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Reported Speech


Reported Speech

Say these statements in indirect speech.

A. 1. Tom said, "I have found some good friends." 2. The classmaster said to us, "Aina made a good report on friendship last time." 3. The girl wrote, "I shall meet you at the station' 4. "My father is not well," Mary complained.. 5. She said, "My husband has studied engineering." 6. Iris said to us, "I cannot find his telephone number." 7. We said, "Velta, we didn't meet your brother yesterday."

B. 1. The boy said to his friend, "I've already read half the book." 2. I said to them, "I had no time to look through these magazines yesterday," 3. Andris wrote, "Your letter came too late. I have promised to go to my friend where I shall stay for a week." 4. The newspaper announced, "Daina has won the first prize." 5. "My brother didn't go to the stadium yesterday," said Ilze. 6. Andris said to his brother, "I'm going to work in the gar­den tomorrow." 7. "You had completed your work before we ar­rived," said the girls.

C. 1. "You must not do this exercise in class," said the teacher. 2. She said to us, "I shall have corrected your tests by the next lesson." 3. I said to Peter, "You need not bring me the notes tomorrow." 4. "There are different issues which I want 'o explain today," said the lecturer. 5. Jack said, "My brother was drawing for several hours." 6. The girl said, "I do everything myself at home." 7. "Father rang me up before he left," said Mother.

Render Peter's story in your own words:

Peter said to us: "I am 15. I have a brother and a sister. They are older than I am. My parents work in a shop. They start work at 8 o'clock. I am trying to do my best to help my parents. 1 didn't attend any kindergarten when I was small. I began to study at school nine years ago. I do a lot of social work at school. My hobby is sports."

What did they say? Report the dialogue.

A.: Have you seen the new film at the Odeon?

It's terrible.

A.: What's so bad about it?

My five-year-old daughter can write better dialogue.

A.: Is there anything else on that you're interested in?

There's a new Jarman film at the Regent.

A.: What time is it on?

Seven-fifteen; do you want to go?

A.'. How long does it last?

It's over at half past nine. We'll make it if we hurry.

A.'. Have we got to take a bus?

No, we can walk.

A.: OK, I've heard it's good. I can't stay out too late though.

You're walking a bit fast for me.

A.: Sorry. It's my job that makes me do that.

B.'. Are you going to get that promotion you put in for?

A.: I don't know yet.

. Tell a friend what the pupils said.

1. One day Robin Hood put on a red cape and took a basket with food to his sick grandmother in Sherwood Forest. 2. The Islands are called Sandwich Islands because the na­tives killed and ate Captain Cook there. 3. Guy Fawkes will always be remembered in English history because he woke up all the people in Parliament. 4. The aim of the lesson is to teach us the behaviour of the pig. 5. Oliver Cromwell died on the 14th of September. But he still called it his lucky day.

. Change into indirect speech as in the example.

A. 1. "Are you a doctor or a nurse?" father asked a lady. 2. "Is there another road to Valka?" asked the tourist. 3. "Is Pe­ter a good athlete?" Tom asked his friend 4. "Are there any his­torical novels in your library?" the student asked the librarian. 5. "Was the film interesting?" we wanted to know. 6. "Was there much snow last winter?" the guests asked us. 7. "Were you ill last Monday?" the teacher asked me.

B. 1. "Do you speak French?" a man asked me in the street 2. Ann said to me, "Does your cousin live with you?" 3. She said "Haven't you done your homework yet?" 4. "Does Mary kno\v how to make cakes?" I asked Mother. 5. "Did you change your plans?" my friend asked me". 6. "Mr Brown, did you see our Revolution Museum?" I asked. 7. The teacher said, "Does any. body want to ask a question?"

C. 1. "Can you come to our party?" the girl asked her friend 2. The boy said, "May I come in?" 3. "Can't you help me about the kitchen today?" Mother asked me 4. "Must you leave so soon?" Mr Wood asked her guests. 5. She said to us, "May I offer you some coffee?" 6. "Could you do it in one day?" the teacher asked in surprise. 7. "Shall I translate the text?" the pupil asked.

Answer the questions in indirect speech; begin your answers with the words He asked me ... .

1. "Where do you write compositions?" What did he ask you5 2. "How many of you received good marks?" 3. "What did you do yesterday?" 4. "When will your holidays begin?". 5. "Why is Tom always late?" 6. "Who must you help?" 7. "What colour are these flowers?" 8. "Where are the big orchards?" 9. "When can you play ball?" 10. "What was the result?" 11. "Why can't you join us?" 12. "Who is this man?" 13. "When was the work done?" 14. "Why don't you want to go for a walk?" 15. "What kind of work do you do?" 16. "How well can you speak English5" 17. "When did you ring them up?" 18. "How long have you lived in this town?" 19. "Where were you last Sunday?" 20. "Why don't you want to speak to them?"

Change the following requests and orders into indi­rect speech.

1. The teacher: "Don't be late, Ann." 2. Alice: "Don't tail-when I am listening to music, Tom." 3. Mother: "Don't eat sc many sweets, children." 4. The teacher: "Don't forget to correct your mistakes, Jack." 5. Charles: "Don't leave the door open Mary." 6. The man: "Don't play on the grass, children 7. Mother: "Don't take bread with a fork, Jim." 8. Father: "Don' come home late, Nick." 9. The gardener: "Don't pick flowers in the park, children." 10. Father: "Don't make noise while Granny is sleeping, boys."

Read the following orders or requests and the ques­tions; then answer the questions in indirect speech.

A. 1. "Turn back." What did the guard order us to do? 2. "Learn the principal forms of the irregular verbs." What did the teacher advise them to do? 3. "Turn off the light in the kitchen." What did Mother tell Kate to do? 4. "Stay here for fifteen min­utes, please." What did Helen ask you to do? 5. "Make a cup of coffee for me, please." What did your uncle ask you to do? 6. "Buy an ice-cream for me, please." What did little Alice beg Mother to do? 7. "Get up at once." What did Father tell his son to do? 8. "Put on your raincoat." What did Mother tell you to do?

B. 1. "Don't swim in this lake." What did the man tell you not to do? 2. "Don't go out today." What did Mother implore her son not to do? 3. "Please, don't forget to buy a toy for little Tom." What did Mary beg us to do? 4. "Don't give the camera to anybody but Martin." What did Charles ask us to do? 5. "Don't ask me any questions." What did Helen tell us not to do? 6. "Don't cross the bridge." What did the guard forbid us to do? 7. "Don't be noisy." What didn't the teacher permit the pupils to do? 8. "Don't be angry, please." What did Peter ask us?

Put the following sentences into indirect speech.

A. 1. "I am talking on the telephone," said my sister. 2. He asked me, "Have you read any books lately?" 3. Father said to Helen, "Do you know how to make vegetable soup?" 4. Father said to me, "Pass me some sugar, please." 5. "Why are the children not yet back from school?" Grandfather asked. 6. Kate told her friend, "Don't come too late. We shall miss the train." 7. "Were there any letters in the letter-box?" my sister wanted to know 8. Roy said to his brother, "My friends will come to see me tomorrow."

B. 1. The teacher said, "I understand both of you, but I can­not let you do it." 2. "What are you looking for?" Mother asked me. 3. He said to us, "When must you leave?" 4. "Don't hurry with the answer. Think it over," the man said to me.. 5. He said, "I shall ask them what it is." 6. "Do you think it is right? I think it is wrong," said the engineer. 7. She said to Tom, "You may come tomorrow a little later." 8. Anna said to me, "Leave me a note before you start for Moscow, please."

C. 1. I said to him, "Did you have any difficulty in solving the problem?" 2. Martin said to us, "I am busy this week. I cannot Join you. Ring me up, please, next week." 3. The teacher told us, "You can go home now; the lessons are over." 4. "Don't keep me wait for you long," Peter said to his friend. 5. "It is getting colder and soon it may snow," the farmer said to his son. 6. "Help, children, to pick the apples," asked the gardener. 7. The man said, "It was very dark last night." 8. "What don't you understand?" the teacher asked us.

Find a statement consistent with the adverbs given.

1. ... he said patiently. 2. ... he commented derisively. 3. ... he observed sarcastically.

4. ... he said agreeably. 5. ... he said pompously. 6. ... he whispered shyly.

7. ... he answered sharply. 8. ... he said sympathetically. 9. ... he said fiercely.

10. ... he said brutally. 11. ... he said angrily. 12. ... he said accusingly. 13. ... he said callously. 14. ... he said passionately. 15. ... he said defiantly. 16. ... he said complacently.

1. Don't keep asking such silly questions. 2. You should treat your elders with more respect.

3. I shall always love you. 4. Mind your own business. 5. No one cares whether you live or die.

6. I thought you said you were ill yesterday. 7. That's your problem, not mine. 8. You can go to the devil! 9. You could try reading it up the right way. 10. Tell me what to say to her. 11. You think you are a genius, don't you? 12. I quite understand how you feel. 13. Let's try again, shall we? It is rather difficult. 14. I think it's been a very pleasant evening. 15. I've made very good progress. 16. That's what I intend to do and no one's going to stop me.

Interpret these examples of direct speech, then re-express them as indirect speech.

Example: "Why don't we go sailing?" Diana said. Diana suggested (that) we (should) go sailing.

1. "You've just won a lottery!" Tom said. "Really?" Jennifer exclaimed. 2. "More money should be spent on education," Frank ob­served. "Yes, I agree," Gillian answered. 3. "I don't think you should take up wind-surfing at your age," John said. "I feel it's a sport that will suit all ages," Jenny replied. "But it requires great physical strength," John said. "And who told you I was short of that?" Jenny said. 4. "Don't go too near the lions' cage," mother said. But I want to see the lions close up," Billy answered. 'Isn't this close enough?" mother asked. ''No," Billy replied. "I'm sorry, Billy, but you can't go any closer than this." "But I want to," Billy insisted. "Well, you can't." 5. "You really must keep to your diet, Mrs Flynn, if you're serious about losing weight," Dr Grey said. "You have been keeping to it, haven't you?" "Well, I ... er ...," Mrs Flynn muttered.

"Have you or haven't you?" "Well, I have occasionally had a bit extra." "What do you mean, "a bit extra?" "Oh - a cream cake or two." 6. "You did enjoy the film, didn't you?" Sandra asked. « "I'm not sure," Sam answered. "I thought Gloria Gleam's performance was fantastic!" "Well, I didn't like it at all," Sam replied. "Didn't you really?" Sandra replied.

Put in the missing words.


It's a sad fact that people steal from hotels. Recently I interviewed Mr David Wills, the manager of a large hotel, and he ' that all kinds of things, large and small, 2............ con­stantly stolen. Mr Wills told 3............ that a check 4............... made on a person's room as soon as they (leave). 5............ it, but unless someone had walked off with a wardrobe, he (advise) ............ the staff (not/make) 1............ a fuss. "What is even more surprising," Mr Wills 8....................."is the things people leave behind - anything from wooden legs to false teeth!" He then 9............... on to tell me a story about a snobbish lady who (recently check out) I0................ She (object) "............... that her bill (be) 12............... too high, but paid it nevertheless. Just as she (leave) l3................ the phone rang and the cashier answered it. He then 14...............the lady that a hotel

bathrobe was missing from her room. The lady expressed great sur­prise and 15............ that the jiotel maid must have packed it in by mistake. "But the maid has just reported the bathrobe missing," the cashier 16................ Handing over the bathrobe, the lady left in dis­gust. "Who wants a second-hand bathrobe, anyway?" she said, as she made her way to a taxi complaining that hotel service (be) 17............ not what it used to be.

Report each request in two ways, where possible.

Example: "When should I be at the station?" She asked when she should be at the station. She asked when to be at the station.

1. "Where shall we have our meeting?" They asked ... 2. "Which should I choose?" He asked ....................... 3. "Who(m) shall I ask?" She wanted to know.......... 4. "What should I do?" He asked me......................... 5. "Why should I pay this bill?" She wanted to know 6. "Whose car should I borrow?" He wanted to know 7. "Why should I be punished?" She asked................

Put in the correct forms.


It had been a particularly bad winter in Chicago. Nearly fort.» inches of snow had fallen in a fortnight. Railway workers at Chicago station didn't know (what/do) '............... with it. The

foreman (advise them/shovel) 2............... it ihto huge mountains to keep the platforms clear. He (tell/not leave) ..................... any snow on the platforms because it was dangerous for passen­gers. But it was an impossible task! Suddenly, one of the workers had a bright idea. "I know (how/get rid) 4............... of it," he said. "Let's load it onto this freight train. We can send it south to Mississippi and New Orleans. It'll just melt away." The next day five tons of snow arrived in Memphis, Tennessee. "It's a welcome gift," a railway worker said. "We know (what/do). 5............with it here. We'll send what we can to the children's playground. Some of us have never seen snow before!"

. Report the following using the simple past of the verbs in brackets.

1. "Wait for me," I said to him. (tell) .......... ..... ...... ....2. "Go on holiday when the weather gets warmer," she told him. (advise).......... ..... ...... .......... ..... ...... ..................

3. "Keep out of this room at all times," she said to them, (warn) .......... ..... ...... .......... ..... ...... ............................

4. "Remember to post those letters," he said to me. (remind) 5. "Don't go into my study," he said to them, (ask) ............. 6. "Don't wait for me," I said to him. (tell) ..........................

7. "Don't go on holiday yet," she told him. (advise) ............. 8. "Don't ever enter this room," she said to them, (warn) ....

Report each question in two ways.

1. "Shall I fax the information to them?" She asked if/ whether she should fax the information to them. She asked whether to fax the information to them 2. "Should I leave a message for her?" He asked................... 3. "Shall I heat the food for you?" She asked him ................. 4. "Should I phone him now?" He wanted to know ............ 5. "Shall I invite them to dinner?" She wanted to know

Report these subject-questions moving the clauses "one tense back" only where necessary.

1. "Who's next, please?" She wanted to know ...................2. "What makes a noise like that?" He wondered............... 3. "Which of you is waiting to see me next?" The doctor asked .......... ..... ...... .....4. "Whose composition haven't we heard yet?" The teacher asked us to tell her.........................5. "Who left this bag here?" Tell me.......... ..... ...... .....6. "What caused accident?" Can you explain...................... 7. "Which newspaper carried the article?" I'd like to know .. 8. "Whose painting will win the competition?" I haven't any idea ............................

9. "Which firms have won prizes for exports?" This article doesn't .............................. 10. "Which number can be divided by three?" The teacher asked .......... ..... ...... ............

Put in the correct forms and tenses of the numbered verbs.


The nurse asked me if I (be) '......... next and she led me in' Dr Grey's surgery. Dr Grey smiled at me and asked (what the prob­lem be) 2............. I'm a young man and am not the sort of person she has to see very often! I told her I (be) 3......... feeling rather run down. She asked me if I (keep) 4......... regular hours and I said I (have not) .......... She wanted to know why I (not/keep) 6......... regular hours and I said I (be) 7............... out with friends almost every evening. Dr Grey then wanted to know how I (spend) 8......... my time and I (tell) ......... her I (go) 10............ to parties mosth The doctor asked if I (not/have) "......... the chance to recover during weekends and I (tell) 12............ her that my party-goint,' (be) 3............ even worse during the weekends! She asked me if I (smoke) 14............When I said I did, she asked how many cigarette a day I (smoke) '5.......... She raised her eyebrows when answered! Then she asked me if I (take) '6......... any exercise and I answered that I (not/have) 17............time for that sort of thing. "You're burning the candle at both ends, Mr Finley," she told me. "Rest is the only cure for you. You've really got to slow down." She looked at me wistfully before I left her surgery and added, "but I do envy you the life you've been living!"

Report these question-word questions moving the clauses "one tense back".

1. "What's the weather like?" She asked me what the weather was like. 2. "What does Frank do for a living?" I wanted to know ...... 3. "Why is Maria crying?" She wondered ............................. 4. "What kind of holiday has Marco had?" You wanted to now.......... ..... ...... .......... ..... ...... .............................. 5. "How long have you both been living here?" They in­quired .......... ..... ...... .......... ..... ...... .............................

6. "Where did they go last week?" She wanted to know ...... 7. "Who are you looking for?" He asked me .........................8. "When will lunch be ready?" You didn't tell me ...............9. "Which countries will John be visiting?" You didn't say ... 10. "How can I solve the problem?" I wanted to know ..........

. Report these statements with said (except 13) mov­ing the clauses "one tense back".

DIRECT SPEECH STATEMENTS present becomes past

1. Mac: I need a holiday. - Mac said he needed a holiday, 2. Sue: I'm not wasting my time. present perfect becomes past perfect 3. Tom: I've had some good news. 4. Pam: I've been sleeping. past becomes past or past perfect (past perfect is often optional) 5. Lou: I went home early. 6. Jan: I was waiting for you. past perfect does not change 7. Joe: I had eaten earlier. 8. Pat: I had been waiting for you. modal "present" becomes "conditional" or "past"

9. Tim: I will see you later. 10. Dot: I can speak French. 11. Kim: I may arrive later. "shall" with a future reference becomes "would" 12. Ron: I shall speak to him. "shall" in offers and suggestions becomes "should" 13. Meg: Shall I speak to him? "past" or "conditional" modals do not change 14. Ted: I could help you. 15. Ann: I might see him. 16. Jim: I would enjoy that. "perfect" modal forms do not change 17. Sam: I must have fainted, 18. Don: I couldn't have said that. 19. Ned: I needn't have gone there. 20. Lyn: I ought to have helped her. "should" (="it's advisable") doesn't change 21. Lee: I should go to the dentist's. "should" used in place of "would" in conditionals becomes "would" 22. Dan: If I were you I should get legal advice. "must" (=necessity in the past) does not change, or be­comes "had to" 23. Paul: I must catch an early train. 24. Jill: I must speak to you. "must" (=necessity in the future) does not change, or becomes "would have to" 25. Bill: I must leave tomorrow. 26. Jane: I must work till late.

must" (=deduction or possibility) does not change. 27. Phil: John must be a fool. "mustn't " (=prohibition) does not change, or becomes "couldn't" 28. Jean: I mustn't eat meat. 29 Jeff: They mustn't give up.

. Turn each direct-speech statement into indirect speech with tense changes.


"I've conducted a number of tests," Dr Grey said .................."I must put you on a very strict diet," she told me "You're putting on a lot of weight," she said "You have gained 5.5 kilos in six month," she added "You gained 10 kilos last year," she reminded me "You will get very fat if you go on like this," she told me ..... "You should eat very little," she said .......... ..... ...... ......

"So I'll have to live on nuts and water," I said nervously ....... "You can live on nuts and water without the nuts," she said.

Report what these people are saying with the report­ing verbs provided.

1. "She's going to America for six months." They say she's going to America for six months.

2. "They went to Rhodes last year." Peter tells me...............3. A:Tm not feeling well." S.:"Pardon?" C.:"She's not feeling well." She says .......... ..... ...... ..............................

4. A.: "I'll look at your work in a minute." "Pardon?" C.: "She'll look at your work in a minute."

She says .......... ..... ...... .......... ..... ...... ....5. A.: "I've typed those letters." "What does she say?" C.: "She's typed those letters." .......... ..... ...... .................. 6. "We must investigate this case." The writer of this report says .......... ..... ...... ......... 7. "The last strike did no one any good." The writer of this article says .......... ..... ...... .............. 8. "Turn off the electricity at the mains." It says here ...... 9. "You have to rub down the walls." The instructions say 10. "I'm good at flower arranging." She's always telling peo­ple ....................

Put in appropriate forms of ask, say and tell.


Some people' (always) (are always_ saying) that they don't build cars as they used to. What nonsense! I walked round the beautiful new Ferrari again, admiring its lines, when my thoughts were rudely interrupted. "Will you be here long? a voice ........... sharply. "I haven't made up my mind yet, I 3 ............., looking up at a sour-faced traffic warden. "Well you can't stop here," he ............ me. "Who .............. so?" I 6 .......... him cheekily. "I 7 ........... so," he 8 ........... to me. "It 9 .............. here," he added, "in case you can read, "No Waiting". "You read very well. Go to the top of the class!" I 10 ............... him, "but I'll make my own decisions.

"Oh, will you?" the traffic warden " ............. "Then so will I and I've decided to give you a ticket," he l2 ............. to me with relish as he began filling out a form. "Go ahead," I ............ him. "This car doesn't belong to me anyway. I wish it did!'

Report the dialogue.

A.: What's wrong with Jerry? I was with him in the coffee shop this noon. He was in good spirits. We were talking and laughing. Then Barbara came in. Suddenly Jerry was ill at ease.

Didn't you know? They had a guarrel yesterday. Jerry made fun of Barbara's hat.

A.: Is that all? She doesn't hold that against him, does she?

No, I don't think so. But you know Barbara. She's quite particular about her appearance. Well, she lost her temper. Now she won't speak to Jerry.

A.: I'd better have a talk with Barbara. She's being childish. That's nothing to get on her high horse about.

I'll bet Jerry could eat his words now. He'll be careful what he says about ladie's hats!

Report the dialogue.

A.: What happened to Edith Jones? I've lost track of her lately.

I don't know, and I really don't care. Edith always rubbed me the wrong way.

A.: Really? I took it for granted you were good friends.

We used to be. Not any more, though. I got tired of her remarks.

A.: I'm sorry to hear that. Edith's really a nice girl, though. And life's too short to stay angry at someone. Come on. Let by­gones be bygones. I'm sure she'd like to be friends again. Meet her half way.

I suppose you're right. I'll turn over a new leaf and start again It's fun being mad at people.

Report the dialogue.

A. How was your trip to Chicago?

B. I wish I'd spent my vacation here.

A. In other words, you didn't like Chicago.

B. Oh, it wasn't that. I liked the city very much. But I got sick while I was there.

A. I'm sorry to hear that.

B. I came near having to call the doctor. But I had some medicine and I took that. I always carry it, just to be on the safe side.

A.: Lucky you had it on hand.

Little did I think I'd get sick in Chicago. Next time I won't take chances. I'll make sure I'm in good health before I leave.

A.: Keep your fingers crossed1

Report the dialogue.

A.: I put my foot in it today.

What happened?

A.: I had words with my aunt. I felt terrible about it later. But I'd been on edge all morning.

Come to the point. Why did you argue?

A.: My son Billy misbehaved. I punished him. Aunt Rose de­fended Billy. That was the last straw! I told her not to interfere.

Is everything all right now?

A.: Yes, everything is fine. I'm glad I took a stand with Aunt Rose, though. We understand each other better now.

Report the dialogue.

A.: Will you keep an eye on my books? I'll be back in five minutes.

Where are you going? Are you up to nothing? You look

as though you are.

A.: Not really. But here comes Dorothy. I'd just as soon she didn't see me.

Why not?

A.: She had her heart set on seeing a movie. I promised t< take her. Then I discovered I didn't have any money. I phoned hei and said I was sick.

Relax. She's going out the other door. You're safe for thi time being.

A.: That was a close call.

Report the dialogue

A.: Have you heard that Jane cancelled her party next Friday?

Yes, but I didn't hear why. What happened?

A.: She's going to New York. She has to see about some­thing for her boss.

Why did Jane plan the party? She knew all along about New York, didn't she?

A.: Yes, but she really isn't to blame. She thought the trip would be next week. Yesterday she was told to go this week.

Too bad about the party, to say the least. The trip will do Jane good, though.

A.: And she can have the party when she returns.

Frankly, I'm glad about the party. I'm up to my ears in work right now.

Report the dialogue.

A . Let's go to the movies. There's a good picture at the Roxy.

I'd like to, but I can't. I have to study. I wasted the whole afternoon. I forgot I had to brush up my French. Then, all of a sud­den, I remembered.

A.: Oh, come on! We'll be home early.

No, I'd better not. I have an exam tomorrow. I was about to study when you came in. You know how it is. If you don't study, you don't pass. That goes without saying.

A. Exam? Tomorrow? Oh-oh!

B. What's the matter?

A. I just remembered. I have an exam, too!

B. We can go to the movies on Saturday.

Put the following into indirect speech

1. "I have something to show you," I said to her. 2. "Nothing grows in my garden. It never gets any sun," she said. 3. "I'm going away tomorrow, mother," he said. 4. "I've been in London for a month but so far I haven't had time to visit the Tower," said Rupert. 5. "It isn't so foggy today as it was yesterday," I remarked. 6. "The new underpass is being officially opened the day af­ter tomorrow," said the BBC announcer. 7. "We have moved into our new flat. We don't like it nearly so much as our last one," said my aunt. 8. "We have a lift but very often it doesn't work," they said. 9. "From one of the windows of my flat I can see the Eiffel Tower," he said. 10. "I've no idea what the time is but I'll dial 8081 and find out," said his daughter. 11. He said, "My wife has just been made a judge." 12. "I'll come with you as soon as I am ready," she replied. 13. "I have a German lesson this afternoon and I haven't done my homework yet," said the small boy.

14. "If you let the iron get too hot you will scorch your clothes," I warned her. 15. "You haven't given me quite enough. The bill is for £14 and you've paid me only £13," he pointed out.

16. Ann said, "Englishmen make good husbands because they are nearly always willing to help in the house." 17. Mary answered, "I like men to be useful but I don't like them to be too domesticated. I prefer them to keep out of the kitchen altogether. Men look silly in aprons anyway." 18. Motoring report: The new Rolls Royce runs so quietly that all you can hear is the ticking of the clock. Managing director of the Rolls Royce company: In that case we'll have to do something about the clock. 19. "I don't know what to do with all my plums. I suppose I'll have to make jam. The trouble is that none of us eats jam," she said. 20. "We like working on Sundays because we get double pay," explained the builders. 21. He said, "I'm quite a good cook and I do all my own washing and mending too." 22. "You can keep that one if you like, Joan," he said. "I've got plenty of others." 23. "I'm going fishing with mother this afternoon," said the small boy, "and we are going into the garden now to dig for worms." (Omit now). 24. "You've got my umbrella," I said crossly. "Yours is in your bedroom." 25. "I know exactly what they said," the private detective explained to his client, "because I bugged their phone." 26. "I'll sit up till she comes in, but I hope she won't be late," he said. 27. "If you give me some wire, I'll hang that picture for you," said my cousin. 28. "I have a Turkish bath occasionally, but it doesn't seem to make any difference to my weight," she said. 29. "This is quite a good model, madam. I use one of these myself," said the salesman. 30. "My new house is supposed to be haunted, but so far I haven't seen any ghosts," she said. 31. The advertisement said, "If you answer the questions cor­rectly you may win £100." 32. "If I press my ear against the wall, I can hear what the people in the next flat are saying," he said.

Put the following into indirect speech, being careful to avoid ambiguity.

1. "I couldn't get into the house because I had lost my key, so I had to break a window," he said.

2. "The mirror is there so that you can see yourself when you are dancing," the instructress told him. 3. "I wrote to him the day before yesterday. I wonder why he hasn't rung up," she said.

4. "If the ground is dry on the day of the race, my horse might win," said the owner. 5. "You'd better slow down. There's a speed limit here," she said to me. (Use advise.) 6. "If Tom wants seats, he'd better apply early," she said. 7. "We walked. 50 miles last night to see the Minister and protest about our rents being raised. He was very polite and promised to do what he could for us," said one of the tenants. 8. "They should put traffic lights here, otherwise there'll be more accidents," she said. 9. "It's time we began training for our next match," the coach said to them. 10. "If you leave home at six, you should be here by nine," he said to me. 11. "If it rains this afternoon it will be too wet to play the match tomorrow," the captain said. 12. "I meant to plug in the electric blanket but I plugged in the electric kettle by mistake. I'm always doing silly things like that," she told her guest. 13. "I was intending to do it tomorrow," he said, "but now I don't think I'll be able to." 14. "Bill should do very well at the university, Mrs Smith," said the headmaster. "He's done very well here." 15. "I don't think your father likes me," said the young wife. "You mustn't think that," said her husband: "it is just that he is old and finds it hard to get used to new people." (Leave mustn't unchanged.) 16. "The steak is overdone again. I'm not complaining: I'm just pointing it out," said her husband. "I wish you'd stop pointing things out," said his wife. 17. "They couldn't open the safe on the spot so they carried f it away with them," the night watchman reported. 18. "If you saw my father, you'd recognize him at once. He is the most extraordinary-looking man," she said to me. 19. "I found an old Roman coin in the garden yesterday," he said, "and I'm going to take it to the museum this afternoon." 20. He said, "I got out my boat, leaving the engine running, but while I was standing on the quay the gears suddenly engaged themselves and the boat went straight out of the harbour with no one on board." 21. Then Macbeth enters and says, "I have done the deed." 22. "Would you like me to go with you?" I said. "I'd rather go alone," he answered. 23. My brother said, "You may take my car if you like. I shan't be needing it tomorrow or the day after." 24. "Yesterday Tom and I went to look at a house that he was thinking of buying. It was rather a nice house and had a lovely garden but Tom decided against it because it was oppo­site a cemetery," said Celia.

25. He said, "My wife wants to take a job but I'd rather she concentrated on our home." 26. "I don't know what your father will say when he sees what a mess your puppies have made of this five-pound note," said my mother. 27. "It's high time you passed your test; I'm tired of driving round with an L-plate on the front of the car," my sister said. 28. "I wish you'd seen it," I said to her.

Put the following into indirect speech. The first ten questions require no change of order.

He said, "What is happening?" He asked what was happening.

1. "What happened to Mr Budd?" said one of the men. 2. "Which of his sons inherited his estate?" asked another. 3. "Who is going to live in the big house?" enquired a third. 4. "What will happen to his racehorses?" asked someone else. 5. "Which team has won?" asked Ann.

6. "Which team won the previous match?" said Bill. 7. "Who is playing next week?" he asked.

8. "Who will be umpiring that match?" asked Tom. 9. "Who wants a lift home?" said Ann.

10. "Who has just dropped a £10 note?" I asked. 11. "Where is the ticket office?" asked Mrs Jones. 12. "What shall I do with my heavy luggage?" she said. (Use should.) 13. "What platform does the train leave from?" asked Bill. 14. "When does it arrive in York?" he asked.

15. "When was the timetable changed?" I asked. 16. "Why has the 2.30 train been cancelled?" said Ann. 17. "How much does a day return to Bath cost?" Mrs Jones asked. 18. "Why does the price go up so often?" she wondered. 19. "How can I get from the station to the airport?" said Bill. 20. "When are you coming back?" I asked them. 21. "Is a return ticket cheaper than two singles?" said my aunt. 22. "Do puppies travel free?" asked a dog owner. 23. "Can I bring my dog into the compartment with me?" she asked. 24. "Does this train stop at York?" asked Bill. 25. "Can you telephone from inter-city trains?" said the busi­nessman. 26. "Does the 2.40 have a restaurant car?" he enquired. 27. "Can you get coffee on the train?" asked my aunt.

28. "Do they bring it round on a trolley?" she said. 29. "Are there smoking compartments?" said the man with the pipe. 30. "Have you reserved a seat?" I asked him.

Extra exercise: read the last twenty questions, using one of the following prefaces: / wonder/I'd like to know/Do you know? / Have you any idea? / Can you tell me?

31. "Do you know where the ticket office is?" 32. "I wonder what I should do with my heavy luggage."

A new student, Paul, has come to the college and the other students are asking him questions. Imagine that he reports these questions later to an English friend.

Bill asked what country I came from.

1. "What country do you come from?" said Bill. 2. "How long have you been here?" said Ann.

3. "Are you working as well as studying?" asked Peter. , 4. "Have you got a work permit?" Bill wanted to know. 5. "What are you going to study?" asked Ann. 6. "Have you enrolled for more than one class?" said Peter 7. "Do you want to buy any second-hand books?" said Bill. ' 8. "Have you seen the library?" asked Ann. 9. "Do you play rugby?" said Peter. 10. "Will you have time to play regularly?" he went on. 11. "Did you play for your school team?" said Bill. 12. "Are you interested in acting'1" asked Ann. 13. "Would you like to join our Drama Group?" she said.

14. "What do you think of the canteen coffee?" asked Peter.

Mary and Tom, with their son, John, aged 11, have recently come to this area. Mary wants to find a school for John and asks her neighbour Mrs Smith about the local school.

(a) Later, Mrs Smith reports these questions to her husband, "Is it a mixed school?"

She asked if it was a mixed school.

(b) Alternatively, supply suitable answers to Mary's ques­tions and then imagine that Mary reports the conversation (her questions and Mrs Smith's answers) to her husband Tom "Were your boys happy there?"~

"Yes, they were."

/ asked if her boys had been happy there and she said that they had.

15. "How long has it been a mixed school?" 16. "Do you like the headmaster?" 17. "Is he a scientist or an arts graduate?" 18. "How many children are there in the school?" 19 "How big are the classes?" 20. "Are the classes streamed?" 21. "What is the academic standard like?"

22. "Can parents visit the school at any time?" 23. "Is there a good art department?" 24. "Do they teach music?" 25. "What instruments can the children learn?" 26. "Is there a school orchestra?" 27. "Do they act plays?" 28. "What sort of plays have they done?" 29. "What games do they play?" 30 "Are the playing fields near the school?" 31. "Are they taught to swim?" 32. "Can the children get dinner at school?" 33. "Is the food good?"

34. "Is there a Parent-Teacher Association?" 35. "How often does it meet?"

36. "Were your own boys happy at the school?"

Put the following into indirect speech.

1. "Why are you looking through the keyhole?" I said. 2. "Who put salt in my coffee?" he asked.

3. "Which of you knows how to make Irish stew?" said the chief cook. 4 "Why did you travel first class?" I asked him. 5. "How can I run in high-heeled shoes?" she enquired. 6. "What is your new house like?" I asked them. 7. He said, "Where am I supposed to go now?" (Omit now.) 8. "Whose car did you borrow last night?" I said to him. 9. "What was she wearing when you saw her last?" the po­liceman asked me. 10. "Who owns this revolver?" said the detective.

11. "Where were you last night, Mr Jones?" he said. 12. "What else did you see?" I asked the boy. 13. "Have you done this sort of work before?" said his new employer. 14. "Can you read the last line on the chart?" the oculist i," asked her. 15. "Did they understand what you said to them?" he asked me. 16. "Are you being attended to, sir?" said the shop assistant. 17. "Will you go on strike when the others do?" the shop steward asked him. 18. "Do you see what I see, Mary?" said the young man 19. "Who left the banana skin on the front doorstep?" said my mother. 20. "Have you gone completely mad?" I asked. "Do you want ' to blow us all up?"

21 "Why is your house so full of antiques?" she asked. "Was .your father a collector?" 22. "Are you leaving today or tomorrow morning?" said his secretary. 23. "How far is it?" I said, "and how long will it take me to get there?" 24. "Could I speak to Mrs Pitt?" said the caller.

"I'm afraid she's out," said the pair girl. "Could I take a message?" 25. "Are you sorry for what you did?" the mother asked the little boy. 26. "Are you going to see him off at the station?" I asked her 27. "Would you mind if I looked inside your bag, Madam?" said the policeman.

28. "If someone fell at your feet foaming at the mouth would you know what to do?" said the instructor in First Aid. 29. "Why do you think it may be dangerous?" he asked her. 30. "Do you know that the shoes you are wearing aren't a pair?" I asked him.

Change the following direct commands into indirect commands using the verbs: tell, order, ask, beg, ad­vise, remind, warn, etc.

1. "Switch off the TV," he said to her. 2. "Shut the door, Tom," she said. 3. "Lend me your pen for a moment," I said to Mary. 4. "Don't watch late-night horror movies," I warned them. 5. "Don't believe everything you hear," he warned me. 6. "Please fill up this form," the secretary said. 7. "Don't hurry," I said. 8. "Don't touch that switch, Mary," I said. 9. "Open the safe!" the raiders ordered the bank clerk. 10. "Please do as I say," he begged me. 11. "Help your mother, Peter," Mr Pitt said. 12. "Don't make too much noise, children," he said. 13. "Do whatever you like," she said to us. 14. "Don't miss your train," she warned them. 15. "Read it before you sign it," he said to his client. 16. "Do sing it again," he said. 17. "Don't put your hands near the bars," the zoo keeper warned us. 18. "Buy a new car," I advised him. 19. "Don't drive too fast," she begged him. 20. "Don't lean your bicycles against my windows, boys," said the shopkeeper.

21. "Come to the cinema with me," he asked her. 22. "Cook it in butter," I advised her. 23. "Don't touch the gates, madam," said the lift operator. 24. "Don't argue with me," the teacher said to the boy. 25. "Pull as hard as you can," he said to him. 26. "Send for the Fire Brigade," the manager said to the porter. 27. "Don't lend her anything," he advised us. 28 "Make a list of what you want," she told us. 29. "Look at the paper," he said to her. 30. "Stand clear of the doors," a voice warned the people on the platform. 31. "See if you can find any mushrooms, children," she said. 32. "Don't go alone," I warned her. 33. "Pay at the cash desk," the shop assistant said to the customer. 34. The notice said, "Leave this space clear." 35. "Remember to write to your mother," I said to them. 36. "Think well before you answer," the detective warned her.

. Put the following into indirect speech. In most cases the person addressed must be supplied.

1. He said, "Get out of my way." 2. "Climb in through the window," he ordered. 3 "Please pay at the desk," said the assistant. 4. "Open your bag, please," said the store detective. 5. "Don't worry about anything, Mrs Pitt," said her solicitor. "Leave it all to me." 6. "Don't use bent coins in a slot machine," I warned him. 7. "Follow that car," the detective said to the taxi-driver. 8. "Wash it in lukewarm water," recommended the assistant. 9. "Have confidence in me," urged the doctor. 10. "Take me up to the 33rd floor," he said to the liftman. 11 "Read the notice about life-saving equipment," advised the air-hostess. 12. "Always cook with butter," said her mother, "never use margarine." 13. "Don't argue with your father," I said. 14. "Remember to prune the roses," said my aunt. 15. "Wait for me at the bridge," said the young man. 16. "Don't eat too much starch," I advised her, "and avoid fried food." 17. "Don't say anything to make her angry," said my father 18. Notice: Please do not ask at the desk for change for tele­phone calls.

