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ADJECTIVUL

Gramatica




ADJECTIVUL

I. Gradele de comparatie

pozitiv = adjectivul nu se schimba



comparativ  - de inferioritate (2.1.)

- de egalitate (2.2.)

- de superioritate (2.3.)

superlativ - relativ (3.1.)

- absolut (3.2.)

2.1. Comparativ de inferioritate

pt adj scurte (mono si bisilabice) se formeaza din:

not so/not as + adj + as

Ex:   This room is not so big as the bedroom.

sau

This room is not as big as the bedroom.

pt adj lungi se formeaza:

less + adj + than

Ex:   The chair is less comfortable than the bed.

2.2. Comparativ de egalitate

Atat pt adj scurte cat si pt lungi:

as + adj + as

Ex: The bed is as good as the chair.

Ideea de egalitate mai poate fi sugerata si prin constructia:

the same + subst + as

as si nu like !!!

Ex: This room is the same size as the other one.

Schimbare de valoare gramaticala

Adjectiv Substantiv

big, small size (masura)

long, short length (lungime)

broad, narrow breadth (largime pt ceva concret)

wide, narrow width (largime pt ceva abstract)

high, low height (inaltime)

deep, shallow depth (adancime)

heavy, light weight (greutate)

strong, weak strength (putere)....etc.

Constructii cu comparativul de egalitate:

as brave as a lion; as blind as a bat; as black as coal; as busy as a bee; as cool as a cucumber; as clear as daylight; as dry as a bone; as easy as ABC; as fresh as a daisy; as hairy as a gorilla; as mad as a hatter (palarier); as poor as a church-mouse; as silent as a grave; as wise as Solomon; as soft as silk; as smooth as grass; as gentle as a lamb...etc.

2.3. Comparativul de superioritate

- pt adj scurte

adj + er + than

Modificari ortografice:

daca adj se termina in "e", se adauga doar "r"

Ex: nice - nicer

daca adj se termina in "y" precedat de consoana, se transforma "y" in "ier"

Ex: pretty - prettier

Exceptii: shy - shyer

sly - slyer

wry - wryer (stramb)

3) daca adj se termina in consoana precedata de vocala, dublez consoana finala

Ex: big - bigger

- pt adj lungi

more + adj + than

Ex: The book is more interesting than the movie.

Adj provenite din latina sunt urmate de "to" si nu de "than"

Ex: He is superior to me.

3.1. Superlativul relativ

the + adj +est

Ex:   large - the largest

silly - the silliest

Modificarile ortografice sunt la fel.

Pentru adj lungi:

the most+ adj

Ex: This is the most expensive thing.

dupa superlativ urmeaza prepozitiile "of" sau "in"

Ex: He is the best of all/the best in my group.

daca se face comparatie intre 2 elemente, comparativul implica superlativul:

the + comparativ

Ex: Between you and me, I am the older.

3.2. Superlativul absolut

very + adj

very poate fi inlocuit cu: extremely

exceptionally

tremendously

awfully

nu toate adj au grad de comparatie, unele definesc ideea de unitate (own, complete, proper, perfect, marvelous, maximum, minimum).

Altele au sufixe si prefixe:

extra - large

over - crowded

super - fine

ultra - short

priceless

Comparatia neregulata

good - better - the best

bad - worse - the worst

ill - worse - the worst

many - more - the most

much - more - the most

little - less - the least

near - nearer - the nearest (cel mai apropiat); next (urmatorul)

far - farther - the farthest (in spatiu)

far - further - the furthest (in timp)

late - later - the latest; the last (ultimul); the latter (ult din 2)

Dintre 2, primul este "the former", nu "the first".

up - upper - the upmost

in - inner - the inmost

out - outer - the outmost

fore - former - the foremost

old - older - the oldest

old - elder - the eldest (doar atributiv, pt membrii aceleiasi familii)

Ex: My elder brother is older than me. (fratele meu mai mare)

Constructii adjectivale

cu mult mai = much/ a lot + comparativ

Ex: It is much warmer today / a lot warmer today

de departe cel mai = by far + superlativ



Ex: This is by far the hottest day of the year.

din ce in ce mai = comp + and + comp

Ex: It is warmer and warmer

pt adj lungi se repeta doar "more"

Ex: It is more and more interesting.

cu cat mai,. cu atat mai. (the + comparativ .the + comparativ)

Expresia e obligatoriu sa se repete identic si verbul "to be" lipseste:

Ex: The more, the better (cu cat mai mare, cu atat mai bine)

Mai multe adjective care determina acelasi substantiv se despart prin virgula. Daca nu apare virgula intre ele atunci cel care nu este urmat de virgula este adverb.

Ordinea adjectivelor care determina un substantiv va tine cont de cele subiective (primele expuse) si de cele obiective (imediat langa substantiv).

