write the appropriate verb beside its definition.

1. He cannot make up his mind between two extremes. He .................
2. This piece of evidence confirms his story. It ................ it.
3. She accuses others. She ..................
4. They deplore their son's behaviour. They ..............
5. He received countless gifts. He was ...............
6. They reluctantly accept the deal. They ....................
7. The new manager really got the team to play. He ............... them.
8. The politician disclaimed the statement that had been attributed to him.
He ................ it.
9. When you offer a bonus for , it will usually ..................... the early completion of a job.
10. He never does today what he can put off until tomorrow. He ...........
11. He is so used to hard labour that his body has become ............ to it.
12. A policeman must .............. suspects of their legal rights before questioning them.

ANSWERS

1 - vacillates; 2 - corroborates; 3 - imputes; 4 - deprecate; 5 - inundated; 6 - acquiesce;
7 - galvanized; 8 - disavowed; 9 - expedite; 10 - procrastinates; 11- inured; 12 - apprise.

If you are still unsure of the meanings of today's twelve verbs, read over the following definitions before completing the final exercise below.

deprecate - deplore.
procrastinate - delay.
corroborate - confirm, substantiate.
inure - harden, desensitize.
apprise - inform.
vacillate - be irresolute or indecisive.
expedite - hasten.
impute - accuse.
inundate - deluge, engulf.
galvanize - excite, jolt, stimulate.
acquiesce - agree, accept.
disavow - deny, disclaim.

In the column on the right are twelve dictionary definitions of the words dealt with today. Try to match each word with its definition.

1. .......... ..... ...... ...... confirm, substantiate.
2. .......... ..... ...... ...... accuse.
3. .......... ..... ...... ...... deny, disclaim.
4. .......... ..... ...... ..... deplore.
5. .......... ..... ...... ..... deluge, engulf.
6. .......... ..... ...... ...... delay.
7. .......... ..... ...... ...... inform.
8. .......... ..... ...... ...... excite, jolt, stimulate.
9. .......... ..... ...... ...... hasten.
10. .......... ..... ...... ..... be irresolute or indecisive.
11. .......... ..... ...... ..... harden, desensitize
12. .......... ..... ...... ..... agree, accept.

ANSWERS

1- corroborate; 2- impute; 3 - disavow; 4 - deprecate; 5 - inundate; 6 - procrastinate;
7 - apprise; 8 - galvanize; 9 - expedite; 10 - vacillate; 11 - inure; 12 - acquiesce.

MODULE 2 (of 30)

Try to guess the meanings of the power verbs highlighted in the following twelve sentences. The definitions are given below.

1. The surgeon set the bones in position to coalesce.
2. He
repudiated the revolutionary ideas he had held in his youth.
3. The Internet enables us to
disseminate information throughout the world.
4. His provocative speech
exacerbated an already difficult situation.
5. The disease has been completely
eradicated.
6. The detective was searching for a clue that would
elucidate the mystery.
7. The losing candidate spent many hours
ruminating on the causes of his defeat.
8. He had no hesitation in
acceding to our request for extra funding.
9. By
equivocating, hesitating, and giving ambiguous answers, she succeeded in confusing her audience.
10. The detective
scrutinized the photograph for clues.
11. The increase in profits
validated the committee's recommendations.
12. He did penance to
expiate his sins.

coalesce - come together and form one; combine in coalition.
repudiate - divorce (wife); cast off, disown (person, thing); refuse to accept or entertain, or have dealings with.
disseminate - scatter abroad, sow in various places; spread widely (especially ideas, information etc.)
exacerbate - aggravate (pain, anger, etc.); irritate.
eradicate - tear up by the roots; extirpate, get rid of.
elucidate - throw light upon, clear up, explain.
ruminate - chew the cud; meditate, ponder.
accede - consent, agree (to).
equivocate - use ambiguous words to conceal the truth, prevaricate.
scrutinize - look closely at, examine in detail.
validate - make valid, ratify, confirm.
expiate - pay the penalty for (wrongdoing); make amends for (sin).

Referring to the list above only where necessary, write the appropriate verb beside its definition.

1. She examined all the competition entries in detail. She ......... them.
2. He spread his ideas widely. He .................... them
3. She gave a clear explanation of the poem's meaning. She .......... it.
4. I agree to your request. I ........ to it.
5. He is using ambiguity to conceal the truth. He is ........................
6. His thoughtless actions have made the situation worse. They have .................... it.
7. She spent several hours considering the problem. She ................. for several hours.
8. He is doing penance to atone for his sins. He is doing penance to ........... his sins.
9. The selective weedkiller was so powerful that it wiped out the nettles forever. It ............. them.
10. The increase in sales confirmed the soundness of his policy. It .................... the policy.
11. He disowned his former associates. He .................. them.
12. The two political parties have joined together to form one new party. They have ...........................

ANSWERS

1 - scrutinized; 2 - disseminated; 3 - elucidated; 4 - accede; 5 - equivocating; 6 - exacerbated;
7 - ruminated; 8 - expiate; 9 - eradicated; 10 - validated; 11 - repudiated; 12 - coalesced.

coalesce - blend, unite.
repudiate - disown.
disseminate - broadcast.
exacerbate - provoke, intensify.
eradicate - destroy, exterminate.
elucidate - explain, clarify.
ruminate - ponder, cogitate.
accede - agree.
equivocate - evade.
scrutinize - study.
validate - verify, authenticate.
expiate - atone.

In the column on the right are twelve dictionary definitions of the words dealt with today.
Try to match each word with its definition.

1. .......... ..... ...... .......... agree.
2. .......... ..... ...... .......... disown.
3. .......... ..... ...... .......... examine carefully.
4. .......... ..... ...... .......... extirpate.
5. .......... ..... ...... .......... evade, dissemble.
6. .......... ..... ...... .......... provoke, intensify.
7. .......... ..... ...... .......... unite.
8. .......... ..... ...... .......... ratify, confirm.
9. .......... ..... ...... .......... make amends for.
10. .......... ..... ...... .......... ponder, cogitate.
11. .......... ..... ...... .......... clarify, explain.
12. .......... ..... ...... .......... scatter about.

ANSWERS

1 - accede; 2 - repudiate; 3- scrutinize; 4 - eradicate 5 - equivocate; 6 - exacerbate; 7 - coalesce;
8 - validate; 9 - expiate; 10 - ruminate; 11 - elucidate; 12 - disseminate.

MODULE 3 (of 30)

Try to guess the meanings of the power verbs highlighted in the following twelve sentences. The definitions are given below.

1. He importuned his parents for extra pocket money.
2. We are not sure what their business is but we may
surmise it is smuggling.
3. They have done everything possible to
thwart our progress.
4. He has
derided the beliefs of all his friends.
5. The orator
fulminated against the policies of the government.
6. He
pontificates at length on moral issues.
7. The new access road will
facilitate the free flow of traffic.
8. The rules
stipulate that all competitors start at the same time.
9. The journalist
impugned the politician's denials.
10. They used the threat of violence to
coerce their neighbours into supporting them.
11. I shall not pursue these points further for fear of
digressing too far from my main theme.
12. She studied conscientiously in order to
emulate her successful forbears.

importune - to solicit (a person) pressingly; to request earnestly.
surmise - infer doubtfully or conjecturally; conjecture, guess.
thwart - frustrate or foil (a person or purpose etc.).
deride - laugh scornfully at; ridicule.
fulminate - thunder forth, utter or publish (censure), issue censures against; express censure loudly and forcefully.
pontificate - act or speak pompously or dogmatically; pretend to be infallible.
facilitate - make easy, promote, help forward (action or result.
stipulate - require or insist upon as essential condition.
coerce - constrain into obedience etc.; use force, secure by force.
impugn - assail by word, call in question (statement, action).
digress - diverge from the track, stray; depart from main subject temporarily in speech or in writing.
emulate - try to equal or excel; imitate zealously.