19. "Don't forget to feed the goldfish," Mary said to her brother. 20. "Cross the line by the footbridge," said the porter. 21. "Write to me as often as you can," said his wife. 22. "Put your pistol on the table," said the crook. 23. "Please book me a seat in a non-smoker," said the traveller. 24. "Don't forget your sandwiches," said his mother. 25. "Don't go near the water, children," she said. 26. "Search the house," said the policeman sergeant. 27. "Don't make mountains out of molehills," he said. 28. "Put down that gun. It's loaded, 18418v217s " she warned.

Put the following into indirect speech, joining the sentences together with as, and, but or for.

1. "Make good use of your time. You won't get such an op portunity again," he said to us. 2. "Don't wait till tomorrow," said the advertisement, "post the coupon at once." 3. "Be very careful crossing roads," she said, "and remember to drive on the right." 4. "I can't open it. You have a try, Peter," he said. 5. "Go and get me a paper, and come straight back," he said to me.

6. "Someone's coming. Get into the cupboard," she said. 7. "Give way to traffic approaching from your right," the road sign warned us. 8. "Please, please send whatever you can spare," said the secretary of the disaster fund. 9. "Wear a wig if you don't want to be recognized," I ad­vised him. 10. "Don't bathe when the red flag is flying," said the life­guard. 11. "Don't forget to thank Mrs Jones when you are saying goodbye to her," said his mother. 12. "Watch the milk and don't let it boil over," he said. 13. "Don't shelter under a tree in a thunderstorm," he said. 'The tree might be struck by lightning." 14. "Put the message into a bottle and throw it into the sea," he said. 15. "Read it for yourself if you don't believe what I say," he told me. 16. "Don't forget to use your indicators," said the driving in­structor. 17. "Don't drive too fast or the baby'll be sick," she said to her husband. 18. "Do make the coffee a bit stronger," I begged. "It was terribly weak last night." 19. "Beware of pickpockets," said a huge notice. 20. "Smell this. Do you think it has gone bad?" she said. 21. "Don't take your coat off. We are going out again in moment," she told him. 22. "Stand by the window and tell me if anyone goes into the house opposite," he said. 23. "Don't move till the policeman waves you on," said the driving instructor.

24. "Don't touch it. You will only make it worse," he told me. 25. "Be careful; the steps are very slippery," I warned him. 26. "Ask your boss to ring me back," I said. "My number is 1234567."

"Could you repeat that, please?" said the girl. 27. "Don't work too fast," said the foreman. "If we finish be­fore six we shan't get any overtime." 28. "Prepare to meet your doom. The end of the world is at hand," said the placard. 29. "Remember to put the brake on," the instructor said.

30. "Would you please take off your shoes?" Keiko said to him.

Put the following into indirect speech using ask, advise, invite, offer, remind, tell, warn.

1. "Would you like to have lunch with me on Sunday?" he said to me. 2. "Would you like a cigarette?" said one of the guests. 3. "Would you mind not smoking between courses?" said their hostess. 4. "Take these letters to the post, will you? And shut the door as you go out," said the boss. 5. "Will you help me, please?" she said. "I can't reach the top shelf." 6. "This is a horrible room. Why don't you ask for something better?" he said. 7. "If I were you I'd try to get a room on the top floor," he said. 8. "I'll wait for you if you like," she said. 9. "Remember to switch off when you've finished," he said. 10. "You might check these figures for me," he said. 11. "You'd better apologize for being late," said my mother. 12. "Could you check the oil, please?" I asked the me­chanic. 13. "I wish you'd sit still!" said the artist. "How do you ex­pect me to paint you when you keep jerking your head?" 14. "Why don't you go by train? It's much less tiring than driving," I said. 15. Hotel notice: Will guests please not play radios loudly af­ter midnight?

16. "Would you like to wait here?" said the receptionist, showing me into the waiting room.

17. "You must see this exhibition!" said all my friends. 18. "I should plant daffodils, if I were you," I said to them. 19. "If you'd just sign the back of the cheque," said the bank clerk.

20. "I'd be very grateful if you'd forward my letters while I am away," he said. 21. Police announcement: Will anyone who saw this accident please get in touch with their nearest police station? 22. "Don't leave your room at night," he said. "Our host's dogs might mistake you for a burglar." 23. "Answer this letter for me, will you?" he said. "And re­member to keep a copy."

24. "Would you mind moving your car?" he said. "It's block­ing my gate." 25. (in a letter) "Perhaps you'd let me know when your new stock comes in." (Mrs Jones ...) 26. Notice on board: The first team will report to the gymna­sium for weight-training. (The coach ...) 27. "Could you sew on this button for me?" Tom asked Ann. "You'd better sew it on yourself," said Mary. "Buttons sewn on by Ann usually come off the next day." 28. "If you will kindly sit down the fortune-teller will be with you in a moment," the girl said.

Put the following into indirect speech.

1. "Could you get there and back in one day?" I asked. ( I asked if he ...) 2. "I can't open this tin," said Ann. "Shall I do it for you?" said Tom. 3. "Could you translate this for me, please?" I asked the of­ficial. 4. "Shall we ever meet again?" he wondered. 5. "Will you be here tomorrow?" she asked. "Yes," I an­swered. 6. "Could I lose five kilos in a week?" said the fat woman. "No," said the doctor. 7. "Will you have a drink?" he said. 8. "Why don't you install gas central heating?" said the ad­vertisement, (urge) 9. "Will you read this very carefully, please?" he said to me. 10. "Shall I tell him what happened?" she asked me. 11. "Wouldn't you like to look ten years younger?" said the hairdresser. 12. "I'm going to Brighton tomorrow," said Ann.

"So'm I," said Tom. "Would you like a lift?" (Tom said he was too and ...) 13. "Can I have a sweet?" said the small boy. 14. "Can we stay up till the end of the programme?" said the children. 15. "Could I have the weekend off?" he asked his boss. 16. "Could I leave early on Friday?" he said. 17. "Why don't you like pop music?" the teenagers asked him. 18. "Why don't you take up the oboe again?" said my friends. (advise) 19. "Where shall I hang my new picture?" he said. "Would it look well over the mantelpiece?" 20. "What shall I do if the car won't start?" I said. 21. "Have you got enough money? Shall I lend you some?" said my friend. 22. "Will you be able to guide me or shall I bring a map?" I asked. 23. "You won't forget to shut the door, will you?" she said (remind) 24. "Would you like to see over the house?" I asked her. 25. "Would you like to peel the potatoes?" said Ann, handing me a knife. 26. "I've got two tickets. Would you like to come with me?" he said. 27. "Can you use a word processor?" he asked. "No," I said. 28. "Would you mind living by yourself for six months?" they asked. 29. "Would you mind paying cash?" said my landlady when I took out my cheque-book. 30. "Why don't you trust him?" I asked Ann. "I never trust left-handed men," she answered.

Put the following into indirect speech.

1. He said, "When you are at the butcher's remember to get a bone for the dog." 2. She said, "If you feel faint sit down and put your head be­tween your knees." 3. "If I find your purse what shall I do with it?" he said. "Keep it till you see me again," I replied. 4. She said, "If he arrives before I get back give him some­thing to drink." 5. "If anyone rings up," she said, "say that I'll be back shortly." 6. "When you are driving always look in your driving mirror before turning right," said my instructor. 7. "Leave the key under the mat if you go out," she said. 8. "If you think the room is cold shut the windows," said my aunt. 9. "If you feel lonely any time ring me up," he said. 10. "If she doesn't eat meat, offer her an omelette," he said. 11. "Get the car off the road on to the verge if you have a puncture. Don't leave it on the road," said my father. 12. "If I am not back by this time tomorrow take this letter to the police," he said. 13. "When you see Mrs Pitt don't forget to thank her," she ajd to her husband. 14. "When the bell rings take the meat out of the oven," my sister said. 15. "If you are taken prisoner," said the officer, "give your name, rank and number but refuse to answer any other ques­tions." 16. "When you hear the fire alarm, shut all windows and go downstairs as quickly as possible," said the schoolmaster. 17. "If the lift should stop between two floors press the emergency button," he said. 18. "Before you allow anyone to use the Turkish bath re­member to ask him if he has a weak heart," said the senior at­tendant. 19. "If the police stop me, what shall I say?" she asked. 20. "What shall I do if he refuses to let me in?" she said. "Write a note and push it under the door," I said.

21. "What will happen if the strike continues?" he said. 22. "If it goes on snowing, how'll we get food?" wondered the housewives. 23. "When the rain stops, can we go out?" said the children.

24. "When you've completed one section, go on to the next," the teacher said. 25. "If you don't like the programme, switch to another channel," I said to her. 26. "If I lose my traveller's cheques, will the bank repay me?" I asked. 27. "If the noise gets worse, you'd complain to the police," he said to me. 28. "As soon as you find a hotel, ring me and give me the address," he said.

. Part 1. Write the following in indirect speech, in or­dinary narrative form.

Ann suggested having a party on the next Saturday. Mary agreed and asked who they should invite.

Report "Why don't we ...?" as a suggestion and "Why don't ?" as suggestion or advice. Report "Why not?" in no. 9 as agreed.

1. Ann: What about having a party on Saturday? 2. Mary: Yes, let's. Who shall we invite?

3. Ann: Let's not make a list. Let's just invite everybody. 4. Mary: We don't want to do too much cooking, so what about making it a wine and cheese party? 5. Ann: Suppose we ask everybody to bring a bottle? 6. Mary: Shall we hire glasses from our local wine shop? We haven't many left. 7. Ann: If it's warm, how about having the party in the garden? 8. Mary: Why not have a barbecue? 9. Ann: Why not? We could ask Paul to do the cooking. 10. Mary: Last time we had a barbecue the neighbours com­plained about the noise. Shall we ask everyone to speak in whis­pers? 11. Ann: Suppose we go round to the neighbours and apolo­gize in advance this time? 12. Mary: Why not invite the neighbours? Then the noise won't matter. 13. Ann: What a clever idea! Shall we start ringing everyone up tonight? 14. Mary: What about working out how much it will cost first?

Part 2. Put the following into indirect speech.

15. "What about a round-the-world cruise?" suggested Mrs Smith. "What about renting a caravan? It's all we can afford," said her husband. 16. "Suppose you complain, Ann?" I said. "The boss is more likely to listen to you than to any of us." 17. "You used to be a good tennis player," she reminded him. "Why don't you take it up again?" 18. "Shall we talk there? It's not far," he said. "Yes, let's," I said. 19. "What about joining a weaving class?" Ann said to me. "There's one starting soon." 20. "Let's organize a sponsored cycle race," said the children "What about a sponsored silence?" said the teacher with a grin. 21. "Where shall we meet?" I said. "What about the hotel? said Bill. 22. "Suppose you ring him, Ann, and ask him what he of the idea?" I said. 23. "I'm doing most of the work," I pointed out. "What about giving me a hand?" 24. "Let's leave the washing-up till tomorrow," he suggested. "I hate washing up last thing at night." 25. "Suppose the children go on an adventure holiday this summer?" suggested the father. 26. "Why don't you ask them what they'd like tojio?" I said. 27. "Shall we begin training for the next London Marathon?" said Bill. "I've no intention of running in marathons," I said. "Why don't you ask Paul?" 28. "Why don't you put an advertisement in the local paper?" they suggested to me.

. Put the following into indirect speech, avoiding as far as possible the verbs say, ask and tell and choosing in­stead from the following: accept, accuse, admit, ad­vise, agree, apologize, assure, beg, call (= summon), . call (+ noun/pronoun + noun), complain, congratu­late, deny, exclaim, explain, give, hope, insist, intro­duce, invite, offer, point out, promise, protest, refuse, remark, remind, suggest, thank, threaten, warn, wish.

He said, "Don't walk on the ice; it isn't safe." 2. "Miss Brown, this is Miss White. Miss White, Miss Brown," he said. 3. "Here are the car keys. You'd better wait in the car," he said to her. 4. "Please, please, don't tell anyone," she said. "I won't, I promise," I said. 5. "Would you like my torch?" I said, holding it out. "No, thanks," he said. "I have one of my own." (Omit thanks) 6. Tom: I'll pay. Ann: Oh no, you mustn't! Tom: I insist on paying! 7. "Come in and look round. There's no obligation to buy," said the shopkeeper. 8. "If you don't pay the ransom, we'll kill the boy," said the kidnappers. 9. "I won't answer any questions," said the arrested men. 10. "He expects a lot of work for very little money," plained one of the typists.

"Yes, he does," agreed the other. 11. "I wish it would rain," she said. 12. "You pressed the wrong button," said the mechanic "Don't do it again. You might have a nasty accident." 13. "Your weight's gone up a lot!" I exclaimed. "I'm afraid it has," she said sadly. 14. "I hope you'll have a good journey," he said. "Don't for­get to send a card when you arrive." 15. "Hurrah! I've passed the first exam!" he exclaimed. "Congratulations!" I said, "and good luck with the sec

ond." 16. "All right, I'll wait a week," she said. (Omit all right) 17. "Many happy returns of your birthday!" we said. "Thanks" said the boy. 18. "Your door is the shabbiest in the street," said the neighbour. "It is," I said. 19. "Cigarette?" ~ "Thanks," I said. 20. "I'll sell the TV set if you keep quarrelling about the programme," said their mother. "No, don't do that! We won't quarrel any more," said the children. 21. "I'll give you £500 to keep your mouth shut," he said to me. 22. "I'll wait for you, I promise," he said to me. 23. "I'm sorry I'm late," she said. "The bus broke down."

24. "You've been leaking information to the Press!" said his 'Colleagues. "No, I haven't," he said. "Liar!" said Tom. 25. "I'll drop you from the team if you don't train harder. said the captain.

26. "If the boys do anything clever, you call them your son-complained his wife. "But if they do anything stupid, you call them mine." 27. "Let's have a rest," said Tom. "Yes, let's" said Ann.

28. "Ugh! There's a slug in my lettuce. Waiter'" he cried.

put the following into direct speech, using a dia­logue form.

Tom: Would you like to come for a drive tomorrow, Ann? Ann: I'd love to etc.


1. Tom invited Ann to come for a drive the following day. 2. Ann accepted with pleasure and asked where he was thinking of going. 3. He said he'd leave it to her. 4. She suggested Stratford ... 5. adding that she hadn't been there for ages. 6. Tom agreed and said that they might go on the river if it was a fine day. 7. Ann wondered what was on at the Royal Shakespeare Theatre. 8. Tom said they'd find out when they got there ... 9. adding that it was usually possible to get seats on the day of the play. 10. He asked Ann if she could be ready by ten. 11. Ann said with regret that she couldn't as she had to type a report first. 12. Tom expressed horror at the idea of working on Saturday ... 13. and advised her to change her job.

14. She told him not to be ridiculous and explained that ... 15. she had volunteered to type the report in return for a free afternoon the following week. 16. She pointed out that she hadn't known that he was going to ask her out. 17. Tom said he supposed it was all right but ... 18. warned her not to make a habit of volunteering for week­end work. 19. Ann promised not to.

20. Tom said gloomily that he supposed she'd be busy all Tiorning. 21. Ann assured him that she'd be finished by 11.00 and ... 22. offered to meet him at the bus stop at Hyde Park Cor­ner.

23. Tom said that it wasn't a very good meeting place and that he'd call for her. 25. "If you're short of money I can lend you £50," said my aunt, "and you can take your time about paying it back." 26. "I usually take my dog out for a walk when I come home from work," he said.

27. "I have a message for your brother," I said. "He isn't at home," said Ann. "He left two days ago." 28. "I bought this bag in Milan," I said. "You shouldn't have bought that colour," said Peter. "It doesn't go with your coat." 29. "I must hurry. My father is always furious if any of us are late for meals," she said. 30. "If you want to smoke you'll have to go upstairs," said the bus conductor. 31. "I'm building myself a house," said Charles. "I won't show it to you just yet but when the roof is on you can come and see it." 32. "The lake will probably freeze tonight," said Peter. "It's much colder than last night." "I'll go out and look early in the morning," said Mary, "and if it's frozen I'll make some holes in the ice so that the ducks can feed." 33. "Even if the strikers go back to work tomorrow it will be some time before things return to normal," said the official. 34. "Someone is trying to murder me!" said Mrs Jones. "I keep getting threatening letters." 35. "I'm taking my children to the zoo tomorrow," she said, "to see the baby polar bear."

36. "All I can hear," says Ann, "is a high-pitched buzz I 'wonder if it's some sort of signal."

Put the following into indirect speech.

1. "There's been an accident, and the road is blocked," said the policeman. "It won't be clear for some time. You'd better go round the other way." 2. "Let's light a fire and cook our sausages over it," said the children. 3. "I was thinking of going by bus," said Paul. "I shouldn't go by bus (if I were you)," said his aunt. "It's an awfully bad service." 4 "You'd better take sleeping bags; you may have to sleep out," he warned us. 5. "I've left some books on your table," said Peter. "I think you'll find them useful. You can keep them as long as you need them but I'd like them back when you've finished with them." "Thank you very much," I said. "I'll take great care of them."

6. "If children can learn a complicated language like Japanese by the time they are five," said the Japanese professor, "they should be able to learn the language of music. At the moment I'm teaching a class of forty three-year-olds to play the violin," he added. 7. "The puppy can sleep on our bed," said Tom. "I'd rather he slept in a basket," said his wife. "That puppy will soon be a very big dog and then there won't be room for all three of us." 8. "I'll try by myself first," said Ann, "and if I find that I can't manage I'll ask Tom to help me." 9. "Let's camp by this stream," said Mary. "If we go on, it may be dark before we find another good place." 10. "I wish we'd brought our guitars," said the students. "Then we could have offered to play in the restaurant and perhaps they'd have given us a free meal." 11. "I booked a double room on the first floor," said Mr Jones. "I'm afraid we didn't get your letter," said the receptionist, "and all the first and second floor rooms have been taken. But we could give you two single rooms on the third floor."

"That wouldn't do me at all," said Mr Jones. 12. "I've had gypsies on my land for two years," said the farmer, "and they've given nobody any trouble; but now the Council have asked me to tell them to move on. I don't see why they should be asked to move and I'm writing to my MP about it." 13. "This letter is full of mistakes!" snorted Mr Jones. "I did it in rather a hurry," admitted the typist. "I suppose I'd better type it again." 14. "If you'd like to go on any of these tours," said the re­ceptionist, "the hotel will arrange it." "We'd like to go on them all," said the American couple. 15. "We'll try to find your passport," said the policeman, "but it'll be very difficult because a lot of suspicious characters sleep on the beach in summer and any one of them might have robbed you." 16. "Let's go to the races!?" said Ann. "We might make our prtunes. I've been given a very good tip for the 2.30." "I've had "good tips" from you before," said Paul. "And they were disastrous." 17. "I don't know why you waste so much time polishing the car," said Mr Jones. "The neighbours all polish their cars," said Mrs Jones, "and I don't want our Mini to look like a poor relation. If you were any good you'd help me instead of standing there criticizing," she added. 18. "I'm sorry for not having a tie on," said Peter. "I didn't know it was going to be a formal party." 19. "I'd have enjoyed the journey more if the man next to me hadn't snored all the time," said Paul. 20. "I was thinking of going alone," I said. "You'd better take someone with you," said the old man "It's safer with two. One can keep watch while the other sleeps." 21. (Paul is speaking to Mary on the phone, and Mary is re­peating his words to Ann, who is standing beside her.) Paul: The plans have been changed. We're going tomorrow now, not on the next day. I want you to meet me at Victoria tonight. Mary: Paul says ... 22. "If I want a hot bath I have to put ten pence in the me­ter," said Tom, "and even then it's not very hot." "That's ridiculous," I said; "It's high time you left that place." 23. "I know the umbrella belongs to you, but I thought it would be all right if I borrowed it," said my nephew, "because you aren't going out tomorrow and I am." 24. "Let's put your tape-recorder under the table," said Tom, "and make a recording of their conversation. It would be very useful to know what they are planning." "But my recorder makes a distinct hum," I said. "They'd be sure to hear it and look under the table; and then they'd find the recorder and ask all sorts of embarrassing questions," 25. "Whenever my father was unhappy," said the girl, "he would go out and buy something, usually something large and useless. That's why our rooms are full of things we can't use." "I'm sorry for your father," said Tom, looking round. "He must have been a very unhappy man." 26. "You can leave your motorcycle in my garage if yot like," he said.

"I'll keep an eye on it while you're away." 27. "If you want a job you should read advertisements and write letters and ring people up," he said to Ann. "It's no use sitting at home, expecting employers to form a queue outside your door." 28. "This used to be a lovely quiet street," he said," but new it is impossible. When summer comes you'll have to keep the windows shut all the time because of the noise." 29. "You must leave a note for your mother," said Peter, "otherwise she'll be terribly worried when you're not in at your usual time." 30. "A letter marked "Urgent" has just arrived for Albert," said Mary, "and he's on holiday. I wonder if I should ring him up and tell him about it or wait till he comes back."

Put the following questions into indirect speech.

1. "Who has been using my typewriter?" said my mother. 2. "Do you want to see the cathedral?" said the guide. 3. "Do you mind working on the night shifts?" he asked. 4. "Would you like to come with us?" they said. 5. "Who did you give the money to?" asked Ann.

6. "How long does it take to get to Edinburgh by coach?" asked the tourist. 7. "How much do you think it will cost?" he said. 8. "What did you miss most when you were in prison?" Mary asked the exconvict. 9. Another passenger came in and said, "Is this seat taken?" 10. "How do you get on with your mother-in-law?" said Paul. 11. "How did you get into the house?" they asked him. 12. "What were you doing with these skeleton keys?" said Mr Jones. "Were you trying to get at the secret files?" 13. "Did you sleep well?" asked my hostess. 14. "Have you been here long?" the other students asked him. 15. "Can you tell me why Paul left the university without taking his degree?" Paul's sister asked. 16. "How many people know the combination of the safe?" said the detective. 17. "Are there any letters for me?" said Mary.

18. "How long have you been learning English?" the exam­iner said. 19. "Why aren't you taking the exams?" said Paul. 20. "Are these free-range eggs?" said the customer. 21. "Where are you going for your summer holidays?" j .asked them. 22. "Will it be all right if I come in a little later tonight?" asked the pair girl. 23. "Have you ever seen a flying saucer?" said the man. 24. "Where can I park my caravan?" she asked the policeman. 25. "Would you like a lift?" said Ann. "Which way are you going?" I said. 26. "Who do you want to speak to?" said the telephonist. 27. "Does anyone want tickets for the boxing match?" said Charles. 28. "What are you going to do with your old car?" I asked him. 29. "Do you grow your own vegetables?" I asked. 30. "What train are you going to get?" my friend inquired. 31. "Could you change a five-pound note? I'm afraid I haven't got anything smaller," said the passenger to the conductor.

32. "How many sleeping pills have you taken?" said the night sister. "I have no idea," said Mr Jones sleepily. 33. "Could we speak to the manager, please?" said the two men "Have you an appointment?" said the secretary. 34. "Do you think you could live entirely on your own for six months," said Tom "or would you get bored?" 35. "Did any of you actually see the accident happen?" said the policeman. 36. "Could I see Commander Smith?" the lady asked. "I'm afraid he's in orbit," I said. "Would you like to leave a message?"

Put the following into indirect speech.


"What about" often introduces suggestion and is then re­ported by suggest:

"What about flying?" he said.

He suggested flying.

"I can't come at 1.00," said Ann. "Then what about 2.00-)" said Tom.

Ann said she couldnt come at 1.00, so Tom suggested 2.00

"Why don't you" often introduces suggestions or advice and is then reported by suggest or advise:

"I wonder if Tom is coming," said Ann.

"Why don't you ask him?" I said.

Ann wondered if Tom was coming. I advised her to ask him or

I suggested (her) asking him.

"Could I have" is normally reported by ask for:

"Could I have a cup of coffee?" she said.

She asked (me) for a cup of coffee.

"Could you" used for reguests is reported by ask + object + infinitive:

"Could you sign the book, please?" he said.

He asked me to sign the book.

But when "Could you" introduces an ordinary question the verb is reported unchanged:

"Could you live entirely on you own?" he said.

He asked if I could live entirely on my own.

"Would you mind waiting/signing" etc. can be reported: ' He asked me to wait/sign etc. or

He asked if I would mind waiting/signing etc.

offer can be used in two constructions:

"Would you like a drink?"

He offered me a drink.

"Shall I wait for you? I'll wait for if you like."

He offered to wait for me.

When the infinitive is used it must be placed directly after offer. The person addressed is not mentioned in this construction.

1. "Shall we have dinner somewhere after the theatre?" said Peter. "Yes, let's" said Ann. "What about going to that place Jack is always talking about?" (For Yes, let's put Ann agreed.) 2. "Jack's parents have asked me to supper tomorrow night," said Ann. "What shall I wear?" "You should wear something warm, dear," said her mother. 'It's a terribly cold house."

3. "I'm broke," said Jack. "Shall I lend you some money?" said Peter. 4 "It will take a little time to look up your file," said the clerk. "Is it worth waiting," said Ann, "or shall I go away and come back later?" 5. "Shall I have to do the whole exam again if I fail in one paper?" said the student.

"Yes," said the teacher. 6. Where will you be tomorrow," I said, "in case I have to ring you?"

"I shall be in my office till six," said the old man, "and after that at my flat. I shan't be going to the club." 7. "What shall I do with this cracked cup?" Mary asked. "You'd better throw it away," said her mother. 8. "Shall I ever see him again?" she wondered. 9. "Would you mind getting out of the car?" said the driver "I have to change a wheel." "Shall I help you?" I said. 10. "I've run out of petrol," said the man. "Could you possi­bly give me a lift to the next village?" 11. "Shall we go for a walk?" said Peter. "I like walking," said Ann, "but at the moment my only com­fortable walking shoes are being mended. What about going for a drive instead?" 12. "You've got a lot of parcels," he said. "Shall I carry some of them for you?" 13. "Shall we be in time?" muttered Tom, looking at his watch. (Use wonder.) 14. "What shall I do with all this foreign money?" said Peter "Why don't you take it to the bank and get it changed?" said Mary. 15. "Would you like a cigarette?" said Peter. "No, thanks," said Jack. "I don't smoke." 16. "Would you like to come with us?" they said. "There -plenty of room in the car." "I'd love to," said Ann. 17. Ann (on phone): Could you do without me toda Mr Jones? I've got an awful cold and I think it might be better I stayed at home. Mr Jones: You should certainly stay at home, Ann. And you better take tomorrow off too if you aren't better. 18. Mary (on phone): Paul, I've just come back to my flat to find a complete stranger asleep in my chair. He's still here, and still asleep! What shall I do? Paul: Why don't you wake him up and ask him who he is? There's probably some quite simple explanation. 19. "I'm not quite ready," said Peter. "Could you wait a few minutes?"

"I can't wait long," said Jack. "The train goes at ten." 20. "Would you mind taking off your hat?" I said to the woman in front of me. "But the theatre's almost empty!" she said. "Why don't you move along a bit?" 21. "I often see lights in the empty house across the road," said Albert.

"Do you think I should report it?" 22. "If this house was yours what changes would you make?" I said. "I'd pull it down and build a modern one on the same site," said the window-cleaner. "The site's all right." 23. "Could I have your name and address, please?" said the travel agent.

24. "Shall I send it round to your hotel, sir?" the shop assis­tant asked the tourist. "I'm not staying in the town," said the tourist. "I'll take it with me." 25. "How long will you go on looking for them?" I asked one of the search party. "We don't search at night. We'll stop when it gets dark and start again at first light tomorrow. 26. "We can't discuss this over the phone. Shall we meet here in my flat tomorrow?" I said. "I'd rather you came to my office," he said. "Could you get here in half an hour?" 27. "Could I have 40p, please?" said the boy. "I want to buy an ice-cream." 28. "Would you like to sleep on the floor of my flat?" he asked us. "Or would you rather go to a hotel?" 29. "Could you help me with my luggage, please?" she said. "If you take the two big ones I'll take the small one." "It's ridiculous to take three suitcases for a weekend," I said

"Couldn't you manage with two?" "No," she said. 30. "I couldn't come on Monday," said Ann.

"Then what about Tuesday?" said Peter. "All right," said Ann.

. Put the following sentences into indirect speech, using tell/order/urge/ask/beg/invite/advise/warn/ remind + object + infinitive, or ask (+ object) + for, or, in some cases, ask + infinitive.

1. "Don't put sticky things in your pockets," said his mother. 2. "Please, please don't do anything dangerous," said his wife 3. "Go on - apply for the job," said my friend. "It would just suit you." 4. "I should say nothing about it if I were you," said my brother. 5. "Would you please wait in the lounge till your flight num­ber is called?" she said. 6. "Don't lend Harry any money," I said to Ann. "He never pays his debts." 7. "Could you please ring back in half an hour?" said the secretary. 8. "Would you mind moving your case?" said the other pas­senger. "It's blocking the door." 9. "Remember to book a table," said Ann. 10. "Get into the right lane," said the driving instructor. 11. "Avoid Marble Arch," said the policeman. "There's going to be a big demonstration there." 12. "Hold the ladder," he said. "It's rather unsteady." "Why don't you tie it at the top?" I said. "It's much safer that way." 13. "Read the questions twice," said the teacher, "and don't write in the margin." 14. "You'd better not leave your money lying about," said one of the students. 15. "Why don't you open a bank account?" said another (Use advise.) 16. "Would you like to have lunch with me today?" said Ton "I'm afraid I couldn't; I can't leave the office," said the girl. 17. "Don't take more than two of these at once," said the doctor, handing me a bottle of pills. 18. "Could I speak to Albert, please?" I said. "He's still asleep," said his mother. "Then please wake him," I said. "I have news for him." 19. "I'd buy the big tin if I were you," said the grocer. 20. "You're being exploited," said the other au pair girls. "You ought4o leave your job." 21. "Fasten your seat belts; there may be a little turbulence," said the air hostess. 22. "Don't drive through fog with only a fog light on," he said, "or oncoming drivers may take you for a motorcycle." 23. "Could I see your driving licence?" said the policeman.

24. "You'd better sweep up that broken glass," I said. 25. "The bathroom's empty now," she said. "Will you put the light out when you've finished?" 26. "Remember to insure your luggage," my father said. 27. "Please don't drink any more," said his wife. "Don't for­get that we have to drive home." 28. "Do go to a dentist, Tom, before your toothache gets any worse," I said.

29. "Why don't you cut your hair?" he said. "You'd find it much easier to get a job if you looked tidy." 30. "Could I have some more pudding, please?" said the boy.

. Put the following into indirect speech.

1. "Would you please fill in this form and then join the queue by the door?" said the clerk.

2. "Could you read the last sentence again, please?" said the examiner. 3. "Could I have a new cheque book, please?" said the girl. "Could you show me your old cheque book?" said the bank

clerk. 4. Postcard: Be ready to move off at very short notice. Tom. Ann (reading it to Mary): Tom says that we ... 5. "Please, please don't tell my mother," begged the boy. 6. "Don't fire except in self-defence," said the police ser­geant. 7. "Why don't you take the rest of the day off?" said my as­sistant. 8. "Will you help me to move the piano, please?" said my aunt. 9. "Don't drive too close to the car in front," said the driving instructor. 10. "Don't smoke near the petrol pump," said the mechanic 11. "When you've chosen a book, bring it to me and I'll stamp it," said the librarian. 12. "Show the boarding card to the man at the foot of the gangway," said the clerk. 13. "Reduce speed now," said a huge notice. (Omit now.) 14. "Could I see your ticket, please?" said the inspector. 15. "Keep an eye on your luggage," he said. "This place is full of thieves." 16. "When you have read this, pass it on to the next person on the list," he said.

17. "Why not light a fire on the bank and cook the fish at once?" suggested the fisherman.

18. "Whenever you see the number "7" on the screen, press this button," he said. 19. "Sit down and tell me what is worrying you," he said to her. 20. "Walk along the line of men," said the police sergeart "and if you recognize your attacker, just nod. Don't say am thing." 21. "Even if you feel hungry don't eat anything betwee, meals," said the dietician. 22. "Could you ring up the taxi rank and order a taxi for me?" said Tom. "Why don't you go by tube?" said Ann. "It's much quicker.' 23. "Let's buy some yeast and make our own bread," said Man "The bread we're getting now is absolutely tasteless." 24. "If you have to use the river water," said the guide, "b< it first. Don't drink it unboiled." 25. "Let's not tell anyone," said Tom, "till we are quite ce1 tain that the report is true." 26. Tom (on phone to Ann): I've got the tickets. Meet me the air terminal at 6.30. (Imagine that you are Ann. Report this message to Man who is standing beside you: Tom says ...) 27. "Let's show that we are united," urged the shop stewan "by voting unanimously to continue the strike." 28. "Will customers please count their change," said a notice above the cashier's desk, "as mistakes cannot be rectified afterwards." 29. "Don't clap yet," warned my friend. "She hasn't finished. Singers loathe people who clap too soon," he added. 30. "Don't forget to put your name at the top of the page," he said.

. Put the following into indirect speech.

1. Letter (from Paul to Ann): Please get me a small tent and camping equipment for two people.

Ann (telling Mary about this): Paul wants ...2. Mr White (on phone to Mr Black's secretary): Ask Mr Black to meet me at six in the bar on the ground floor. Secretary (reporting this to Mr Black): Mr White would like ... 3. "Shall I go and get a candle?" said Ann when the light went out suddenly. "I'd rather you got another bulb," said Mr Jones. "But there aren't any," said Ann, "and the shops are shut." 4. "Don't worry about a few mistakes," said Peter. "I make mistakes all the time." "Do you learn from your mistakes?" I asked. "Or do you keep making the same ones?" 5. "I'm looking for a man called Albert, who drinks in this bar," I said. "I should keep away from Albert if I were you," said the barman. "He doesn't like strangers and might turn nasty." 6. "Could I have a look at your paper for a moment?" said the man. "I just want to see the football results." "I haven't quite finished with it," I said. "Could you wait a moment?"

"I can't wait long," he said. "I'm getting off at the next stop." 7. "You woke everyone up last night," said my mother. "You must try to be quieter tonight." "We will," I promised. 8. "The soup's cold again," complained Mr Jones. "Why do I lever have hot soup?" "Because the kitchen's so far from the dining room," explain­ing his wife. "If you insist on living in a castle you must put up its disadvantages." "What about getting an ex-Olympic as an au pair girl?" said

Mr Jones. "She wouldn't stay," sighed his wife. 9. "Your licence is out of date," said the policeman. "It is," I admitted, "but I've applied for a new one." "Next time," he said severely, "apply for a new one before your current one has expired." 10. "I'll have the money for you next week. Shall I post it to you?" I said. "Could you keep it in your safe till I can come and collect it?" said Tom. "A lot of my mail has been going astray lately and I'd hate to lose one of your large cheques." 11. "Could I borrow your map again?" said Peter. "You're always borrowing it. Why don't you get one of your own?" I said. 12. "When you hear the fire bell," he said, "shut the windows and go downstairs." "And what shall we do if the stairs are blazing?" I asked. 13. "Can you hear that noise?" Ann said. "What do you think it is?" "I think it's only rats running up and down inside the wall," I said. "I think it's someone trying to get in," she said. "You'd bet­ter go and see." 14. "It's your turn to baby-sit tonight," they told Ann. "It can't be!" said Ann indignantly. "I baby-sat last night! And the night before! And I'm only supposed to do two nights a week!"

"Could you possibly do it just this once?" they said. "And we promise not to ask you to do any next week." 15. "This is the best restaurant in town," said the taxi driver "The only problem is that they expect guests to wear ties." "Then why have you brought us here?" said the tourists in

dignantly. "Don't get excited," said the taxi-driver, opening a box. "I keep ties specially for gentlemen in your predicament. What col­our would you like? They're all the same price."

16. "Shall I start tomorrow?" I said. "I'd rather you started today," said Tom. 17. "Why don't you go and see the film? It may help you to understand the book," I said. "But the film's quite different from the book," Ann pointed out. 18. "I saw the two climbers," said the helicopter pilot. "And one of them sat up and waved to me." "Which one of them waved?" I said. "I don't know," he answered. "I wasn't near enough to see them clearly." 19. "What caused the ship to sink?" I said. "She must have struck the submerged wreck," said the cox­swain of the lifeboat. "But I can't understand it, because the wreck is very clearly marked with buoys." 20. "My car won't start!" exclaimed Mary. "The battery's flat again! Could you possibly give me a push just to start me down the hill?" "Why don't you sell that car?" said Bill. "Nobody would buy it," said Peter. "What about just putting a match to it?" 21. "I've been given so many bottles of wine lately that I'll have to buy another wine rack," said Mr Jones. "Why don't you throw a party and save yourself the expense of a wine rack?" I suggested. 22. "Press button A to start the engine," he said. "But last time you told me to press button B!" I said. "That was on a slightly different type of machine," he ex­plained. 23. "Don't brake if you find yourself skidding," said Tom. "That only makes it worse. Try to steer into the skid." "I know what I should do," I said. "But when I start skidding I get so excited that I do the exact opposite." "Then stop and let me take over," said Tom. "We're just coming to an icy bit and I don't want to die just yet." 24. "I've run out of stamps," said my father. "Have you got any?" "No, but I'll go out and get you some if you like," I said. "Don't bother," he said. "I've missed the post anyway." 25. "Repairs to cars rented from us must be arranged through our office," he said. "So if anything goes wrong with the one you've hired, please ring the number printed on your card. The office is open from nine to six, Monday to Friday." "But what shall I do if something goes wrong with it outside office hours?" I said. 26. "Why didn't you signal to the tanker that she was com. ing too close?" I said.

