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THE NUMERAL

grammar




THE NUMERAL




  1. The Cardinal Numeral

1.1. The forms of the cardinal numeral

one 11 eleven 21 twenty-one

two 12 twelve 22 twenty-two

three 13 thirteen 23 twenty-three

four 14 fourteen 30 thirty

five 15 fifteen 40 forty

six 16 sixteen 50 fifty

seven 17 seventeen 60 sixty

eight 18 eighteen 70 seventy

nine 19 nineteen 80 eighty

ten 20 twenty 90 ninety

a (one) hundred

a (one) hundred and six

six hundred and twenty-one

a (one) thousand

three thousand seven hundred and forty-nine

a (one) million

a(one) billion

Uses of the cardinal numeral

The numerals hundred and thousand do not take the plural: 400 people - four hundred people; they are used in the plural when they function as nouns, or when followed by the preposition of: Hundreds have protested against it; Thousands of people sent letters. Million may take the plural with the preposition of, or when no other numeral follows: two millions of dollars; The painting was sold for three millions.

When used in the plural, the tens refer to years of life or of a century: This book was written in the twenties (1920 - 1929); He was a strong healthy man in his fifties (50 - 59).

  1. The Ordinal Numeral

2.1. The forms of the ordinal numeral

1st the first 11th the eleventh

2nd the second 12th the twelfth

3rd the third 13th the thirteenth

4th the fourth 14th the fourteenth

5th the fifth 15th the fifteenth

6th the sixth 16th the sixteenth

7th the seventh 17th the seventeenth

8th the eighth 18th the eighteenth

9th the ninth 19th the nineteenth

10th the tenth 20th the twentieth

21st the twenty-first  100th the (one) hundredth

22nd the twenty-second  106th the (one) hundred and sixth

23rd the twenty-third  621st the (one) hundred and twenty-first

30th the thirtieth 1,000th the (one) thousandth

40th the fortieth 1,000,000th the (one) millionth

50th the fiftieth

60th the sixtieth

70th the seventieth

80th the eightieth

90th the ninetieth

2.2 Uses of the ordinal numeral

It shows the order of persons, things, of actions in time and space:

I was born on the tenth of March 1982.

My flat is on the sixth floor.

What is the second largest city in France?

Richard III (the Third) lived in the 15th (fifteenth) century.

The First World War started in 1914.(WWI)

The hero dies in the fourth act.

NOTE: The cardinal numerals are used in: Act IV (four), Scene I (one), World War I (one), Lesson 6 (six), Chapter 11 (eleven), Flat 23 (twenty-three), etc.



  1. The Fractional Numeral

3.1. The forms of the fractional numeral

a) common fractions:

1/2 a (one) half  1/4 a (one) fourth

2/3 two thirds  3/5 three fifths

7 5/6 seven and five sixths

b) decimal fractions:

35.89 thirty-five point eight nine

0.03 (nought) point nought three

3.2. Uses of the fractional numeral

It indicates one or several parts of a whole:

They stayed here (for) half an hour/a half hour.

The play lasted one and half hours/an hour and a half.

Only a tenth of the population voted against the government.

  1. The Multiplicative Numeral

4.1. The forms of the multiplicative numeral

1 single, once

2 double/twofold, twice, two times

3 triple (treble)/threefold, three times

4 fourfold, four times

10 tenfold, en times

a hundredfold, a hundred times.

4.2. Uses of the multiplicative numeral

It shows the proportion in which a quantity or an action increases:

I've been here only once or twice.

Many things now cost a hundred times what they did a few years ago.

The Pope wears a triple crown.

Mathematical operations:

plus

minus

x multiplied by

divided by

EXERCISES

I. Read the following numbers:

II. Read the following fractions:

III. Read the following dates:

21 May 1984 (the twenty-first of May, nineteen eighty-four)

3 April 1903 (the third of April, nineteen O [ou] three)

5 December 1800 (the fifth of December, eighteen hundred)

3 December 1860; 30 May 1701; 15 January 1978; 28 September 1066; 23 July 1900; 22 February 1915; 12 November 1913; 1 May 1975.

IV. Read the following phone numbers:

118605 (double one eight six O [ou] five)

255799 (two five five seven double nine)

V. Read the following times of the clock:

(It is twenty-five [minutes] past three/three twenty-five)

(It is a quarter to seven/six forty-five)

VI. Translate into English:

1. I-am scris de trei ori pâna acum, dar înca nu mi-a raspuns. 2. Venus este mai aproape de Soare decât Pamântul, iar lumina solara care ajunge la Venus este de doua ori mai intensa decât cea care ajunge la Pamânt. 3. Zeci de mii de microbisti au urmarit meciul de ieri. 4. Phileas Fogg era sigur ca va putea înconjura pamântul în numai optzeci de zile. 5. În decursul anilor 80 guvernul doamnei Thatcher a refuzat sa sprijine industriile vechi si neprofitabile. 6. Programul incepe la 8 dimineata si se termina la 6 seara.










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