Referring to the list above only where necessary, write the appropriate verb beside its definition.

1. They lay down certain conditions. They ........................
2. He tries to match his father's achievements. He tries to ................. him.
3. They beg people for money. They ........................ them for money.
4. They sent troops to foil the uprising. They sent troops to ............. the uprising.
5. He speaks in a dogmatic manner. He ..............................
6. They question our motives. They ................... them.
7. They make things easy for us. They ................. us.
8. She can only guess what might have happened. She can only ................
9. He mocks our efforts. He ............... them.
10. She is straying from the main story. She is ............................
11. He expresses censure loudly and forcefully. He ........................
12. He uses the threat of violence to make someone do something. He .................... him, her.

ANSWERS

1 - stipulate; 2 - emulate; 3 - importune; 4 - thwart; 5 - pontificates; 6 - impugn;
7 - facilitate; 8 - surmise; 9 - derides; 10 - digressing; 11 - fulminates ; 12 - coerces.

If you are still unsure of the meanings of today's twelve verbs, read over the following definitions before completing the final exercise below.

importune - to request earnestly; demand.
surmise - guess.
thwart - hinder.
deride - jeer, ridicule.
fulminate - express censure loudly and forcefully.
pontificate - act or speak dogmatically.
facilitate - help forward (action or result).
stipulate - require or insist upon as essential condition.
coerce - secure by force, compel.
impugn - call in question (statement, action); criticize.
digress - deviate, stray.
emulate - try to equal or excel.

In the column on the right are twelve dictionary definitions of the words dealt with today.
Try to match each word with its definition.

1. .......... ..... ...... ....... demand or specify as part of an agreement.
2. .......... ..... ...... ....... guess.
3. .......... ..... ...... ........try to equal; imitate zealously.
4. .......... ..... ...... ....... besiege, entreat.
5. .......... ..... ...... ....... force, compel.
6. .......... ..... ...... ....... foil, hinder.
7. .......... ..... ...... ....... preach, be dogmatic.
8. .......... ..... ...... ....... jeer, mock.
9. .......... ..... ...... ....... ease, help, promote.
10. .......... ..... ...... ....... challenge or call in question.
11. .......... ..... ...... ...... stray, deviate.
12. .......... ..... ...... ....... thunder, rail against.

ANSWERS

1 - stipulate; 2 - surmise; 3 - emulate; 4 - importune; 5 - coerce; 6 - thwart;
7 - pontificate; 8 - deride; 9 - facilitate; 10 - impugn; 11 - digress; 12 - fulminate.

MODULE 4 (of 30)

Try to guess the meanings of the power verbs highlighted in the following twelve sentences. The definitions are given below.

1. When he regained consciousness, he was temporarily disorientated.
2. The manager
augmented his successful squad with new players.
3. She
deduced from the condition of their garden that the owners were not houseproud.
4. The judge asked the laconic witness to
elaborate.
5. The decision to strike was
ratified by the union executive.
6. Running up and down the sideline, the football coach
gesticulated frantically at his team.
7. She quickly
rectified the mistake in the account.
8. He urged the politicians to
implement the recommendations as soon as possible.
9. A life of drudgery disfigures the body and
enervates the soul .
10. She
enumerated the various dishes served at dinner.
11. A minority group often feels
alienated from society.
12. The politician
reiterated the same point in a series of speeches.

disorientate - confuse (person) as to his or her bearings.
augment - make or become greater; increase.
deduce - derive as conclusion from something already known
elaborate - work out or explain in detail.
ratify - confirm or make valid by giving consent, approval, or formal sanction.
gesticulate - use expressive motion of limbs or body with or instead of speech.
rectify - put right, correct, amend, adjust.
implement - put (a plan, decision) into effect.
enervate - weaken physically; deprive of vigour or vitality.
enumerate - count, mention (number of things or persons) separately; specify.
alienate - estrange, cause to become hostile or unfriendly.
reiterate - repeat, do over again or several times.

Referring to the list above only where necessary, write the appropriate verb beside its definition.

1. She is confused as to her whereabouts.
She is ......... .

2. They increased their sales force.
They .................... it.

3. On the basis of years of experience, he concludes that gambling is a dangerous addiction.
He .......... that it is dangerous.

4. The interview asked her to give a more detailed answer.
The interviewer asked her to ....... .

5. The management committee formally sanctioned the decision.
They ........................ it.

6. They were waving animatedly.
They were .................... .

7. The editor corrected the error.
He ................. it.

8. They put the plan into effect.
They ........... it.

9. The stifling weather conditions had deprived them of vitality.
They felt ............. .

10. They mentioned all the successful candidate's attributes.
They .................... them.

11. His boorish behaviour has turned all his colleagues against him.
It has .................. them.

12. She repeated her statement.
She ........................... it.

ANSWERS

1 - disorientated; 2 - augmented; 3 - deduces; 4 - elaborate; 5 - ratified; 6 - gesticulating;
7 - rectified; 8 - implemented; 9 - enervated; 10 - enumerated; 11 - alienated; 12 - reiterated.

If you are still unsure of the meanings of today's twelve verbs, read over the following definitions before completing the final exercise below.

disorientate - confuse, mislead.
augment - enlarge, expand.
deduce - infer, conclude.
elaborate - develop.
ratify - sanction, confirm.
gesticulate - gesture, beckon.
rectify - correct.
implement - accomplish.
enervate - debilitate.
enumerate - count, name.
alienate - estrange.
reiterate - repeat.

In the column on the right are twelve dictionary definitions of the words dealt with today.
Try to match each word with its definition.

1. .......... ..... ...... .......... bring about.
2. .......... ..... ...... .......... endorse, sanction.
3. .......... ..... ...... .......... count, name.
4. .......... ..... ...... .......... repeat.
5. .......... ..... ...... .......... confuse, mislead.
6. .......... ..... ...... .......... correct.
7. .......... ..... ...... .......... conclude, infer.
8. .......... ..... ...... .......... gesture, beckon.
9. .......... ..... ...... .......... add to, expand.
10. .......... ..... ...... .......... estrange.
11. .......... ..... ...... .......... complicate, develop.
12. .......... ..... ...... .......... debilitate.

ANSWERS

1 - implement; 2 - ratify; 3- enumerate; 4 - reiterate; 5 - disorientate; 6 - rectify; 7 - deduce;
8 - gesticulate; 9 - augment; 10 - alienate; 11 - elaborate; 12 - enervate.

MODULE 5 (of 30)

If you wish your speech and writing to have impact, you must choose precise, dynamic verbs.

Here are twelve precise, dynamic verbs used in context. Study them carefully and try to guess their meanings.
The definitions are given below.