"We did signal," said the pilot, "but she came on in and ran aground." "What's going to happen to her?" I said. "We're going to try to tow her off at the next high tide," he said. "But if we don't get her off tonight she'll be here till she breaks up, and there'll be an oil slick all along the coast."

27. "Why are you spending so long on those accounts?" I asked. "Because I can't make them balance," he said. "I seem to be £13 short; and that means that I'll have to put in £13 of my own money to make it up." "Would you like me to go through them and see if I can find a mistake?" I said. "No," he said, "but I'd like you to lend me £13." 28. "Why are you looking so depressed, Jack?" I said. "Because I've just asked Ann to marry me and she's re­fused," he said sadly.

"I think she prefers clean-shaven men," I said. "Why don't you cut your hair and shave off your beard and try again?" 29. "How did you get up that tree?" Mary asked. "I used a ladder, of course," he snapped, "but someone went off with it when I was sawing. Go and get another one and don't just stand there asking silly questions." 30. "Are you ill?" he said coldly. "No," I said.

"Did you sleep well last night?" "Yes," I said. "Then why are you sitting about when all the others are working? Go out at once and give them a hand." 31. "Will passengers with nothing do declare please go through the green door?" said a customs official. "You'd better go through the green door, Mary," said Peter, "but I'll have to go through the other one. I'll take a bit longer than you will, so wait for me at the other end." 32. (Imagine that you have received the following postcard from your brother Tom. Report it at once to the other members of the family. Begin: Tom says ... ) Don't worry about me. I wasn't badly injured and I'm being very well looked after. I'm coming back next Wednesday on the nine o'clock flight from Zurich. Could you please meet the plane? 33. "What shall I do with my wet shoes?" said the boy. "You'd better stuff them with newspaper and put them near the fire," said his mother. "But don't put them too near or they'll go hard." 34. "Let's drive on to the next village and try the hotel there," he said. "But what'll we do if that's full too?." I asked. "We'll just have to sleep in the car," he said. "It will be too late to try anywhere else." 35. "They have a rather fierce dog," safd Ann; but he's a heavy sleeper, and with any luck he won't hear you breaking in." "What'll I do if he wakes up?" I said. "If he starts growling, give him some of these biscuits," said Ann. "How do you know that he likes these particular biscuits?" "All dogs like them," Ann assured me. "It says so on the packet."

36. "If you even touch one of the pictures," warned the at­tendant, "alarm bells will ring all over the gallery and you will be arrested instantly." "Are you serious?" I said. "Try it and see," he answered with a glint in his eye.

. Put the following into indirect speech.


He said, "Let's go" usually becomes:

(a) He suggested going

though possible in certain cases are:

(b) He suggested that they should go

(c) He urged/advised them to go.

He said, "Let's not go" can be expressed by any of these constructions in the negative; but suggest + negative gerund is slightly less usual than the others and is often replaced by the (b) type of construction or by:

He was against going/against the idea/ against it.

He was opposed to the idea/He opposed the idea etc.

He said, "Let them go," can become:

(a) He suggested that they should go/suggested their go ing but usually it expresses an obligation and becomes:

(b) He said that they should/ought to go.

Very occasionally it expresses a command and becomes:

(c) He said that they were to go.

"Let him/them" can also express the speaker's indifference: "Everyone will laugh at you,' I said. "Let them!" he retorted. He expressed indifference/said didn't mind. 3. Let is also an ordinary verb meaning allow: "Let me go!" the boy said to the policeman. The boy asked the policeman to let him go.

1. "Let's go to the cinema," said Ann. "Yes, let's," I said. 2. The Prime Minister said, "Let us show the nation that we are worthy of their confidence." (Use urged.) 3. "Let me stay up a little longer tonight, mother," begged the child. 4. "Let's eat out tonight," said Ann. "Too expensive," ob­jected Tom. "Why don't we go back to your flat and have scrambled eggs?" 5. The police officer said, "Let's leave the wrecked car here for a bit. It may remind other drivers to be more careful." 6. "The neighbours will object!" said Ann. "Let them," said Tom. 7. "Let's go on a diet," said Ann. "All right," said Mary reluctantly. 8. "Tom made this mess. Let him clear it up," said his father. 9. "It's Mothering Sunday tomorrow," said the boy. "Let's buy Mum some flowers."

10. "Let's take a tent and camp out," said Bill. 11. "Let's give a party," said Ann. "Let's not," said her husband. 12. I said, "Let's not jump to conclusions. Let's wait till we hear confirmation of this rumour." 13. "The newspapers will say it's your fault," warned hi? colleagues.

"Let them say what they like," he said. 14. "Let the nations forget their differences and work to­gether for peace," said the preacher. 15. "Let me explain," she said. "Don't be in such a hurry." 16. "Let the children play in the garden if they want to," she told the gardener. "I'm sure they won't do any harm." 17. "Let's stay here till the storm has passed," I said. 18. "It's the government's fault. Let them do something about it," grumbled my father.

. Put the following into indirect speech.


must (first person)

"I must" can remain unchanged but usually becomes had to though would have to is better for an obligation which has only just arisen or is likely to arise in the future.

Reading the letter he said, "Good heavens! I must go at once!"

He said, "If she gets worse I must stay with her."

These would become respectively:

He said that he'd have to go and

He said that he'd have to stay.

"must I?" usually becomes had to.

"I must not" usually remains unchanged.

must (second and third persons)

"you/he must" usually remains unchanged.

"must you/he?" usually becomes had to.

"you/he must not" remains unchanged or becomes weren't

to/wasn't to.

must used for permanent commands or prohibitions or to ex­press advice always remains unchanged.

must used to express deduction never changes.


"I needn't" can change to didn't have to/wouldn't have

to in the same way that "I must" changes to had to/would have to, but it very often remains unchanged.

"you/he needn't" usually remains unchanged.

"need I/you/he?" remains unchanged or becomes had to.

have to

Forms with have to follow the usual rules. Remember that "had to" in direct speech will become had had to in indirect: He said, "After the lecture I had to rush home."

He said that after the lecture he had had to rush home.

1. He said, "If what you say is true I must go to the police." 2. He said, "I must be at the docks at six a.m. tomorrow." 3. "Must you make such a noise?" he asked. 4. "You mustn't come in without knocking," he told us. 5. "Your ticket will cost £5," I said. "In that case," said my nephew, "I must go to the bank to­morrow." 6. Park notice: Dogs must be kept on a lead.

7. His father said, "Tom must work harder next term." 8. "You needn't come in tomorrow," said my employer "Take the day off." 9. "I must go to the dentist tomorrow," he said. "I have an appointment." 10. Notice: Passengers must not lean out of the window. 11. He said, "There must be someone in the house; there's smoke coming from the chimney." 12. She said, "When you are a big boy you'll have to tie your own shoes." 13. "Port wine must never be shaken," my wine-merchant said. 14. "He hasn't had anything to eat since breakfast; he must be starving," she said. 15. The official said, "This passport photo isn't like you at all You must have another one taken." 16. "You mustn't play with knives, children," said their mother. 17. "I needn't get up till nine tomorrow," I said. 18. Railway regulations: Passengers must be in possession or a valid ticket before travelling. 19. "How did you get your bulldog up the escalator?" I said. "I carried him," said Tom. "You must be very strong," I said admiringly. 20. "You mustn't tell anyone what I've just told you," she said to me. 21. "Need I eat it all, mummy?" said the child. "Yes, dear, you must," she said. 22. "I had to drive your pigs out of my garden," she said. 23. "Sticks and umbrellas must be left at the desk," said the notice in the museum. 24. "Must you do it all tonight? Couldn't you leave some for tomorrow?" I asked her. 25. "When you go through Bayeux you must see the tapes­try," he told me. 26. He said, "You must walk faster; you are far too slow." 27. "You mustn't forget to put the stamp on or your friend will have to pay double postage," he told me. 28. "I needn't tell you how grateful I am," he said.

. Put the following into direct speech with the appro­priate punctuation.

1. She asked if he'd like to go to the concert and I said that I was sure she would. 2. She told me to look where I was going as the road was full of holes and was very badly lit. 3. They said that while they were bathing they saw someone examining their clothes, 4. I asked if she had looked everywhere and she said that she had. 5. He suggested giving her a bottle of wine.

6. He said that the new carpet had arrived and asked where he was to put it. 7. He said two days previously an enormous load of firewood had been dumped at his front gate and that since then he hadn't been able to get his car out, 8. They offered me some more wine and I accepted. 9. He said that if I found the front door locked I was to go round to the back. 10. She asked the burglars who they were and who had let them in: They told her to sit down and keep quiet unless she wanted to get hurt. 11. He asked what the weather had been like during my holi­day and I said that it had been awful. 12. He suggested going down to the harbour and seeing if they could hire a boat. 13. He said that if I didn't like escalators I could go up the emergency staircase. I thanked him and said that I would do that. 14. He suggested that Tom and I should go ahead and get the tickets. 15. He said that he thought my electric iron was unsafe and advised me to have it seen to. 16. He said that if war broke out he would have to leave the country at once. 17. I asked him if he had enjoyed house-hunting and he said that he hadn't. 18. She said that she was surprised to see that the grandfather's clock had stopped and asked if anyone had been fiddling with it. 19. She said that she had tried to ring up her mother several times on the previous day but had not succeeded in getting through. 20. I asked her if she'd like to borrow the book but she thanked me and said that she had already read it and hadn't liked it very much. 21. He wanted to know if I was going to the dance and sug­gested that we should make up a party and go together. 22. I told her to stop making a fuss about nothing and said that she was lucky to have got a seat at all. 23. The clerk in the booking office inquired if I wanted a sin­gle or return ticket. I asked if a return was any cheaper. He said it made no difference. 24. My employer hoped I would not be offended if he told me that, in his opinion, I would do better in some other kind of job. 25. The AA man told the woman that if her wheels had gone a couple of inches nearer the edge, the car would have plunged into the ravine.

26. He said I mustn't mind if the first one wasn't any good. 27. He asked the crowd if they thought that he was a liar and the crowd shouted that they did. 28. I stopped a man in the street and asked him to help me with my car. The man asked if it would take long, explaining that he was on his way to catch a train.

Write the sentences in reported speech replacing the word said by one of the words at the head of the ex­ercise. Use each word once only: suggested, agreed, muttered, exclaimed, insisted, whispered, boasted, admitted, shouted, claimed, objected, protested.

1. "I can speak six languages fluently," he said. 2. "Let's go to the cinema tonight," he said.

3. "Stop that noise in the classroom," said the teacher. 4. "That car you are driving is my property," the man said. 5. "Yes, I broke the windows with my catapult," the boy said.

6. "You can't take me to prison. I know my rights," the man said. 7. "I shall always love you," said the fiancee. 8. "We don't have enough money to carry out the plan," said the treasurer.

9. "This teacher doesn't know what he's talking about," said the student. 10. "Well, it's a surprise to meet you here today!" she said. 11. "Well, yes, if the weather is bad, we can't go," he said. 12. "If you can't come today, you simply must come tomor­row," she said.

You went to a party last week where you were in­troduced to several people you had never met be­fore. In conversation with a friend you now talk about the party and report the various questions that different people asked you during the course of the evening.

1. Who did you come to the party with? 2. Did you come with a friend? 3. Why aren't you drinking? 4. Would you like something to drink? 5. Where do you live? 6. Do you know many people here? 7. When did you arrive? 8. What do you do for a living? 9. Did you see that marvellous documentary on TV last night? 10. Have you been watching the latest TV serial?

11. How do you like your coffee - black or white? 12. What time is it? 13. What's your telephone number? 14. Can I give you a ring tomorrow? 15. How will you get back home?

Match the statements with the verbs given; then re­write the sentences in reported speech: complain, gasp, declare, report, explain, promise, sneer, groan, stammer, concede, snap, announce.

1. No one ever takes my advice. 2. You don't call that a car, do you? 3. I - I didn't mean to be rude. 4. You might try minding your own business. 5. The meeting will begin at 7.30. 6. You have to push this button first and then the machine will work. 7. If you don't like new way of doing things you can get on with the job yourself. 8. I've never seen anything like it. 9. You shall have the money back by the end of the week. 10. That's the fifth time I've heard that joke.

11. I see that you were right, after all. 12. I've just seen a murder committed.

. Write sentences in reported speech using the most suitable reporting verb for each sentence or using said/with an adverb of manner.

1. It's up to you to decide but don't come and ask me for help if you get into difficulties. 2. Don't forget to take your passport with you. 3. For Heaven's sake stop asking me stupid questions. 4. Surely you don't think your friend is serious. 5. Do as you are told and stop arguing. 6. What a fool I was not to accept the job! Still, it can't be helped now. 7. Here's a toast to bride and bridegroom. 8. Please don't say anything to him for my sake. 9. Shall I post this letter for you?

10. I've had just about enough of your insolence and you'll go to the headmaster. 11. Do you mean to say that you've lost the money on horse-racing? 12. If you are so clever why don't you try doing it yourself? 13. Of course, I could have won the race easily if I had really tried. 14. Go away! Can't you see I'm busy? 15. Give me the keys to the safe or you'll regret it.

A friend of yours at work sees you during the day and complains about her work. Report this to an­other friend a few days later. Begin your report as suggested at the end of the text.

"I'm fed up. We're stock-taking in our department and it's ter­rible. I've been working for six hours non-stop and I can't do any more. It wouldn't seem so bad, if it was raining - I hate having to work so hard when it's fine outside. It was just the same yesterday. I started at nine in the morning and by five in the afternoon I was dropping on my feet. I asked my boss if I could leave at half past five as I'd worked late the day before but he said I had to get the work finished. I shall be thankful when it's all over."

Mary stopped me at work the other day. She was really fed up ...

Consumer report.

Give the actual comments made to researchers for the Con­sumers' Association magazine Which?

We collected opinions about sleeping quilts from some 1,200 members. Members owning quilts liked them chiefly for the case of making the bed, for their warmth, and for their light weight. The two biggest grumbles were that sleeping quilts sometimes tended to"slip off the bed and were sometimes too warm or too cold. Most members who hadn't got quilts said that they were happy with the blankets they already had or liked to be tucked in firmly at night (not possible with quilts) or thought that quilts were too expensive.

(from Which? magazine, October 1980)

61. Rewrite the passage in direct speech.

When the woman returned, Mr Boggis introduced himself and straight away asked if she would like to sell her chairs.

Dear me, she said. But why on earth should she want to sell her chairs? No reason at all, except that he might be willing to give her a pretty nice price.

And how much would he give? They were definitely not for sale,

just out of curiosity, just for fun, how much would he give?

Thirty-five pounds.

How much?

Thirty-five pounds.

Dear me, thirty-five pounds. Well, well, that was very inter­esting. She'd always thought they were valuable. They were very old. They were very comfortable, too. She couldn't possibly do without them, not possibly. No, they were not for sale but thank you very much all the same.

They weren't so very old, Mr Boggis told her, and they wouldn't be at all easy to sell, but it just happened that he had a client who rather liked that sort of thing, maybe he could go up another two pounds - call it thirty-seven.

How about that?

(from Parson's Pleasure by R. Dahl)

Rewrite the passage in direct speech.

Joan worked in a shop selling tapes and records. One day a middle-aged woman came in, sat on a stool in front of the counter and beamed at Joan. Addressing Joan familiarly she said she wanted a record - one she had heard on the radio that morning. Joan asked what the record was called. The woman shook her head, and said she didn't remember, though she would know it if she heard it. She suggested Joan should play her some and settled her­self more comfortable on her stool. Joan pointed out that they had hundreds of records in stock and that it would take a very long time to play her even a little of each. She asked the lady if she could hum it to her. The woman giggled and replied that she couldn't sing "God save the Queen" in tune. They would get into a worse muddle if she started humming. She looked very depressed but suddenly her face brightened. She had just remembered some­thing, she said; it came from a play in which, there was a woman who spoke very badly but who after a time learned to talk beauti­fully. Joan asked if it would be from My Fair Lady. The woman exclaimed that that was it. She wished Joan had thought of it ear­lier instead of wasting time asking silly questions. She supposed Joan was new to her job.

Imagine you are Gordon and report this conversation to another friend one day after the event.

"What's under there?" I asked, seeing the bulge at Claud's waistline. He pulled up his sweater and showed me two thin but very large white cotton sacks which were bound neat and tight around his belly. "To carry the stuff," he said darkly.

"I see." "Let's go", he said. "I still think we ought to take the car." "It's too risky. They'll see it parked." "But it's over three miles up that wood." "Yes," he said. "And I suppose you realize we can get six months in the clink if they catch us." "You never told me that." "Didn't I?" "I'm not coming," I said. "It's not worth it." "The walk will do you good, Gordon. Come on."

(from The Champion of the World by R. Dahl)

Report the following interview as if you were the doctor.

The doctor waited. The clock ticked. I stared at the fire.

"Jake doesn't want any more children," I said.

"Do you like children, Mrs Armitage?"

"How can I answer such a question?"

"Do you think it would be wrong not to like children?"

"I don't know yes. Yes, I think so,"


"Because children don't do any harm."

"Not directly, perhaps. But indirectly ..."

"Perhaps you don't have any," I said.

"Oh, yes. Three. Two boys and a girl."

"How old are they?"

"16, 14 and 10"

"And do you like them?"

"Most of the time."

"Well, then. That's my answer. I like them most of the time."

(from The Dumpkin Eater by P. Mortimer)

65. Rewrite the sentences in direct speech. Note that in those examples there is an implied dialogue and that the reported version is, in some cases, very much a paraphrase of the original. Students should reconstruct the dialogues in their most likely original form, e.g.

Tony accepted without reservation my suggestion that we Should try to get local support for the new theatre company. "I would suggest, Tony, that we try to get local support for the new theatre company." "Yes, I absolutely agree."

1. When I asked his advice about taking the job he seemed indifferent as to whether I accepted it or not. 2. When questioned by the master about the disappearance of a bicycle from the school cycle sheds two days before, the boy flatly denied having anything to do with it. 3. Peter's request to his employer to have the next day off met with a blunt refusal. 4. He asked me to lend him five pounds, which I agreed to do, somewhat reluctantly, on condition that he paid me back the following week. 5. Michael rang up Jean at the last moment, apologizing profusely for being unable to go to dinner with her that evening. Despite his apology Jean was very put out and said that he might have let her know earlier, she wouldn't have needed to make such elaborate preparations. 6. I was taken completely by surprise and in fact could hardly believe Margaret was serious when she told me she was going to leave England early the following year to take up a job abroad. 7. When the lady protested at being told to open her suit­case for inspection, the Customs Official firmly but politely pointed out that she must do as she was asked. 8. After the accident the bus driver accused the motorist of not looking where he was going, to which the latter reported that if the other hadn't been driving so fast, he himself would have had a chance of stopping in time.

. Translate into English.

1. Час назад он сказал, что придет сюда вечером. 2. Она напомнила мне, что вечером будет собрание. 3. Она сказала, что Джейн хорошо играет на рояле. 4. Она сказала с грустью, что должна уехать. . 5. Она сказала в отчаянии, что никогда больше не будет

счастлива. 6. Она воскликнула в негодовании, что он лжет. 7. Он сказал, что эти книги продаются во всех магазинах. 8. Я был уверен, что его пошлют на конференцию. 9. Она сказала, что на каникулах хочет поехать по Волге 10. Он сказал, что потерял часы. 11. Он сказал, что они обсудят этот вопрос на следующей неделе. 12. Она сказала, что они играют в футбол с утра. 13. Я сказал, что долго не играл в крикет. 14. Мой брат сказал, что очень устал, так как 3 часа играл в крикет. 15. Она сказала, что игра не состоится, если погода будет плохая.

Translate into English.

1. Он меня спросил, курю ли я. 2. Я спросил Мэри, сможет ли она сходить в магазин.

3. Я его спросил, ходит ли он на прогулку каждый вечер. 4. Джек меня спросил, умею ли я плавать. 5. Я спросил учителя, можно ли с ним поговорить. 6. Джон меня спросил, иду ли я в кафе. 7. Г-н Смит спросил, отправил ли я его письмо. 8. Я спросил отца, вернул ли сосед книгу. 9. Он меня спросил, поеду ли я на следующей неделе в Бостон. 10. Линда меня спросила, кто руководит этим учреждением. 11. Он спросил продавца, сколько стоит эта пишущая машинка. 12. Боб меня спросил, где живет Джейн. 13. Анна меня спросила, куда я иду. 14. Я спросил учителя, что значит это слово. 15. Мэри спросила, почему я так много курю. 16. Джимми спросил ее, кто ей звонил час тому назад. 17. Боб спросил Линду, почему она ему ничего не сказала про этот замечательный концерт в Карнеги Холл. 18. Том меня спросил, когда вернется г-н Джонсон. 19. Ева спросила меня, где я проведу свои каникулы.

. Translate into English.

1. Том сказал, что лифт не работает. 2. Анна сказала, что она живет в Бостоне. 3. Она сказала, что они часто ходят в кино. 4. Линда сказала, что они идут в кино. 5. Джон сказал, что Смиты переехали в Лос-Анджелес. 6. Мэри сказала, что вчера вечером ей звонил Том. 7. Джо мне сказал, что через час вернется. 8. Анна сказала Джону, что она не может с ним пойти в кино. 9. Он сказал, что ему надо закончить сочинение к двум

10. Ева сказала, что она вышла из дому до того, как при­шла телеграмма.

General Review

I. Correct all the grammar mistakes.


One night last week, Jack Jordon was calling the famous de­tective, Edward -Grimsley, on the telephone.

"I called tell you about my Uncle Ambrose," he said. "At 8.00 this evening, I was waiting for him at a gourmet restaurant downtown. We were planning meet for dinner there. You ought know that he's a very rich man and famous." "Yes, I seem to remember his name," answered the detective. In fact, I reading a newspaper article about him while I was have lunch just a few days ago. Didn't he vacationing on a Caribbean Elsland last week?"

"Yes, he is, and he was brought back a lot a money with him. I'm worried about my uncle because many people were knowing about the money. It possible for you to meet me at his apartment?"

Detective Grimsley was agreed to meet Jack, and he was waiting in front of the apartment when Jack was arriving by taxi.

"Did you trying call him tonight?" he was asking Jack.

"Yes, I did," Jack answering. "When he wasn't coming to dinner, I call his number, but I wasn't getting any answer."

The two walked quickly to the door of Ambrose Penwright's apartment. It wasn't locked, so they opened the door and were going into the dark room. "I'll have to turning on the light on the other side of the room," Jack said, and he disappeared into the darkness. Soon light filled the small room. The door to the safe behind him was open, and his Uncle Ambrose was lie on the floor in front of him. .With a frightened look on his face, Jack steps back over his uncle. "I'm afraid of look," he said to the detective. "Is ... is he dead?"

"He's unconscious," answering Grimsley, "but he's still alive. He's an old man and not very strong. Was easy for someone hit him on the back of the head and to take the money from the safe. And that person - I'm sorry saying - was you, Jack Jordon. Are you ready for go? You'll have coming with me." How did Detective Grimsley know the truth?

Correct the errors in these stories. Some sentences are correct.

1. A classmate invited Aziz to a bachelor party for a guy in their chemistry class. It was a surprise party, so everyone avoided to talk about it. Aziz pictured many single men have a party with many single women, and he worried about to go to the party alone, so he invited his sister. She wasn't interested in go. She said she didn't enjoy meeting new people because her English wasn't very good. Aziz knew he couldn't make her to go, but he kept urging her, and finally she agreed. When they arrived at the party, Aziz' sister couldn't stop stare. All the guests were men' The host laughed and laughed.

2. Thanh was really worried about to take his final exam in economics. But he did well on the exam, and afterwards he didn't feel like go home. He preferred to celebrate. His friend, Frank, suggested go out for some beer. Thanh accepted and thanked Frank for inviting him. They went with three other classmates, drank a lot, and ordered food, too. When Thanh saw everyone to contribute money to pay the check, he began worry. He didn't have a dime. He was expecting Frank to pay for evening because Frank invited everyone. So he asked Frank to let him borrowing some money. He appreciated Frank loan him money.

3. Go to dinner parties was of Miguel's favourite activities. In his country, Miguel used to going out overnight of the week. After to be in the United States for a few months, he got tired of stay home all the time. He began going to discotheques. One night, two women at a disco invited Miguel to dinner that week­end. He didn't wait long before accept. When the evening of the dinner arrived, Miguel was with a few friends. They left his apartment at 8.30, so Miguel went to the woman's place at 9.00 They were upset. They said they were planning on starting dinner at 7.30, and now the food was ruined. Miguel apologized for that he followed the customs in his country, but he was still very much embarrassed.

Correct all the grammar mistakes. Some sentences are correct.

The Olympic games have begun in the fifth century BC. The first games were most simple ones: the competition was consisted of a single foot race. Other ancient Greek festivals have included many more events - jumping, wrestling, and so on.

In the original games, winning as a sport brought the higher possible honour to the athlete and his family. Best prize of all was a simple crown of olive leaves. Later, however, the Greeks have begun paying athletes, and they become interested more in money than in honour.

In recent years, too, there have been being problems with the professionalism of Olympic competitors. Only "amateurs" may compete in the games, but there were many examples lately of athletes who have receiving money for participation in sports.

From the beginning of the modern Olympic games in 1896. up to now, there have been many special, exciting moments. Since networks has begun televising the games, people all over the world shared these events, and of course, most people have been read about them in the newspaper.

One of the most exciting Olympic moments has occurred in 1904 when the Cuban runner Felix Carvajal lost his money in New Orleans and can't take the train to the games in St Louis, Missouri. To participate in a race, he has had to run the 700 miles to St Louis.

In the twentieth century, one of the baddest problems of the Olympic was political conflicts. In 1916, 1940 and 1944 world war stopped the competitions. For many years, people have been argued about the participation of athletes from South Africa in the games.

Correct the errors in these conversations. Some sen­tences are correct.

1. A.: You look depressed. Is there anything wrong?

Well ... it's just that I didn't have a date since last summer.

A.: Yeah, I know ... but why do you stay home all the time? You don't go to a party for months. You've have to get out more to meet people.

I guess so. I have met some nice women in my class, but they haven't been liking me. I haven't been had much fun for the beginning of the semester.

2. A.: Hey, you guys, it's time to get ready for the party We've got to clean up this apartment.

I've cleaning up all morning, and I've haven't finished yet. Why you haven't been helping me?

C.: I've been thinking about the refreshments and the music since hours. Someone has to make the plans.

3. A.: Have you heard the news about Margie? No, I didn't. What happened?

A.: She been going out with her boss! Really? How long this been going on? A.: They've dating since he has been getting a divorce a few months ago.

Selected Keys


1. a, - 2. -, -, -; a 3. a, a 4. a, -; a; a, - 5. A, -, - 6. -, a, an 7. A, -, a, a, -, a 8. -, -; a, - 9. A, - 10. a, a; a, an 11. a, a; -; a, a 12. -, an, an; - 13. a, a; a; a, a 14. -, an 15. A, a; a; a, a 16. an, a; -, an, -, a, a 17. a, -; a, - 18. -, a 19. a; a, - 20. a, a; a; - 21. A; a, an; a 22. -, a, an, a 23. -, a, an 24. a, -; a 25. a; a, a 26. a, a; - 27. an, a, -, - 28. -; - 29. a, a, -, - 30. an; a, a, a; a; - 31. a, a; an, a 32. a, a, a, a 33. -, a, a 34. a, a 35. a, a 36. -, a

4.*1. One, a, a 2. A, a; one; a; one, a; a; a 3. A, a 4. a, a, an 5. a, a, a 6. one; a; an 7. a, a 8. One, a 9. (a), a, a; a; One 10. a; One 11. a; a, a; - 12. a, a, one 13. one 14. a, a; one 15. One, a, a 16. -, a; a; one, a; A, a 17. a; a 18. One; an, an 19. a, a, a; a, a, an 20. One, a, -; an 21. One, a, a, a, a 22. one; a; a; a; One, an; a

8. 1. The, -, the, - 2. the; the, the 3. -, -, -, the 4. -, -, 5. the; the, the; - 6. -, -, -; the, the, -; the 7. the, the; -, - 8. -, -, the 9. -; -, -10. the, the; the 11. -, -; the, the: the 12. the, the, the, the, - 13. -, -, - 14. -, -, -, - 15. -, -, the 16. -, -, -, the 17. -, the, the, - 18. -, -19. -, -, -, -, - 20. the, the, the 21. the, -; -, the 22. The, -; the; -, -, - 23. -; the, the, the 24. -; -; the 25. -, the, -, the 26. -, -, -, the, the; The, -, the; the, the, the, the, -, the, the 27. -, the, the; -28. the, the; The, the, the, the 29. -, -, the, the, -, - 30. -, -, -; -, -31.-, -, the, - 32. The, -; -, -, the 33.-, (the), the, the, the 34. (the), (the); -, -, -, -, the 35. -, - 36. the, the, the, the, the, the

14. 1. a, the; a, a, a 2. an, the, the 3. a, the, -, - 4. the, a, the, -, -, (the) 5. a, -, the, a 6. a, a/the, an, the 7. a, -, an, the, the, the, the 8. a, the, the 9. a, a 10. the, the, the, the, an 11. -, -, (the), a 12. a, the, - 13. the, a, the, the, the 14. -; -, -, - 15. The, the, the; the, the 16. the, the, a, -; (the), the, the, - 17. a 18. a; the; a; a 19. a, the; a, -; The, the 20. -, the; the; a, an 21. The, a, a, -, - 22. the, a, -, the, a, the, the, the, the 23. a, a, a, the, -, the; The, -, -; The, the, -; -, the, -, an 24. the, the, a 25. a, the, the 26. -, the; the; -, the; -, a, - 27. a, the, the, - 28. a, -, an 29. -, -, -, 30. a, an, an, a; -, -, -, -, the 31. a; the, the, the; a, - 32. the, an,

the; -, the, -; the, the, a 33. -, -; the 34. -; a, the, -, a 35. -, the; a 36. a, a, a, the; the, the, -

15. 1. The 2. the, -, the 3. -, - 4. The, the, the 5. a, -, -, -

6. The, the 7. The or -, the, - 8. - 9. the, a, -, a 10. a, -, the 11. -, the 12. -, the, - 13. -, the 14. -, a or the, - 15. - 16. -, -, the 17. The or -, the or - 18. -, an 19. The, an 20. - 21. the, a 22. The, - 23. The or a, a, the, the 24. -, the, - 25. The 26. an, -, the 27. a 28. The 29. The, the 30. -, the

26. 1. There is a good Italian restaurant nearby 2. I would like to have a cup of coffee 3. Jane is an editor 4. Jack is the editor of the university paper 5. There is a magazine on the table 6. Did you find the magazine you were looking for?

7. Last night I saw a new movie ~ How did you like the movie?

8. Tom is going to buy a new car 9. Tom is going to insure the car 10. I am readin-g an interesting book 11. The book that I am reading is on the table 12. The sun was shining 13. Linda is the daughter of a well-known lawyer 14. The Cherry Orchard is a play by Chekhov 15. Because of the bad weather on Friday we could not go to Cleveland 16. The Smiths have bought a new house 17. You are right. The food here could be better 18. They offered us food and drink 19. They went to the Alps every summer 20. I am going to Boston tonight 21. Have I shown you the watch I bought in Switzerland? 22. Could you deliver the milk to my house? 23. Milk is wholesome 24. The price of gold is falling 25. Gold is a precious metal 26. He graduated from Columbia University 27. The Columbia University campus is located on the West Side 28. London is an old city 29. There are many museums in London 30. Have you ever visited the British Museum? 31. There is always hope 32. Last night I heard Rigoletto and enjoyed the music 33. I like music very much 34. I met Nancy's sister 35. There are many good restau­rants in Greenwich Village 36. Let us take a Broadway bus 37. 1 am waiting for the Broadway bus 38. Mexico is rich in oil 39. Paris is the capital of France 40. The largest river in the USA is the Mississippi River 41. Pete usually goes to see the dentist once a year 42. Last Sunday we went to a jazz concert. ~ Did you like the concert? 43. Do you have a telephone? 44. The telephone rings very often 45. My wife is at the doctor's 46. The scholar was awarded the Nobel Prize 47. Jack is a good worker


1. 1. well 2. intense 3. brightly 4. fluent 5. fluently 6. smooth 7. accurately 8. bitter 9. soon 10. fast

7. 1. best 2. happiest 3. faster 4. creamiest 5. more colourful 6. better 7. good 8. more awkwardly 9. least 10. prettier 11. the better 12. from 13. less impressive 14. the sicker 15. than 16. twice as much as 17. few 18. much 19. farthest 20. more famous

8. 1. as soon 2. more important 3. as well 4. more expensive

5. as hot 6. more talented 7. more colourful 8. happier 9. worse

10. faster

9. I. than 2. than 3. from 4. than 5. as 6. than 7. as 8. than 9. than 10. from


8. 1. some 2. some, any 3. any, some 4. any 5. some, any

6. some, any 7. any, some 8. Some, some 9. any 10. any, any

11. Any 12. some/any 13. any, any 14. Some, some 15. any 16. some 17. any/some 18. any 19. any 20. Any 21. some 22. some, some 23. some~24. any 25. any, some/any 26. Any 27. any 28. some 29. some 30. some 31. any 32. some 33. any 34. some, some 35. any 36. some/any, some

17. 1. another or the other or another one or the other one 2. another 3. the other 4. the others 5. the others, other 6. another, another, the others 7. the other 8. another, another, another or the other 9. others, the others, other 10. the other

(In some of the answers the relative pronoun is enclosed in brackets; this means that it can be omitted. The answers given are not necessarily the only possible answers to the questions. Notice carefully the presence or absence of commas.)

1. (a) The 8.10 is the train (which/that) Mr Black usually catches, (b) The 8.40 is the train (which/that) he caught today.

(c) Mr White is a man who usually travels up with Mr Black.

(d) Mr Brown is the man whose paper Mr White borrowed.

(e) Mr Black usually catches the 8.10, which is a fast train (f) Today he missed the 8.10, which annoyed him very much, (g) He caught the 8.40, which doesn't get in till 9.40.

2. (a) The brown umbrella was the one (which/that) Mr Penn left at home today or the one (which/that) he didn't take today, (b) The black umbrella was the one (which/that) he took or the one (which/that) he left on the bus. (c) The blue umbrella was the one (which/that) Mr Penn took by mistake, (d) Mr Count was the man whose umbrella Mr Penn took

3. (a) Malta is the place Tom and Jack wanted to go to/went to or Malta is the place to which Tom and Jack wanted to go. (b) The Blue Skies Agency is the agency Tom went to or the agency to which Tom went, (c) The Blue Seas Agency is the agency Jack went to or the agency to which Jack went, (d) The MS Banana is the ship Jack travelled on/in or the ship on/in which Jack travelled, (e) Julia is the girl (who(m)/that) Jack met on board, (f) Tom liked flying, so he went to the Blue Skies Agency, who booked or Tom, who liked flying, went etc. (g) Jack, who hated flying, went to the Blue Seas Agency, who booked

4. (a) George and Paul were (the) two men who were working on Mr Jones's roof, (b) Bill was a/the burglar who saw them go­ing away or who stole the jewellery etc. (c) Tom was a student who lodged with Mr Jones, (d) Mrs Jones was the lady whose jewellery was stolen, (e) Mr and Mrs Smith were the people the Joneses were playing cards with or the people with whom the Joneses were playing cards, (f) the ladder Bill climbed up or up which he climbed, (g) the window he climbed through or through which he climbed, (h) the screwdriver he used or the screwdriver he opened the drawer with or with which he opened etc. (i) George and Paul, who were working on the roof, left the ladder, (j) Mr and Mrs Jones, who were out playing cards, knew nothing, (k) Bill, whose fingerprints were on the screwdriver, was later caught

5. (a) The Greens are the people Ann works for or for whom Ann works, (b) The 12.10 was the train (which/that) Ann caught or the train (that/which) Ann came up on. (c) The 12.30 was the train (which/that) Tom met. (d) Peter was a boy (who(m)/that) Ann met on the train, (e) Paul was the boy (who(m)/that) Mary had come to meet or the boy (who(m)/that) Mary was waiting for (f) The Intrepid Fox is the bar where Tom usually goes for lunch or the bar Tom usually goes to for lunch or the bar where Tom usu­ally has his lunch, (g) Mrs Green, who thought Ann looked tired, gave her (h) Peter, who hated eating by himself, hoped (i) Tom.

who had only an hour for lunch, couldn't wait (j) Mary, whose boyfriend didn't turn up, ended by (k) Tom and Ann wasted half an hour at the station, which meant (1) Tom and Ann very nearly missed one another, which shows

(Relatives in brackets may be omitted.)