1. He was incensed by the committee's curt refusal to give him a hearing.
2. The witness's evidence
vindicated the accused man.
3. They were unable to produce any proof to
substantiate their claims.
4. She
relinquished her claim to the house.
5. He attempted unsuccessfully to
dissemble his real intentions.
6. The novelist had
plagiarised the work of others.
7. They
feign penitence but persist in their sinful ways.
8. He was exposed as a cheat and
ostracised by his fellow officers.
9. He was
vilified by the tabloid press.
10. Accepting the lawyer's plea that there were
extenuating circumstances, the judge decided not to impose a custodial sentence.
11. They arrived early at the meeting so as to
pre-empt the most advantageous positions.
12 He had a capacity for
delineating emotions he had never felt.

ANSWERS

incense - enrage, make angry.
vindicate - establish the existence or merits or justice of ( one's character, conduct, assertion).
substantiate - demonstrate or verify by proof or evidence.
relinquish - give up, abandon, resign, surrender; let go (something held).
dissemble - cloak, disguise, conceal; conceal one's opinions, intentions, etc. under feigned guise; play the hypocrite.
plagiarize - take and use another person's (thoughts, writings) as one's own.
feign - invent (excuse, story, accusation); forge (document); represent fictitiously; imitate deceptively.
ostracize - exclude from society, refuse to associate with.
vilify - defame; speak evil of.
extenuate - lessen seeming magnitude of (guilt, offence) by partial excuse.
pre-empt - acquire or appropriate in advance; purchase before opportunity is offered to other.
delineate - show by drawing or description, portray.

Referring to the list above only where necessary, write the appropriate verb beside its definition.

1. He was enraged by the manager's decision to transfer him.
He was .........................



2. The accused accountant cleared himself of guilt by producing his bank statements.
He ........................... himself.

3. She has been unable to verify her claims.
She has been unable to ........................ them.

4. He surrendered the gun.
He ................. it.

5. He tries to disguise his real intentions for the purpose of deceiving.
He ..................... his real intentions.

6. He steals from another's work and presents it as his own.
He ...........................

7. He pretends to be injured.
He ....................... injury.

8. He has been blacklisted by the other members of his club.
They have ........................ him.

9. They blackened his good name.
They ................ him.

10. His present concern for his parents is an attempt to lessen the blame for his past neglect of them.
He is trying to ................. his past neglect.

11. When we arrived we found that the visitors had taken up all the parking spaces.
They had ...................... all the parking spaces.

12. The author described in great detail the many-faceted character of the heroine.
The author ................ the many-faceted character of the heroine.

ANSWERS

1 - incensed; 2 - vindicated; substantiate; 4 - relinquish; 5 -dissembles; 6 - plagiarizes;
7 - feigns; 8 - ostracized; 9 - vilified; 10 - extenuate; 11 - pre-empted; 12 - delineated.

If you are still unsure of the meanings of today's twelve verbs, read over the following definitions before completing the final exercise below.

incense - anger.
vindicate - clear of blame or suspicion, justify by evidence.
substantiate - prove, confirm.
relinquish - surrender, yield, relax hold of.
dissemble - disguise, pretend.
plagiarize - pirate, steal.
feign - counterfeit, fabricate.
ostracize - blacklist, boycott.
vilify - revile, asperse, malign.
extenuate - excuse, justify; to make something seem less blameworthy.
pre-empt - usurp.
delineate - depict, portray, outline.

In the column on the right are twelve dictionary definitions of the words dealt with today. Try to match each word with its definition.

1. ................ disguise, pretend.
2. ................ excuse, justify.
3. ................ blacklist, boycott.
4. ................ surrender, yield, relax hold of.
5. ................ usurp.
6. ................ clear of blame or suspicion, justify by evidence.
7. ................ depict, portray, outline.
8. ................ pirate, steal.
9. ................ prove, confirm.
10. ................ anger.
11. ................ revile, asperse, malign.
12. ................ counterfeit, fabricate.

ANSWERS

1 - dissemble; 2 - extenuate; 3 - ostracize; 4 - relinquish; 5 - pre-empt; 6 - vindicate;
7 - delineate; 8 - plagiarize; 9 - substantiate; 10 - incense; 11 - vilify; 12 - feign.

MODULE 6 (of 30)

Try to guess the meanings of the power verbs highlighted in the following twelve sentences. The definitions are given below.

1. The speaker patronized his audience by over-simplifying everything he told them.
2. His employer
castigated him for his failure to carry out the statutory safety procedures.
3. He was
revered by all for his wisdom and his benevolence.
4. She had
inculcated into the minds of her children the importance of honesty and integrity.
5. Tragedy tends to
consolidate a people.
6. She
enhanced the attractiveness of her garden by adding some water features.
7. Some churches permit divorce, but do not
sanction remarriage.
8. He
perused the contract in great detail before refusing to sign it.
9. They made concession after concession in a vain attempt to
placate the opposition.
10. If you see a man staggering along the road you may
infer that he is drunk.
11. The council decided to
rescind their decision.
12. The company's spokesman
evaded every one of the interviewer's questions.

patronize - treat (person, thing) as if with consciousness of one's superiority.
castigate - rebuke or punish severely; reprimand.
revere - regard as sacred or exalted, hold in deep and usually affectionate or religious respect, venerate.
inculcate - urge or impress (a fact, habit, idea) persistently (upon, in, person, mind).
consolidate - 1. solidify, strengthen; 2. Combine (territories etc.) into one whole.
enhance - heighten, intensify (qualities, powers, etc..); increase in price or value. sanction - authorize; countenance; permit.
peruse - read thoroughly or carefully.
placate - pacify, conciliate.
infer - deduce, conclude.
rescind - abrogate, revoke, annul, cancel.
evade - escape from, avoid (attack, pursuit, etc.) or answering (question).

Referring to the list above only where necessary, write the appropriate verb beside its definition.

1. He is an author who treats his readers in a condescending manner.
He ............................. his readers.

2. The fire officer was severely reprimanded for having failed to carry out the agreed safety checks.
He was .....................

3. The bishop was deeply respected by his flock.
He was .....................

4. She had sedulously instilled the importance of honesty into her children.
She had ............................ honesty into the minds of her children.

5. He has strengthened his position as head of the company.
He has ......................... his position.

6. They have increased the value of their home by building a conservatory.
They have ....... the value of their home.

7. The chief executive has authorised his appointment.
The chief executive has ................... it.

8. She has carefully examined her contract.
She has ...................... it.

9. In an effort to appease his employer, he offered to pay for the damage himself.
He tried to ................. his employer.

10. From the evidence presented, we can deduce that he was in the vicinity at the time.
From the evidence available, we can .......... that he was present.

11. They decided to cancel the contract.
They decided to ............... the contract.

12. He managed to escape from his pursuers.
He managed to .................. them.

ANSWERS

1 - patronizes; 2 - castigated; 3 - revered; 4 - inculcated; 5 - consolidated; 6 - enhanced;
7 - sanctioned; 8 - perused; 9 - placate; 10 - infer; 11 - rescind; 12 - evade.

n the column on the right are twelve dictionary definitions of the words dealt with today.
Try to match each word with its definition.

1. .............. improve.
2. .............. honour, venerate.
3. .............. elude, escape from.
4. .............. examine.
5. .............. treat condescendingly.
6. .............. conclude.
7. .............. amalgamate, fortify; reinforce or strengthen (one's power or position).
8. ............. repeal, revoke.
9. .............. approve.
10. ............. censure.
11. ............. instil.
12. ........... allay, assuage.