1. for the present (which/that) you sent 2. She was danc­ing with a student who had or The student with whom she was dancing 3. I'm looking after some children who are or The chil­dren I'm looking after are 4. The bed I sleep on has 5. Romeo and Juliet were two lovers whose parents 6. There wasn't any directory in the box (which/that) I was phoning from 7. This is Mrs Jones, whose son 8. The chair (which/that) I was sitting on collapsed or The chair on which I was sitting collapsed

9. Mr Smith, whom I had come especially to see, was too busy

10. The man (who(m)/that) I had come to see was 11. I missed the train (which/that) I usually catch and had to travel on the next, which was 12. His girlfriend, whom he trusted absolutely, turned out 13. The car (which/that) we were in had bad brakes and the man who was driving didn't know 14. This is the story of a man whose wife suddenly loses 15. the frontier, which will be 16. a small girl whose hand had been cut 17. into a queue of people, four of whom. 18. refugees, many of whom 19. The man (who(m)/that) I was waiting for didn't or the man for whom I was 20. in patched jeans, which surprised the guests, most of whom were 21. The firm (which/that) I work for is sending

22. The Smiths, whose house had been destroyed, were given

23. I saw several houses, most of which were 24. at 2 a.m., which didn't suit me 25. a group of boys whose plane 26. The string (that/which) they tie the parcels up with 27. his stu­dents, most of whom were 28. for 12 eggs, four of which were 29. The people (who(m)/that) he was speaking to didn't know or The people to whom he was speaking 30. The boy (who(m)/that) Peter shared a flat with was or Peter shared a flat with a boy who 31. four very bad tyres, one of which burst 32. the wonderful view (which/that) she had been told about 33. by a man (who(m)/that) I met on a train 34. The bar (which/that) I was telephoning from was or the bar from which I was telephoning was 35. The man who answered the phone said 36. The horse (which/that) I was on kept stopping to at

23. 1. Tom, who had been driving all day, was tired 2. Ann who had been sleeping, felt 3. Paul, whose tyres were new' wanted 4. Jack, whose tyres were old, wanted 5. Mary, who didn't know about mountains, thought 6. to his manager, who passed 7. were thieves, which turned out 8. the Chief of Police who ordered 9. dry bread, most of which was 10. a prisoner whose handcuffs rattled 11. a fire, which soon dried 12. across the Atlantic, which had never 13. a bus-load of children, six of whom were 14. refuses to use machines, which makes 15. I met Mary, who asked 16. prayed aloud all night, which kept 17. and in deep water the next, which makes it unsafe 18. Mary, whose children couldn't swim, said 19. Ann, whose children could swim well, said 20. cleaning ten windows, most of which 21. Jack, whose injuries were very slight, is being allowed to play, which is a good thing 22. Tom, whose leg is still in ban­dages, will have to 23. didn't get a seat, which out him in a temper and caused him to be rude to his junior partner, who in turn 24. Tom, who had a hangover, felt 25. His boss, who didn't drink, saw 26. The report, which should have been on his desk by 2.00, still hadn't arrived 27. Tom, whose headache was now much worse, put down receiver without answering, which

28. Ann, who liked Tom, came 29. the report, which should have taken an hour and a half, took 30. to Munich, which 31. The headwaiter, whose name was Tom, said ... recognition, which disappointed Mr Jones, who looked 32. with Lucy, whom he was particularly anxious to

24. 1. what, which 2. which 3. what, what 4. which 5. which 6. what, which 7. which 8. what 9. which 10. which 11. which 12. which 13. what 14. what 15. which 16. which, what 17. which 18. what 19. what 20. which 21. which 22. what 23. which 24. which 25. which 26. which 27. what 28. which

29. what, which 30. which, which 31. which 32. which 33. what, which 34. which 35. what 36. what

25. 1. Whatever 2. wherever 3. whatever 4. wherever 5. Whichever 6. Whoever 7. whenever 8. however 9. Whoever 10. whichever 11. whoever 12. However 13. whatever 14. how­ever 15. Whenever 16. whoever 17. whoever 18. However 19. whatever 20. Whenever 21. whoever 22. whichever, whoever 23. whatever, whichever 24. Whoever


1. to; at; in; to 2. to; at, in 3. to, at; at, at 4. to; at, in 5 in; to 6. at, in 7. in; at 8. in, at; at 9. to; at 10. to, at; to . at, to, to 12. to, to, in 13. At, in, to 14. at, at; to, in 15. In, at

16. At, to, in 17. At, at 18. to, at; at; at, in 19. at, to, in, at, at 20. in 21. at, to; in; to, to 22. in; at 23. in, at, in 24. in, at 25. at; to, in 26. in, at 27. to, in 28. to, at, to, to 29. in, at 30. in, at 31. in, at 32. at, to, in 33. in, to 34. To, in; to 35. at, to, to 36. in; in; at

6. 1. on, with; with; by; in 2. in, on/into 3. to; on; On, by, in, on 4. at, out, to, of 5. at; on, off 6. to, in; on 7. to, in, on

8. on; with, of 9. of, into, in/with 10. at, on 11. out of, on 12. in, at, on; in 13. with, to, of 14. to; to, of, at, to/on; to, on 15. at/from, off/out 16. with, in; out of 17. into/out of, of, off; in, on 18. on; on, into 19. with, of, in 20. in; in; into, on 21. at, with, in; on 22. By, of; with, on 23. on, to, in/on; to, of 24. with, under, of 25. on, to, of 26. of, to 27. in, of; in; in, at/by, of, at, in 28. into, in, by, of 29. in/at; of, at, on; with, in 30. by, on 31. off; on, in 32. into, into, with 33. by, by, on, of 34. of, at, of 35. of, in, to 36. off; on; to

7. 1. in, for 2. at, since 3. At, of, for 4. in, for; During, in 5. for, on, in; from; for/on 6. under, with; in, during/in 7. by, of, in, in 8. by, for, in, of 9. from, since; on; of, to 10. for, during 11. with; for; for; in 12. for; of, for 13. under, with, for 14. in, for, in, till/until, of 15. for, on/for 16. In, of, off 17. in, by, from 18. on, to, by 19. for/to, from; in 20. at, during, for 21. by; on, for 22. by, in, on, in, in, over 23. of; in, for 24. in, for, of 25. of, from to or to from; for, to, by, for 26. at/by; for 27. from, at, with, for 28. for, till; with, for 29. on/into, off/out of, at, at 30. from, with/at; in, in, in, of 31. of; in, with 32. for, in 33. with, into/to, with 34. from, with, for; under/of, till 35. of, on; from 36. on; for

8. 1. on 2. in, from 3. in, in 4. of; In, of, in 5. on; on, in/at; at, at, at/on 6. to, with; on with; on 7. in; on with; of 8. in, by

9. of, at 10. to, for, of 11. At, to 12. about, to 13. in/by, in, up 14. for; for, for, over 15. for/about, on; about 16. of, for, from

17. for; in 18. in, with, for 19. on; for 20. with, into, with 21. for, in, on 22. In, to, to 23. by/with, out, in, of 24. of, after, in; with grass, which annoyed

25. at, away/off 26. to, of, to, away/off 27. to; on 28. In, with of, from 29. to; under 30. on, to 31. of, to 32. about, off, at/by 33. to, of 34. for, with 35. of, of, of 36. under, for, for

9. 1-, for 2. -, for 3. -, to 4. -, for 5. -, of 6. for; In, for for 7. to, - 8. in/at, -; of, for 9. for/to, in 10. -; for 11. to, for 12. -, of/in 13. for, for; of, -, for 14. for; - 15. on; - 16. to/past, -, of 17. -, at/in; -, on 18. -; -, -; to, for 19. for, for, in/at; for, - 20. to, in 21. to, -, - 22. -, in; -, with 23. -, for, at/by/on 24. to, to, in 25. -; to 26. -, -. with, of 27. -, in, in 28. to; -, of 29. -, of 30. on, -, for' for/- 31. -, in, for 32. -, till 33. -, -, to; -, -, with 34. -; to, in/with 35. -, -, in 36. to, -, in

(till is always replaceable by until) 1. to 2. till

3. to/till 4. till 5. till 6. till 7. to/till 8. to 9. to/till; till 10. to, till 11. to; till 12. to; till

11. 1. since; for 2. since 3. since 4. since 5. for 6. Since 7. for

8. since; for 9. since; for 10. for 11. for 12. Since

12. 1. then/afterwards; after 2. after 3. After; Afterwards

4. then/afterwards 5. then, then 6. then 7. after 8. then

9. after/afterwards 10. then 11. then 12. then; Then 13. afterwards 14. afterwards 15. then 16. then

13. 1. out, in/back 2. for 3. on with 4. out of 5. up to

6. away with 7. up 8. out/about 9. off/away 10. up to 11. out 12. on with 13. over 14. over 15. up 16. away 17. through 18. of 19. up to 20. through 21. away 22. over 23. off 24. up to 25. in 26. over 27. out 28. for 29. off/into/on 30. on 31. up to 32. back 33. on/along 34. away with 35. back/in 36. out of

14. 1. on 2. back 3. down 4. after 5. in 6. ahead

7. off/away/back 8. at/for 9. out of/away from 10. back 11. up 12. back 13. up with 14. round/back 15. out 16. for 17. out for 18. out 19. back 20. forward to 21. in 22. into/at 23. on 24. out on/on to 25. through/over 26. through 27. up 28. up 29. up, down 30. forward to 31. up to 32. at 33. down on 34. up 35. on 36. through

15. 1. to/round 2. ahead/on 3. round 4. for 5. on 6. out 7. into/over 8. off 9. up 10. out 11. in for 12. out 13. down 14. round 15. up to/over to 16. through 17. back on 18. through with 19. up 20. into 21. down 22. back 23. over/through 24. off 25. along/on 26. off/away 27. away/off 28. in for

29. across/upon 30. up 31. without 32. down 33. round 34. on with 35. out 36. down

16. 1. in 2. away with 3. aback 4. though 5. up 6. up 7. down 8. after 9. after 10. over 11. up 12. back 13. up against 14. to

15. away with 16. up 17. down 18. off 19. over/through 20. to 2l over 22. for 23. into 24. in 25. for 26. out of 27. out 28. on

29. away 30. in 31. down 32. down 33. on/over 34. into 35. in 36. over

17. 1. down 2. away 3. at 4. into 5. down 6. in 7. down 8. off 9. out 10. on 11. down 12. on 13. for 14. off 15. out 16. in 17. down 18. at 19. for 20. off 21. up 22. out 23. down 24. off 25. in 26. up 27. out 28. off 29. back 30. up 31. out 32. into 33. over 34. up 35. out of 36. out/up

18. 1. away 2. back 3. up 4. off 5. for 6. back 7. off 8. out 9. off/out 10. up 11. down 12. up 13. away 14. out 15. up

16. away 17. on 18. in 19. up 20. off 21. down to 22. up 23. out

24. out/off 25. up with 26. up 27. on 28. up for 29. up 30. out 31. up 32. down 33. up 34. forward/on 35. out 36. down

19. 1. away 2. back 3. down 4. in 5. through 6. off 7. off

8. out of 9. off 10. in 11. away 12. up 13. down 14. out 15. out

16. on 17. in with 18. down/on 19. down 20. up/away 21. off

22. off 23. over 24. off 25. in 26. up 27. up 28. off 29. up

30. down 31. off 32. out 33. back on 34. out/on 35. round 36. out

20. 1. about 2. for 3. away with 4. for 5. out/off 6. over/about 7. for 8. up 9. away 10. off/out 11. through 12. for 13. up 14. round/to 15. out 16. up 17. up 18. over 19. up 20. up 21. round 22. in 23. about/around 24. out 25. out 26. away 27. down 28. out 29. up 30. on 31. up 32. down 33. up 34. up 35. on to 36. up

21. 1. out 2. out of 3. up 4. about 5. back 6. in 7. out 8. back

9. up 10. up to 11. for 12. out 13. up 14. out 15. up 16. up

17. up to 18. in 19. up 20. up 21. in 22. out 23. back 24. on

25. for 26. away 27. into 28. out 29. out 30. on 31. by 32. up 33. off 34. up for 35. down 36. off.

22. 1. over 2. out 3. for 4. off 5. up 6. out 7. to/about 8. out 9. up 10. in/out/round 11. away 12. through 13. back 14. up 15. up 16. out 17. up 18. out 19. out of 20. out 21. away 22. after

23. up with 24. up 25. to/about 26. up with 27. in/up 28. out 15»

29. down 30. out 31. up/in 32. back 33. off 34. away 35. up 36. out

23. 1. down 2. up 3. off 4. up 5. up 6. down 7. in 8. 9. out 10. up 11. in 12. at 13. up 14. up 15. up 16. with 17. out 18. on 19. off 20. up 21. out 22. out 23. on 24. up 25. down

26. for 27. out for 28. up 29. off, off 30. on 31. without 32. out 33. down 34. up 35. out 36. up to

24. 1. out of 2. out for 3. up to 4. up to 5. up with 6. up against 7. up for 8. away with 9. ba'ck on 10. out of 11. up for

12. away with 13. in with 14. up with/in 15. on with 16. on to

17. away with 18. up to 19. back on 20. out for 21. round to 22. over to 23. up to 24. out of 25. up with 26. up with 27. up to 28. down on 29. forward to 30. out to 31. on with 32. out of 33. out on/on to 34. up with 35. up, down 36. in for

25. 1. account for 2. blew it up 3. broke off 4. called off 5. carry out my orders/carry my orders out 6. catch up with them/catch them up 7. clear up a mystery/clear a mystery up 8. came across 9. come off 10. came round/to 11. cutting road deaths down/cutting down road deaths 12. enter for/go in for

13. get off/out of 14. get out of it 15. gave out the names/gave the names out 16. give up smoking 17. go up, come down

18. went into/looked into 19. set off/out 20. take up 21. bring up children/bring children up 22. held up 23. turn up 24. picked Spanish up/picked up Spanish 25. up to you 26. jump at it

27. keep off 28. keep up with him 29. knocked him out 30. let you off 31. getting over it 32. leave/miss out or leave/miss ...out 33. looking them up 34. make up for 35. mix up 36. pay me back/out

26. 1. Let me in 2. looked at her 3. rang him up 4. look after 5. made it up 6. pull through 7. look out 8. put off 9. look on him 10. put on uniform 11. look into 12. looked through me 13. look up my sister/look my sister up 14. put out 15. put up 16. put you all up 17. ring up 18. runs down his own garden 19. run down 20. running into 21. run up against 22. put in for 23. call in/send for 24. settle down 25. sat/stayed up 26. stand for 27. stood by him 28. takes after him 29. took up golf 30. taking me in 31. throw/give up a good job 32. turned down her application/turned her application down 33. turned out 34. wound up 35. work out 36. took on, worn out, give it up

27. 1. went 2. broken 3. set 4. turn 5. wore 6. called 7. wait g. call/put 9. put 10. try 11. get 12. come 13. knock 14. leave

15. take 16. sent 17. carrying 18. let 19. put 20. hand/pass 21. looks 22. go/keep 23. turning 24. move 25. put/switch/turn 26. put 27. puts 28. Come 29. put 30. see 31. got/jumped

32. get 33. taken 34. took 35. took 36. showing

28. 1. up to 2. brought up 3. break up 4. caught up with 5. been up to 6. do up 7. drew up 8. fill in 9. got up 10. gave it up 11. gave up 12. went up to 13. grow up 14. held up 15. keep up with 16. picked up 17. make up for 18. pick up 19. lock up 20. pulled up/drew up 21. put up with 22. tied up 23. mixed up 24. locked up 25. ring him up, look up 26. turned up 27. took up 28. put up 29. settle up 30. make up 31. make up 32. wash up

33. stood up for 34. wound up 35. stay up/sit up 36. sat up

29. 1. dropped out 2. carry out 3. breaks out 4. cut it out 5. find out 6. getting out 7. died out 8. cut/leave out 9. make out 10. backed out 11. throw out 12. pick out 13. keep out

14. looking out 15. Look/Watch out 16. sold out 17. ran out 18. rub it out 19. pointed out 20. see/show you out 21. turned out 22. set out 23. put out 24. moving out 25. wipe out

26. work/find out 27. find out 28. Put out 29. wear them out 30. blew out 31. gone out 32. let them out 33. fall out 34. come out 35. Look out/Watch out 36. stands out

30. I.I turned it down 2. running down 3. took it down 4. Put it down 5. settle down 6. took over 7. talk it over 8. ran away 9. let me down 10. went over/through 11. backed away 12. closing down 13. got over 14. look down 15. broke down

16. look it over 17. backed away 18. clear away 19. ran away 20. shouted down 21. was over 22. do way 23. die down 24. burnt down 25. broke down 26. turned away 27. boiled over 28. give it away 29. handed down 30. puts away 31. got/ran away 32. talk over 33. cut down 34. come/go down 35. went down/were over 36. turn over

31. 1. get on 2. take over 3. jump at 4. taken aback 5. make up 6. carry on 7. think it over 8. breaks up 9. look in 10. fix you up 11. turn it down 12. hanging about 13. turn up 14. taking on

15. closing down 16. settled down 17. picked up 18. handed over !9. take to 20. looking Bill up and down 21. care for 22. go on 23. put on 24. take off 25. pointed out 26. answer me back

27. fell out 28. stand up for 29. keep out 30. look up 31. looking

for 32. puts customers off 33. fall off 34. make out 35. ordered about 36. put up with 37. broke out 38. put in 39. make up for 40. taken in

32. 1. got up 2. washed up 3. set out/off 4. pick up 5 get on 6. turned out 7. care for 8. took to 9. brought up 10. pointing out 11. showing off 12. turn/switch off 13. burn down 14. ring up 15. turn/switch off 16. get in 17. locked up 18. break in 19. go up 20. rang up 21. see to 22. held on 23. got in 24. turned/switched off 25. went on 26. got out 27. handing/passing round 28. pulled/drew up 29. let you off 30. get away with 31. put out 32. Put up with 33. looks up to 34. grows up 35. looking forward to 36. looking for 37. fed up 38. caught up with 39. dying away 40. keep up with 41. get to 42. put us up 43. sold out 44. talking over


3. 1. smells 2. are eating 3. practises 4. are driving 5. believe

6. has 7. is swimming 8. hates 9. gets 10. is moving

7. 1. think/already know 2. I'm thinking 3. I'm just smell­ing/don't they smell 4. I'm gradually forgetting 5. see/you're not looking/is pointing 6. Don't hear/you're just imagining 7 is hearing 8. I'm just tasting/does it taste 9. think/is seeing/don't approve 10. don't think/really knows/he is saying 11. stands 12. Do you realize/are standing 13. has

8. 1. don't build, use 2. is having 3. drinks, is drinking 4. does she do, plays, watches 5. is raining, haven't 6. leave

7. speaks, don't understand 8. is making, makes 9. wears 10. don't like 11. am wearing 12. is reading 13. am redecorating 14. is boiling 15. are you enjoying, am enjoying, want 16. do you get, go, am going 17. are you putting, am going, are you coming, do you mind 18. do you owe, I owe, do you intend 19. do you belong, do you read, do you change, I change 20. learns, doesn't seem 21. always buy/am always buying, win 22. do you like, am giving 23. promise, promise 24. do you always write 25. do you love, like, don't love 26. do you dream, dream, eat, ha\e 27. smells, do you keep 28. are always complaining/always complain 29. are using 30. is always saying/always says, does 31. do you know, falls 32. are you writing, write, do you want 33 are having, wonder, are talking 34. do you believe, don't

believe, do you read 35. is making, do you think, doesn't matter, makes 36. is smoking, expect, are building, don't you put, does, doesn't seem

9. 1 does Tom think, thinks, agree 2. does this one cost, it costs 3. do you hear, is blowing 4. do you see, am looking, don't see 5. listens, is always thinking 6. deserts, goes 7. do you under­stand, don't understand 8. do you have, eat, drink 9. rises, see, are picketing 10. are you walking, walk, am hurrying, am meet­ing, doesn't like 11. wish, keeps, think, wants 12. do you recog­nize, think, don't remember 13. wonder, waiting for 14. is wait­ing, want 15. don't you see, see, am not wearing, does it say, says 16. is always borrowing/always borrows, remembers 17. do you need, do you feel 18. does it save, take, doesn't matter 19. am saving, am going 20. think, are getting 21. are looking, is just taking 22. does, is always working 23. is he doing, think, is polishing 24. is coming, do you want 25. is Peter getting on, seems 26. Is Mrs Pitt looking/does Mrs Pitt look, is smoking, and (is) dropping 27. leave, arrive, spend, set, sounds, get 28. makes, finds, goes, does not forget, returns, looks 29. finds, recognizes, coils, kills 30. does the snake feel, don't know, ends 31. do you end, begins, put, prefers 32. does the word "catastrophe" mean, mean 33. are you waiting, am waiting, doesn't open, know, want, starts/is starting 34. are you smoking, don't smoke, am smoking, want, says, removes 35. owns, don't know, uses, knows, owns 36. do you mind, ask, depends, con­cerns, refuse

(Negatives are given in their contracted form, af­firmatives are not given in their contracted form, but in speech present progressive tenses are normally contracted in the af­firmative.) 1. are you going; am going, do you want 2. do you smoke; I don't smoke, smokes, I do; spends 3. sees; are you waiting; am waiting 4. you usually go; belongs, wants; is using 5. go; takes, passes; is working, am queueing 6. Are you coming, are you waiting; think, wait, are, looks 7. are waiting; is dialling; Do you know; phones 8. does he come; comes; speaks 9. wonder, is speaking; comes, suppose, is speaking 10. are having; are opening; writes; get; have you (got) 11. says, is coming, wants 12. Do you have/Have you got; don't think; don't see; does a traffic warden do 13. walks, stays, parks, sticks 14. is putting, sees; hates 15. want; are just closing; we always close, doesn't

want 16. is listening, is reading, is doing, is writing 17. reads knits, isn't knitting 18. goes, doesn't go; likes; prefers 19. are watching; are enjoying, don't understand 20. happens; Does the teacher give; gives, shows, discusses 21. gets; sits, stands, walks runs 22. is that man standing; is trying, is waiting; doesn't he use/isn't he using; don't bother; prefer 23. are wearing; Do ou like; suits, doesn't fit 24. speak, come 25. is taking, is coming 26. talk; prefer; are talking; aren't talking 27. are having; am meeting; Do you go 28. go, am going; takes, costs 29. Are you doing; am packing, am catching; are you staying 30. Are you going; I am staying; are coming; Do you invite; invite 31. am just going; is pouring; don't you wait; stops 32. gets, washes, shaves, gets, don't hear; hear, makes 33. gets; makes, wakes; sings, bangs, drops, plays 34. don't you ask; mention, doesn't do; says, doesn't make, think, believes 35. Do you see; keeps; Do you think, is asking; expect, is making; do you make; stop, ask, write 36. starts, stays; moves; takes, does, wishes

11. 1. writes, know, is doing; Does your son write; hear; seems 2. cost; Do you think; depends 3. am seeing; am changing; are always changing; don't you leave 4. look/are looking, are you thinking, am thinking; are only just starting; know, am reading, says, starts 5. is always knocking on my door and asking; does she do; puts; don't mind, annoys, knows, needs, takes 6. does she do, runs out; borrows, takes, wants, finds 7. does she owe; don't know, don't keep; is leaving, is getting; am trying 8. don't you offer; sounds; doesn't realize, owes 9. says, owe, seem, owes, remember 10. don't think, is enjoying; keeps, is enjoying; enjoys; know, wants, is expecting/expects 11. are you staying; am leaving; am going 12. are you coming, are you going; depends; agrees; expect 13. is seeing; don't you come 14. Do you see; is watching; do you know, is watching; comes, goes, makes 15. are all these people doing, are they wearing; they are making; are working 16. sounds; Do you think; don't know, see, finish, are still taking on 17. Is Ann acting; doesn't act; imagine, knows 18. lives, come, see; doesn't bother, climbs, knocks 19. are moving; are you leaving; suits; know, does, is/are pulling down; are widening; say 20. ask, likes, says, don't know, thinks, suits, is merely being 21. want; tells, says, thinks 22. Does your sister's frankness annoy; does; doesn't want; wants 23. hear; am not living; are still working, is taking 24. think, take, expects; are they doing; are putting; seem, smoke,

slows 25. are always hammering; keeps, begins, hear; shakes 26. is stirring, is standing; says, are boiling; don't think, matters, cook, don't know, isn't getting; thickens 27. is being painted, isn't look­ing; Do they stop; are having 28. does the word "Establishment" mean; doesn't give; means, have 29. say, belongs, imply, accepts; isn't trying/doesn't try 30. Do all rich men belong; do, are always jeering/always jeer; is used 31. is being pulled; are using; go, get 32. smell; do; think, is coming; is probably ironing; irons, watches, gets, forgets, is pressing; is thinking 33. are you looking; am look­ing; am always looking, puts; put; don't you try 34. are travelling; is reading, is doing, is looking out; stops, falls 35. spends; amuses; is watching, sees 36. does; checks; doesn't need; happens, makes; makes

12. 1. are you going; we'll probably go 2. are having; is leaving/leaves 3. shall/will see; will probably look 4. am seeing; will refuse 5. shall/will know; will tell 6. will be; shall/will miss; will walk, will probably catch 7. shall/will probably come; will give, am coming 8. will get; are staying, will have to; will move 9. will he say; won't mind; will just buy 10. won't know; will leave 11. will never get; will meet, will fall 12. am going; Are you coming; shall/will probably have 13. Are you walking; will get; will bring 14. am having, are starting; will make 15. Are you taking; am taking; will pass; will/shall take 16. are you meeting; are meeting; is taking 17. are you doing; will go; will probably stay 18. is Jack arriving; is he getting; will come 19. are they doing; are going; is happening; are taking; will enjoy 20. will wake, won't get 21. are spending; shall/will manage; will turn; will be able 22. is catching, will be 23. is George coming; are moving, shall/will have to 24. am ringing; Shall I ask; shall/will be; will write 25. are having, are lunching, is standing; are giving 26. will let, shall/will find 27. are getting; Are you going; Are they having 28. Shall I wait, will take 29. will you have; will have; will have; are having, am having; will have 30. will give; am collecting 31. is getting; will happen; will ring, will sleep, will come 32. am being; is leaving, am taking; will soon be, will spend, will lose or will spend ... and lose 33. am flying; are you taking; will spend 34. are going; are having ... and going; will come; is coming; will ask 35. is coming; Shall we go'; will get, shall/will be able; won't pay 36. are opening, are having; will look; will come; are you having; are missing; are going

13. 1. are you going; am going; are you going to do; am going to fish 2. are you going; am not going; am staying/going to stay; am going to write 3. is going to rain 4. are you staying-am going; are you going to do; am going to try 5. am going to dye; Are you going to do, are you going to have it done; am going to have 6. am going to read 7. are you doing; are coming, am going to show/am showing; are you taking; am going to take/am taking 8. are starting; are going; Are you going to climb; is going to climb; am going to sit ... and do 9. are going; Are you going to sail; are taking/are going to take; are going to try 10. Aren't you going to ask; am leaving; are you going to do; Are you going to have; am starting 11. Are you going to use; am going to live; am going to start; are you going to do/are you doing, am selling/am going to sell; is getting 12. is going, is having; is going to look; is coming 13. am going to send; am seeing 14. is arriving; Is he spending; is he catching, is spending; is giving ... and attending 15. Is he bringing; is going to do, is giving 16. am starting; are you going to do; am going to study 17. Are you going; am going to get; am going; am going to ask; is joining/is going to join, they are all going to pick 18. am going to buy; is going to be 19. are you going to do; Are you going to sell; am going to learn; am having 20. am moving in; Are you going to have; am going to paint 21. Are you having; am going to do/am doing; am going to use; are going to help; am hiring/am going to hire 22. am going to do; am going to plant ... and make; Are you going to give/are you giving 23. am getting; are starting, is coming 24. are meeting; Are they just going to repeat; are they going to climb; are go­ing to offer

Shall can be replaced by will in these answers. 1. shall recognize 2. will see/am seeing 3. is playing 4. is coming 5. am going 6. shall know 7. shall owe 8. shall believe 9. am having 10. will have 11. is being/will be 12. is coming 13. is catching 14. are you meeting, at meeting 15. are you riding/will you ride 16. will Mrs Pitt say, won't mind 17. will it matter 18. won't forget 19. is leaving 20. shall remember 21. will break 22. will never forgive 23. will like 24. are laying 25. will see 26. will grow 27. will understand 28. will scratch 29. shall be 30. won't pass 31. is going 32. am moving 33. will soon forget 34. will wait 35. won't write 36. will be

18. 1. am going to have 2. are going to assemble; will come 3 am going to shampoo 4. am going to make; will burn 5. am going to paint 6. am going to make 7. will look 8. will see 9. will wait 10. are going to camp ... and cook 11. am going to put 12. Are you going to wear; am going to sit ... and watch; am not going to get 13. will take 14. will have 15. will start; will get, will bake 16. is going to bake; will soon get 17. Are you going to try; am going to try; will confiscate 18. shall/will have; will come

19. am not going to take; am going to mend; is going to help

20. Are you going to paint; am going to take 21. will add; won't be able to read; am going to type; shall/will have 22. will type 23. will ring 24. am going to ring 25. Aren't you going to climb; are going to climb; are going to try; will cook, will buy 26. am going to wash; will come 27. are going to pick; will probably come, will start 28. will have to go, will be; will get; Will you let 29. will stay; will try 30. am going to start; Are you going to do; is going to help 31. is going to write; will buy; will buy 32. is going to dig 33. is the new owner going to make; is going to concentrate 34. are going to bottle 35. will go 36. are going to buy; will stay

19. 1. will/shall both be coming 2. will meet, will forget 3. will be watching; will ring 4. will/shall be doing; will still be working 5. will get, will do 6. will be coming 7. will/shall be working 8. will/shall be taking of 9. will come 10. will be playing 11. will get; will still be; will be going, will ask 12. will be, will be wondering/will wonder 13. will/shall never be able; will be helping; won't be helping; will/shall be helping 14. will write, will try; will type 15. will/shall be typing; will type 16. will tell 17. will just be coming 18. will be melting 19. will be talking ... and showing, will/shall feel 20. will tell, won't believe 21. will just be getting up 22. will be wearing; will wrap ... and go 23. will be; will be speaking, will be addressing 24. will be reading, will be ringing 25. will still be standing 26. Will you please forward; will/shall be staying 27. will be coming 28. will be leaving 29. won't start; will give 30. will be coming 31. will be looking 32. will you be arriving; will/shall be travelling; Will there be; will send 33. Will you be using; will put 34. will/shall be having; will be hobbling 35. will enjoy; won't/shan't have; will/shall be map-reading, will/shall be 36. will write

20. 1. won't do 2. won't come; won't be driving 3. won't/shan't be coming 4. won't have; won't come 5. won't/shan't be teaching 6. will/shall be doing; won't/shan't be eating 7. won't eat 8. won't bite 9. won't be coming 10. will be fishing 11. won't clean 12. won't/shan't be showing

13. won't/shan't be washing; will/shall be having

14. won't/shan't be wearing; won't recognize 15. won't be, won't believe 16. won't/shan't be delivering 17. won't be wear­ing 18. won't tell 19. won't be using; won't do 20. will/shall have; won't/shan't be paying 21. won't pay; will have 22. won't work 23. will get on; won't be working 24. won't even show; won't come

(shall can be replaced by will In these answers. Con­tractions may be used.} 1. will be walking 2. will walk 3. shall be bathing 4. will wash 5. shall be doing 6. shall be working/am working 7. will have 8. will be looking 9. shall be thinking/shall think 10. will assemble 11. will meet, shall I recognize, will be wearing 12. will leave, shall be going/am going 13. will be debat­ing/are debating 14. will go 15. will be working 16. will post, shall be going/am going 17. will be dancing/will dance 18. will be letting off ... and making/will let off ... and make 19. will re­main 20. shall be sitting, won't be reading 21. will be going/will go 22. will be changing/will change 23. will come 24. will bring 25. shall all be living 26. will be going/will go 27. shall not be playing 28. will be opening/will open 29. will drive 30. shall be entering 31. will hand 32. will be arriving/will arrive 33. will be leaving 34. will be using ... and leaving/will use ... and leave 35. will bring, will catch 36. will put

(In these answers I/we won't can be replaced by I am not going to/ we are not going to without any change in meaning. It is also grammatically possible to replace you/he/they won't by the going to form, but this would make the negative much less emphatic. Shan't is replaceable by won't.) 1. won't help 2. won't be meeting 3. won't cut 4. won't be cutting 5. won't be coming/isn't coming 6. won't come 7. won't lend 8. won't be speaking/isn't speaking 9. won't work 10. shan't be working 11. won't have 12. shan't be teaching/am not teaching 13. won't speak 14. shan't be writing 15. won't feed 16. won't go 17. won't paint 18. shan't be taking 19. won't bor­row 20. won't wash 21. shan't be using 22. won't send 23. won't

play 24. won't be singing/isn't singing 25. won't play 26. won't be taking part/isn't taking part 27. won't eat 28. shan't be eat­ing 29. won't ride 30. won't be riding/isn't riding 31. won't give 32. won't be drinking 33. won't open 34. won't tell 35. won't eat 36. won't be wearing

24. 1. are you going to feed 2. are you letting/are you going to let/will you be letting 3. will you light 4. are you wearing/are you going to wear/will you be wearing 5. will you wear 6. will you come 7. will you have 8. are you having/are you going to have 9. ate you going to study/will you be studying 10. will you be speaking 11. will you turn 12. Any one of the four forms is possible here: "Will you take" implies that the matter has not yet been decided and that the speaker is offering a choice of dates. The other forms would imply that the matter has already been arranged and that the speaker is merely asking for informa­tion. 13. will you be listening/are you going to listen 14. will you help 15. will you be staying 16. will you lend 17. are you meeting/are you going to meet/will you be meeting 18. will you come 19. will you have 20. will you translate 21. will you be us­ing/are you using/are you going to use 22. will you be go­ing/are you going, will you get 23. will you come 24. will you be passing/are you going to pass/are you passing, shall be spend­ing/am going to spend/am spending, will you get 25. are you going to keep 26. are you travelling/are you going to travel 27. are you going to repair 28. will you hold 29. are you go­ing/will you be going 30. will you kindly explain 31. will you recognize 32. are you sending/are you going to send 33. will you tell 34. are you going/will you be going 35. are you going to type/will you be typing 36. will you stop

25. 1. will have repaired 2. will have done 3. will/shall have made 4. will have finished 5. will have planted 6. will/shall have passed 7. will/shall have done 8. will have walked 9. will have lost 10. will have spent 11. will/shall have worked 12. will have been driven 13. will/shall have sent 14. will/shall have given 15. will have died 16. will have driven 17. will/shall have picked 18. will have sunk

Part 1. 1. is looking; sees, rings; answers 2. am ringing 3. says; use 4. uses; eats; don't think, likes 5. would suit/suits; like; would we arrange/do we arrange, use 6. includes; doesn't include 7. see; does the room face 8. faces; looks, gets 9. sounds

10. Would 7 p.m. suit or Will 7 p.m. suit; can't/couldn't /wouldn't be able to, don't get 11. will/would be; don't think, will have; passes, stops 12. I'll find ; I'll see 13. comes, asks 14. is coming 15. She'll probably come, are sitting; get; don't think, give 16. do; listens; will be 17. rings; looks, smiles 18. says, goes

Part 2. 19. am speaking; am spending; would you like 20. I'd love; do I get 21. I'll meet 22. I'll do 23. conies 24. sounds 25. see 26. are you doing 27. am spending 28. you'll freeze, doesn't kill; are you getting 29. am catching, is meeting 30. I'll lend; I'll tell 31. likes 32. I'll give, fall, goes; are having, is going, is catching 33. is always going; go 34. comes, hear, will be

28. (will and shall may be contracted.) 1. returns 2. are 3. strikes 4. hears 5. shall/will have 6. comes 7. turn 8. gets 9. won't start 10. goes 11. will see 12. will be 13. hall/will lend

14. will wake 15. will he ring 16. goes 17. is 18. shall/will give, comes 19. see 20. get 21. shall/will go 22. have 23. will fall 24. goes 25. arrives 26. lifts 27. will go on 28. will become

29. won't move 30. will go on 31. learns 32. leap 33. shall/will have 34. get 35. begins 36. arrives

(Contractions men/ be used.) 1. have taken 2. have fin­ished/finish 3. have had 4. have been 5. goes/has gone 6. gets/has got 7. has done 8. have done 9. will see 10. have had

11. shall/will take 12. go 13. have seen 14. goes/has gone

15. won't let 16. shall/will let 17. sees 18. won't hear 19. has passed/passes 20. has sold 21. have swept/sweep 22. will get 23. will give 24. says 25. have returned/return 26. has been 27. have signed 28. won't know 29. have subsided/subside

30. has left 31. shall/will have 32. have had 33. shall/will stay 34. have made 35. has eaten 36. will come/come

31. 1. begins 2. gets 3. open 4. are 5. start 6. receive/have received 7. like 8. are 9. slows 10. stops 11. will explain, are

12. read/have "read 13. have been 14. have cleaned ... and painted or clean ... and paint 15. have settled/settle 16. see 17. have seen 18. have finished/finish 19. have reached/reach 20. have done 21. lifts/has lifted 22. arrives 23. knows, will give 24. has cooled/cools 25. have finished/finish 26. have given 27. will tell, are 28. have been, will let 29. have flown 30. has been 31. come

32. shall/will have finished, see, finish/have finished, start

33. Have seen 34. have driven 35. will give, wakes 36. arrived

35. 1. were talking/passed 2. was sleeping/was awak-ened/went/was happening/knew/was barking 3. didn't take/thought/was joking 4. were drinking/broke out/soon carne/called/was just beginning/arrived/took/were get--ting/made/ succeeded/were still looking 5. was going on/called/rang/didn't answer/was coming/thought 6. was looking or looked/were you sitting 7. left/were still talk­ing/seemed

38 1. was eating 2. was sleeping or slept 3. was studying, were having 4. went 5. entered 6. was looking or looked 7. saw 8. owned 9. was writing, broke

43. 1. decided 2. chose 3. looked, were getting, was mixing, was washing 4. were, asked, was doing 5. replied, was going, went, knew, were looking 6. began, found, were 7. worked 8. started/were starting, rang 9. was, wanted, was playing 10. stayed, went 11. left 12. returned, came, wasted 13. said 14. thought 15. was just climbing, rang 16. said, was getting, went, opened 17. was, was coming, arriving