ANSWERS

1 - enhance; 2 - revere; 3 - evade; 4 - peruse; 5 - patronize; 6 - infer; 7 - consolidate;
8 - rescind; 9 - sanction; 10 - castigate; 11 - inculcate; 12 - placate. 7 - facilitate; 8 - surmise; 9 - derides; 10 - digressing; 11 - fulminates ; 12 - coerces.

MODULE 7 (of 30)

Try to guess the meanings of the power verbs highlighted in the following twelve sentences. The definitions are given below.

1. His militant attitude antagonized most of his fellow workers.
2. His examination failure was
ascribed to a lack of intelligence.
3. The witness was ready to
attest that everything the defendant said was true.
4. He is a little quick of temper but readily
appeased.
5. He
advocates total abstinence as the only way to combat alcoholism.
6. Though urged to accompany them on holiday, she still politely
demurred.
7. False rumours have
aggravated racial animosities.
8. A man who drinks to excess often
condones drunkenness in others.
9. He
intimated that he would one day ask her to marry him.
10. The bank
accommodated him with a short-term loan.
11. He
regaled his guests with a series of side-splitting anecdotes.
12. She
resuscitated his interest in blues music.

antagonize - evoke hostility in, make into an enemy.
ascribe - attribute, impute; consider as belonging to.
attest - testify, certify; put on oath or solemn declaration.
appease - pacify, soothe, satisfy.
advocate - plead for, support (policy etc.), argue for.
demur - make difficulties, raise scruples or objections to, at.
aggravate - increase the gravity of (an illness, offence etc.); annoy, exasperate.
condone - forgive, overlook (offence or wrongdoing).
intimate - make known, state; imply, hint.
accommodate
- provide lodging or room for; adapt, harmonize, reconcile; do a service or favour to; oblige (person).
regale - entertain lavishly with feasting; (followed by with ) entertain or divert with (talk etc.); (of beauty, flowers etc.) give delight to.
resuscitate - revive, return or restore to life, consciousness, vogue, vigour, etc.

Referring to the list above only where necessary, write the appropriate verb beside its definition.

1. His behaviour turns people against him.
He .......................... people.

2. His success has been attributed to hard work.
It has been .................. to hard work.

3. We can testify that everything he says is true.
We can ......... to his honesty.

4. The leader pacified his men by making concessions.
He ................... them by making concessions.

5. They objected on academic grounds to the inclusion of dancing classes.
They .............. on academic grounds.

6. He argues for capital punishment.
He .................... it.

7. The use of violence has made the situation worse.
It has ................. the situation.

8. He overlooks his children's bad behaviour.
He ............. it.

9. She has made it known that she wants the job.
She has .............. that she wants the job.

10. He is prepared to look favourably on your requests.
He is prepared to ..................... you.

11. She entertained the company with her singing and dancing.
She .................... the company.

12. He revived the moribund company.
He ........................ the dying company.

ANSWERS

1 - antagonizes; 2 - ascribed; 3 - attest; 4 - appeased; 5 - demurred; 6 - advocates;
7 - aggravated; 8 - condones; 9 - intimated; 10 - accommodate; 11 - regaled; 12 - resuscitated.

If you are still unsure of the meanings of today's twelve verbs, read over the following definitions before completing the final exercise below.

antagonize - alienate, anger.
ascribe - attribute.
attest - affirm.
appease - satisfy, pacify.
advocate - argue for, champion.
demur - object.
aggravate - worsen, irritate.
condone - excuse.
intimate - declare, let it be known.
accommodate - help, oblige, assist.
regale - entertain.
resuscitate - revive.

In the column on the right are twelve dictionary definitions of the words dealt with today. Try to match each word with its definition.

1. .............. argue for, champion.
2. .............. help, oblige, assist.
3. .............. revive.
4. .............. excuse.
5. .............. satisfy, pacify.
6. .............. entertain.
7................ object.
8. .............. attribute.
9. .............. declare, let it be known.
10. .............. affirm.
11.................alienate, anger.
12. ..............worsen, irritate.

ANSWERS

1- advocate; 2 - accommodate; 3 - resuscitate; 4 - condone; 5 - appease; 6 - regale;
7 - demur; 8 - ascribe; 9 - intimate; 10 - attest; 11 - antagonize; 12 - aggravate.

MODULE 8 (of 30)

Try to guess the meanings of the power verbs highlighted in the following twelve sentences. The definitions are given below.

1. She paced up and down the room endeavouring to compose herself.
2. She was
disconcerted by the interviewer's critical remarks about her dress sense.
3. This law
abrogates the rights of the minority.
4. The leader was accustomed to command, not to
entreat.
5. A plagiarist
appropriates the words and ideas of others.
6. He
covets his neighbour's new car.
7. Years of gambling had
depleted his financial resources.
8. The testimony of the eye-witness
negated the defendant's alibi.
9. The roar of the crowd
precluded him from completing his story.
10. They
agitated for a reform of the tax laws.
11. He decided that it would be discreet to
propitiate the chairman, for the chairman had the power to sack him.
12. She has never
evinced any special interest in politics.

endeavour - try earnestly, strive.
disconcert - disturb the composure of, fluster, embarrass; spoil or upset (plans etc.).
abrogate - repeal, cancel, abolish (law or custom).
entreat - ask earnestly (to do).
appropriate - take possession of; devote to special purposes.
covet - desire eagerly (usually what belongs to another).
deplete - empty out; exhaust.
negate - nullify, make ineffective, invalidate, destroy; deny, deny the existence of.
preclude - (followed by from ) prevent, exclude (precluded from taking part ); make impossible; remove so as to preclude all doubt).
agitate - stir up interest or concern, especially publicly; disturb or excite (a person or feelings); shake or move, especially briskly.
propitiate - appease (an offended person etc.).
evince - indicate or make evident; show that one has (a quality).

Referring to the list above only where necessary, write the appropriate verb beside its definition.

1. She strove earnestly to complete the task on time.
She ........................... to complete it on time.

2. The constant interruptions disturbed the composure of the chairman.
The constant interruptions .................... the chairman.

3. The government abolished the unpopular law.
The government .................... the unpopular law.

4. The tenants begged the landowner to carry out improvements.
They ....................... him to carry out improvements.

5. The farmer took possession of some of his neighbour's land.
The farmer ......................... some of his neighbour's land.

6. He desires his neighbour's house.
He ................. his neighbour's house.

7. Carefree spending quickly exhausted her meagre savings.
Carefree spending quickly .............. her meagre savings.

8. One careless action can nullify weeks of hard work.
One careless action can ............... weeks of hard work.

9. A prior engagement prevented him from accepting the invitation.
A prior engagement ............. him from accepting the invitation.

10. She was so stirred up that she stormed out of the room.
She was so .................. that she stormed out of the room.

11. They deemed it advisable to appease the angry gods.
They deemed it advisable to ................... the angry gods.

12. He has never shown any interest in music.
He has never ..................... an interest in music.

ANSWERS

1 - endeavoured; 2 - disconcerted; 3 - abrogated; 4 - entreated; 5 - appropriated;
6 - covets; 7 - depletes; 8 - negate; 9 - precluded; 10 - agitated; 11 - propitiate;
12 -evinced.

If you are still unsure of the meanings of today's twelve verbs, read over the following definitions before completing the final exercise below.

endeavour - essay, attempt.
disconcert - disturb.
abrogate - revoke, annul.
entreat - appeal for.
appropriate - seize, commandeer.
covet - long for.
deplete - drain, exhaust.
negate - nullify.
preclude - prevent.
agitate - perturb.
propitiate - appease.
evince - demonstrate.