44. 1. was walking, realized, was following 2. walked, turned, stopped 3. appeared, stopped 4. went 5. stopped, stopped, looked, was 6. looked, was wearing/wore, wondered 7. decided 8. was standing 9. came, rang, moved off/was moving off, jumped 10. missed, got, was following/followed 11. crawled 12. pulled, looked, was getting/got 13. changed, got 14. left, bought 15. was standing, came 16. was carrying, got, sat, read 17. looked, was getting/got 18. was becoming/became, went, sat, asked, was following 19. said, wasn't following, threatened, admitted 20. told, was, was trying 21. told, advised, didn't want, was being followed

45. 1. was sitting, saw; seemed 2. was snowing, woke; re­membered, was coming, decided, lost 3. reached, realized, did not know; was wondering, tapped 4. was running/ran, struck 5. looked; was going; was drawing 6. were listening, were whis­pering, was reading; hated, read 7. was reading, burst, rushed 8. went, didn't find; said, didn't know, was doing, thought, was probably playing 9. stopped/used to stop; closed, gave 10. promised, saw, was telling 11. picked, dialled; found; were planning 12. met; were; was studying, wasn't spent 13. was just starting, opened, leapt 14. were you doing, said; was cleaning

' 15. looked, said, was leaving the district and (was) going; said,

was, was going, told, was getting/got on 16. were building, was 17. were reading, were just turning over; was knitting, was play, ing; opened, said 18. was; were they doing; heard, were looking; Did they find; discovered 19. told, made; was just pulling 20. was just sticking, came; tried, refused 21. took; Was she actually working 22. said, was coming, wondered 23. was wondering, came, bought 24. was always borrowing, asked, said, hadn't, knew, wanted 25. went, had, was being; turned, saw 26. bumped, asked, said, was having 27. attacked, was putting; thrust, tore; contained; patched 28. did you break; fell, was putting, was, was, was going 29. didn't go; cancelled, spent 30. was just rising, shouted; looked 31. was raining, played/were playing; was try­ing, didn't get/wasn't getting on, kept 32. were you doing, rang; was making; did you do, heard, went; opened, was 33. rang, found, said, was making 34. said was, rang; answered, was talk­ing, saw; went 35. didn't get, were having/had; rang up, said, were making; pointed out, was, had; said, were always having 36. were you doing/did you do, got; was working/worked; did you stay, stayed; left, were always going; became/was becoming

46. 1. was burning 2. was writing 3. was making 4. left 5. was just leaving 6. was watching, turned, went 7. stood 8. was playing, insisted 9. was walking 10. was having, lunched 11. wore, carried 12. did you think4liked 13. shared, was always complaining/always complained ' 14. realized, was travelling 15. was playing, threw 16. was just opening, blew 17. was open­ing, heard, put, crawled 18. was looking, found 19. saw, were you doing 20. were playing, heard, hid, took 21. was cleaning, went, killed 22. didn't allow, was blowing 23. was crossing/crossed, stepped, fell 24. was still lying, saw 25. saw, stopped 26. did you damage, ran, were driving, were going 27. was getting/got, started, fell 28. called, was already getting up 29. was mend­ing/mended, got 30. heard, went, opened, didn't recognize, wasn't wearing 31. were sitting, was doing, was knitting, were reading, smiled, said 32. were dancing, broke, stole 33. knew, were looking, hid, went 34. was always buying 35. told, was spending/spent, listened 36. began, banged

47. 1. woke, was always getting/always got, went, bought 2. had to, usually grazed/was usually grazing 3. didn't normally chase, made, was crossing, went 4. annoyed, began 5. was carry­ing, was raining, threw, ran 6. stopped, began, was doing

awoke, was sitting, was looking, called, turned, smiled 8. did you interrupt, was having 9. was carrying, heard 10. was looking, noticed 11. were walking/walked, heard, turned, held, stopped 12. arrived, was waiting, was wearing, (was) looking/looked, saw. waved, shouted, was saying/said, was making 13. escaped, was working, was wearing 14. was travelling, began 15. didn't like, was trying 16. was making, felt, brought, was able 17. saw, was painting, did you like, was only just starting, saw 18. took, was being, were still listening, left/were leaving 19. was, had to, was enjoying 20. were coming, stopped, said, was looking, asked 21. saw, were you using, was using, were you riding 22. was knitting 23. was, said, hoped, was enjoying 24. was watering, began, put, went 25. was just writing remembered, had 26. found, was digging, belonged 27. saw, was hurrying, asked, was going, said, was speaking, wasn't 28. called, was still working 29. came, was smoking, had, threw, hoped 30. noticed, was rising, were you smoking, came, asked 31. was swimming, stole, had to 32. said, were working, wanted 33. said, was building, thought 34. woke, said, thought, was trying 35. did you lend, was still reading, didn't know, were still reading 36. came, woke, started, woke, came, said, said, didn't hear, was barking, went, telephoned

48. 1. have, wound 2. haven't, ate 3. has, fed 4. haven't, have only repaired 5. have done, did 6. haven't, haven't found 7. have, made 8. haven't, have been 9. haven't, haven't seen 10. have, went 11. have driven, drove 12. hasn't, has, went 13. have, was 14. has, spoke 15. have only spent, have 16. haven't saved, have saved 17. hasn't, went 18. haven't seen, saw, didn't see 19. have, paid 20. haven't, flew 21. bit, has bitten 22. planted, haven't 23. has, wrote 24. haven't, drank, haven't drunk

49. 1. have you lived/have you been living, have lived/have been living 2. lived, went 3. did you wear, insisted 4. left, cut, have worn 5. wrote 6. has written, has just finished 7. flew, did you see 8. haven't seen 9. hasn't smoked 10. composed 11. did he arrive, arrived 12. did you lock 13. read, enjoyed 14. haven't fin­ished 15. have never drunk 16. have written 17. has stopped '8. have just cleaned 19. left, got 20. did, was 21. has just gone « 22. went 23. have you had, had 24. met 25. did you see 26. began, lasted, enjoyed 27. has just begun 28. has the newspaper come 29. arrived, started 30. has been 31. wrote 32. have

missed 33. broke 34. has been 35. worked, retired, went 36. have you been, spent, did you have, stopped

haven't seen, told 2. bought, did you pay, paid 3 did you find, found, didn't you leave 4. have lost, have you seen, ha­ven't, did you last wear, wore, left 5. has just left, has been, has never bought 6. left, did he go, didn't see, went 7. served, did that war begin, began, lasted 8. did you vote, voted, wasn't, was, lost 9. did you like, liked, quarrelled, dismissed, were, was 10. didn't know, knew, have you known, have known 11. hasn't had, have been 12. did you hear, did, did you think 13. didn't know, were, have you been, have been, have you been, went 14. have you tried, tried, found, started 15. have you seen, has anything happened, have escaped 16. has Mary fed, fed, did she give, gave 17. have you known, have known, did he do, came, was 18. have you seen, hasn't been bought 19. has the plumber been, stayed, did he do, turned, emptied 20. have you been, have been, did you enjoy, took, did you win, came 21. has that been, has been, have written, has been 22. have just been, have you seen, haven't, haven't read, read, was, did Tolstoy write, wrote, did he write 23. brought, did he do, wanted 24. have you been, have been, did he take, did, did it hurt 25. said, hasn't phoned 26. have just received, haven't paid, didn't I give, did, spent/have spent 27. have you been, have just started, did you find, answered 28. have you finished, have done 29. have cut, did it happen, slipped 30. did you get, got 31. did you meet, did, had 32. lost, has been, did he lose, was 33. has been, did you see, happened, ran 34. phoned, got 35. did not wear, have worn 36. has been, have just taken, has bought

Affirmative: the answer in each case is have/has + been + present participle, e.g. 1. have been making

Negative: have/has + not + been + present participle* e.g. 16. haven't been eating

Interrogative: have/has + subject + been + present parti­ciple, e.g 6. have you been doing

Present participles are as follows: 1. making 2. ringing 3. overworking 4. cutting 5. looking 6. doing, working 7. studying 8. waiting 9. raining 10. arguing 11. bathing 12. driving 13. wearing 14. saying 15. trying 16. eating 17. speaking 18. flying 19. playing 20. shopping 21. living 22. eating 23. looking 24. leaking 25. digging, helping 26. asking 27. using 28. driving 29. going 30. snowing 31. crying, peeling 32. making 33. drinking 34. smoking 35. eating 36. trying

52. 1. have walked 2. have been walking/have walked 3. have been walking/have walked 4. have been making 5. have you made, have made 6. has eaten 7. hasn't stopped 8. has been drinking 9. have pulled 10. have been pulling 11. have you been doing, have been picking 12. have you picked, have picked 13. have slept 14. has been sleeping/has slept 15. has been rid-ing 16. have ridden 17. has been making 18. have been work­ing/have worked 19. have heard 20. have been hearing/have heard 21. have been greasing 22. have been polishing 23. have been working/have worked, has never said 24. has been teach­ing/has taught 25. have taught, have never met 26. have you been, have been pumping/have pumped 27. have pumped 28. have been looking/have looked, haven't found 29. has been coughing/has coughed 30. have you heard, have known 31. have been trying, have said 32. has been sounding 33. has been rain­ing/has rained, has been postponed 34. has been hoping, hasn't dared 35. have been whispering, have you been helping, has he been helping 36. have you been making, have lost, have been trying, have throwing

53. 1. for 2. for 3. since 4. for 5. for 6. since 7. since 8. since 9. for 10. since 11. for 12. for 13. for 14. for 15. since 16. since 17. for 18. since 19. for 20. since 21. since 22. since 23. for 24. since 25. since 26. since 27. for 28. since 29. since 30. for 31. for 32. since 33. for 34. for 35. for 36. since

66. 1. have played/have been playing; Have you played, came; have played; joined, arrived 2. Have you played; have played; have had, have won, didn't really deserve 3. played, was, left, dropped, took 4. haven't seen; have you been; I've been; meant, hadn't/didn't have; Did you have/Had you, were; was; have only just got; enjoyed; skied, danced 5. skied, was, broke, haven't done 6. came, was; has been built, has become 7. hasn't started; has he been, has been, spent 8. have just heard; didn't you know; flew; Have you heard; got; told; didn't say, liked; has only been 9. didn't know, were; exploded, burnt 10. has been; used, rode, have had 11. made; has he been; we have only had; resigned, was 12. has left; left; Has anybody been appointed; have applied/applied, has been decided 13. Did you have/Have you had; was, have ever had, took; thought, was, searched,

announced, was; took off 14. did you spend; took, fed, walked bought, didn't need; passed 15. Have you booked; wrote, haven't answered 16. didn't know you were; have been; arrived 17. met said; made, found, needed, seemed 18. Did you know, arrived' didn't know 19. have you learnt/been learning; have been learn­ing 20. began, did; dropped, forgot; spent, studied, have been studying/have studied 21. rang, said; spent, couldn't/wasn't able to, rang; haven't seen, said; went, haven't come; went 22. have just had; did it go; did you enjoy; didn't actually hit, made

23. sold, bought, left; arrived; wasn't, said; hasn't been taken

24. saw; thought, worked, said; worked, explained, went, told; gave; have worked 25. Have you been; went; were; Did you go; went; hired 26. have you been, came; have been 27. have seen; did you go; went; took 28. Did you see, were; saw; walked, asked, had, said, has just returned 29. Have you been; have been; haven't been

30. Have you seen; went, saw; Did you like; loved, didn't understand

31. has just died; knew; worked; didn't see, left, kept 32. thought, was, turned; shouted; said, didn't know, were 33. Hasn't Tom come; came; went; didn't hear 34. has just given; have just touched, didn't feel 35. came; went; looked; coughed, spun; exclaimed, didn't see 36. you have just agreed; didn't realize, wanted

67. 1. bought, haven't sold 2. was, began; ran, made 3. caught, didn't get in, arrived 4. looked up, came; have been, growled 5. rang, said; said, haven't had; didn't you tell 6. met, said, didn't see; Did you miss; didn't miss, replied; haven't missed; gave 7. went; worked, went 8. has been; did she go; went

9. bought, asked; told, have waited/been waiting, hasn't come

10. met, offered; said; have just had 11. arrived, landed, climbed out; recognized; exclaimed; didn't know, knew; have only just learnt, said; went 12. tried, heard, called out; have you been; has been 13. Have you been; went; Did you like; didn't see; was 14. have just bought; Have you read; haven't read; haven't even seen 15. Have you been; was; did you get; took 16. Have you seen; rang, got; has been; flew, decided; Have you heard; got, arrived 17. have you been; have been; did you do/were you Jo-ing; worked/was working 18. did you work; worked; Did you like; didn't like; did you stay 19. was, stayed, played; did you play; played; lost 20. did you begin; began, was; went; stayed, went 21. was, started; did you get; haven't got; have only been 22. left; rang; answered; said; has just gone, said 23. Have you been; was; Did you go; hitch-hiked 24. haven't seen; has been ill; collapsed, was taken; sent, hasn't come 25. was; Did you see; took, was, said, needed; haven't been able, haven't watched

26. Have you ever been; spent; went, met, wanted, didn't get

27. said; said; hasn't come; rang, were; said; got; didn't come

28. dictated, told; rang; Have you finished, asked; said, have done, haven't started 29. Have you found out; rang, answered, didn't seem; said; has been 30. said, Has Jack moved; said, didn't see; wasn't 31. have you been; have been; bought/have bought; found, got 32. have played, came; has been, inherited; Did you ever play; played, died, arrived 33. Have you seen; left; put 34. Have you met; met; did you talk; talked 35. did, bought, has made; have always done, have always found 36. had; have had, got; told, were; has been, have changed

68. 1. have been telephoning; Haven't you nearly finished; haven't got; have been trying, has been 2. has failed; has been practising, has got 3. have often wondered; have just found out 4. has been playing; has only just stopped 5. haven't you brought; Haven't you typed 6. Have you been sunbathing; has been rain­ing/has rained 7. have been building; have been watching/have watched 8. haven't found, has been; has been helping 9. have pulled down, haven't touched 10. have searched/have been searching, haven't seen 11. have been waiting, have waited 12. has been; has been looking, hasn't found 13. have been doing, haven't finished; have done 14. have just picked; have grown/have been growing, have never had 15. have you been doing; have been using 16. has just sold; have been painting, haven't sold 17. has this happened; have had, have thrown 18. have you done; has just gone; has finished 19. has worked /has been working, has never once been; have/has just presented 20. have been mending/have mended, have only done, has broken down 21. has collected/has been collecting; has col­lected 22. have been looking, have completely forgotten; has hap­pened 23. has been getting/has got, has been rising/has risen; has come 24. has eaten, has lost count, has attended; Has he put on 25. have been ringing up; has gone; has been working; has found out 26. has been using; haven't been 27. have been stand­ing; hasn't moved; has just shut ... and gone off 28. has/have been considering; have just given, have decided 29. have been Playing, haven't played 30. have been, haven't got 31. has been

standing; has already gone 32. has happened; have been wait­ing/have waited; has often kept, has never been 33. has been living/has lived, has never said 34. have just remembered, ha­ven't paid; hasn't rung; have been; have paid; has lost 35. have been shopping/have shopped; has been losing/has lost, have made, have been told, have known 36. have you been doing; have been looking; have been building

69. 1. gave, thanked, said, had enjoyed, knew, hadn't read, were 2. had seen, returned, didn't have/hadn't 3. didn't have, had already done, was 4. didn't have, did, left 5. had, was; decided 6. picked, went, slammed 7. felt, had reminded 8. had searched and found, remembered, was 9. had left 10. remembered, were 11. arrived; had been told, was, was 12. asked, said, hadn't been 13. wanted, had come 14. told 15. admitted, never bought/had never bought, assured, sold, wasn't 16. returned, saw, had broken in, was, was 17. were, had only just left 18. Probably they (had) heard/They (had) probably heard, had run/ran 19. had helped, was, poured 20. wondered, had found, hoped 21. had been given, had died 22. hadn't had, hadn't liked 23. seemed, had taken 24. put, took, had forgotten/forgot, had put 25. came, said, had just swallowed 26. thought, left, was, arrived, learnt, had just left 27. found, had been using/had used 28. parked, rushed; came, was 29. wondered, had stolen, had driven 30. was, was, had been working/had worked 31. was, had had 32. brought, hadn't come 33. kept, had seen 34. looked, went, saw 35. got up, was, won­dered, had stayed, had gone away and come back 36. opened, saw 37. had clearly been listening, wondered, had heard 38. asked, had been doing/was doing, said, had dropped, had been looking for/was lookingf for 39. didn't see, found, had probably dropped, opened 40. had been taking 41. were, turned, asked 42. pulled, ran off 43. (had) recovered, had disappeared 44. moved, found had been standing 45. had been telling/was telling

70. 1. I've been waiting 2. has been learning 3. had beer asking 4. I've been working 5. haven't been listening/I've been saying 6. have been pointing out 7. had been expecting 8. had been looking 9. had been giving 10. had been flying 11. you've been seeing 12. has been operating

71. 1. had already died 2. will already have started 3. had been cancelled 4. will have reached 5. had already gone to bed 6. will have left hospital 7. have got married

72. 1. I've never met him 2. haven't tried eating it 3. had never studied it before 4. had been feeling ill 5. will all have died 6. hadn't slept very well 7. It's all been used up 8. haven't spoken to 9. haven't read it yet 10. I hadn't been told anything about it 11. It's already been sent 12. I've just found them

73. 1. died/had reigned 2. was moved/had taken 3. real­ized/had had 4. returned, had been broken into 5. under­stood/had managed 6. called/discovered/had just missed/had gone out 7. set out/had left/had still not returned 8. saw/had occupied

74. I am still; I am having; I don't wish ..., you, if you find; it is still ... for me to stay; was unspoken ... us/it did not matter; you were, this was/it was or is/I now have to pay; you must forgive me; I do not want, Do you want to see me; you said/we parted/you did/you said; I have been living; did you speak; you are back/I shall perhaps seem; Then will be/you once hinted/who will make you forget your; I think of our (I feel) must be for us; I never positively said or I have never positively said/you did not understand or you have not understood/let me say/I love you/I want to marry you/I want to be with you; I ask of you/which might help me

77. 1. had arrested 2. had washed 3. had waited 4. entered 5. washed 6. had received 7. sat 8. had flipped 9. had taken 10. had lived

Part 1. 1. have just heard, would/should like 2. Do you think, could or would be able to 3. had, remember, said, was or had been, (had) got 4. can/could, can/could, suits/would suit 5. has, will/would bring 6. isn't, do not hesi­tate 7. are, will take him if I ask/would take him if I asked 8. has been/was, seemed

Part 2. 9. am/was, am, are going 10. will be 11. will look 12. enjoyed, missed, left/had left, looked 13. will be 14. Will you/Would you/Could you bring, doesn't suit 15. Don't bother, have 16. you'll have, bring, you'll have/you'll have had

Part 3. 17. Do you by any chance know 18. should/would like, have just heard, would exactly suit, doesn't apply, won't get 19. saw, was just leaving/had just left 20. said, was going, Promised, (had) found 21. have heard, don't even know, went 22. know, should/would be, would phone 23. have tried, doesn't seem

Part 4. 24. am, advertised, are coming/shall be coming, (shall) require 25. Would you please/Could you please tell me 26. should/would like 27. Would I be able/Could I 28. hopes/is hoping, don't drive, won't be/wouldn't be, need/shall need/should need 29. Do the local shops still deliver; know, did 30. should/would be, would tell, calls 31. ask/are asking, sounds; would you like/do you like 32. have been, lived, want 33. is also writing, would like, painted 34. has known, lived, am, would/will recommend 35. should/would of course be or am of course willing 36. should/would be, enclose

87. Part 1. 1. wrote, asking or to ask or and asked 2. replied, enclosing, filled up, returned 3. have heard, am beginning/begin, has gone 4. Would/Could you please check, have received 5. have received/did receive/received, haven't decided, should/would be, would tell 6. has already been, should/would like, don't get, shall/will have to, do, shall/will have or have

Part 2. 7. have suffered/have been suffering, leave/are leaving 8. stand, laughing, calling 9. get, bang/banging, reverse 10. sounds, finds, has had, is still learning, don't know, (do) know, takes, roaring, shouting 11. have gone, have all been, find 12. should/would be, would ask, could

Part 3. 13. Are you/Would you be 14. is coming, is bringing or is coming and bringing, or will be coming and bringing 15. haven't met, think, would/will like 16. will be able 17. receives, doesn't get, has asked 18. will probably ring, would be 19. know, don't usually eat, hope, won't be; can 20. passes, remember/will probably remember, will give

88. Part. 1. (Affirmative auxiliary verbs would usually be contracted in speech.) 1. Could 2. does 3. does, came, was, did, is, will/would do 4. do you want 5. should/would like 6. Would Thursday at 4.00 suit 7. wouldn't; is coming 8. would be able to/could do 9. would/will be 10. will/shall expect

Part 2. 11. Could 12. Speaking 13. have you been; have been trying; Don't you leave 14. do, went, have only just got in; is. didn't know, were 15. arrived; would have rung, have been; ha? only just ended; Are you doing 16. am going 17. is; am 18. am had told, would have kept 19. didn't know, dashed, told 20. did 21. does, was driving, had, was taken; am doing; are you really going; can't/couldn't you 22. can't/couldn't; suppose will/would be 23. will stay; will get over; would you like 24. IV

love; are you, will be, should/would hate 25. will be; will ring, am staying; stayed, didn't seem 26. did you stay; will tell

89. 1. If it rains next Sunday, we will stay at home and watch television 2. If you prepare well, you will pass your exami­nation 3. I will stay with the sick man until the doctor arrives

4. Mary won't start to type the letter until the manager comes

5. When the water temperature rises, we can go swimming to the ocean 6. When Jack arrives at Kennedy Airport, he will call us 7. As soon as I receive Bob's letter, I will let you know 8. I will give your book as soon as I see him 9. I'll watch the child while you sleep 10. If the telephone rings while the secretary is out, Linda will answer it 11. I'll call my wife before I arrive in Phila­delphia 12. I'll write down your address right now before I forget it 13. He will turn off the radio before he leaves the house

14. You won't finish the translation on the time unless you work hard 15. Unless the traffic is very heavy, we'll arrive by ten o'clock 16. I won't go to the party unless Mr Smith invites me

17. We will stay in this resort as long as the weather keeps fine

18. I'll leave for Miami as soon as the sun rises

90. 1. I didn't call him because I thought he was busy 2. I knew he was ill 3. I was sure they were talking in the garden 4. I was told he had come back from the South 5. I was sure she was receiving letters from them 6. I thought she was angry with you 7. I thought you had seen him there 8. I thought you had more courage 9. I didn't go out from the shop through the front door but through the back door 10. He didn't go to the cinema yester­day as he is taking an exam tomorrow 11. He insisted on going to the library though he won't need the book today 12. He worked harder last year than he does this year 13. I felt that he didn't want to go there 14. I knew that he had lived in Odessa

15. I was afraid that he would be angry if we didn't finish the work in time

91. 1. She is going to post the letter she has just written 2. She is walking up and down the room thinking of the letter she has been writing 3. Why are you lips black? I have been eating blackberries. I have eaten a whole plateful! 4. How long have you been catching fish here? 5. You look completely worn out. Any­thing wrong with you? 6. Rainborough noticed that she had been crying. her face was stained with tears 7. I saw that it was 2 o'clock. We had been sitting there an hour and a half 8. This coat

has seen better days 9. How much have you given me? Oh sorry, I have been wrong giving you the change 10. I've never seen anything half so splendid 11. Did you think you would have read the book by June, 1st 12. You haven't left anything behind, have you?

92. 1. When Richard came home, Ann was watching televi­sion 2. When we left New York City, it was raining 3. I was writing letters, when the telephone rang 4. We were watching television when somebody knocked at the door 5. Joe got sick while we were travelling in Europe 6. I was reading the newspa­per when my friend arrived 7. Jane was playing the violin when her guests arrived 8. We were having breakfast when the mail­man rang 9. Steven was talking with Ann when I saw them in Central Park 10. Jack was ordering lunch when I entered the restaurant 11. They were living in the Ukraine, when the war broke out 12. The accident happened while they were driving on the Highway 13. When you telephoned, we were having dinner

14. I was sleeping soundly, when somebody knocked at the door

15. It was raining hard when I got off the bus 16. When Joe came home, his wife was preparing dinner

93. 1. Is he working now? 2. He usually walks to work 3. Steve likes Chinese food 4. Does the class begin early in the morning? Yes, it does 5. Does she like to go shopping? Yes, she does 6. The Smiths don't like to travel 7. Henry doesn't have dinner in a restaurant 8. He turned off the radio and went to bed 9. It often rained last winter 10. David finally sold his old car 11. Did Joe come home very late last night? 12. When did Co­lumbus discover America? Columbus discovered America in 1492

13. How much did the ring cost? The ring cost 600 dollars

14. Alice did not come to the party 15. You didn't read the article carefully 16. I was working in my garden on Friday morning 17. They have lived here since June 18. Have you ever visited the Louvre? No, I have never visited the Louvre 19. I'm afraid I have lost my car keys 20. How long have you lived (have you been loving) here? I have been living here for 9 years 21. By five o'clock I had completed my work 22. It had been snowing for two hours when we left house 23. Why was he surprised that he had got a "3"? 24. Nobody knew what year this bridge had been built 25. I was told you had been reading this book for a month. It's high time you returned it to the library 26. The train will be late

27. You won't get to work on time 28. Will you meet Doris soon? 29. We are going to buy a colour TV set 30. We are not going to eat out tonight 31. Are you going to have ice cream for desert? 32. He will have done his homework by 7 p.m 33. A month from now we will have completed our scientific experiments 34. Before he leaves New York City he will have seen all his old friends 35. I am afraid you will have forgotten all these rules by tomorrow

36. I am not sure she will have passed this exam by that time

37. The Miller said he would go to see Little Hans when spring came and be would be able to give him a basket of first flowers


7. 1. The search was given up ... 2. That ought to have been pointed out to me ... 3. That question wasn't brought up ... 4. The matter should be looked into 5. ... that the child had been well brought up 6. Our visit had to be put off ... 7. ... that your house had been broken into 8. Don't speak until you're spoken to 9. His request ... was turned down by ... 10. Every penny you spent must be accounted for 11. This stamp hasn't been stuck on ...

12. The truth of what I'm saying will be borne out by events

13. We were held up at the Customs for ... 14. How can the de­sired result be brought about? 15. He hates being made fun of

8. 1. are or are being or were or were being or will be turned out; 2. had been or would be provided for; 3. is being done up;

4. being taken on; 5. is always being told off; 6. be drawn up; 7. will be broken off; 8. would be looked into; 9. had been badly let down; 10. having been blotted out

9. 1. The oldest councillor was given the freedom ... 2. Access to the ... was denied to ... 3. The child was shown how ... 4. He was declared "persona non grata" and was allowed ...5. He was given ... 6. Why wasn't he offered the job? 7. Weren't you promised a rise ...? 8. He was left a legacy ... 9. ... stamps, he found he had been sold forgeries 10. What were you paid for ...? 11. He should be told never ... 12. You were asked to meet ... 13. Shall I be sent the details? 14. The goods will be sent to you ... 15. That boy must be taught a lesson!

10. 1. He is said to be ... 2. This surgeon is considered to be ... 3. Some redundancies in the Company are now thought to be ... 4. The statements he had made were proved to be ... 5. The

delegation was understood to be keen ... 6. The Chancellor is believed to be thinking ... 7. The electricity supply industry is expected to be running ... 8. Several ... manufactures are reported to be planning ... 9. The brewers are expected to raise ... 10. The drug was claimed to produce ... 11. The police are said to have acted ... 12. The Prime Minister was alleged to have misled 13. The Government is believed to have had ... 14. The explosion was believed to have been caused ... 15. The equipment is pre­sumed to have been put ... 16. The driver is thought to have had both legs broken ...

11. 1. The fact that such a storm ... was raised by the new scheme means that it can't have properly explained to ... 2. He was warned by ... not to let himself be led astray by ... 3. ... that too much time was being taken up in ... 4. The boy's rudeness was out down to his having been spoiled by ... 5. Not until later was it dis­covered that the picture had been stolen 6. Never before had any­one been sent to prison for ... 7. Only in this way could the law be made ... 8. It was said that no agreement could be reached on ...

9. The rebellion was put down by ... and martial law was declared

10. He wanted the information to be treated as confidential ...

11. Had I been told that the subject ... was to be brought up at ...

12. He dislikes being thought a fool by ... 13. After having been ignored by ..., 14. Should it be proved beyond doubt that the fire was caused by an accident, the man who is at present being held (by the police) on suspicion of arson will, naturally, be released 15. On being informed that he was wanted by the police, the man realized that he had been betrayed by ...

12. 1. The fire brigade finally got the fire under control, but not before it had caused extensive damage 2. Don't let your failure depress you 3. In view of the widespread concern (that) the community feels at the plan to build ... village, the local Council has decided to hold a ... 4. Thieves had broken into the house and (had) stolen two ... 5. Only after the scientists had subjected the new ... tests did the Company put in on the market ... 6. The leader hadn't thought out the plan at all well 7. The Board ought to have made it quite clear to the shareholders, before they held ... meeting, that they would not allow them to vote for ... 8. You should have obtained your ... before you made any decision to take ... 9. The army authorities needn't have caused him ... dis­tress by telling him that ... action, as they later discovered that

they had made a mistake as to ... 10. The reporter withheld in­formation about the source from which he had obtained ...

13. 1. This fact is very well-known 2. The theatre was opened only last month 3. It will soon be forgotten 4. The answers must be written in ink 5. Two of my books have been taken 6. The vacancy has already been filled 7. What should be done in such cases? 8. Was anything interesting said? 9. Was the situation never made clear to you? 10. Milk should be kept in a refrigerator . I don't think it can be done 12. He would undoubtedly have been killed if he hadn't promised to cooperate 13. The work must be finished by 7 14. This type of computer is now being manufac­tured in many European countries 15. The secret could not pos­sibly have been known 16. Have all the necessary arrangements been made? 17. Fortunately nothing had been said about it 18. All orders will be promptly executed (or executed promptly) 19. The man was kept in custody 20. Are all the rooms regularly cleaned (or cleaned regularly)?

14. 1. was destroyed 2. had been bitten/was given 3. be re­spected 4. are being demolished 5. have been instructed 6. was saved 7. is expected to be declared 8. is being done 9. was being victimized 10. was evicted 11. had been thought 12. will have been built 13. be discontinued 14. being cross-examined 15. hav­ing been threatened 16. Being tea treated 17. to have been in­formed/ had been withdrawn 18. are asked/have been given/be rectified 19. not being offered 20. having been found

16. 1. The president is called (by somebody) every day 2. The other members are being called by John 3. The documents were being delivered to the department by Martha 4. The amendment has been repealed by the other members 5. The information had been received by the delegates before the recess 6. The supplies for this class should be bought by the teacher 7. Mr Watson will be called (by somebody) tonight 8. Considerable damage has been caused by the fire 9. A new procedure was being developed by the company before the bankruptcy hearings began 10. The pa­pers will have received by John tomorrow

18. 1. The milk is brought, the letters are left 2. letters won't be brought, they'll have to be collected from 3. Things are stolen from, twenty bottles were stolen 4. this street is swept, it wasn't swept 5. This box is cleared, It was last cleared 6. A light was Burned on and the door (was) opened 7. This office is cleaned, the upstairs offices are cleaned 8. He was never seen, all his meals were taken up 9. This purse was left ... it was found by the cleaner 10. 1,000 new houses are built, last year 1,500 were built

11. Hot meals are served, coffee and sandwiches can be ordered

12. All sorts of things are left in buses. They are collected by the conductors and (are) sent 13. He was taken to hospital by ambu­lance 14. many people are killed and injured ... can't something be done 15. The warehouse is guarded by dogs. A thief who tried to get in was seen by a dog and chased 16. The police were called and the man (was) arrested 17. Tom, who had only a slight in­jury, was helped off, but Jack, who was seriously injured, was carried off 18. This dress can't be washed, it must be dry-cleaned 19. The entire block is being demolished 20. He recommends that new tyres should be fitted 21. He suggested that council tenants should be allowed 22. These calculations used to be done by men; now they are done by a computer 23. The man was tried, found guilty and sent to prison 24. The knockers of all the flats are pol­ished ... mine hasn't been polished 25. My piano is being repaired

26. Tickets shouldn't be thrown away ... they may be checked

27. Jack was invited but Tom wasn't (invited) 28. All the sand­wiches were eaten ... and all the beer (was) drunk. Nothing was left 29. has my parcel been posted 30. Why wasn't I informed of 31. The book was written by Tom Smith and published by Brown and Co 32. The car will have to be towed 33. all our copies have been sold but more have been ordered 34. Trespassers will be prosecuted 35. My car was stolen and abandoned ... The radio had been removed but no other damage had been done 36. Dogs must be kept on leads

19. 1. The letter hasn't been stamped 2. I wasn't paid for the work; I was expected to do 3. he was being moved 4. I wasn't introduced 5. I was awakened by a frightful crash 6. When this street has been widened the residents will be kept awake all night by the roar 7. The rubbish was thrown away 8. These TV sets are made by a Japanese firm 9. The town was destroyed by an earth­quake 10. This could be done much more easily by (a) machine 11. Umbrellas and sticks must be left 12. Tenants are asked not to play 13. Your clock can't be repaired 14. Articles (which have been) bought during the sale cannot be exchanged 15. Fruit has to be picked very early otherwise it can't be got to the market 16. People shouldn't be allowed to park 17. My house is being

Batched 18. The passage will be read three times 19. Dictionaries may not be used 20. This letter need not be typed 21. "13" has been crossed out and "12A" has been written 22. This man mustn't be moved; he is too ill/he is too ill to be moved. He will have to be left 23. His house was searched and stolen articles were found 24. This room hasn't been used 25. He was taken for 26. These books should have been taken back 27. The children were brought up 28. The For Sale notice has been taken down ... the house has been sold 29. His house was broken into ... a lot of his things (were) stolen 30. You have been warned 31. He was knocked down by a lorry 32. My keys were returned to me; they had been picked up 33. The books had to be given back; we were not allowed to take 34. These documents shouldn't be left ... They should be locked up 35. Coffee and biscuits were handed round 36. Other people's schemes have been tried. Why has rny scheme never been tried?

20. 1. troops have been called out 2. trains were held up by fog 3. this is to be left here. It will be called for 4. police were called in 5. children were not properly looked after 6. reinforcements are being flown in 7. men of 28 were called up 8. he was looked up to by everyone 9. he will be seen off at the airport by all the ministers 10. bed hasn't been slept in 11. more rooms can be built on 12. he was thrown out 13. different attitude will have to be adopted 14. he ought to be locked up 15. they weren't taken in by her story 16. house was broken into 17. small plastic toys are being given away 18. notice was taken down 19. smoking is frowned on 20. after a million pounds had been spent ... the scheme was given up 21. my car had been towed away. I asked why this had been done and was told that ... it had been parked 22. weapons must be handed in 23. he was shouted down 24. he is often taken for his brother 25. the cork hasn't been taken out 26. pool was to have been used ... it is being filled in 27. students are being turned away 28. skyscraper will have to be pulled down as the town planning regulations have not been complied with

21. 1. money was added up and found to be correct 2. I am having the bathroom tiled 3. a terrible mistake seems to have been made 4. you are supposed to make tea 5. he is known to be armed 6. he was seen to pick up 7. you are known to have been 8- he is believed to have 9. this needn't have been done 10. you

had better have it taken in 11. he likes to be called "sir" 12. this switch isn't to be/mustn't be touched 13. you will have to have/get it seen to or it will have to be seen to 14. this can't be done 15. we are being followed 16. boys used to be made to climb 17. it has to be seen to be believed 18. I am tired of being or­dered about 19. he doesn't like being laughed at 20. this watch needn't be wound/doesn't need to be wound 21. he shouldn't have been told 22. they decided that the money should be divided 23. he is believed to have been killed 24. letters are to be sent 25. she is considered to have been 26. smoking is not allowed 27. the expedition is known to have reached 28. before printing was invented everything had to be written 29. the government was urged to create/they urged that more jobs should be created 30. they suggested that the sale of alcohol should be banned

30. 1. Wine should be opened ... before it used 2. steps had been cut 3. my shoes had been cleaned and my suit brushed 4. room is used 5. nails must not be hammered 6. pigs are used 7. a light was switched on and the door opened 8. picture had been slashed 9. theatre is being pulled down 10. wasn't the roof mended 11. All the shop windows were broken 12. system was being started because books were not being returned 13. each of us was asked 14. refreshments will be served 15. bicycles must not be left 16. books may be kept ... they must be returned 17. hole had been cut 18. it is being delivered 19. he has already been told 20. bells were rung 21. noting can be done unless we are given more 22. far more is being spent on food now than was spent 23. paintings will be exhibited 24. nothing more will be said .. if the ... gun is returned 25. he was told 26. My dog was stolen and brought back only when a £20 reward was offered 27. he was given two weeks 28. flowers are made

31. 1. seals are fed 2. who was it written by? 3. compare clothes washed by us with clothes washed by any other 4 he expected to be offered 5. she was shown 6. oak was struck by lightning 7. it couldn't have been painted by T. because that kind of dress wasn't worn 8. she was stung by a jellyfish 9. special edition for ... has been written 10. herbs used to be carried by judges 11. what was it written with? It was written with 12. shot

was succeeded by an uneasy silence 13. were you interested by the idea? 14. he was given details 15. dams are made by beavers 16. engines used to be started by hand, now they are started b)

electricity 17. this was opposed by most people 18. a lot of the work is being done by students 19. dock was to have been opened by the PM 20. They recommend that new factories should be opened 21. a lot of men will be made redundant by the closure

22. instructions could be understood by anyone 23. children ... will not be admitted 24. ship is to be manned by boys 25. camp was flooded by a rainstorm 26. He was kept awake all night by the howling 27. They suggested that the tests should be made 28. All this damage couldn't have been done by children

32. 1. why don't you get an oculist to test your eyes? 2. the authorities are to introduce this ... limit 3. they are lengthening the runways 4. nurses are wakening patients 5. people say that B. lived 6. British fishermen must offer any sturgeon that they catch to the Queen 7. someone has altered this notice 8. squatters have been using their houseboat 9. they were towing the ... ship 10. get a builder to put in a lift 11. The firm made a profit ... but a loss of ... which they made ... cancelled this 12. guests will wear evening dress 13. the authorities put the ship ... and forbade passengers and crew 14. we shall have to find someone 15. They made him surrender his passport 16. our oppo­nents must have started 17. the New Arts Gallery is to exhibit my paintings 18. experts have proved that this scientific theory is false 19. they are to salvage the car which the wind blew 20. police are guarding the house where they found the dead man to prevent anyone from entering it and interfering with the evi­dence 21. why didn't you either lock the car or put it 22. people are saying that the government is spending too little money

23. you could put your money to good use instead of leaving it idle 24. people believed that the earth was flat 25. no one has read this copy; no one has cut the pages 26. the police led away the student who threw the stones 27. people say that early Egyp­tian and Greek sailors used carrier pigeons 28. a strong police guard was escorting the referee

33. 1. This manuscript was discovered many years ago 2. The town is being built 3. The report was followed by a dis­cussion 4. He was promoted 5. She was dismissed owing to re­duction of staff 6. She was bored to death staying at home 7. The Play is based on historical facts 8. The third part is still being shot 9. His speech will be recorded to be broadcast 10. Your suit­case will be taken care of 11. Is the service charge included?

12. We are disconnected 13. I was caught in the rain 14. Screams of laughter were heard in the next room 15. We were told to wait 16. This article is often referred to 17. She was offered a cup of tea 18. He was shown the way to the railway station 19. She complained about being found fault with 20. He was always made fun of 21. He was given a high award 22. I was given two days to think it over 23. When will he be sent for? 24. Were you allowed to take these journals home? 25. Bad habits are got rid of

34. 1. New hospitals are built every year 2. He has not been seen for a week 3. The police reported that the killer had been arrested 4. When I returned to this town, the hospital was still being built 5. I am invited to a party 6. We were asked to come as early as possible 7. We were advised to be cautious 8. I was paid cash 9. We were told to wait 10. He was followed by two policemen 11. The merchandise was not delivered on time 12. The negotiations will not be finished next week 13. Will your article be published in tomorrow's issue? 14. Is the village located in the mountains? 15. This letter must be written today 16. The bill has to be paid before the end of the month 17. This letter ought to be sent by airmail 18. English is spoken all over the world 19. The mayor was supported by a majority of the votes 20. You have been warned 21. She knew her sister would come home late, she had been invited to a birthday party 22. The tourists would like to know who this palace had been built by 23. When we entered the house his suggestion was still being discussed 24. Don't you un­derstand the rule which has been just explained to you 25. She wanted to know if she was still being waited for 26. The girl asked if I spoke French as she wanted to know where the tickets were being sold


1. 1. can, could, can't/couldn't 2. will be able to 3. won't be able to 4. can't ... can't or couldn't ... couldn't 5. shall/will be able to 6. will never be able to 7. couldn't, can't 8. will you be able to 9. won't be able to 10. could, couldn't 11. can, can, can't 12. can't, can't/couldn't, can't/couldn't 13. could/was able to 14. was able to 15. could/was able to, couldn't/wasn't able to 16. were able to 17. Were you able to/could you

18. couldn't/wasn't able to 19. was able to 20. were able to

21. could/was able to 22. was able to 23. was able to 24. was able to 25. could/can, could 26. could, couldn't 27. could, couldn't, can't 28. could 29. couldn't/wouldn't be able to 30. couldn't/wouldn't be able to 31. could/can, can't 32. could, could 33. could/can, couldn't/can't 34. couldn't/wouldn't be able to 35. couldn't/wasn't able to, couldn't/wasn't able to 36. could

2. 1. may 2. might 3. may/might 4. may/might 5. might

6. may 7. may 8. might 9. may 10. was allowed to 11. might 12. may 13. may/might 14. may/might, may/might 15. might

16. may 17. may 18. may 19. may/might 20. might 21. might

22. may/might 23. may/might 24. may 25. might 26. may/might 27. might/may 28. may/might 29. may 30. might 31. might 32. may/might 33. may 34. might 35. may/might 36. hasn't been allowed to

3. 1. has to 2. must 3. has to 4. have to 5. must 6. have to

7. had to 8. has to 9. had to 10. have to 11. must 12. will have to/have to 13. must 14. has to 15. must 16. have to 17. have to 18. must 19. must 20. have to 21. had to 22. must 23. have to 24. must 25. has to 26. must 27. will have to 28. must 29. had to

30. have to 31. will have to 32. had to 33. have to 34. must/will have to 35. must 36. have to

4. (Add not to each of the following verbs.} 1. need 2. must 3. must 4. need 5. must 6. must 7. need 8. must 9. need 10. need 11. need 12. must 13. need 14. must 15. must 16. need

17. must 18. must 19. need 20. need 21. must 22. must 23. need 24. must 25. must 26. must 27. need 28. need 29. need 30. need

31. need 32. must 33. need 34. must 35. must 36. need

(didn't have to is replaceable by didn't need to.) 1. he doesn't have/hasn't (got) to 2. did you have to 3. I don't have to 4. they will have to 5. we didn't have to 6. we didn't have to 7. you needn't come 8. I never have to 9. shan't/won't have to 10. you needn't 11. shall we have to 12. you don't have to 13. I didn't have to 14. we don't have to 15. have you got to/must u/need you 16. do people have to 17. shall I have to 18. don't have to 19. we didn't have to 20. you needn't 21. we didn't have to 22. do we have to/must we 23. did you have to 24. I didn't have to 25. you won't have to 26. they didn't have to 27. do you nave to/have you got to 28. did you have to/had you to '29. didn't have to 30. shall I have to 31. do you have to/have you got to 32. I didn't' have to 33. do French children have to 34. did you have to 35. I didn't have to 36. did you have to

6. 1. must have been 2. can't/couldn't have been 3. needn't have helped 4. must have left 5. can't/couldn't have escaped 6. needn't have given 7. can't/couldn't have seen 8. must have started 9. can't have been 10. needn't have bought 11. must have been 12. must have borrowed 13. must have stolen 14. needn't have done 15. needn't have said 16. can't/couldn't have under­stood 17. can't/couldn't have done 18. must have been 19. can't/couldn't have walked 20. can't have been 21. must have been 22. can't/couldn't have had 23. needn't have watered 24. must have taken 25. can't/couldn't have been 26. can't/couldn't have watered 27. must have been 28. needn't have sent 29. needn't have made 30. must have been 31. must have been 32. can't/couldn't have seen 33. can't/couldn't have come 34. needn't have lent 35. needn't have spoken 36. must have fallen

8. 1. we shan't be able to get; 2. we shall be able to give, 3. we were able to take; 4. was able to escape; 5. were able to find; 6. I've been unable or I haven't been able; 7. to be able to show; 8. to be able to speak; 9. they'd been unable to get or they hadn't been able to get; 10. had been unable to answer

9. 1. ..., we could all make notes about the lesson 2. ..., we could go much faster 3. ..., we could visit you more often 4. I could give you more help myself if ... 5. ..., you could have kept to the main roads 6. I could have done something about it if ... 7. ..., we could stay and have coffee with you 8. We could have stayed and had coffee with them if ... 9. ..., we could fix it straight away 10. We could have fixed it there and then if ...

10. 1. She can be quite forgetful 2. Holidays abroad can be quite cheap 3. Racial harmony can be difficult to achieve 4. . , discipline could be very strict 5. He could occasionally be quite high-spirited 6. September can be a wonderful month . 7. Students ... can be very critical ... 8. One-way traffic ... can be very confusing ... 9. She can look quite pretty at times 10. English cooking can, in fact, be excellent

11. 1. You may find; 2. We might (or could) get, 3. He might (or could) change; 4. trains may be; 5. Parents may find; 6. we may find; 7. He may (or might) be able; 8. He may (or might)

not turn up; 9. The government's policy might (or could) prove; 10. Getting ... may (or might) not be

12. 1. We may have missed the bus 2. He might not have wanted to see us 3. They might have gone out for the evening 4. He could have broken a window 5. He may not known the answer 6. They could have guessed what we intended to do 7. He may already have known about it 8. They may have lost their way 9. They may have gone away for a time 10. She could have forgotten your address 11. He may not have had the time 12. He might have changed his mind about it

13. 1. The manager told me I might leave ... if I wanted to 2. His interviewer told him be could put off ... 3. The Customs officer asked if he could see ... 4. The teacher asked the student if he might ask him ... 5. I told my friend he could ... provided he took ... 6. The police inspector asked his colleague if he might see ... he was holding 7. The notice stated that cars might be parked ... 8. The chairman asked the speaker politely if he might inter­rupt him ... 9. He asked his friend if he might join him 10. The notice stated that visitors might not take photographs ...

14. 1. The restaurant may be expensive, but ... 2. The method may be crude, but ... 3. He may be badly paid, but ... 4. The book may be long, but ... 5. He may be old, but ... 6. The climb may have been exhausting, but ... 7. I may have been rude to him, but ... 8. He may have acted unwisely, but ... 9. His work may have improved, but ... 10. Old-age pensions may have risen considerably, but ...

15. 1. You might let me know ... 2. He might be ... 3. You might perhaps ask him ... 4. You might post this letter ... 5. You might have warned me ... 6. You might have apologized ... 7. He might have tried ... 8. She might keep ...

16. 1. The Conservatives should win ... 2. There should be a lot ... 3. ... says it should be fine ... 4. Our visitors should have arrived ... 5. It shouldn't be too difficult ... 6. The meeting ought to have finished ... 7. The organizers of the games should be meeting ... 8. It shouldn't have taken us so long ... 9. ... regula­tions shouldn't affect ... 10. We should be able to move ...

17. 1. ... be very much in love with him 2. ... left it in my other jacket 3. ... be rolling in money 4. ... been taken in by his charming manner 5. ... read it very carefully 6. ... be crazy 7. ... received it 8. ... be getting any better 9. ... had a quarrel about

something or other 10. ... forgotten all about it 11. ... be much later ... 12. got to know him very well

18. 1. They will sit ... 2. He will often buy things and then leave ... 3. My wife will leave things ... 4. ..., the water pipes would freeze ..., and we would have to call in ... 5. ... he would interrupt ... 6. ... he would insist ... 7. Why will you be so diffi­cult? 8. ..., everyone would listen ... 9. You will go out ... 10. ., people would go to church ...

19. 1. will do 2. will hold 3. won't work 4. won't fit 5. will seat 6. will reach 7. will suit 8. will bear

20. 1. "I can manage ..., but I shall need ..." 2. "If the price ... increases, we shall be obliged to raise ..." 3. "I shall have more to say about this problem later." 4. "I shall be writing to you ... to let you know ..." 5. "I shall be working ... this evening." 6 "Do you think we shall need to take ...?" 7. "I shan't be sorry to see ..." 8. "I assume I shall be given ..." 9. "We shall never get there, at the rate we're going." 10. "We shall be making ... to­morrow morning,..."

21. 1. belief; 2. characteristic behaviour; 3. request, 4. agreement; 5. prediction/inherent capacity; 6. com­mand/instruction; 7. prediction; 8. characteristic behaviour; 9. prediction; 10. promise; 11. belief; 12. inherent capacity

22. 1. He should cut down on bread and potatoes 2. You should get up earlier 3. We'd better take our seats 4. He shouldn't have been driving so fast 5. I'd better inform the police 6. We'd better get a builder to look at it tomorrow 7. You ought to have stayed in a hotel 8. She shouldn't have lain in the sun so long 9. You'd better start learning some Spanish 10. You'd better think about buying a new one 11. You ought to see a doctor 12. We should have bought more in the first place 13. He ought to change his job instead of complaining 14. You should have taken umbrella with you 15. We'd better ask someone the way 16. You'd better not take the car 17. You'd better get it renewed 18. You should buy yourself an alarm clock 19. I'd better see who it is 20. You'd better phone a plumber

23. 1. factory inspectors recommended that new safety rules should be introduced 2. The judge ordered that the court should adjourn for lunch 3. The Speaker ruled that the MP should with­draw his remark 4. The Colonel decided that his troops should attack at dawn 5. The leader of the expedition proposed that they should make ... held 6. Teachers advocated that more nursery schools should be set up 7. The magistrate directed that the man should be released 8. The police gave instructions that members of the public should not approach the two men but should report to the nearest police station 9. Shareholders demanded that the Board should give more detailed information about profits 10. The employers urged that the men should return to work so that ne­gotiations could begin

24. 1. ... table so that I should be sure... 2. ... undertones so that the teacher shouldn't overhear ... 3. ... warning in order that the public should be ... 4. ... umbrella in case it should rain 5. ... bank lest the house should be burgled 6. Lest you should think I'm ... truth, I have bright ... 7. ... university so that he should have ... 8. ... here so that you should have ... 9. ... hall so that everyone should have ... 10. ... number in case you should want ...

25. 1. It's natural that you should be upset ... 2. It's incredi­ble that we should have been living ... 3. It's a pity that you should have missed ... 4. It's curious that he should have asked ... 5. It's typical of him that he should expect ... 6. It's odd that they should be getting married, ... 7. It's crazy that you should have to ... 8. It is essential that you should look over ... 9. It is important that you should read ... 10. It's splendid that you should be com­ing . . 11. It's interesting that you should have bought ... 12. It is vital that emergency supplies should reach ...

26. 1. must 2. must 3. must 4. have to 5. had to 6. must 7. must 8. must 9. have to 10. have to 11. must 12. having to or to have to 13. will probably have to 14. must/must 15. must or has to/must or has to 16. have had to 17. mustn't 18. had to 19. must 20. have to

27. 1. ... we must hurry, or we'd be late 2. ... application forms must be returned to the office ... 3. ... he must visit us ... 4. he could never remember ... . He always had to ... 5. ... the car had broken down, and we had to have it ... 6. ... the situation had now become intolerable, and that something must be done ... 7. ... I realized how difficult ... was, but he must try ... get him down 8. ... visas ... must be obtained ... 9. ... I was sorry to have to tell him that, but he left me ... 10. ... it wasn't fair. He always had to do ... 11. ... I really must try ... 12. ... no one liked having (or to have) to work ... 13. ... whichever party ... would probably have to reintroduce ... 14. ... candidates must write ... and must

write ... 15. the verdict... must (or has to or had to) be unani­mous; if ..., the case must (or has to or had to) be retried 16. ... the crowd had dispersed peaceably. If ... hadn't, the police might have had to ... 17. ... we mustn't make ... or he wouldn't take ... 18. ... had suddenly taken ..., and she had had to call 19. ...problem cropped up again, he must report ... 20. ... it was to have to make

28. 1. We needn't (or don't need to) leave 2. You don't have to come 3. we need (or need to) take 4. you needn't (or don't need to) decide 5. you don't have to go 6. you don't have to take 7. we shan't have to rush 8. I wouldn't need to keep 9. he's never had to earn 10. you don't have to do/do you 11. I need hardly say 12. You needn't have told 13. this needn't make 14. he had never had to deal 15. we didn't need to do 16. he didn't even have to have 17. you needn't have made 18. he need never dis­cover 19. you needn't (or don't need to) be alarmed 20. I need have gone

(should used for obligation is replaced by ought to. may/might in the affirmative is replaceable by could) 1. must have worked/been working 2. needn't have translated 3. may/might have forgotten, should have telephoned 4 may/might have got lost, should have given, may/might have had, wouldn't/couldn't have delayed 5. may/might have stopped and got, may/might have run 6. shouldn't have fed 7. must have been 8. should have gone 9. couldn't have been attacked, must have seen ... and thought 10. must have waited/been waiting (could/may/might could replace must.} 11. may/might have fallen ... and been eaten ... or been kidnapped ... or caught ... and died 12. were to have started 13. needn't have walked, could have come 14. must have been stolen, may/might have driven 15. couldn't have got, must have drunk 16. shouldn't have been riding 17. may/might have taken, may/might have been 18. might/should have told, could have got 19. would have won 20. needn't have written 21. were to have bui't

22. wouldn't/shouldn't have noticed, would/might have spread

23. should/might /could have waited 24. may/might have come, couldn't/can't have come, may/might have come 25. needn't have done 26. should have been 27. needn't have cooked 28. would/should have brought, wouldn't/shouldn't have come 29. shouldn't have thrown, might/could have killed 30. could have painted, could have painted 31. may/might have dropped, may/might have been 32. could have been started, could have been 33. must have carried, couldn't have done, would have been, must have waited 34. needn't have done

35. couldn't/can't have been, must have been walking

36. Couldn't it have been, must have been

(See notes to Exercise 29 above.) 1. wouldn't/shouldn't have had 2. should have asked 3. should have been 4. may/might have gone; would have told 5. may/might have kept; wouldn't have kept 6. may/might have gone; may/might have been; would have rung; couldn't have rung 7. must have had; would have been 8. couldn't have bought 9. should have waited 10. couldn't have carried; must have helped 11. couldn't have been; must have been 12. must have crashed; would have re­ported 13. may/might have blown up; may/might have planted, may/might have had 14. may/might have tried; may/might have been 15. may/might have gone, may/might have been; couldn't have been 16. may/might have collapsed; would have taken over 17. shouldn't have done, should have said 18. must have been 19. needn't have done; should have told; shouldn't/wouldn't have wasted , 20. could have passed; should/could have worked 21. couldn't possibly have opened; couldn't have got 22. must have let; must have followed ... slipped 23. needn't have bought 24. must have drugged ... dumped; might/would have been run; may/might have been 25. must have bribed; may/might have followed; couldn't have done; would/should have seen 26. needn't have stamped 27. couldn't have done; must have given 28. must have been 29. could have taken; may/might have been; may/might have hopped in ... snatched 30. should have told; would/could have lent 31. needn't have taken; could have walked 32. must have been watching/must have watched 33. needn't have rung/shouldn't have rung; could have dialled/should have dialled 34. must have had 35. could have had/might have had; couldn't have had 36. could have married; must have loved; must have been

31. (may/might in the affirmative is replaceable by could. In 1, 7, 10, 20, 23 should is replaced by ought to.) 1. should have been 2. may/might have written, couldn't have written must have fallen 4. may/might have liked 5. must have been

6. needn't have sent 7. might/should have left 8. may/might have been 9. can't/couldn't have been, may/might have been 10. shouldn't have gone 11. may/might have been 12. were to have been 13. should/would have been 14. needn't have carried 15. may/might have been 16. can't/couldn't have been, must have been 17. must have been 18. was to have been 19. would have reached 20. could/should have crossed 21. should have brought 22. may/might have been 23. must have been 24. can't/couldn't have been, must have been 25. may/might not have heard 26. could have put you up 27. would have fallen 28. should have checked 29. needn't have apologized 30. may/might not have realized 31. might/should have thanked 32. was to have gone

32. 1. should have had 2. must have been 3. must have dam­aged 4. should not have parked 5. must have studied 6. should have studied 7. must have been 8. should have deposited 9. must have forgotten 10. must not have studied

33. 1. I would 2. would have gone 3. may have had 4. should have done 5. must have forgotten 6. may have slept 7. might have had 8. could have lost 9. shouldn't have driven 10. may have run

49. 1. Don't worry. They won't be late. They might be going here and will be here in some minutes 2. When are we to be at the railway station? At 9.00 but you needn't hurry. The train is leaving at 9.30 3. She must have failed to recognize us 4. Can you be still working at this translation? The article is very simple 5. They can't have moved to a new flat 6. The book must be a great success with the readers 7. His speech must have pro­duced a great impression on the audience 8. You must have been informed that the train would be late 9. She should have phoned to her mother to warn her that she might fail to come

50. 1. I can hardly go away and leave you alone 2. What is done cannot be undone 3. She can't have done it! 4. I could come earlier if necessary 5. He may have forgotten his promise 6. You may stay if you choose to 7. You might have brought the book in time 8. You simply must see the exhibition 9. He must be there now 10. This book is a must 11. Shall I get you some more tea' 12. The fine should not be more $20 13. I would not do it for any­thing 14. You ought to do your duty 15. He ought to have been a doctor 16. Don't you dare touch him 17. As I was to be there at

5. sharp I had to take a taxi 18. They are unlikely to come 19. It might be true 20. Could he have meant it?

51. 1. She may have lost her bag 2. Could you tell me the time, please 3. How old may she be? 4. You may not smoke here 5. I have to get up early 6. You might have offered your help when he got into trouble 7. We must obey the laws 8. You shall pay for this! 9. I would rather stay home 10. You needn't do it, if you don't want to 11. How dare you say such things! 12. You wouldn't know him 13. You ought to have known it 14. That should suit you 15. Shall I wait for you? 16. He must have made a mistake 17. He cannot be a day over forty 18. He could have done it; nobody knows 19. He may have lost his way 20. He could cry for shame


1. 1. If those shoes in the windows fit me I shall buy them

2. If you drop that vase my wife will murder you! 3. If it's fine tomorrow we can have a picnic somewhere 4. If I change my job I'll try to get something more interesting 5. If we are late for the theatre we may not be able to get seats 6. If you lose my library book I shall have to pay for it 7. If you meet some friends of mine in London introduce yourself to them 8. If he passes his exam he'll go on to university 9. If I get a rise next year we'll think of buying a house

5. 1. If you give/he'll work 2. If you take/won't be 3. don't remember/she'll be 4. If you send/she'll forgive 5. don't put on/you'll get 6. don't tell I'll never trust 7. If you just say/we can forget 8. If you are not firm/they'll misbehave 9. don't prac­tise/you'll never become

6. 1. ... we leave immediately 2. ... I'll tell him what you said

3. ... you will support it with evidence 4. ... I shall buy a new car next month 5. ... they can't reach an agreement 6. ... you can assume I'm not coming 7. ... you will be ready to take the exami­nation next term 8. I will let you into the secret ... 9. ... it is really impossible for you to work it out yourself 10 ... he never discovers the truth? 11. ... we can give up the idea completely 12 . . and I'll find a solution.

7. 1. will give 2. stand 3. eats 4. will telephone 5. will arrest 6. reads 7. will steal 8. doesn't open 9. washes 10. needs 11. don't go 12. makes 13. is 14. hears 15. will make 16. will bury 17. won't be 18. doesn't start 19. won't let or don't let (habit) 20. goes 21. sells 22. will you repay 23. rises 24. works 25. turns/will turn 26. burns 27. don't like 28. will have 29. see 30. will you promise 31. don't believe 32. likes 33. will make 34. shan't/won't be able 35. knows 36. ring

8. 1. find, will give 2. smoke, will/may object 3. put, will crack 4. see 5. wins, will get, comes, will get 6. feel 7. wants, will have 8. have finished 9. stands, will capsize 10. isn't working, will have 11. doesn't go 12. hear 13. will get 14. leaves, will be 15. freezes, will be 16. don't take, will have 17. takes, will have 18. don't feel/aren't feeling 19. brakes, will/may skid 20. like, will get 21. would like 22. growls 23. isn't working 24. don't know 25. refuses 26. won't/doesn't help 27. are going 28. do you employ 29. will be 30. hate, don't you change 31. don't want 32. hear 33. will see 34. rings/should ring 35. reach/should reach 36. would care, will send

9. Part 1. Drill ("What'll happen if ..." is normally replace­able by "What'll you do if" and vice versa. These are possible answers only.) 1. What'll you do if he doesn't pay you tonight? 2. What'll you do if you don't get a permit? 3. What'll you do if you don't pass? 4. What'll you do if he refuses? 5. What'll happen if he chooses Smith? 6. What'll you do if you can't find a cheap room? 7. What'll happen if it doesn't open? 8. What'll happen if I forget it? 9. What'll happen if they don't believe me? 10. What'll you call it if it's a boy? 11. What'll happen if we don't get a lift 12. What'll happen if it isn't clear of fog? 13. What'll hap­pen/How long will it take if he doesn't help us? 14. What'll hap­pen if he isn't at home?/What'll we do if ...? 15. What'll we do if the ice isn't thick enough? 16. What'll happen/What happens if you walk on them when the tide is coming in? 17. What'll we do if it's wet? 18. What'll we do if we (do) another puncture?

Part 2. 1. If you like I can get 2. If you like I'll ask 3. If you like I'll bring the photographs 4. If you like I'll give 5. If you like you can watch 6. If you like I'll arrange a helicopter trip 7. If you like I'll knit you one 8. If you like you can borrow 9. If you like I'll come 10. If you like I'll ask Ann 11. If you like I'll get you an application form 12. If you like I'll go with you 13. If you like I'll

paint 14. If you like you can leave 15. If you like we'll postpone 16. If you like I'll ask him 17. If you like I'll arrange for you to meet the President 18. If you like we'll go sailing

(First person would is normally replaceable by should except in sentences 8, 9, 22.) 1. gave, would sell 2. woke, would have 3. went, would pine 4. went, would lose 5. said, would you do 6. worked, would finish 7. would happen, blew 8. saw, would climb; would not be, would climb 9. came, would call 10. threw, would have 11. asked, would he say 12. would be; would probably start 13. rang, would be 14. saw, would assume 15. would have, were/was 16. rushed, would get 17. bought, would lose 18. had, would bring 19. did, would not be 20. were/was, would still be 21. were/was, wouldn't be staying/wouldn't stay 22. had, would drink 23. drank, would soon get 24. were/was, would not be playing 25. would you go, did 26. kept, would not be run­ning/would not run 27. was/were, would not be sitting 28. heard, didn't you answer 29. typed, would be 30. had 31. had, would now be sitting 32. would be, would kindly sign 33. stopped, would all fly 34. would still be 35. was, didn't you change 36. won, would be writing/would write

(The following are possible answers but not the only possible answers.) 1. If she wasn't/weren't so shy she would enjoy 2. If he took more exercise he would be healthier 3. If I had the right change we could 4. If they spoke English to her, her English would/might improve 5. If he worked overtime he would

6. If my number was/were in the directory people would ring

7. If the police were armed we would/might have gun battles

8. If the shops delivered, life would be easier/less difficult 9. If he wasn't/weren't so thin he mightn't feel/If he was/were fatter, etc. 10. If we had matches we could light 11. If we had a steak we could cook it 12. If I wasn't/weren't so fat I could/would be able to 13. If I asked him he might help 14. If I could drive we could/would be able to take the car 15. If we had a ladder we could 16. If I were you I should/would sell it 17. If I had more time I'd read more 18. If they cleaned the windows the rooms

would look brighter 19. If he polished his shoes he'd look smarter 20. If he paid his staff properly they might work better 21. If we central heating the house would be warmer 22. If I had a dog wouldn't mind being alone 23. If he didn't spend hours watching television he would have time 24. If I had a vacuum cleaner I'd be

quicker 25. If I knew his address I could write 26. If he shaved he'd look more attractive 27. If you worked more slowly you wouldn't make 28. If I could park near my office I'd come by car 29. If I lived nearer the centre I wouldn't always be late 30. If \ had a map I could direct 31. If people drove more slowly there wouldn't be 32. If English people spoke more slowly I might/might be able to understand 33. If my house wasn't/weren't guarded by two Alsatian dogs it would be broken into 34. If the flats were clearly numbered it would be easier to find people 35. If you wiped your feet you wouldn't make muddy marks 36. If I didn't live near my office I'd spend a lot of time

12. 1. would type 2. knew 3. would look 4. played 5. wouldn't make 6. were 7. had 8. would you visit 9. gave 10. would buy 11. cleaned 12. would you be able 13. didn't belong 14. won 15. would you do 16. knew 17. gave 18. stopped 19. wouldn't come 20. saw 21. would/should be 22. would not be bitten 23. had 24. did 25. would grow 26. removed 27. would keep 28. lived 29. banned/were to ban 30. would offer 31. got 32. painted 33. changed 34. would you spend 35. had 36. wasn't

22. I ... would take a different view ... 2. ... you'd probably earn a lot more money elsewhere 3. ... he'd soon tell you whether it was serious or not 4. ... we'd certainly need to buy ourselves a car 5. ... we'd show them round 6. ... they'd change them for you 7. ... you'd begin to appreciate what the writer is trying to say

23. 1. If she loved him she would marry him 2. If our teacher didn't explain things clearly we wouldn't understand his lessons 3. If I had a watch I could tell you the time 4. If I didn't know the meaning of the word I would have to look it up 5. If this exercise were difficult not everyone would get the correct answers

24. 1. What would you do about the problem ... 2. If I were earning a good salary ... 3. ... a stranger asked you how old you were 4. ..., you'd uderstand what the writer is trying to say 5. .. I didn't have to? 6. ... I could afford it 7. ... what could he do about it? 8. ... his friends might be more sympathetic 9. ... said exactly what you think 10. ... we asked yet another person's opinion.

25. 1. had given/could have telephoned 2. hadn't been/wouldn't have come out 3. had packed/wouldn't have got damaged 4. would have remembered/had been paying 5. had been able/would have passed

26. 1. had passed/would have gone to university 2. had got there/we wouldn't have found the doors locked in our faces

3. had read/she would have understood what I meant 4. hadn't understood/we would have asked him to Explain again

27. 1. would have passed/if he had taken a little more care 2. would have got/if we had left just 15 minutes earlier 3. would have read/if she had been able to get a copy 4. wouldn't have understood/if he hadn't explained it clearly

28. 1. If I were you, I'd take ... 2. If he hadn't had his wife's

... 3. If it hadn't been for his ... 4. If one considers ... 5. If you ' don't (or didn't) have ... 6. ... if we discussed ... 7. As long as you follow ... 8. If we had given up ...

(should in the following answers may be replaced by would; contractions may be used in the affirmative and nega­tive.) 1. should have visited 2. would have won 3. had arrived

4. had been 5. should have been 6. had not seen 7. would have fallen 8. would you have accepted 9. had had 10. had known

11. should have offered 12. would not have stung 13. had realized 14. should have stopped 15. should have reached 16. should not have lent 17. had not sneezed 18. had put 19. would not have got 20. would not have tried 21. had spoken 22. would not have been 23. had known 24. had tried 25. would not have got 26. would not have put 27. had been 28. would have come 29. wouldn't have turned 30. had looked 31. would have been captured 32. had tried 33. should have taken 34. would have saved 35. had not called 36. would not have burnt

(Sometimes would below is replaced by might or could.} 1. had not taken, wouldn't have got 2. had paid, wouldn't have been 3. had told, would have cooked 4. had had, would have been 5. had known, would have lent 6. hadn't had, would have fallen 7. had realized, wouldn't have accepted 8. hadn't taken 9. had been lit 10. hadn't rung 11. had waited, would have seen

12. wouldn't have been, hadn't knocked 13. had patented, would have made 14. had had, would have been 15. had told, would have agreed 16. had been, would have been able 17. had been, would have been launched 18. had known, wouldn't have thrown

19. had known, would have brought; would have enjoyed

20. would have attended 21. would have refused, had offered 22. wouldn't have known, hadn't told 23. had read, would have refused 24. had been playing, would certainly have heard

25. would you have done 26. hadn't rained, would have been 27. had been waiting 28. had used, would have lit 29. hadn't been wearing, should/would have recognized 30. had known, would have backed 31. had been, would have phoned 32. had turned 33. had played, would have had 34. had booked, would have had 35. had been, would not have been 36. had held, would not have been

38. (These are possible answers but not the only possible answers.) 1. If I had seen the signal I would have stopped 2. If I'd known your number I would have rung 3. If she had known you were in hospital she would have visited 4. If there had been taxis we would have taken one 5. If she hadn't been so shy she might have spoken 6. If she hadn't threatened to set fire to her flat I wouldn't have asked 7. If we'd had time we'd have visited 8. If the lift had been working I wouldn't have come up the stairs 9. If we had listened carefully we mightn't have made 10. If we hadn't got a lift we shouldn't/wouldn't have reached 11. If you hadn't washed it in boiling water it wouldn't have shrunk 12. If we hadn't been using an out-of date timetable we shouldn't/wouldn't have missed 13. If his own men hadn't deserted him he wouldn't have failed 14. If they hadn't been driving so quickly the accident wouldn't' have been 15. If it hadn't been raining I would have taken 16. If I'd known that in summer etc. I wouldn't have bought 17. If Tom's father hadn't been on the Board he wouldn't have got 18. If he'd been looking where he was going he wouldn't have been run over 19. If I'd been brought up in the country I might like country life 20. If I'd known he was so quarrelsome I wouldn't/shouldn't have invited him 21. If it hadn't rained all the time he might have enjoyed his visit 22. If I'd worked hard at school I would/should/might have got a good job 23. If they hadn't used closed-circuit television they wouldn't/mightn't have spotted 24. If he'd been wearing a shirt they wouldn't have asked him to leave 25. If the streets had been clearly marked it wouldn't have taken us so long 26. If we'd had enough money we would/should have gone by air 27. If you'd put your hand up the bus would have stopped 28. If he hadn't turned up looking so disreputable they would have given him 29. If I'd known how thin the ice was I wouldn't/shouldn't have been walking 30. If he had taken the fight seriously from the beginning he might have won 31. If they hadn't paid the ransom at once they wouldn't have got

32. If he had read the passage more slowly the candidates would have understood 33. If they'd been wearing life-jackets they mightn't have been drowned 34. If his wife had encouraged him he might have got 35. If the exit doors hadn't been blocked peo­ple would have been able to escape/could have escaped 36. They would have walked further if they hadn't been hampered by or But for the thick dust they would have walked further

(First person would is normally replaceable by should.) 1. stays, will be/should be 2. didn't know, wouldn't/couldn't understand 3. hadn't got, would/might have come; wouldn't have been 4. knew, did you take 5. were not

6. had not been, would not have cheered 7. had not cheered, would not have run 8. had not run, would not have crashed, would not have been 9. returns/should return 10. why don't you sell/why not sell; had, would sell 11. didn't know, did you offer; would refuse 12. leaves, will/may steal 13. wore, would see

14. hadn't loved, would not have waited 15. had looked, would have been 16. start, will the village people resist 17. would you like 18. won't be able; can't, can't 19. would have been, had be­come 20. had gone, would be 21. had, would make 22. had known, would have brought 23. bathed, would be 24. stood, would all see, would be 25. were, would get 26. do, please re­mind/would you please remind 27. would have realized 28. had admitted, would not have been 29. had, would grow; would be 30. had known, would have stayed 31. had, would make 32. had told, would/could have gone 33. spend, won't have 34. hadn't been, mightn't have been 35. had, would get 36. would happen, had; would play, (would) miss, would fail, (would) have; would not feed, would get; would catch, (would) die, would have, would keep

48. 1. understood or could understand 2. would not have been 3. will give 4. would have told 5. would have been 6. had

7. would stop 8. needed 9. would have found 10. enjoyed 11. paint 12. were 13. writes 14. would permit or had permitted

15. could spend 16. will accept 17. buys 18. had decided 19. would have written 20. will leak or may leak 21. had studied 22. hears 23. see 24. gets 25. turn 26. were 27. would have called 28. would have talked 29. explained 30. spoke

49. 1. hadn't failed/wouldn't be taking 2. had remem­bered/we could open 3. hadn't missed/wouldn't be waiting

4. there hadn't been/wouldn't be able 5. had taken/you wouldn't be

50. 1. ... there hadn't been quite such a crowd of people

there 2. It would have been a wonderful day for sailing...... 3. .

I had asked you last week? 4. ... you wouldn't have got into such difficulties 5. ... I'd have thought it over much more carefully 6. . he would never have got the job 7. ... it might have avoided a lot of unpleasantness 8. ... you had known how desperately he needed it 9. ... we had followed your plan rather than mine? 10. ... the damage wouldn't have been nearly so extensive 11. ... she had known him better

51. 1. If only you had acted sensibly ... 2. If my bank man­ager calls ... 3. ... he expects us to believe him ... 4. ... you're not feeling very well? 5. How on earth did you find me ...? 6. If any­thing goes wrong tomorrow ... 7. ... why didn't you write it down? 8. When would we be likely to arrive ...? 9. ... I didn't have to get up and go to work this morning 10. ... were able to write your letters in English

52. (In the affirmative and negative shall and should can be replaced by will and would respectively; and contractions may be used. Should in sentences 1, 7, 11 however does not change.) 1. find/should find 2. shall have 3. will happen 4. had had 5. will you stay 6. would you choose 7. gets/should get 8. comes 9. will sit 10. didn't talk 11. shall/should I do 12. had read 13. had 14. shall go 15. would you do 16. run 17. will not be

18. comes 19. would not have 20. had worn 21. leaves 22. will fall 23. don't change 24. should not have bought 25. hung 26. would be able to/could 27. should have brought 28. would have been 29. would not have printed 30. should not buy 31. want 32. won't be 33. would jump 34. would answer 35. had made 36. had known

54. 1. could I speak 2. speaking 3. could you come and do 4. couldn't 5. could come 6. could you come 7. could get, would 8. wouldn't, would, leave 9. thought you said 10. could get couldn't make 11. having, doesn't like 12. is always trying, cleaning, thinks/says 13. does she want/would she like you to do 14 would like/wants me to work 15. says/thinks it would be 16. worked, would know 17. are you really thinking 18. like, like

19. would get 20. would Wednesday suit 21. would, to come 22. will, let 23. will, won't 24. will, do

58. 1. I wish I could ... 2. I wish I had ... 3. She wishes her parents approved ... 4. I wish I were ... 5. I wish you liked

59. 1. I wish I were rich 2. I wish you'd hurry up 3. It's time we were leaving 4. I wish I knew his opinion 5. I'd rather you kept it a secret ... 6. I wish you weren't going ... 7. I'd rather you didn't smoke ... 8. It's time he found ... 9. My parents would rather we lived ... 10. It's high time the weather improved 11 I wish you'd stop making ...