In the column on the right are twelve dictionary definitions of the words dealt with today.
Try to match each word with its definition.

1. ........................ long for.
2. ........................ prevent.
3. ........................ essay, attempt.
4. ........................ demonstrate.
5. ........................ revoke, annul.
6. ........................ disturb.
7. ........................ appeal for.
8. ........................ appease.
9. ........................ drain, exhaust.
10. ........................ perturb.
11. ........................ nullify.
12. ........................ seize, commandeer.

ANSWERS

1 - covet; 2 - preclude; 3 - endeavour; 4 - evince; 5 - abrogate; 6 - disconcert;
7 - entreat; 8 - propitiate; 9 - deplete; 10 agitate; 11 - negate; 12 - appropriate.

MODULE 9 (of 30)

Try to guess the meanings of the power verbs highlighted in the following twelve sentences. The definitions are given below.

1. She tried to avert her gaze but felt compelled to look at the picture.
2. He spends most of his time
denigrating his former colleagues.
3. The government took steps to
suppress the insurrection.
4. The judge
upbraided both parents for their failure to control their son.
5. The ceremony was
curtailed because of the thunderstorm.
6. He constructed an
improvised shelter from some sheets of corrugated iron.
7. When he made a plan, he invariably
adhered to it.
8. Frustrated by the candidate's monosyllabic answers, the interviewer decided to
desist from further questioning.
9. The presence of such a critical audience
inhibited him from speaking with his usual spontaneity.
10. The leaders had
indoctrinated their people with race hatred.
11. Many people are easily
duped by advertisers.
12. The monster
beguiled his victim into the dark forest by mimicking the human voice.

avert - turn away (one's eyes or thoughts, ward off (a threat, danger, or some other undesirable occurrence).
denigrate - blacken, defame..
suppress - put down, quell, put a stop to activity or existence of; keep secret or unexpressed.
upbraid - chide, reproach.
curtail - cut short.
improvise - compose, utter (verse, music, etc.) without preparation.
adhere - stick fast, cleave (to)..
desist - cease(from).
inhibit - hinder, restrain (action, process).
indoctrinate - imbue with learning, with doctrine, idea, etc.
dupe - cheat, make a fool of.
beguile - delude; cheat; charm, amuse; divert attention (from passage of time etc.).



Referring to the list above only where necessary, write the appropriate verb beside its definition.

1. The motorist managed to avoid a collision.
He managed to ............ a collision.

2. She is always disparaging the reputation of her neighbours.
She is always ............. her neighbours.

3. He succeeded in quelling the mutiny.
He succeeded in ..................... the mutiny.

4. The team manager berated his players for their failure to score.
He ...................... them.

5. She has stuck fast to the fashions of the past.
She has ...................... to the fashions of the past.

6. The outdoor concert had to be shortened because of the storm.
It had to be ......................... because of the storm.

7. A jazz musician must to be able to extemporize.
A jazz musician must be able to .................

8. He had made two attempts to shave but his hand had been so unsteady that he had been obliged to stop.
He had been obliged to ..................

9. Her natural shyness hinders her from speaking in public.
Her natural shyness .................... her from speaking in public.

10. The parents imbued their children with upper-class values.
The .......... ..... ...... ..... their children.

11. The salesman found it easy to trick his customers.
He found it easy to .............. his customers.

12. He charmed his audience with nostalgic tales of his youth.
He ............... them with nostalgic tales of his youth.

ANSWERS

1- avert; 2 - denigrating; 3 - suppressing; 4 - upbraided; 5 - adhered; 6 - curtailed;
7 - improvise; 8 - desist; 9 - inhibited; 10 - indoctrinated; 11 - dupe; 12 - beguiled.

If you are still unsure of the meanings of today's twelve verbs, read over the following definitions before completing the final exercise below.

Improvise - extemporize. Desist - stop. Denigrate - disparage, belittle. Avert - turn away, avoid. Adhere - cling to. Inhibit - obstruct. Upbraid - berate. Indoctrinate - instruct, teach.
( suggests the inculcation of propaganda or prejudices rather than unbiased knowledge).
Curtail - truncate, lessen. Dupe - fool. Suppress - subdue. Beguile - deceive, charm, cheat.

In the column on the right are twelve dictionary definitions of the words dealt with today.
Try to match each word with its definition.

1. ............... obstruct.
2. ............... truncate, lessen.
3. ............... disparage, belittle.
4. ............... instruct, teach.
5. ............... turn away, avoid.
6. ............... cling to.
7. ............... subdue.
8. ............... deceive, charm, cheat.
9. ............... stop.
10. ............... fool.
11. ............... berate.
12. ............... extemporize.

ANSWERS

1 - inhibit; 2 - curtail; 3 - denigrate; 4 - indoctrinate; 5 - avert; 6 - adhere; 7 - suppress; 8 - beguile; 9 - desist; 10 -dupe; 11 - upbraid; 12 - improvise.

Module 10 (of 30)

Try to guess the meanings of the power verbs highlighted in the following twelve sentences. The definitions are given below.

1. She was repulsed by his crude language and behaviour.
2. Her parting words
reverberated in his mind for days afterwards.
3. The collector had been
authorized to receive contributions for charity.
4. She eventually
inveigled him into buying a new house.
5. He managed to
circumvent all obstacles placed in his path.
6. They flouted the law with apparent
impunity.
7. They
flaunted their wealth at every opportunity.
8. The story
purports to be an autobiography.
9. His reputation for unpredictability could
militate against his prospects of promotion.
10. This is a joy that
transcends all others.
11. He
eschewed all violent actions.
12. He has
espoused many unpopular causes throughout his lifetime.

repulse - drive back (attack, attacking enemy) by force of arms; rebuff (friendly advances, etc.)
reverberate - return, reflect, re-echo (sound, light, etc.); be reflected or re-echoed.
authorize - sanction; give ground for; give authority to.
inveigle - entice, seduce (into ).
circumvent - find a way around, evade.
flout - mock, insult, express contempt for( rules, law etc.) by word or act; scoff at.
flaunt - wave proudly; display oneself or one's finery; show off, parade.
purport - professes, be intended to seem (to do) (purports to be his signature).
militate - (of facts, evidence, etc.) Have force, tell ( against conclusion or result).
transcend - go beyond, exceed limits of; rise above, surpass, excel.
eschew - avoid, abstain from.
espouse - adopt, support (cause, doctrine, etc.).

Referring to the list above only where necessary, write the appropriate verb beside its definition.<

1. The defenders of the castle drove back one attack after the other.
The defenders ............... one attack after the other.
2. The sound of the crash re-echoed throughout the empty building.
The sound ....................... throughout the empty building.
3. Her father gave her permission to cash the cheque.
He ................... her to cash the cheque.
4. He used the most subtle means to coax her into lending him the money.
He used the most subtle means to ........ her into lending him the money.
5. The rejected aliens soon found a way around the immigration laws.
They ...................... the immigration laws.
6. He expressed contempt for convention by arriving in casual dress.
He ........ convention by arriving in casual dress.
7. They display themselves ostentatiously on the beach.
They ............................. themselves on the beach.
8. This is intended to be the autograph of Elvis Presley.
This ........................ to be the autograph of Elvis Presley.
9. His reputation for inconsistency serves as a strong influence against his chances of selection.
His reputation for inconsistency .............. against his prospects.
10. It goes beyond the limits of unaided human intelligence.
It .............. the limits of unaided human intelligence.
11. He avoids with distaste all genetically modified foods.
He ............... all genetically modified foods.
12. She supports the principle of democracy.
She .................. the principle of democracy.