60. 1. I wouldn't take in this problem unless it grew in im­portance 2. We'll stay in the bar while she is shopping 3. Unless you drive carefully you will have an accident 4. I wouldn't drink this water, if I were you 5. We could buy a TV this year, if you were better paid 6. If he weren't so absent-minded, he wouldn't have taken you for his sister 7. Alice wouldn't have bought the books if she didn't love me 8. If you had taken medicine you would be well now 9. Auntie, I wish I hadn't done it 10. She wished she were free and could go with him 11. We wouldn't have gone to the restaurant if we had known the prices 12. On condition you ate less, you would not get so fat

61. 1. If you come over to my place, I'll show you my shots 2. Mike and his friends would have gone to see the races, if it hadn't rained 3. Your dress would look better as soon as you changed the buttons 4. The cake would have burnt if I hadn't gone to the kitchen 5. She would have called a doctor if she had had a fever 6. He won't come unless his wife gets better 7. If I got rich, I would buy a fur coat 8. Cathy would look more attractive, if she dressed better 9. The dog will bark, if you knock at the door 10. If Helen knew the address, she would have come by now 11. I'll send him a cable, if he doesn't come tomorrow 12. The fire wouldn't have gone out, if we had put more logs in it

62. 1. If the theatre were not so far we could walk there 2. If I were you I should always speak English 3. If she did not love him she would not have gone with him to the North after graduating from the Institute 4. If it had not been for you, I should have never done this work in time 5. If you hadn't been in a hurry you wouldn't have left this book then 6. You ought to have told him the

'' truth. You would have no troubles 7. If we didn't know each other, he would not have invited us to the party 8. If it were raining now I should stay at home 9. If you had written out your mistakes you wouldn't have made them yesterday 10. You wouldn't have missed the train if you had taken a taxi

63. 1. If the weather is nice tomorrow, we'll go to the beach 2. If I see Ann, I will ask her to call you 3. I'll drop in later if something new comes up 4. If people drove more care­fully, there would be fewer accidents 5. If you went to bed ear­lier, you would not feel so tired 6. If I had enough time, I would fly to San Francisco 7. If I knew her well, I would call her at home 8. If I had $50,000, I could travel around the world 9. If Boris knew English better, he could get a good job 10. If Boris knew English better, he would get a good job 11. If I were you, I would study computer science 12. If the Smiths had invited me, I would have gone to yesterday's party 13. If I had known your address, I would have written to you 14. If I had got a pay rise, I would not look for another job 15. If it had not rained last night, we would have visited our friends 16. If I had had a car last summer, I would have gone to the beach every Sunday 17. If George had come on time, he could have helped me 18. If you had known it was going to rain, you should have taken an umbrella with you 19. If you had not called Jim, everything would be OK now 20. If I were there, I would help him

21. Were I there, I would help him


5. 1. leave 2. repaired 3. to type 4. call 5. painted 6. write 7. lie 8. sent 9. cut 10. to sign 11. leave 12. to wash 13. fixed 14. published 15. find

8. 1. do 2. sing 3. to swim 4. to live 5. to go, rain 6. say. understand 7. to see 8. repeat 9. use 10. ask, use 11. to get, start 12. remember 13. to do 14. to go, wait 15. leave 16. open 17. (to) argue 18. to smoke 19. (to) move 20. play 21. to accept

22. to arrive 23. know 24. wait 25. tell 26. send 27. go, to meet 28. to have 29. leave, want, to take 30. to go, make, go 31. go, to visit 32. to know, to live 33. not to inform, (to) disobey 34. come, stay 35. take, make, drink 36. to disappoint, let, have

9. 1. to be 2. wish to make 3. want, to know 4. remember, look 5. to learn, to know 6. to be 7. not to feed 8. see, to speak 9. to travel, to arrive 10. know, to use, show 11. to sign

12. open/opening, move/moving 13. to make, believe 14. to have missed, go 15. shake/shaking 16. to try, to come 17. go, promise, not to tell 18. like to come, walk 19. to ask, to tell, to get 20. to put, (to) keep 21. to read, answer 22. show, to open 23. say, to say 24. to be 25. want, to tell, to call, to discuss 26. to give, see/be seeing, not to forget 27. open/opening, throw/throwing 28. to carry, help 29. to pick, to handle 30. crash/crashing, burst/bursting 31. to do, wait, to let 32. crow/crowing 33. tell, be, to check 34. come, go, be/have been 35. to learn 36. be, look 

11. 1. too young to have 2. too cold to bathe 3. so kind as to answer/kind enough to answer 4. too old to wear 5. long enough to reach 6. enough money to live on 7. too furious to speak 8. hot enough to boil 9. foolish enough to tell/so foolish as to tell 10. thin enough to slip 11. too ill to eat 12. too wide to get through 13. strong enough to dance on 14. too terrified to move 15. big enough to harm 16. strong enough to keep 17. too deep to wade 18. too lazy to get up 19. early enough to catch 20. so good as to forward/good enough to forward 21. thick enough to walk on 22. too drunk to answer 23. too cold to have 24. rash enough to set off/so rash as to set off 25. high enough to see 26. old enough to understand 27. too snobbish to talk 28. too thick to push through 29. too mean to give 30. too impatient to listen 31. too tired to walk 32. not dark enough to see 33. hot enough to fry 34. too bitter to eat 35. so kind as to turn down/kind enough to turn down 36. too selfish to put

12. 1. to leave 2. only to find 3. You are to go 4. so kind as to lend/kind enough to lend 5. to mend/to be mended 6. to hear 7. for him to hear 8. It was stupid of me to be rude 9. to play with 10. for everyone to know 11. to sit 12. only to find 13. It was very brave of him to rush 14. to wear 15. He is expected to broadcast 16. to cook in 17. only to learn 18. to open it with 19. seems to have been committed 20. Is he likely to arrive 21. just about to leave 22. You are to be met 23. for them to have 24. He is said to have been 25. to continue the strike 26. kind enough to translate/so kind as to translate 27. for us to leave 28. It was stupid of you to sign 29. She is said to have 30. to swim 31. He is believed to be 32. He appears to have been killed 33. to realize 34. The earth is said to have been 35. only to discover 36. The murderer is said to be hiding

13. (should is replaced by ought to.} 1. must have been 2. can't/couldn't have seen, must have dreamt 3. may/might have broken 4. needn't have carried 5. should have gone 6. were to have been 7. can't/couldn't have been, must have been 8. shouldn't have eaten 9. may/might not have understood 10. needn't have given 11. must have escaped 12. shouldn't have lied 13. may/might have been, can't/couldn't have been 14. must have cooked 15. needn't have brought 16. must have told 17. was to have unveiled 18. may/might have been 19. must have met 20. should have done 21. can't/couldn't have caught 22. needn't have opened 23. must have betrayed 24. shouldn't have driven 25. could have climbed 26. would have asked 27. should have been abolished 28. shouldn't/needn't have boiled 29. was to have played 30. may/might have been 31. should have taken 32. must have had 33. may/might/could have fallen 34. must have been 35. needn't have translated 36. shouldn't have looked

14. (I'd is replaced by I should. Should (obligation) is replaceable by ought to in nos 5, 9, 13, 17. May/might in the affirmative is normally replaceable by could.} 1. was to have married 2. needn't have repeated 3. seems to have been 4. were to have set out 5. shouldn't have eaten, may/might have been (may indicates that the danger is still present; might that it is over) 6. must have worked 7. needn't have brought 8. I'd like to have bathed/I'd have liked to bathe/I'd have liked to have bathed 9. should have written 10. wouldn't have come 11. might/should have told, would have gone, wouldn't have liked 12. may/might have been, can't/couldn't have been 13. needn't/shouldn't have bought 14. can't/couldn't have been 15. seems to have enjoyed 16. must have been 17. should have stood 18. was to have gone 19. I'd like to have photographed /I'd have liked to photograph/I'd have liked to have photographed 20. must have been 21. may/might have been 22. can't/couldn't have been driving 23. must have taken 24. may/might not have 2S I'd like to have gone/I'd have liked to go/I'd have liked to nave gone 26. can't/couldn't have seen 27. may have been 28 may/might have been started 29. must have had 30. may/might have read, can't/couldn't have read, must have told 31. may/might have been waiting 32. must have misheard 33! might have borrowed 34. I'd like to have asked/I'd have liked to ask/I'd have liked to have asked 35. must have been 36. is said to have been

23. 1. losing 2. redecorating 3. telling 4. making 5. laughing 6. waiting 7. speaking 8. listening 9. reading 10. being sent

11. worrying 12. crying 13. travelling 14. arriving 15. taking

24. 1. meeting 2. eating 3. having seen 4. getting married

5. speaking 6. staying 7. smoking 8. increasing 9. travelling 10. following

25. 1. The customer accused the cashier of trying ... 2. Many people succeed in passing ... 3. Concert-goers are asked to refrain from smoking ... 4. The solicitor dissuaded his client from taking ... 5. If ..., you can't blame him for making ... 6. The hijackers prevented the passengers from leaving ... 7. The student apolo­gized for missing (or having missed) ... 8. Visitors to the Zoo are prohibited from feeding ... 9. Despite ..., the party bore insisted on telling me ... 10. The police suspect the owner of the store of starting ...

26. 1. eating starchy foods 2. going abroad 3. making school furniture 4. giving the jury clear directions 5. growing their own vegetables 6. putting everything back in its place 7. introducing the new topic immediately 8. entering my house ... 9. deciding whether to take legal action 10. swimming in that particular part of the sea/being carried away by dangerous currents 11. putting the assistant to a great deal of trouble/buying anything

12. taking fewer subjects/getting a good result in the exami­nation

27. 1. following such a course of action 2. doing the same thing day after day 3. bullying younger boys 4. walking unaccom­panied in the park at night 5. bringing up his children 6. pointing out other people's faults 7. disobeying the orders of a superior officer 8. locking building at night? 9. saving money: instead of hoping to win it on football pools 10. satisfying the demands of the local residents 11. going to the Arctic for a holiday 12. doing as they had originally planned

29. 1. seeing 2. having 3. to meet 4. to work 5. to see

6. waiting 7. not to touch 8. to lock, going 9. not to speak 10. behaving 11. to explain, to listen 12. smoking 13. to know 14. to disguise, dressing 15. to wait 16. showing, to work 17. walking, catch up 18. to understand 19. exceeding 20. playing, doing 21. to inform 22. overhearing 23. smoking, to

smoke 24. going, saying 25. writing, waiting 26. to avoid being 27. giving, to speak 28. to persuade, to agree 29. cleaning, to be cleaned, to do 30. shutting, sitting 31. sneezing, sitting 32. talking, to finish 33. to give up jogging 34. stopping, forget­ting to wind 35. realizing, helping 36. to make, rubbing

30. 1. answering, ring 2. letting, chase, being 3. driving, be­ing driven 4. to start looking 5. lending, to cash 6. Lying, sitting 7. to go 8. neglecting to take 9. to show, to use 10. going, to see/seeing 11. telephoning, asking, to look 12. hearing, not to enter 13. to have, writing 14. to answer, replying 15. to explain, to listen, grumbling 16. offering, to leave, (to) work 17. making, to do 18. having to get up 19. to forget, worrying 20. remaining, to help, to stay 21. to run, to have recovered 22. listening, hear­ing 23. to learn, reading, listening 24. to start, to wait 25. setting, having been 26. to go 27. to go, (to) try to save, cutting 28. earn, scrubbing, make, blackmailing. 29. discussing, having reached 30. having, to ride 31. (to) leave, meeting, rec­ognize 32. paying 33. to give 34. interrupting, repeating 35. cutting, to go 36. buying, selling 37. giving, to explain 38. asking, telling, to buy 39. to tell, looking 40. to be, to erupt/erupting

31. 1. to ride, to do, coming, to come 2. spending, earning 3. being, to apologize 4. to eat 5. working, spending 6. looking, being 7. posting 8. to lock, go, do 9. to learn, saying 10. trying to interrupt, to wait, talking 11. doing, to move/moving 12. leaving, to go 13. to drink 14. being, to wait 15. trying to make, adding 16. going, stay 17. to look, (to) take, looking, to do 18. getting up, walking 19. listening, listening 20. to make/making, to see 21. doing 22. to put, to prevent, climbing 23. taking, to-eat 24. ringing, asking, to do 25. waiting, to clear, to set 26. repeat, to make, to do 27. leaving, sending, to tow 28. borrowing, asking, to do 29. to offend, annoying 30. to be able to.tell, gazing 31. getting, to walk 32. to ask, to leave

32. 1. trying/answer 2. building 3. passing 4. trying/make

5. having 6. dislike/living 7. winning 8. try/discuss/speaking 9. teaching 10. increasing

34. 1. to accept 2. having 3. going 4. to reach 5. opening

6. leaving 7. to return 8. buying 9. to accept 10. being 11. to be 12. to finish 13. to leave 14. to tell 15. to stop 16. driving 17. to know 18. returning 19. leaving 20. leaving

44. 1. Knowing that he was poor, I offered 2. Having barri­caded the windows, we assembled 3. Becoming tired of my com-

I plaints, she turned it off 4. Finding/having found no one at home, he left 5. Hoping to find the will, she searched 6. Having removed all traces of his crime, he left 7. Realizing that he has missed the train, he began 8. Exhausted by his work, he threw 9. Having spent all his money, he decided 10. Having escaped from prison, he looked 11. Having heard the story before, she didn't want 12. Having found the money, they began 13. Entering the room suddenly, she found 14. Turning on the light, I was 15. Having visited the museum, we decided 16. Thinking we were lost, he offered 17. Having found his revolver and loaded it, he sat 18. Realizing that she couldn't move it alone, she asked 19. Having fed the dog, he sat 20. Addressing the congregation, he said

21. Thinking he had made a mistake somewhere, he went

22. Looking/having looked through the fashion magazines, I realize

23. The tree, uprooted by the gale, had fallen 24. People sleeping in the next room were 25. Knowing that the murderer was still at large, I was 26. Having stolen the silver, he looked 27. Soaked to the skin, we reached 28. Sitting/Seated in the front row, and us­ing ... I saw 29. ... sitting by the fire, you will take 30. Knowing that ..., I didn't like 31. Believing that she could trust him, she gave 32. Slates, ripped off by the gale, fell 33. The lion, finding his cage door open and seeing no sign on his keeper, left 34. The gov­ernment, trying to tax people according to the size of their houses, once put a tax 35. Having heard that the caves were dangerous, I didn't like 36. Wearing extremely fashionable clothes and sur­rounded by photographers and press men, she swept

45. 1. When leaving a car ... you must leave the brakes 2. As/When I was wading etc or Wading across ... I was swept off my feet by 3. When a tank is being filled/When you are filling a tank 4. Running into the room, she caught her foot on a rug and fell 5. When I read the letter 6. When carrying ... you should never point it 7. When planting ... you must take care 8. In his first race, the horse he was riding fell 9. When paying by cheque, you must show 10. Knowing me to be ... , he was astonished to hear that 11. As he believed that 12. As I passed/ or As/When I was passing 13. When I am reading/When I read 14. As he left 15. I led the dog, barking furiously, out 16. After I had paid my taxes, the amount 17. As I was writing 18. The boat, tied to a post, was being tossed up and down by the sea 19. As the question had been misunderstood, the wrong answer 20. We saw the first star, shining in the sky 21. It is easy to have an accident when one is/you are driving 22. The man saw a notice pinned to the door 23. They read the words "No Entry" written in 24. While he was cleaning his gun it went off 25. When/As I was wondering where to go, an advertisement 26. As I rushed out of the house, a lorry 27. As I sat by the fire, it all came back

28. We thought he would never survive after falling from

29. When a fuse is being changed, the electricity ... or When you are changing a fuse you should switch 30. I saw a trailer with a boat on it being towed behind 31 As he was sitting at the foot ... a stone fell 32. When he drove to work the traffic jams infuri­ated him 33. As I sat in the dentist's chair an idea 34. I felt sure that ... would kill him, weakened as he was by his last illness 35. A scorpion bit him as he got out of bed

46. 1. beginning to slip/begin to slip/begin slipping, to save, falling 2. falling, trying to keep 3. to lend, taking 4. to open 5. reading, to read 6. to book, to keep, to lose 7. to avoid being, being/to be, waiting 8. to get, to ask 9. making, speak/speaking 10. to win, cheating 11. firing/to fire, graze 12. strike/striking, to get 13. ringing/ring, to be coming to open 14. to go, to give 15. to put, (to) watch, change/changing 16. to see, to avoid hit­ting 17. to be, crackling 18. climbing, to explain, to say, to let, go 19. convincing, to get, leap 20. driving, doing, to do 21. to sit. (to) hear, howling 22. getting, climbing, to do 23. roar/roaring, to move/moving, waving 24. writing, to do, to go, see 25. walking, to cross, thinking, to chase 26. to be having, thud­ding 27. getting, to pay 28. to come, standing 29. to like making and flying ... doing 39. to arrive, rising 31. sawing, fall/falling 32. to see/seeing, crying/cry 33. jump/jumping, fall/falling 34. to wake, (to) hear, beating 35. beginning to roll/begin to roll/begin rolling, to do, to stop 36. laughing, slipping/slip

47. 1. living, to like 2. to travel; to take, to go 3. to buy, selling 4. to catch; getting, getting 5. to complain; losing 6. going, being, putting; telling, to take 7. to lock; go, do 8. to touch, being 9. househunting, to ask; looking 10. go; swimming, going 11. to be paid; taking, measuring; to expect, to do, to be, to die 12. spending, arguing, not to go 13. giving, going to live 14. to leave; to call 15. keep you waiting; apologizing 16. telling.

to talk 17. earning, to show 18. to start; filling 19. to carry; to move, carry 20. to take; take; cutting; to get, taking; to saw, escape 21. to ask, to leave; asking Tom to do; asking, to travel 22. to cut; sharpening 23. to buy, to ask 24. cheating, buying, dealing/to deal 25. dining, have; to go; having 26. cutting/to be cut; have, to have 27. to convince, managing, helping

28. travelling, standing; queuing, waiting; to go 29. following, criticizing, to hit 30. to stay; wait; to go 31. to rebel, not to adopt 32. arriving; to wait, waiting; to be 33. to come, going; to climb, making 34. to work, getting 35. start; to risk getting 36. calling, letting, decide

48. 1. sleeping, to camp 2. to come; listening, listening, talking 3. to leave, to put 4. to park 5. smoking, to risk setting, smoke 6. writing, to receive, go 7. buying; shopping 8. to see, to find, buy; trying to travel 9. to turn; working 10. taking, drop­ping, pretending 11. to grow, buying; to prevent, playing 12. keeping; to fill; asking, to keep; making 13. going; to come; to go, go; travelling 14. go fishing; coming; to cut, wasting, sit­ting, watching, fishing 15. being, to wait; to see 16. to prevent, rushing, dashing 17. tossing, crashing 18. to eat, trying 19. walking, take; go; to get 20. to start; raining, walking

21. counting, thinking; moving, being robbed; to get, to make

22. letting, keeping, to sell 23. to lean, watching, going, coming; shouting, talking 24. to know, to learn; to greet/greeting, to talk 25. untying, climbing, crawling 26. finding; getting; to know 27. to see/seeing, sitting; relaxing, reading, produce, to be; per­forming, keeping 28. spending, living, to think, selling, returning

29. arguing; argue; seeing 30. to hear; seeing; to bring 31. receiving, selling; receiving, selling, to sell 32. hovering, be­ing, climbing; run/running; coming/come, leading 33. to be passing, to give, to pick, to drop 34. having; to have; sitting, swirling, taking 35. writing, showing 36. swim; swimming; going

49. 1. You are really guilty of having provoked this fight 2. I was always afraid of losing his benevolence 3. Don't miss an op­portunity to see this exhibition 4. Are you quite sure of those words referring to my mother? 5. I could feel her hands shaking when she was putting her coat on 6. He stepped aside for me to pass 7. The expedition is reported to have reached its destination 8. Walter Scott is considered to be the father of historical novel 9. She doesn't seem to want to do anything I suggest 10. His office turned out to be in one of the remote streets of the town 11. She watched him go up the street and enter a house 12. He wanted me to go to India with him 13. I saw a taxi stop by our house 14. It is no use asking him about it 15. They decided against sending him a telegram

50. 1. I have so often known a change of medicine work wonders 2. What makes you think so? 3. Let us be the best friends in the world 4. For about ten days we seemed to have been living on nothing but cold meat and bread 5. I hated the sound of the rain pattering on the roof 6. Having put the car in the garage he remembered that he had had no breakfast 7. I like making people happy 8. Excuse my taking your seat 9. He does not like to be disturbed when writing letters 10. There was a rumour that they were likely to be married at last 11. I don't like you to talk like that 12. He looked at the carpet while wait­ing for her answer 13. I think everybody looked forward to his coming back 14. Don't forget shutting the windows when you leave home 15. When did you have your hair cut?

I.I felt my heart jump 2. The door and window of the room being open, we looked in 3. There is no hope of seeing him soon 4. He heard the town clock strike twelve 5. The lake was rough but I kept on rowing 6. I insist on being treated with re­spect 7. When left to herself she sat down at the desk to write the article 8. There's nobody here for him to play with 9. She denied having been at the station that night 10. He avoided look­ing at Sabine 11. You can get your clothes made in Europe

12. He spoke loud enough for you to hear 13. He proved to be an ideal teacher 14. Edith is said to resemble me 15. We count on their coming back after several days 16, I won't have you speak like that! 17. He is said to be good at translating verse 18. I hap­pen to know his phone number 19. He is sure to take part in the expedition in January 20. She couldn't help smiling

52. 1. The first night of the performance was reported to take place on the 9th of August 2. We shan't let you pay no attention to him 3. He appeared to have left the keys at home 4. He didn't want David to live at home 5. Ancient burial places are said to have been found 6. I got him to take off his coat and have cup of tea 7. He is said to have travelled a lot 8. You should have your photo taken by Wednesday 9. He is said to have been working at a new book for a year 10. I'll have Ann help me pack all the

things 11. Mr Osborn wanted his son to marry Emily whose fa­ther was very rich 12. This picture is considered to have been painted by Repin 13. Nobody noticed him come in and stop at the door 14. The principal is expected to make a speech at the fare­well party 15. Gloomy thoughts didn't let Robert fall asleep that night 16. The Romans are said to have built good roads in Eng­land 17. He is likely to have finished working at this book 18. He seems to like the performance 19. He was considered to be one of the most experienced football players in the team 20. They had the guest play the piano 21. He was seen to be running toward the forest 22. When will you have your piano tuned? It is impos­sible to play it 23. Where have you had your bicycle repaired? 24. This opera company is said to have given some performances in London 25. He heard the clock strike 12 26. The plane is re­ported to have landed in time 27. They watched him go upstairs and enter the house

53. 1. The woman sitting in the armchair is the editor's wife

2. The man standing at the blackboard is our English teacher

3. The fence surrounding the garden is newly painted 4. I couldn't fall asleep last night because there was a crying baby in the next door room 5. John has bought a used car 6. The police are look­ing for the stolen car 7. The advertised merchandise was not available at the store 8. The articles written by this political ob­server are read with great interest all over the world 9. We are discussing the article written by Jack Nelson 10. Don't wake up the sleeping child 11. The child sleeping on the sofa is sick 12. Feeling unwell, Joe decided not to go to work 13. Seeing Nancy, Ann cried with joy 14. Asking me about my summer plans, Mr Smith smiled all of a sudden 15. Being busy, Jack re­fused the invitation 16. Having read the newspaper, he wrote some business letters

54. 1. John likes studying foreign languages 2. I don't re­member having seen such a movie 3. He is fond of playing chess

4. Jack is proud of being among the winners of the contest 5. The children insisted on watching television after dinner 6. I am not interested in listening to her gossips 7. You have no reason for refusing to see Jack 8. My wife does not approve of my fast driving 9. I object to Bob's driving the car 10. I was afraid of missing the train 11. Jack intends to buy a new car 12. I prefer meeting you at Carnegie Hall 13. I would appreciate your calling me back 14. Please excuse me disturbing you 15. I have finished typing a business letter 16. She couldn't help smiling 17. She denies having called Albert 18. Martin avoids meeting us 19. She refrained from mentioning the name of her acquaintances 20. Ann is not capable of doing any harm

55. 1. To take sleeping tablets is harmful 2. Here is the letter to be mailed as soon as possible 3. He is too nervous to drive a car 4. The flight may have been cancelled 5. You must spend more time on your English 6. I would like to have a cup of coffee 7. Let me say a few words 8. Let us be friends 9. Let's stop talk­ing now 10. I heard my neighbours quarrel 11. Have you heard Jane play the piano? 12. I saw him fall 13. I heard him mention your name 14. He made us wait three hours 15. What makes you laugh? 16. You'd better call the doctor 17. You'd better tell your parents the truth 18. I would rather listen to music 19. My wife helped me look for my glasses 20. Help me move that sofa


31. (In many of these examples other pronouns would be equally correct^} 1. told her I had ... to show her 2. said nothing grew in her garden ... it never got 3. told his mother he was go­ing away the next day 4. said he had been ... he hadn't had 5. remarked that it wasn't so foggy that day as it had been the day as before 6. said that the underpass was being opened two days later 7. said they had moved into their flat but they didn't like it ... their last one 8. said they had ... it didn't work 9. said that ... windows of his flat he could see 10. said she'd no idea what the time was but she'd dial 11. his wife had just been made 12. said she'd come with me ... she was 13. said he had ... that afternoon ... he hadn't done his homework 14. warned her if she let ... she would scorch her clothes 15. pointed out I hadn't given him ... bill was ... I'd paid him 16. Englishmen made ... they were 17. she liked men ... she didn't like them ... She preferred ... men looked silly 18. The report stated that the new Rolls Royce ran ... all you could hear was ... The Managing Director replied that they'd have 19. said she didn't know ... her plums. She supposed (said she supposed) she'd have to ... trouble was no one in her

family ate 20. explained they liked working ... they got 21. that he was ... and he did all his own 22. told Joan she could keep that one if she liked as he had 23. said he was going fishing with his mother that afternoon and they were just going 24. told her she had got my umbrella and that hers was in her bedroom 25. explained to his client that he knew what they had said be­cause he had bugged 26. said he'd sit up till she came in but he hoped she wouldn't 27. told me that if I gave him ... he'd ... for me 28. said she had ... it didn't seem ... to her weight 29. said it was ... and that he used one of them himself 30. said her new house was supposed to be ... but that so far she hadn't seen

31. said that if we answered all the questions ... we might win

32. said that if he pressed his ear ... he could hear ... were saying 32. 1. he hadn't been able to get ... he had lost his key, so he

had had to break 2. the mirror was there ... he could see himself when he was dancing 3. told him she had written to him two days before and wondered why he hadn't 4. if the ground was dry ... his horse might win 5. advised me to slow down as there was 6. said that if Tom wanted ... he'd better apply 7. they had walked ... the previous night ... protest about their rent. The Minister had been ... had promised ... what he could for them 8. said they should put traffic lights there, otherwise there'd be 9. told them it was time they began training for their ... 10. said to me that if I left ... I should be there 11. if it rained that afternoon it would be ... the following day 12. told her guest she had meant ... she had plugged ... She was always doing 13. he had been intending ... the next day ... didn't think he'd be 14. told Mrs Smith that Bill should do ... he had done very well at the school 15. told her hus­band she didn't think his father liked her 16. told her the steak was ... and said/added that he was not complaining but was just pointing ... she said she wished he'd stop 17. reported that the burglars hadn't been able ... had carried it 18. told me that if I saw her father I'd recognize him ... He was 19. he had found ... the day before'... was going ... that afternoon 20. he had got out ... while he was standing ... the gears (had) engaged ... and the boat had gone/went 21. says he has done 22. asked if he would like me to go with him. He said he'd rather go ... or, I offered to go with him, but he said 23. told me I might take his car if I liked and said he wouldn't be needing it the next day or the day after that 24. that the previous day Tom and she had gone/been to

look ... he was thinking ... It was rather ... and had a lovely gar­den but Tom had decided ... was opposite 25. his wife wanted to take ... he'd rather she concentrated on their home 26. she didn't know what my father would say when he saw ... my puppies had made of the £5 note 27. it was high time I passed my test; she was tired 28. said I wished she had seen it

33. 1. asked what had happened 2. asked which .. (had) in­herited 3. asked who was going 4. asked what would happen 5. asked which team had won 6. asked which team (had) won 7. asked who was playing the following week 8. asked who would be umpiring 9. asked who wanted 10. asked who had just dropped 11. asked where the ... office was 12. asked what she should do with her ... 13. asked what platform the train left 14. asked when it arrived 15. asked when the timetable had been changed 16 asked why the 2.30 had been ... 17. asked how much a day return cost 18. asked why the price went up 19. asked how he could get 20. asked when they were coming 21. asked if a return ... was 22. asked if puppies travelled 23. asked if she could bring her dog ... with her 24. asked if the train stopped 25. asked if you could telephone 26. asked if the 2.40 had 27. asked if you could get 28. asked if they brought 29. asked if there were 30. asked if

he had

34. 1. asked what-country I came from 2. asked how long I'd been here 3. asked if I was working 4. asked if I had 5. asked what I was going to study 6. asked if I had enrolled 7. asked if I wanted to buy 8. asked if I had seen 9. asked if I played 10. asked if I would have 11. asked if I had played for my ... 12. asked if I was interested 13. asked if I would like 14. asked what I thought

Each of the following will begin: she asked/ wanted to

know/ enquired 15. how long it had been 16. if I liked 17. if he

was 18. how many ... there were 19. how big the classes were

20. if the classes were 21. what the academic standard was like

22. if parents could visit 23. if there was 24. if they taught

25. what ... could the children learn 26. if there was 27. if they\

i acted 28. what ... plays they had done 29. what games they

played 30. if the fields were 31. if they were taught 32. if the

children could get 33. if the food was good 34. if there was

35. how often it met 36. if our boys had been/were happy

35. (/'/ is interchangeable with whether except in condi­tional sentences.} 1. asked why he was looking 2. asked who had

put ... in his coffee 3. asked which of them knew 4. asked why he had travelled 5. inquired how she could run in high-heeled shoes 6. asked them what their new house was like 7. asked where he was supposed to go 8. asked him whose car he had borrowed the previous night 9. asked me what she was/had been wearing when I saw her last 10. asked who owned the revolver 11. asked Mr J. where he had been the previous night 12. asked the boy what else he had seen 13. asked whether he had done that sort

14. asked her if she could read 15. inquired whether they had understood what I had said to them 16. asked the customer if he was being attended to 17. asked him if he would go ... the others did 18. asked Mary if she saw what he saw 19. inquired who had left 20. asked him if he had gone ... and if he wanted 21. asked why his house was ... and whether his father had been 22. asked if he was leaving that day or the following morning 23. asked how far it was and how long it would take 24. asked if he could speak to Mrs Pitt. The au pair girl answered that she was afraid she was out and asked if she could take 25. asked the little boy if he was sorry for what he had done 26. asked her if she was going to 27. asked the woman if she would mind if he looked inside her bag 28. asked the student if he would know what to do if some­one fell at his feet 29. asked her why she thought it might be 30. asked him if he knew ... shoes he was wearing weren't

(The following are possible answers. Other introduc­tory verbs are often possible.) 1. He told her to switch off the TV 2. She told Tom to shut 3. I asked Mary to lend me her pen 4. I warned them not to watch 5. He warned me not to believe everything I heard 6. asked me to fill up the 7. I told them not to hurry 8. warned Mary not to touch the switch 9. ordered the bank clerk to open 10. begged me to do as he said 11. told Peter to help his mother 12. told the children not to make 13. told us to do whatever we liked 14. warned them not to miss their train

15. advised his client to read it before he signed it 16. begged her to sing it again 17. warned us not to put our hands 18. advised him to buy 19. begged him not to drive 20. told the boys not to lean their bicycles against his windows 21. asked her to come with him 22. advised her to cook it 23. warned the lady not to touch 24. told the boys not to argue with him 25. told him to pull as hard as he could 26. ordered the porter to send 27. advised us not to lend 28. told us to make a list of what we wanted 29. told

her to look 30. warned the people on the platform to stand clear 31. asked the children to see if they could 32. warned her not to go 33. asked the customer to pay 34. the notice told us to leave the space clear 35. I reminded them to write to their 36. warned her to think well before she answered

37. (See note above key to Exercise 36.) 1. told me to get out of his 2. ordered me to climb 3. asked the customer to pay 4. asked her to open her 5. told Mrs P. not to worry but (to) leave it all to him 6. warned him not to use 7. told the taxi-driver to follow the car 8. recommended me to wash 9. urged me to have confidence in him 10. told the liftman to take him 11. advised the passengers to read 12. told her always to cook .. and never to use 13. told him not to argue with his 14. reminded me to prune 15. told her to wait for him 16. advised her not to eat ... and to avoid 17. advised me not to say 18. the notice told/asked people not to ask 19. told her not to forget 20. advised /told me to cross 21. asked him to write to her as-often as he could 22. told him to put his 23. asked the porter to find him 24. told me not to forget my 25. told the children not to go 26. told his men to search 27. told her not to make 28. told/warned him to put the gun down as it was loaded

(See note above key to Exercise 36.) 1. advised us to make ... our time as we wouldn't get 2. urged the public not to wait till the following day but to post ... that day 3. warned them to be ... and reminded me to drive 4. said he couldn't open it and told/asked Peter to have 5. told me to go and get him ... and to come 6. said someone was coming and told/urged me to get 7. warned us to give way to ... the /our right 8. begged us to send whatever we could spare 9. advised him to wear a wig if he didn't want to be recognized 10. warned/told them not to bathe when the red flag was flying 11. told him not to forget/reminded him to thank ... when he was saying 12. told me to watch ... and not to let it 13. told/advised/warned me not to shelter ... as the tree might 14. told me to put the message ... and throw 15. told me to read it for myself if I didn't believe what he said 16. reminded me to use my 17. told her husband not to drive . or the baby would 18. begged her to make ... stronger and said that it had been ... the previous night 19. warned us to beware

20. told me to smell it and asked if I thought it had gone bad

21. told him not to take his coat off as they were going 22. told

her to stand by the window and tell him if anyone went 23. told his pupil not to move till ... waved him on 24. told me not to touch it as I would only make 25. warned him to be careful as the steps were 26. told/asked the girl to ask her boss ... and said that my number was ... She asked me to repeat it 27. ... told him to tell them not to work ... as if they finished ... they wouldn't get 28. The placard warned us to prepare to meet our doom as the end of the world was at hand 29. The instructor reminded me to put 30. Keiko asked him to take off his

39. 1. he invited me to have lunch with him 2. offered me/her/him a 3. asked if they'd mind not smoking/asked them not to smoke 4. told her to take the ... and to shut the door as she went 5. asked me to help her as she couldn't 6. said it was a ... and advised me to ask 7. advised me to try to/and get 8. offered to wait for me/said she'd wait if I liked 9. reminded me to switch off when I'd finished 10. asked/told me to check the figures for him 11. advised me to apologize 12. asked him to check 13. told me to sit/said he wished I'd sit ... asked how I expected him to paint me when I kept jerking my head 14. advised him to go by train as it was 15. The notice asked guests not to play 16. asked me to wait 17. strongly advised me to see 18. advised them to plant 18. asked me to sign 20. asked me to forward ... while he was 21. The police asked anyone who has seen the ... to get in touch with their nearest 22. warned me not to leave my ... as our host's dogs might mistake me 23. told me to answer the letter and reminded me to keep 24. asked me to move my car as it was blocking his 25. Mrs Jones asked them to let her know when their ... came in 26. The coach told the first team to report 27. Tom asked Ann to sew on the button for him. Mary advised him to sew it on himself as buttons ... usually came off 28. The girl asked me to sit down and said .../said that if I sat down the fortune-teller would be with me

40. 1. asked if he could get 2. said she couldn't open ... Tom offered to do it for her 3. asked the official to translate it 4. wondered if they would ever meet 5. asked if I would be there the next day. I said that I would 6. asked if she could lose ... the doctor said (that) she couldn't 7. offered me a drink 8. urged us to install 9. asked me to read it 10. asked (me) if she should tell him what had happened 11. asked if I wouldn't like to look 12. said she was going ... Tom said he was too and offered her

a lift/asked if she'd like a lift 13. asked for a sweet/asked if he could have a sweet 14. asked if they could stay 15. asked for the weekend/asked if he could have 16. asked if he could leave 17. asked (him) why he didn't like 18. advised him to take up

19. asked where he should hang his . . and if it would look

20. asked what I should/was to do if the car wouldn't start

21. asked if I had enough ... and offered to lend me some

22. asked if he would be able to guide me or if I should bring

23. reminded him to shut 24. asked (her) if she would like to see 25. asked me to peel 26. said that he'd got two tickets and in­vited me to come/go with him 27. asked if I could use ... I said (that) I couldn't 28. asked if I'd mind living by myself 29. asked me to pay /asked if I'd mind paying 30. asked why she didn't trust him. She said (that) she never trusted

(See note above key to Exercise 36) 1. told me to re member to get ... when I was or reminded me to get, etc. or said that when I was at ... I was to get 2. told/advised me to sit down and put my head between my knees if I felt or said that if I felt faint I was to put/should put 3. asked what he was to do/should do with my purse if he found it. I told/asked him to keep it till! he saw me 4. told me/asked me to give him a drink if he arrived before she got back or said that if he arrived before she got back I was to give 5. told me if anyone rang up to say or said that if anyone rang up I was to say she'd be 6. told me when I was driving always to look in my mirror or said that when I was driving I should always look 7. told me to leave the key under the mat if I went out or said that if 1 went out I was to leave 8. told me to shut the window if I thought the room was cold or said that if I thought the room was cold I was to shut/should shut . 9. told me to ring him up if I felt lonely any time or said that if I felt lonely I was to ring 10. said that if she didn't eat meat I was to offer her an omelette (the tell construction would be very clumsy here) 11. told me to get the car off the road if I had a puncture and not to leave or said that if I had a puncture I was to get/should get ... and not leave 12. told me to take the letter to the police if he wasn't back by that time the next day or said that if he wasn't back by ... I was to take 13. told her husband not to forget/reminded him to thank Mrs Pitt when he saw her 14. told me to take the meat out of the oven when the bell rang or said that when the bell rang I was to take/should take 15. told them

to give their ... if they were taken ... but to refuse to answer or said that if they were taken ... they were to give ... but (to) ref­use 16. told them to shut ... and go ... when they heard or said that when they heard ... they were to shut and go 17. told me to press ... if the lift should stop/stopped or said that if the lift should stop/stopped ... I was to press/should press 18. told me to ask a client if he had a weak heart before I allowed him or said that before I allowed anyone ... I was to ask/should ask 19. asked what she should/was to say if the police stopped her 20. asked what she should do if he refused to let her in. I told her to write

21. asked/wondered what would happen if the strike continued

22. ... how they would get food if it went' on 23. ... asked if they could go ... the rain stopped 24. said that when they'd ... they were to 25. advised her to switch ... if she didn't like 26. asked whether/if the bank would repay ... if I lost 27. told me I had/'d better complain ... if the noise got 28. said I was to ring him and give him ... as soon as I found

Part 1. (Alternative constructions are often possible.) 1-14. Ann suggested having a party on the following Saturday. Mary agreed and asked who they should invite. Ann was against making a list and suggested they should just invite everybody. Mary said they didn't want to do much cooking and proposed making it a wine and cheese party. Ann then suggested that they should ask everyone to bring a bottle. Mary reminded her that they hadn't many glasses left and suggested hiring glasses from their local wine shop. Ann suggested having the party in the gar­den if it was warm and then Mary put forward the idea of a bar­becue. Ann thought this way a good idea and said they could ask Paul to do the cooking. Mary remembered that last time they had had a barbecue the neighbours had complained about the noise, and she wondered if they should ask everyone to speak in whis­pers. Ann suggested going round to the neighbours instead and apologizing in advance. Mary, however, proposed inviting the neighbours, adding that then the noise wouldn't matter. Ann thought that was a clever idea and suggested ringing everyone up that night, but Mary prudently suggested working out how much it would cost first

Part 2. 15. Mrs Smith suggested ... but her husband sug­gested renting ..., adding that it was all they could afford 16. I suggested that Ann should complain, saying that the boss was

more likely to listen to her 17. She reminded him that he used to be ... and suggested that he should 18. He proposed walking ... as it was not far and I agreed 19. Ann suggested (our) joining a weaving class, adding that there was one 20. The children sug­gested organizing ... the teacher proposed 21. I asked Bill where we should meet and he suggested the hotel 22. I suggested to Ann that she should ring him and ask him what he thought 23. I pointed out I was doing ... and suggested that he should give me/him giving me 24. He proposed leaving/that they should leave adding that he hated 25. Their father suggested that the children should go 26. I suggested his/him asking them what they would like to do 27. He suggested that we should begin training ... I said I had ... and suggested that he should ask Paul 28. They suggested me/my putting an advertisement in the local paper

(The following are possible answers only.} 1. warned us not to walk on the ice as it wasn't 2. introduced Miss White to Miss Brown 3. gave/handed her the keys, advising/and advised her to wait 4. begged me not to tell ... I promised not to/promised (that) I wouldn't 5. offered him my torch but he refused as/explaining that he had one of his own 6. Tom offered to pay. Ann protested but he insisted 7. invited us to come in and look round, assuring us that there was no 8. threatened to kill the boy if they didn't pay 9. refused to answer any questions 10. complained that he expected ... agreed (with her) 11. wished it would 12. pointed out that I had pressed ... He warned me not to do ... I might have 13. exclaimed that her weight had gone up ... she admitted /agreed that it had 14. hoped I'd have a good journey/wished me a good journey and reminded me to send a card when I arrived 15. exclaimed with delight that he had passed ... I congratulated him and wished him luck 16. She agreed to wait 17. wished him many happy returns of his ... and he thanked us 18. pointed out/remarked that my door was ... I agreed (with her)/I admitted it 19. He offered me a cigarette and I accepted 20. Their mother threatened to sell ... if they kept ... The children begged her not to do that, promising not to quar­rel/assuring her that they wouldn't quarrel 21. offered me £500 to keep my 22. He promised to wait for me 23. I apologized for being late and explained that the bus had broken 24. accused him of leaking ... He denied it. Tom called him a liar 25. threatened to drop us from

the team if we did not train 26. complained that if the boys did ... he called them his sons, but that if they did ... he called them hers 27. Tom suggested having arest and Ann agreed 28. He exclaimed with disgust that there was a slug in his ... and called 44. (Other alternatives are possible here.)

1. Tom: Would you like to come for a drive, tomorrow, Ann?

2. Ann: I'd love to. Where are you thinking of going, Tom?

3. Tom: Well, I'll leave it to you

4. Ann: What about Stratford?

5. I haven't been there for ages

6. Tom: Good idea!/All right. We might go on the river if it's a fine day

7. Ann: I wonder what's on at the Royal Shakespeare Theatre

8. Tom: We'll find out when we get there

9. It's usually possible to get seats on the day of the play 10. Can you be ready by ten?

11.Ann: I'm afraid not, Tom/I'm very sorry, Tom, but I can't. I have to type a report first

12. Tom: Working on Saturday! What a horrible idea!

13. I'd change my job if I were you

14. Ann: Don't be ridiculous, Tom!

15. I volunteered to type the report in return for a free after­noon next week

16. I didn't know you were going to ask me out, after all

17. Tom: Oh well, I suppose it's all right

18. But don't make a habit of volunteering for weekend work, will you?

19. Ann: No, I promise I won't

20. Tom: (gloomily) I suppose you'll be busy all morning

21. Ann: No, no! I'll finished by 11.00

22. Shall I meet you at the bus stop at Hyde Park Corner?

23. Tom: That isn't a very good meeting place. I'll call for you

24. Ann: That's very good of you, Tom. I'll be waiting in the hall

25. Tom: Let's climb to the top. The view from there is mar­vellous

26. Ann: But we've been climbing for three hours already. I'm too tired to go any further

27. Why don't you go on up? I'll go down and wait there

28. Tom: All right. Here are the car keys. You'd better wait in the car./You could wait in the car, couldn't you?

29. I'll be as quick as I can

30. Ann: There'll be no lunch left if you're too long. I'll have eaten it all!

(In the exercises on reported speech we often use nouns as subjects: e. g. the policeman, the children, Paul etc. In the answers, to save space, we have often used pronouns.} 1. he said he was going out but he'd be in 2. she said she was working ... and didn't much care 3. Peter said he couldn't live on his basic salary and he'd have to 4. Mary said her young brother wanted to be ... she couldn't think why because none of her family had ever been 5. they said they were waiting ... and it was late 6. he said he had made ... I said he was always making ... and should be used to it 7. he said they made ... and sent ... to their wives 8. he said it was lonely being away from their ... but they earned ... in that/the factory as they would in their own 9. he said they had been there ... and were going to stay 10. he said he'd got ... I said that would be ... he replied he knew it would be hard but he didn't mind ... and it would be 11. he said the ice would soon be ... she said she would look for her skates when she got 12. she said she was living with her parents at the moment but she hoped to have a flat of her own soon 13. she said she was leaving the following day ... we said we'd come and see her off 14. he said he'd just bought ... but it wasn't insured yet so he couldn't take me 15. she said she would like to speak ... but she was bathing ... and they would drown if she left ... she went 16. Ann says she is coming ... next week. She hopes we will meet her 17. She said nothing ever happened ... it was like ... people had drifted 18. he said he had missed his train; he'd be late ... and his boss would be 19. they said they would wait for me if I was late/for us if we were late 20. I said they were supposed ... but if the fog got ... the plane might be 21. she said if I lent her ... she'd bring ... in two days' time 22. he grumbled he hated getting up on dark mornings; his wife agreed it was horrible but said the mornings would be lighter soon and then it wouldn't be 23. she said the sales were starting the following day and as soon as they finished work the whole ... pool was going ... I (said I) hoped they would all get what they wanted 24. he (said he) wished he had some­thing ... said he had only 'just had lunch and she didn't know how

he could be 25. my aunt said if I was short ... she could lend me ... and I could take my time 26. he said he usually took his dog ... when he came 27. I said I had ... for her brother. Ann said he wasn't at home; he had left two days before 28. I said I had bought the bag ... he said I shouldn't have bought ... it didn't go with my coat 29. she said she must hurry as her father was al­ways ... if any of them were 30. he said if I wanted to smoke I would have to 31. he said he was building himself ... he wouldn't show it to me just yet but when the roof was on I could come 32. he said the lake would probably freeze that night; it was much colder than the previous night. Mary said she would go ... and if it was frozen she would make ... ducks could 33. He said ... the strikers went back the following day it would be ... things re­turned 34. She said someone was trying to murder her. She kept getting 35. she said she was taking her children ... the following day 36. she said all she could hear was ... she wondered if it was

46. (See the notes to Exercise 45) 1. he said there had been ... road was blocked ... it wouldn't be clear ... he advised us to go/he said we'd better go 2. they suggested lighting ... cooking their sausages 3. he said he was thinking ... aunt advised him not to go it was a bad 4. he warned us to take ... as we might have to 5. he said he had left some books on my table. He thought I'd find them useful and said I could keep them as long as I needed them but that he'd like ... when I had finished with them. I thanked him and said I'd take/promised to take 6. he said that if the children could ... were ... should be able ... he was teaching 7. he said the puppy could sleep on their bed ... she said she'd rather he slept ... would soon be ... there wouldn't be ... all three of them 8. she said she'd try by herself ... and if she found that she couldn't ... she'd ask Tom to help her 9. Mary suggested camping by the stream as, or pointing out that if they went on, it might be dark before they found 10. they wished they'd brought their ... as then they could have offered ... and perhaps they (the restaurant) would have given them 11. Jones said he'd booked ... The receptionist said she (was afraid that they) hadn't got his letter ... all rooms had been taken ... but they could give him ... Jones said that wouldn't do him 12. he said he'd had gypsies on his land and they'd given ... Council had asked him ... He didn't see why ... and was writing to his MP 13. he grumbled that the letter was ... She admitted she had done it ... and said she supposed she'd better 14. he said if they'd like to go on any of the tours the hotel would arrange it. They said they'd like 15. he said they'd try to find my passport but it would be ... slept ... might have robbed me 16. she suggested going ... and said they might make their ... She'd been given ... He said he had had ... from her ... they had been 17. he said he didn't know why she wasted ... the neighbours all polished ... she didn't want their Mini ... . If he were any good ... he'd help her 18. he apologized for not having a tie on. He said he didn't know it was going 19. he said he would have enjoyed ... if the man next to him hadn't snored 20. I said I was thinking ... he advised me to take someone with me. It was safer as one could ... slept 21. Paul says that the plans have been changed; we're going tomorrow now not the next day. He wants us to meet him at Victoria tonight 22. He said that if he wanted ... he had to ... it wasn't hot. I said that was ridiculous and that it was high time he left 23. he said he knew the umbrella belonged to me but he thought it would be all right if he borrowed it because I wasn't going out the following day and he was 24. he suggested putting my ... and making It would be ...what they were planning. I said/objected that my re­corder made ... and they'd be sure ... and then they'd find ... and ask 25. she said whenever her father was unhappy he would go out and buy ... their rooms were full ... they couldn't use. Tom said that he was sorry for her father; he must have been 26. he said I could leave my ... in his garage if I liked ... he would keep ... while I was away 27. he told Ann that if she wanted a job she should read ... it was no use ... outside her door 28. he said it used to be ... but that now it was impossible. When summer came I'd have to 29. he said I must leave a note for my ... otherwise she'd be ... when I wasn't in at my 30. she said ... had just arrived ... and he was ... She won­dered if she should ring ... wait till he came

(See the notes to Exercise 45) 1. she asked who had been using her 2. he asked if I wanted 3. he asked if I minded 4. they asked if I would like to come with them/they invited me to come with them 5. she asked who I had given 6. he asked how long it took 7. he asked how much I thought it would cost 8. she asked him what he had missed most when he was/had been 9. he asked if the seat was taken 10. He asked how I got on with my 11. they asked him how he had got 12. he asked what I was/had been doing with the skeleton ... and if I was/had been

trying 13. she asked me if I had slept 14. they asked him if he had been there 15. she asked if I could tell her why Paul (had) left 16. he asked how many ... knew 17. she asked if there were ... for her 18. he asked how long I had been 19. he asked why I wasn't 20. the customer asked if they were 21. I asked where they were going for their 22. she asked if it would be ... if she came ... that night 23. he asked if I had ever seen 24. she asked him where she could park her 25. she asked if I would like ... I asked which way she was going 26. she asked who I wanted 27. he asked if anyone wanted 28. I asked what he was going to do with his 29. I asked if she grew her own 30. he asked what train I was going 31. she asked him if he could change ... and said she was afraid she hadn't got/and apologized for not having

32. she asked how many ... he had taken. He said he had no idea

33. they asked if they could see the manager/they asked to see the manager. The secretary asked if they had 34. he asked if I thought I could live ... on my own ... or if I would get 35. he asked if any of us had actually seen 36. she asked if she could see/she asked to see/she asked for Commander Smith. I said I was afraid he was in orbit and asked if she would like

48. 1. he suggested having ... Ann agreed and suggested going ... Jack was always 2. she said Jack's parents had asked her ... the following night and asked what she should wear. Her mother advised her to wear ... as it was 3. he said he was broke. Peter offered to lend him 4. the clerk said it would take ... to look up her file. Ann asked if it was worth waiting or if she should 5. he asked if he would have to do ... if he failed ... The teacher said that he would 6. I asked where he would be the next day in case I had to ring him. He said that he would be in his ... at his flat. He wouldn't be going 7. Mary asked what she should do with the cracked cup and her mother advised her to throw 8. she wondered if she would ever see 9. he asked me to get out ... and he had to change ... I offered to help 10. he said he'd run ... and asked me to give him/asked for a lift 11. he suggested going ... She said she liked ... but that her only ... shoes were being ... She suggested going 12. he said I had a lot ... and offered to carry some of them for me 13. he wondered if they would be 14. he asked what he should do with all the money. Mary advised him to take ... and get/Mary suggested taking ... and getting 15. Peter offered Jack a cigarette. Jack thanked him and said he didn't

smoke .16. They asked if she'd like to go/invited her to go with them, saying that there was ... Ann said she'd love to/Ann ac­cepted 17. she asked Mr Jones if he could do without her that day as she had ... and thought it might ... if she stayed. Mr Jones advised her to stay ... and to take the next day off too if she wasn't better 18. Mary told Paul that she'd just come back to her flat ... in her chair. He was still there ... and she asked/wanted to know what she should do. Paul advised her to wake him and ask him who he was, adding that there was 19. he said he wasn't quite ... and asked Jack to wait/if he could wait ... Jack said he couldn't wait long because the train went 20. I asked her to take off her hat/if she would mind taking ... She pointed out that the theatre was ... and suggested my/me moving 21. he said he of­ten saw ... and asked if I thought he should 22. I asked what changes he would make if the house was his. He said he'd pull ... The site was all right 23. he asked for my name 24. he offered to send it round to his hotel/asked if he should send ... The tourist said he wasn't staying ... and he'd take it with him 25. I asked (him) how long they would go on looking ... He said they'd stop when it got ... and start ... the following day 26. I said we couldn't discuss it over the phone ... and suggested meeting in my flat the following day. He said he'd rather I came to his ... and asked if I could get there 27. he asked for 40p to buy an ice cream /as he wanted to buy an ice-cream 28. he asked (us) if we would like ... of his flat, or if we would rather 29. she asked me to help her with her luggage, and said that if I took ... she'd take ... I said it was ridiculous ... and asked if she couldn't manage ... but she said she couldn't 30. Ann said she couldn't come ... (so) Peter suggested Tuesday ... Ann agreed (to this)

49. (The verb of command given below is not necessarily the only possible one. See also note to Exercise 45) 1. she told him not to put ... in his 2. she begged him not to do 3. he urged me to apply ... as it would just suit me 4. he advised me to say nothing 5. she asked them to wait in the lounge till their flight number was called 6. I advised her not to lend ... as he never paid 7. she asked him to ring 8. he asked me to move my case/asked if I'd mind moving my case as it was blocking 9. she reminded him to book 10. he told/warned me to get 11. he warned me to avoid Marble Arch as there was going 12. he told me to hold the ladder as it was ... I suggested tying/advised him to tie it ... as it

was much safer 13. he told them to read ... and not to write 14. he warned me not to leave my money 15. he advised me to open 16. he invited her to lunch that day. She said she was afraid she couldn't as she couldn't leave/She refused, explaining that she couldn't leave 17. he warned me not to take more than two of them 18. I asked to speak to Albert/asked if I could speak ... She said he was ... I asked her to wake him as I had 19. he ad­vised me to buy 20. they said I was being exploited and that I ought to leave my job/and advised me to leave 21. she told them to fasten their ... as there might be 22. he warned me not to drive ... or oncoming drivers might take me 23. he asked to see my licence 24. I advised him to sweep up 25. she said the bathroom was empty and asked me to put ... when I had 26. he reminded me to insure my 27. she begged him not to ... and reminded him that they had to 28. I urged Tom to go ... before his toothache got 29. he advised me to cut my hair, saying that I would find ... if I looked 30. he asked for some more

50. (See the note to Exercise 45) 1. the clerk asked me to fill up the form 2. he asked me to read 3. she asked for a new cheque book. He asked her to show him her 4. Tom says that we are to be ready/should be ready 5. he begged me not to tell his mother 6. he ordered/warned us not to fire 7. he advised me to take 8. she asked me to help her 9. he warned me not to drive 10. he warned/told/advised me not to smoke 11. she said that when I'd chosen a book I was to bring it to her and she would 12. he told me to show 13. a notice warned/ordered us to reduce speed at once 14. he asked to see my ticket 15. he warned me to keep an eye on my luggage as the place was 16. he said that when I'd read it I was to pass it on or he told me to pass it on ... when I'd read it 17. he suggested lighting ... and cooking 18. he told me to press the button whenever I saw ...she said that whenever I saw ... I was to press 19. he told her to sit down and tell him what was worrying her 20. he told me to walk ... and just to nod if I recognized my attacker but not to say/and said that if I recognized my attacker I was just to nod but not to say 21. he said that even if I felt hungry I wasn't to eat/shouldn't eat .../he advised me not to eat ... even if I felt 22. he asked Ann to ring and order a taxi for him. She suggested (his) going/advised him to go by tube as it was 23. she suggested buying some yeast and making their own bread as the bread they were getting was

24. he advised them to boil the water (first) if they had to use it, and warned them not to drink it unboiled 25. he suggested not telling anyone/that they shouldn't tell anyone till they were ... report was 26. Tom says he's got the tickets and (that) we're to meet him 27. he urged the strikers to show that they were ... 28. A notice advised customer to count their ... as mistakes could not 29. he warned me not to clap yet, as she hadn't finished. He added (that) singers loathed people who clapped 30. he reminded me to put my name

51. 1. Paul wants me to get him 2. Mr White would like you to meet him 3. Ann offered to get ... Mr Jones said he'd rather she got ... Ann said there weren't any and (that) the shops were 4. he told me not to worry ... as he made ... I asked if he learnt from his ... or if he kept 5. I said I was looking for ... who drank in that bar. The barman advised me to keep away from Albert as he didn't like strangers 6. He asked to have a look at my pa­per/asked if he could have ... I said I hadn't ... and asked him to wait ... He said he couldn't wait long as he was getting 7. she said we had woken or woke ... the previous night and that we must try ... that night. I promised we would 8. he complained that the soup was cold ... and asked why he never had ... She explained it was because the kitchen was ... If he insisted on ... he must/would have to put up ... He suggested getting ... She said (that) she wouldn't 9. he said my licence was ... I admitted that it was but said I had applied ... He warned me next time to apply ... before my current one had expired 10. I said I'd have the money for him the following ... and asked if I should post it to him. Tom asked me to keep it in my safe till he could come ... a lot of his mail had been going astray lately and he would hate to lose one of my 11. he asked to borrow my map/asked if he could borrow my map. I said he was always borrowing it and advised him to get/suggested his getting/asked why he didn't get one of his own 12. he said that when he heard ... we were to shut ... and go or he told us to shut the windows and go downstairs when we heard ... I asked what we were to do/should do if the stairs were blazing 13. she asked if I could hear the noise and what I thought it was. I (said I) thought it was ... but she (said she) thought it was ... and advised me to go/said I'd better go 14. they told Ann it was her turn ... that night. She protested that it couldn't be as she (had) baby-sat the previous night and the night before that,

and she was only supposed ... They begged her to do it just that once and promised not to ask her to do any the following week 15. he said it was the best ... problem was that they expected The tourists asked why he had brought them there. He told them not to get excited as he kept ties ... in their predicament, and he asked what colour they would like, adding that the ties were 16 1 suggested starting/offered to start/asked if I should start the next day. Tom said he'd rather I started that day 17. I advised her to go and see the film as it might help her ... Ann pointed out that the film was 18. he said he saw/had seen ... and one of them (had) sat up and waved to him. I asked which of them (had) waved. He said he didn't know; he wasn't/hadn't been near enough 19. I asked what (had) caused ... He said she must ... but he couldn't understand ... the wreck was 20. she said her car wouldn't start. The battery was flat. She asked them to give her a push just to start her ... Bill advised her to sell the car. Peter said nobody would buy it and suggested putting 21. he said he'd been given ... that he'd have to ... I suggested (his) throwing ... and saving himself ... or I advised him to throw ... and save him­self 22. he told me to press ... I said that last time he (had) told me to press ... He said that that had been 23. Tom told me not to brake if I found myself skidding as that only made ... He advised me to try ... I said I knew what I should do but that when I started ... I got ... that I did. Tom told me to stop and let him ... as we were just coming ... and he didn't want 24. he said he'd run out ... and asked if I'd got any. I said I hadn't but offered to go out and get some/but said I'd go out ... if he liked. He told me not to bother as he'd missed 25. he said that repairs to cars rented from them must be arranged through their office. So if anything went wrong with car I'd hired I was to ring ... on my card. The office was open ... I asked what I should do if some­thing went 26. asked why he hadn't ... He said that they had signalled but that she had come or came on in and had run or ran aground. I asked what was going ... He said they were going ... but that if they didn't get ... that night ... she would be there till she broke up, and there'd be 27. I asked why he was spending ... on the accounts. He said he couldn't ... he seemed to be ... and that meant he'd have to ... of his own money ... I asked if he'd like me to go through them and see if I could ... He said he wouldn't, but he'd like me to lend him 28. I asked (Jack) why he was looking so ... He said he'd just asked Ann to marry him and she'd refused. I said I thought she preferred ... and advised him to cut his hair and shave off his beard 29. she asked how he (had) got up the tree. He said he (had) used ... but that someone went/had gone off ... he was sawing. He told her to go ... and not just stand 30. he asked if I was ill and I said that I wasn't. He asked if I'd slept well the previous night and I said that I had. Then he asked/wanted to know why I was sitting ... were work­ing, and told me to go out ... and give 31. he asked/told passen­gers ... to go ... Peter advised Mary to go ... but said that he'd have to ... He said he'd take ... than she would and asked her to wait for him 32. Tom says that we aren't to worry about him. He wasn't badly ... and is being ... He says he's coming back next Wednesday ... and wants us to meet the plane 33. he asked what he was to do with his ... She advised him to stuff ... but warned him not to put ... or they'd go hard 34. he suggested driving on ... and trying ... I asked what we would do if that was ... He said we'd just ... as it would be 35. she said they had ... but that he was ... wouldn't hear me ... I asked what I was to do/should do if he woke up. Ann told me to give him some of the biscuits if he started growling. I asked how she knew he liked those ... She assured me that all dogs liked them. It said so 36. he warned me that if I even touched ... alarm bells would ring ... and I would be ... I asked if he was ... He told me to try it and see

52, 1. suggested going ... and I agreed 2. urged his col­leagues to show the nation that they were worthy of their 3. bagged his mother to let him stay ... that night 4. suggested eating ... Tom objected that it was/would be ... and suggested going to her flat ... and having 5. suggested leaving/that they should leave the wrecked car there ... and said it might remind 6. She said the neighbours would object and Tom said he didn't care 7. suggested going ... Mary agreed reluctantly 8. said that Tom had made the mess and that he was to clear 9. said that the next day was ... and suggested buying their mother 10. suggested taking ... and camping out. Mary suggested going ... and being 11. suggested giving a party but her husband was against the idea/opposed the idea 12. advised them not to jump ... and sug­gested waiting until they heard ... of the rumour or suggested that they shouldn't jump ... but wait 13. warned him that ... would say it was ... he said they could say they liked/he ex pressed complete indifference 14. urged/exhorted the nations to forget ... and to work 15. begged him to let her explain and asked him not to be 16. told the gardener to let the children play if they wanted to adding that she was sure they wouldn't do 17. suggested staying there/that we should stay there till the storm had passed 18. grumbled that it was ... and said that they should do

53. 1. said that if what she said was true he would have to go/must go 2. said that he had to/would have to/must be ... the following day 3. asked if he had to make 4. told us that we mustn't come 5. told my nephew that his ticket would cost ... he said ... he would have to go ... the next day 6. The park notice said that dogs must be kept 7. said that Tom must/would have to work 8. said that I needn't come in the following day and told me to take 9. said he had to/must go ... the following day as he had 10. The notice said that passengers must not lean 11. said that there must be ... because there was smoke 12. told him that when he was ... he would have to tie his 13. said that port wine must never be shaken 14. said he hadn't had ... and that he must be 15. said that the passport photo wasn't like her and that she must have/would have to have 16. told the children that they must not 17. said that I needn't/wouldn't have to/didn't have to get up till nine the next day 18. The railway regulations said pas­sengers must be 19. asked (Tom) how he had got his dog ... He/Tom said that he had carried him. I said that he must be 20. said that I mustn't/wasn't to tell anyone what she had just told me 21. asked (his mother) if he had to/need eat it all and she said that he must/had to 22. said that she had had to drive his pigs out of her garden 23. The notice said that sticks ... must be left 24. asked her if she had to do it all that night or if she couldn't leave some for the following day 25. told me that when I went through Bayeux I must see 26. said that I must walk faster, I was far too slow 27. told me that I mustn't forget ... or my friend would have to pay 28. said that he needn't tell me how grateful he was

54. 1. "Would he like to go to the concert?" she asked, "I'm sure he would," I said 2. "Look where you are going," she said to me; "the road is full of holes and very badly lit." 3. "While we were bathing," they said, "we saw someone examining our clothes." 4. "Have you looked everywhere?" I asked. "Yes," she

said 5. "Let's give her/what about giving her a bottle of wine?" he said 6. "The new carpet has arrived. Where am I to put/shall I put it?" he asked 7. "An enormous load of firewood was dumped at my front gate two days ago. Since then I haven't been able to get my car out," he said 8. "Have some more wine?" they said. "Yes, please," I replied 9. "If you find the front door locked, go round the back," he said to me 10. "Who are you?" she asked the burglars, "And who let you in?" "Sit down and keep quiet," they replied, "unless you want to get hurt." 11. "What was the weather like during your holiday?" he asked. "It was awful," I answered 12. "Let's go down to the harbour and see/What about going down ... and seeing if we can hire a boat?" he suggested 13. "If you don't like escalators, you can go up the emergency staircase," he told me. "Thank you, I'll do that," I said 14. "What about Tom and you going ahead and getting the tickets?" or "Suppose you and Tom go ahead and get the tickets?" he said to me 15. "I think your electric iron is unsafe. I advise you to have it seen to" or "I should have it seen to" or "Why don't you have it seen to?" he said to me 16. "If war breaks/broke out, I shall/should have to leave the country at once," he said 17. "Did you enjoy house hunting?" I asked him. "No," he said 18. "I am surprised to see that the grandfather clock has stopped. Has any­one been fiddling with it?" she asked 19. "I tried to ring up my mother several times yesterday, but I didn't succeed in getting through," she said 20. "Would you like to borrow this book?" I asked her. "I have read it already, thank you, and didn't like it very much." 21. "Are you going to the dance? Let's make up a party and go together" or "What about making up a party and going together?" he said 22. "Stop making a fuss about nothing! You are lucky to have got a seat at all," I told her 23. "Do you want a single or a return ticket?" asked the clerk in the booking office. "Is a return any cheaper?" I asked. "It makes no differ­ence," he said 24. "I hope you won't be offended," my employer said, "if I tell you that in my opinion you would do better in some other kind of job." 25. "If your wheels had gone a couple of inches nearer the edge, madam," said the AA man, "the car would have plunged into the ravine." 26. "You mustn't mind if the first one isn't any good," he said to me 27. "Do you think I am a liar?" he asked the crowd. "Yes!" they shouted 28. Stopping a man in the street, I asked "Would/could you help me with my

car?" "Would/will it take long?" asked the man. "I'm on my way to catch a train."

55. 1. He boasted that he could speak ... 2. He suggested that they (should) go ... that evening 3. The teacher shouted at the students to stop the noise ... 4. The man claimed that the car I was driving was his property 5. The boy admitted that he had broken ... 6. The man protested that they couldn't take ... he knew his rights 7. His fiancee whispered that she would ... 8. The treasurer objected that they didn't ... 9. The student muttered that the teacher didn't know ... was talking about 10. She ex­claimed what a surprise it was ... him there that day 11. He agreed that if the weather was bad they couldn't go 12. She in­sisted that we come (or came) the next day if we couldn't that same day

56. 1. I was asked who I'd come to the party with 2. Someone wanted to know if I'd come ... 3. I was asked why I wasn't drinking 4. I was asked if I'd like ... 5. Someone asked me where I lived (or live) 6. I was asked if I knew ... 7. Someone wanted to know when I'd arrived 8. I was asked what I did ... 9. I was asked if I'd seen a marvellous ... the previous night 10. I was asked if I'd been watching ... 11. I was asked how I liked my cof­fee ... 12. Someone wanted to know what time it was 13. I was asked what my phone number was (or I was asked for my phone number) 14. Someone asked if he could ring me the next day 15. Someone wanted to know how I would get ...

57. 1. He complained that no one ... took his ... 2. He made a sneering comment about my car 3. He stammered that he hadn't meant ... 4. He told me snappishly that I might try ... my own ... 5. He announced that the meeting would ... 6. He ex­plained that you had to push this button ... would work 7. He retorted that if I didn't' like his ..., I could get on ... myself 8. He declared that he'd never seen ... 9. He promised that I should have ... 10. He said with a groan that it was ... he'd heard that joke 11. He conceded that I'd been right 12. He gasped out that he'd just seen ...

58. 1. He said it was up to me to decide but warned me not to come and ask him for help if I got into difficulties 2. I reminded him to take his passport with him 3. The mother snapped at her daughter telling her to stop ... 4. I was surprised at the idea that he should think his friend was serious 5. The teacher told the boy sharply to do as he was told and (to) stop arguing 6. He ex­claimed that he had been a fool not to accept the job but then added resignedly that it couldn't be helped now 7. The wedding guests proposed a toast to the bride ... 8. The girl begged her father not to say anything to her boyfriend for her sake 9. He asked if he should post the letter for me 10. The master said an­grily that he had had just about enough of the boy's insolence. One more word from the boy, he threatened and he would be sent to ... 11. She asked her husband indignantly if he really had lost ... 12. He suggested sarcastically that I should try ... myself if I was ... 13. With cool assurance, he said he could have won ... if he had ... 14. He shouted angrily at me to ... and asked irritably if I couldn't see he was busy 15. The thief, threatening the cashier, ordered him to give him the key of the safe

59. They were stock-taking in her ... it was terrible. She'd been working ... and she couldn't do ... It wouldn't have seemed so bad if it'd been raining - she hated (or hates) having ... when it was (or is) fine ... It had been just the same the day before. She'd started ... she was (or had been) dropping ... she'd asked ... she could leave ... as she'd worked ... the day before, but he'd said (or he said) she had to ... she said she'd be thankful when it was

all over

80. "I like quilts because it's easy to make the bed." "They are warm" "They're light." "One problem is that they sometimes tend to slip off the bed." "Sometimes they're too warm." "Sometimes they are too cold." "I don't have a quilt because I'm happy with the blankets I already have." "I like to be tucked in firmly at night. You can't do that with quilts." "Quilts are expen­sive."

62. Joan worked ... records. One day ... at Joan. "I want a record, dear. One I heard on the radio this morning," she began. "What as the record called?" Joan asked. The woman shook her head. "I don't remember. I should know it if I heard it, though. Perhaps you'll just play me some." She settled ... stool. "We have hundreds of records in stock," Joan pointed out. "It would take ... to play you ... each. Could you hum it to me?" The woman gig­gled. "I can't sing ... tune. We should get into a worse muddle if I started humming." She looked ... brightened. "I've just remem­bered something," she said. "It comes from a play. There's a woman who speaks ... but after a time she learns to talk

beautifully." "Would it be from My Fair Lady?" Joan asked. "That's it, dear. I wish you'd thought ... sooner, instead of questions. I suppose you're new to the job."

When I saw the bulge at Claud's waistline I asked him what was under there. He pulled ... belly. It was to carry the stuff, he said darkly. I indicated that I understood. When he sug­gested we go I said I still thought we ought to take the car. He replied that this was too risky; they'd see it parked. I pointed out that it was over three miles up to the wood. Claud agreed but asked if I realized that we could get six months in the clink if they caught us. I protested that he'd never told me that. Claud's response implied that he thought he had. I then announced that I wasn't going. It wasn't worth it. Claud replied quite simply that the walk would do me good

64. I waited. The clock ticked as Mrs Armitage stared at the fire. Finally she said that Jake didn't want any more children. When I asked her if she liked children, she felt it was impossible to answer such a question. I then asked if she thought it would be wrong not to like children. First she said she didn't know, then she said she thought it would. When I asked her why, her answer was that children didn't do any harm. I agreed that perhaps they didn't directly, but indirectly ... She interjected that perhaps I didn't have any children. I said I had three, two boys and a girl. She wanted to know their ages, and I told her: 16, 14, 10. She asked if I liked them and I said I did, most of the time. Her re­sponse was that her answer was the same - she liked hers most of the time

65. 1. "What do you think? Should I take the job?" I asked. "It's entirely up to you," he replied 2. "Are you sure you had nothing to do with the disappearance of a bicycle from the school cycle sheds two days ago?" the master asked. "Quite sure," an­swered the boy. "I had nothing to do with it." 3. "Could I possibly have the day off tomorrow?" Peter asked his employer. "Most certainly not," answered his employer 4. "Would you lend me five pounds?" he asked. "Well, yes, provided you pay me back next week," I said 5. "Hello! Jean? Look, I'm terribly sorry to ring up at the last minute like this, but I can't come to dinner with you this evening. Will it put you out terribly?" Michael asked. "Yes, it will," Jean replied angrily. "You might have let me know earlier, and I wouldn't have needed to make such elaborate preparations."

6. "I'm going to leave England early next year to take up a job abroad," Margaret said. "Good heavens! Are you really serious?" I asked 7. "Would you please open your suitcase, Madam?" the Customs Officer said. "Well, really! Is that necessary?" said the woman. "Yes, Madam, I'm afraid it is. Would you please open it?" 8. "Why didn't you look where you're going," said the bus driver to the motorist. "What do you mean?" said the motorist. "If you hadn't been driving so fast, I'd have had a chance of stopping in time."

66. 1. An hour ago he said he would come here to-night

2. She reminded me that there would be a meeting that night

3. She said Jane could play the piano very well 4. She said sadly she was to leave 5. She said in despair she would never be happy again 6. She exclaimed indignantly that he was telling a lie 7. He said the books were being sold in all the shops 8. I was sure he would be sent to the conference 9. She said she wanted to sail down the Volga on holiday 10. He said he had lost his watch

11. He said they would discuss this problem the following week.

12. She said they had been playing football since morning 13. I said I hadn't played cricket for a long time 14. My brother said he was very tired as he had been playing cricket for 3 hours 15. She said the game would not be held if the weather was bad

67. 1. He asked me whether (if) I smoked 2. I asked Mary if she could go shopping 3. I asked him if he took a walk every evening 4. Jack asked me if I could swim 5. I asked my teacher if I could talk to him 6. John asked me if I was going to the coffee shop 7. Mr Smith asked if I had mailed the letter for him 8. I asked my father if the neighbour had returned the book 9. He asked me if I would go to Boston the following week 10. Linda asked me who was in charge of the office 11. He asked the salesman how much the typewriter cost 12. Bob asked me where Jane lived 13. Ann asked me where I was going 14. I asked my teacher what that word meant 15. Mary asked me why I smoked so much 16. Jimmy asked her who had called her an hour before 17. Bob asked Linda why she hadn't told him anything about the magnificent concert at Carnegie Hall 18. Tom asked me when Mr Johnson would come back 19. Eve asked me where I would spend my vacation

68. 1. Tom said that the elevator was out of service 2. Ann said that she lived in Boston 3. She said (that) they often went to

the moves 4 Linda said (that) they were going to the moves 5. John said (that) the Smiths had moved to Los Angeles 6 Mary said (that) Tom had called her the previous night 7. Joe told me that he would be back in an hour 8. Ann told John that she couldn't go to the movie with him 9. He said (that) he had to finish his composition by two o'clock 10. Eve said (that) she had left home before the telegram came

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