ANSWERS

1 - repulsed; 2 - reverberated; 3 - authorized; 4 - inveigle; 5 - circumvented; 6 - flouted;
7 - flaunt; 8 - purports; 9 - militates; 10 - transcends; 11 - eschews; 20 - espouses.

If you are still unsure of the meanings of today's twelve verbs, read over the following definitions before completing the final exercise below.

repulse - repel, ward off.
reverberate - resonate, resound.
authorize - approve, entitle.
inveigle - ensnare, persuade.
circumvent - go around.
flout - ridicule.
flaunt - show off.
purport - claim.
militate - conflict with.
transcend - surpass.
eschew - shun.
espouse - embrace, advocate.

In the column on the right are twelve dictionary definitions of the words dealt with today.
Try to match each word with its definition.

.....................ridicule.
2. .................... shun.
3. .................... claim.
4. .................... ensnare, persuade.
5. .................... repel, ward off.
6. .................... surpass.
7. .................... show off.
8. .................... approve, entitle.
9. ................... embrace, advocate.
10. ................... conflict with.
11. .................... go around.
12. .................... resonate, resound.

ANSWERS

1 - flout; 2 - eschew; 3 - purport; 4 - inveigle; 5 - repulse; 6 - transcend; 7 - flaunt; 8 - authorize;
9 - espouse; 10 - militate; 11 - circumvent; 12 - reverberate.

MODULE 11 (of 30)

Try to guess the meanings of the power verbs highlighted in the following twelve sentences. The definitions are given below.

1. He eventually capitulated to the superior strength of his opponent.
2. We shall have to
contrive a way of financing them without their knowing it.
3. He did much to
conciliate his enemy's feelings of resentment.
4. A lone yachtsman must
reconcile himself to long absences from his family.
5. Her eyes
dilated with surprise.
6. The village was completely
circumscribed by hills.
7. The snow rapidly
obliterated all traces of their presence.
8. He found it difficult to
envisage life without his family.
9. The hurricane
razed most of the buildings in the town.
10. There is no hope of ameliorating his condition.
11. By confessing his misdemeanours of his own accord, he managed to
forestall the anticipated criticism.
12. The crime was
perpetrated by a group of masked raiders.

capitulate - submit, yield, give up; surrender especially on terms or on stated conditions.
contrive - devise, plan, skilfully; bring to pass; manage (thing, to do etc.).
conciliate - gain ( goodwill, esteem, etc.) by acts which pacify, smooth, etc.; gain over; overcome distrust or hostility of.
reconcile - 1. make friendly after estrangement.
2. adjust, settle (quarrel etc.);
3. make acquiescent or contentedly submissive to (something disagreeable or unwelcome) (He has become reconciled to poverty );
4. harmonize; show the compatibility of by argument or in practice (I cannot reconcile your report with what actually happened).
dilate - make or become wider or larger; expand, widen, enlarge.
circumscribe - 1. draw line round; encompass.
2. mark out or define limits of; confine, restrict.
obliterate - blot out, efface, erase, destroy.
envisage - have a mental picture of something not yet existing; contemplate or conceive as a possibility.
raze - completely destroy; level with the ground.
ameliorate - improve; make or become better.
forestall - anticipate in action; deal with before the regular time.
perpetrate - perform, commit (crime, blunder, etc.).

Referring to the list above only where necessary, write the appropriate verb beside its definition.

1. I am always prepared to work extra hours if asked politely, but I will not submit to bullying.
I am always prepared to work extra hours if asked politely, but I will not ..................to bullying.

2. He managed to make matters worse.
He ............... to make matters worse.

3. The policy was designed to pacify and amalgamate conquered nations.
The policy was designed to ........... and amalgamate conquered nations.

4. The husband and wife have become friendly again after their estrangement.
They have become ......................

5. His eyes opened wide with shock.
His eyes .................. with shock.

6. Their life on the farm was distinct, complete, and apart from all that surrounded it.
Their life on the farm was strictly ................ and complete within itself.

7. They wiped out all traces of the previous inhabitants.
They ............................all traces of the previous inhabitants.

8. The new motorway, as he conceives it, would take ten years to construct.
The new motorway, as he ............... it, would take ten years to construct.

9. The block of flats was flattened.
The block of flats was ..............

10. They do their best to improve conditions that are hard to bear.
They try to ................... them.

11. She averted the question by presenting the interview panel with the information beforehand.
She ............... the question by presenting the interview panel with the information beforehand.

12. He committed the crime.
He ................ the crime.

ANSWERS

1 - capitulate; 2 - contrived; 3 - conciliate; 4 - reconciled; 5 - dilated; 6 - circumscribed;
7 - obliterated; 8 - envisages; 9 - razed; 10 - ameliorate; 11 - forestalled; 12 - perpetrated.

If you are still unsure of the meanings of today's twelve verbs, read over the following definitions before completing the final exercise below.

capitulate - submit, give up. contrive - design, devise; manage. conciliate - appease, accommodate. reconcile - appease, adjust. dilate - expand, enlarge. circumscribe - encircle. obliterate - demolish. envisage - visualize, conceive. raze - flatten. ameliorate - make better or more tolerable. forestall - obviate. perpetrate - execute.

In the column on the right are twelve dictionary definitions of the words dealt with today.
Try to match each word with its definition.

I. ................... encircle.
2. ................... flatten.
3. ................... submit, give up.
4. ................... obviate.
5. ................... appease, adjust.
6. ................... design, devise; manage.
7. ................... visualize, conceive.
8. ................... improve.
9..................... appease, accommodate.
10. ................... execute.
11. ................... expand, enlarge.
12. ................... demolish.

ANSWERS

ANSWERS 1 - circumscribe ; 2 -raze; 3 - capitulate; 4 - forestall; 5 - reconcile; 6 - contrive;
7 - envisage; 8 - ameliorate; 9 - conciliate; 10 - perpetrate; 11 - dilate; 12 - obliterate.

MODULE 12 (of 30)

Try to guess the meanings of the power verbs highlighted in the following twelve sentences. The definitions are given below.

Try to guess the meanings of the power verbs highlighted in the following twelve sentences. The definitions are given below.

1. Old paintings were studied to ascertain the dresses of the period.
2. We tried to
dissuade him from investing his money in such an unpredictable business.
3. The accent he used to read the news was only faintly
differentiated from the accent he used in his everyday life.
4. Doctors have
endorsed the new painkiller.
5. He
initiated negotiations between the two governments.
6. The petty negotiators
cavilled at every new proposal simply to prolong the deadlock.
7. They
enunciated their words with theatrical clarity.
8. They
exacted several concessions from their employer.
9. The jury
agonized for three days before arriving at their decision.
10. This order
countermands our earlier instructions.
11. This law appears to
contravene human rights.
12. A weak piece of evidence often
impairs the strength of a good argument.

ascertain - find out.
dissuade - advise (person) against; divert from course by persuasion.
differentiate - discriminate between, distinguish; constitute difference between.
endorse - confirm, vouch for (statement, opinion).
initiate - begin, set going, originate.
cavil - raise captious objection.
enunciate - express (proposition, theory) definitely; proclaim; pronounce (articulate sounds).
exact - demand and enforce payment of (money etc.); insist upon (act, conduct); require urgently.
agonize - (often followed by over ) undergo (especially mental) anguish; suffer agony.
countermand - revoke or cancel previous order.
contravene - infringe (law); dispute (statement); conflict with.
impair - damage, weaken.

Referring to the list above only where necessary, write the appropriate verb beside its definition.

1. He declared his approval of the new system
He ..................... the new system.

2. He suffered a lot of mental anguish before arriving at his decision.
He .......... for hours over his decision.

3. He found it difficult to distinguish between one flower and another.
He found it difficult to .......................... one flower from another.

4. If you wish to find the exact meaning of a word, you should consult a dictionary.
If you wish to .................the exact meaning of a word, you should consult a dictionary.

5. We shall start negotiations tomorrow.
We shall ............... negotiations tomorrow.

6. She talked her friend out of accepting the offer.
She ......................... her from accepting the offer.

7. She revoked her original instructions.
She ......................... her original instructions.

8. The government demanded and enforced payment of tolls on its motorways.
The government ............... tolls on its motorways.

9. A cheap pair of spectacles often spoil rather than improve vision.
A cheap pair of spectacles often ........... rather than improve vision.

10. The bishop carefully spelled out the detailed rules of the Church's teaching on abortion.
He carefully .................... the Church's teaching on abortion.

11. This law is an infringement of human rights.
This law .......................... human rights.

12. He objected to every suggestion we made.
He ........................... at every suggestion we made.

ANSWERS

1. endorsed; 2. agonized; 3. differentiate; 4. ascertain; 5. initiate; 6. dissuade; 7. countermanded; 8. exacted; 9. impair; 10. enunciated; 11. contavenes; 12. cavilled.

If you are still unsure of the meanings of today's twelve verbs, read over the following definitions before completing the final exercise below.

ascertain - learn, establish. dissuade - discourage. differentiate - distinguish, discriminate. endorse - approve. initiate - start. cavil - dispute, argue. enunciate - state, articulate. exact - compel, extort. agonize - struggle, contend. countermand - repeal. contravene - violate, oppose. impair - debase, diminish, spoil.



In the column on the right are twelve dictionary definitions of the words dealt with today. Try to match each word with its definition.

1. .................... approve.
2. .................... start.
3. .................... struggle, contend.
4. .................... violate, oppose.
5. .................... learn, establish.
6. .................... dispute, argue.
7. .................... discourage.
8. .................... repeal.
9. .................... state, articulate.
10. .................... debase, diminish, spoil.
11. .................... distinguish, discriminate.
12. .................... compel, extort.

ANSWERS

1 - endorse; 2 - initiate; 3 - agonize; 4 - contravene; 5 - ascertain; 6 - cavil; 7 - dissuade;
8 - countermand; 9 - enunciate; 10 - impair; 11 - differentiate; 12 - exact.

MODULE 13 (of 30)

Try to guess the meanings of the power verbs highlighted in the following twelve sentences. The definitions are given below.

Try to guess the meanings of the power verbs highlighted in the following twelve sentences. The definitions are given below.

1. The nurse always made an effort to empathize with her patients.
2. They have
adduced numerous facts in support of their case.
3. He
attributed his good health to regular exercise and a balanced diet.
4. He was advised to
diversify his investments.
5. He
protracted the debate until his opponent walked off in frustration.
6. He sought to
ingratiate himself with his superiors.
7. She purchased an
annotated version of Eliot's poetry.
8. He
sequestered himself in a country cottage to write his first novel.
9. As the shares
plummeted, investors began to panic.
10. Drink has
distorted his judgement.
11. He
instigated a plot to overthrow the government.
12. He
fabricated a story to conceal his real intent.

empathize - project one's personality into (and so fully comprehend) the object of contemplation.
adduce - cite as proof or instance.
attribute - consider as caused by, resulting or originating from, made or composed by.
diversify - make diverse, vary, modify, variegate.
protract - prolong, lengthen out; extend.
ingratiate - bring oneself into favour with.
annotate - furnish with notes; to add explanatory notes to (a book, document, etc.).
sequester - seclude, isolate, set apart.
plummet - plunge.
distort - put out of shape, make crooked or unshapely; misrepresent.
instigate - urge on, incite (person to ).
fabricate - invent (story), forge (document).

Referring to the list above only where necessary, write the appropriate verb beside its definition.

Referring to the list above only where necessary, write the appropriate verb beside its definition.

1. She is able to identify with her patients and their problems.
She is able to ........................ with her patients.

2. He cited numerous statistics in support of his claim.
He.............. numerous statistics in support of his claim.

3. He believed that his success was the result of years of dedicated practice.
He ................ his success to years of dedicated practice.

4. Their business has expanded into a number of related areas.
Their business has .................... into a number of related areas.

5. They prolonged the negotiations in an effort to frustrate their competitors.
They ............... the negotiations in an effort to frustrate their competitors.

6. He tried to bring himself into favour with his future in-laws.
He tried to ................... himself with his future in-laws.

7. She wrote explanatory notes in the text.
She .................... the text.

8. He isolated himself from the world. / He lived in an isolated cottage.
He .............. himself from the world.
He lived in a ........... cottage.

9. Prices have plunged.
Prices have ...............

10. In his efforts to convince the jury, he misrepresented the facts.
In his efforts to convince the jury, he ................... the facts.

11. They have provoked an inquiry.
They have .......... an inquiry.

12. They were accused of having concocted the story.
They were accused of having ............. the story.

ANSWERS

1 - empathize; 2 - adduced; 3 - attributed; 4 - diversified; 5 - protracted; 6 - ingratiate;
7 - annotated; 8 - sequestered; 9 - plummeted; 10 - distorted; 11- instigated; 12 - fabricated.

If you are still unsure of the meanings of today's twelve verbs, read over the following definitions before completing the final exercise below:

empathize - identify with.
adduce - cite, advance.
attribute - ascribe.
diversify - expand.
protract - prolong.
ingratiate - curry favour, fawn.
annotate - comment.
sequester - isolate, seclude.
plummet - dive.
distort - twist, warp, deform.
instigate - induce, activate.
fabricate - forge, make up, concoct.

In the column on the right are twelve dictionary definitions of the words dealt with today. Try to match each word with its definition.

1. .......................... expand.
2. .......................... twist, warp, deform.
3............................ prolong.
4. .......................... forge, make up, concoct.
5. .......................... isolate, seclude.
6. .......................... identify with.
7. .......................... induce, activate.
8. .......................... dive.
9. .......................... cite, advance.
10. .......................... curry favour, fawn.
11. .......................... ascribe.
12. ........................comment.

ANSWERS

1 - diversify; 2 - distort; 3 - protract; 4 - fabricate; 5 - sequester; 6 - empathize;
7 - instigate; 8 - plummet; 9 - adduce; 10 - ingratiate; 11 - attribute; 12 - annotate.

MODULE 14 (of 30)

Try to guess the meanings of the power verbs highlighted in the following twelve sentences. The definitions are given below.

Brandishing a gun, he threatened to shoot anyone who spoke.
2. She
radiated self-confidence.
3. It is difficult to
visualize such a scene.
4. The restaurateur
pandered to the tastes of a particular type of customer.
5. The two women
speculated on whether or not their sons would survive the battle.
6. He
arraigned the councillors for issuing funds to undeserving causes.
7. He is the kind of man who will always
truckle to the rich.
8. Weeds
luxuriate in untended gardens.
9. This electoral defeat will
precipitate the end of his political career.
10. For months after his release from prison, he
skulked around the town trying to appear invisible.
11. He
succumbed to temptation after a long and arduous struggle.
12. There is no calamity which the right words will not begin to
redress

brandish - wave about, flourish, in display or threat.
radiate - emit rays of (light, heat, etc.,) from centre; transmit or demonstrate (life, love, etc.) (she radiates joy ).
visualize - make mental vision or image of (something not present or visible), make visible to the imagination.
pander - minister (to base passions, evil designs), cater.
speculate - engage in thought or reflection , especially of conjectural or theoretical kind.
arraign - indict, accuse; call in question;
truckle - submit obsequiously, cringe (to ).
luxuriate - revel, enjoy oneself; take one's ease; take self-indulgent delight in.
precipitate - throw down headlong, hurl, fling; hurry, urge on; hasten the occurrence of.
skulk - lurk, conceal oneself, avoid observation, especially with sinister motive or in cowardice.
succumb - sink under pressure; give way to superior force, authority, etc.; yield to effects of disease, wounds, etc.
redress - readjust, set straight again; remedy, make up for, rectify (a wrong or grievance).

Referring to the list above only where necessary, write the appropriate verb beside its definition.

1. Waving a cudgel, he drove the intruders from his property.
................... a cudgel, he drove the intruders from his property.

2. She spreads good humour around.
She ............... good humour.

3. We tried to imagine what life would be like without friends.
We tried to ................. what life would be like without friends.

4. Such magazines cater to the most depraved appetites.
Such magazines ............. to the most depraved appetites.

5. The interviewee considered her prospects of employment.
The interviewee ..................... on her prospects of employment.

6. The chairperson was called to public account on the charge of misappropriating public funds.
The chairperson was ......... on the charge of misappropriating public funds.

7. He hoped to gain promotion by submitting obsequiously to his superiors.
He hoped to gain promotion by ................... to his superiors.

8. She was relaxing in comfort in her tropical garden.
She was ........................... in her tropical garden.

9. His inflammatory language hastened the outbreak of hostilities.
His inflammatory language ................ the outbreak of hostilities.

10. He moved stealthily towards the exit.
He .......... towards the exit.

11. He gave way to the temptations of power.
He ..................... to the temptations of power.
He ....................... to pneumonia.

12. She promised to rectify all grievances.
She promised to .................. all grievances.

ANSWERS

1 - Brandishing; 2 - radiated; 3 - visualize; 4 - pander; 5 - speculated; 6 - arraigned;
7 - truckling; 8 - luxuriating; 9 - precipitated; 10 - skulked; 11 - succumbed;
12 - redress.

If you are still unsure of the meanings of today's twelve verbs, read over the following definitions before completing the final exercise below.

brandish - wave. radiate - spread around, glow, shine. visualize - imagine, conceive, envision. pander - indulge, gratify, cater. speculate - conjecture, hypothesize. arraign - blame, impeach. truckle - submit obsequiously. luxuriate - revel, wallow; relax in comfort. precipitate - hasten, accelerate. skulk - sneak. succumb - yield; be overcome; be forced to give way. redress - set right.

In the column on the right are twelve dictionary definitions of the words dealt with today. Try to match each word with its definition.

1. ............... blame, impeach.
2. ............... set right.
3. ............... imagine, conceive, envision.
4. ............... yield; be overcome; be forced to give way.
5. ................ wave.
6. ................ conjecture, hypothesize.
7. ................ sneak.
8. ................ submit obsequiously.
9. ................ indulge, gratify, cater.
10. ................ hasten, accelerate.
11. ................ spread around, glow, shine.
12. ............... revel, wallow; relax in comfort.

ANSWERS

1 - arraign; 2 - redress; 3 - visualize; 4 - succumb; 5 - brandish; 6 - speculate;
7 - skulk; 8 - truckle; 9 - pander; 10 - precipitate; 11 - radiate; 12 - luxuriate.

MODULE 15 (of 30)

Adjectives enable us to express our meaning exactly and vividly. Employed with discrimination and restraint, they are a tremendous source of power.

Unlike his brother who enjoyed a life of eating and drinking, Charles was the most abstemious of men.

The abstemious man is not self-indulgent. He is sparing especially in eating and drinking. He lives a life of moderation, frugality, and self-denial

The rich are usually acquisitive by nature.

The acquisitive person is not only eager to acquire and retain things but has the capacity to do so. An acquisitive mind is not only eager for knowledge but is capable of absorbing large amounts of it.

Her belligerent attitude towards her former colleagues surprised them all.

Belligerent individuals are aggressive and combative.

She is so gregarious that she is unable to spend an evening alone.

Gregarious characters are fond of company. They are usually friendly, outgoing, and sociable.

While others around him were panicking, he alone remained imperturbable

The imperturbable man is extremely calm, composed, and impassive.

She was a feisty woman whose few friends often found her peevish and quarrelsome behaviour most trying.

A feisty character is full of nervous energy, and is often touchy and quarrelsome.

He was so churlish that all his neighbours shunned him.

The churlish man is ill-tempered, rude, and surly. He is usually tight-fisted, unsociable, and difficult to deal with.

She was too diffident to make a speech.

A diffident character is one who is shy, timid, and lacking in self-confidence.

In spite of the show's imperfections, the adjudicator was magnanimous in his applause.

The magnanimous person is noble and generous in conduct, free from petty resentment, and often condescending, though well-intentioned in his or her kindness.

Jane has such a mercurial nature that she can change from laughter to tears within moments.

The mercurial person is lively in temperament, and characterised by sudden and unpredictable changes of mood.

The obsequious attentions of the waiter served only to irritate the diners.

The obsequious servant is fawning, excessively respectful, and exhibits servile attentiveness.

Obstreperous pupils often have to be suspended from school.

An obstreperous fellow is uncontrollably noisy and stubbornly unruly especially in defiance of authority.

* Try to match each of today's words with the definitions below :

churlish - acquisitive - obstreperous - magnanimous - abstemious - feisty
obsequious - imperturbable - mercurial -belligerent - diffident - gregarious

1. Fond of company.

2. Big-hearted.

3. Slavish, subservient, sycophantic.

4. Excessively modest; insecure.

5. Lively and inconstant.

6. Boisterous, disorderly.

7. Touchy, exuberant.

8. Boorish, unmannerly; miserly.

9. Sober, temperate.

10. Not excitable.

11. Grasping, greedy.

12 Hostile, bellicose.

ANSWERS

1 - gregarious; 2 - magnanimous; 3 - obsequious; 4 - diffident; 5 - mercurial;
6 - obstreperous; 7 - feisty; 8 - churlish; 9 - abstemious; 10 - imperturbable;
11 - acquisitive; 12 - belligerent.










Document Info


Accesari: 1868
Apreciat:

Comenteaza documentul:

Nu esti inregistrat
Trebuie sa fii utilizator inregistrat pentru a putea comenta


Creaza cont nou

A fost util?

Daca documentul a fost util si crezi ca merita
sa adaugi un link catre el la tine in site

Copiaza codul
in pagina web a site-ului tau.




eCoduri.com - coduri postale, contabile, CAEN sau bancare

Politica de confidentialitate




Copyright Contact (SCRIGROUP Int. 2022 )