Un adjectiv poate sa determine si un verb. Verbul va fi obligatoriu "to be" sau orice alt verb de perceptie care poate fi inlocuit cu "to be".

Ex:   I am intelligent

He looks happy sau He is happy.

Adjectivul demonstrativ

anuleza articolul substantivului

invariabil ca forma (M/F)

se aseaza in fata substantivului pe care il determina

daca nu determina un substantiv devine pronume demonstrativ

"this" - aceasta, acesta (singular apropiere)

"these" - acestea, acestia (plural apropiere)

ambele merg cu "here".

"that" - acela, aceea (singular departare)

"those" - acelea, aceia (plural departare)

ambele merg cu "there".

Indepartarea in spatiu presupune si indepartarea in timp. Deci "that" si "those" se vor cupla cu trecutul.

Ex:   This book is good. (this = adjectiv, book = substantiv)

This is a good book. (this = pronume)

Adjectivul posesiv

invariabil ca forma si numar

anuleaza articolul substantivului

se aseaza in fata substantivului pe care-l determina

forme: my, your, his, her, its, our, your, their

Ex: My book.

Adjectivul interogativ

pozitie initiala in propozitie

invariabil ca forma

anuleaza articolul

determina un substantiv

forme: what, which, whose, how much, how many.

Diferenta: what./which

Which presupune selectie dintr-un numar limitat.

Ex: Which boy is your best friend?

What nu presupune selectie.

Ex: What days of the week do you know?

Diferenta how much / how many

How much presupune cantitatea si se foloseste pentru substantive nenumarabile.

Ex: How much money do you want?

How many inseamna numar si se foloseste la substantive numarabile.

Ex: How many books do you want?

Adjectivul relativ

pozitie mediana

introduce o propozitie secundara

invariabil

determina un substantiv anulandu-i articolul

forme:  

whatever (fara selectie),

whichever (selectie din numar limitat),

whose (a, al, ai, ale cui).

Ex: You may take 1/ whatever books you want 2/.

Adjectivul nehotarat

SOME = unii, niste, vreo, cativa

Utilizare:

In propozitia enuntiativa urmat de substantiv nenumarabil sau numarabil la plural.

Ex: I have some money / friends.

In propozitia interogativa in care se face o afirmatie sau o invitatie.

Ex: Would you like some coffee?

In propozitia in care stiu sigur ca primesc raspuns pozitiv.

Ex: Mother, can you give me some money?



Aici "some" pp o certitudine comparativ cu "any".

In propozitia interogativa in care intrebarea nu se refera la "some".

Ex: Why are there so many people in some restaurants?

Aici, cu sau fara "some" propozitia are aceeasi logica, ea nu se refera la "some", important este "so many"

In propozitia negativa al carui sens este afirmativ.

Ex: I never go home without buying some chocolate.

Sensul real este: I always buy chocolate when I go home.

Cand poate fi inlocuitorul lui "certain".

Ex: Certain people/some people believe they are the best.

ANY

Este inlocuitorul lui "some" in:

Propozitia interogativa la care nu stiu ce raspuns voi primi.

Ex: Is there any milk left?

In propozitia enuntiativa dar cu sensul de oricine, oricare, orice.

Ex: Any book is good for you.

In propozitia care contine un adverb negativ de genul: hardly, barely, scarcely (de abia, cu greu, deloc).

Ex: I hardly eat any bread (nu mananc paine aproape deloc)

In propozitia care contine "if". (if = incertitudine)

Ex: If you find any books, buy them.

In propozitia care contine o expresie de indoiala: maybe, perhaps.

Ex: I doubt there are any good films in town.

In propozitia negativa in care verbul este negat.

Ex: I haven't any friends here.

NO

Se foloseste numai in propozitia negativa in care verbul este la afirmativ.

Ex: I have no friends here.

EVERY (fara particularizare)

Ex: Every day I go to my office. (nu ma duc chiar in fiecare zi)

EACH - (cu particularizare)

Ex: Each person has a name. (fiecare, particularizare)

EITHER - (fiecare din doi)

NEITHER - (nici unul din doi)

Dupa each, every, either sau neither rmeaza substantiv numarabil la singular iar acordul cu verbul se face la singular.

Expresii cu every si each

Each other = unul pe altul (pp reciprocitate)

Every bit/inch = fiecare bucatica

Every right = tot dreptul

Every now and than = din cand in cand

Every other day = alternativ

Every so often = la interval regulat de timp fara a sti exact cand.

SUCH (astfel)

Urmat de substantiv numarabil la plural sau nenumarabil.

Ex: I have such friends/information.

SUCH A

Urmat de substantiv numarabil la singular.

Ex: This is such a man of honor.

ALL

Urmat de substantiv nenumarabil sau numarabil la plural.

Ex: All books/information must be used.

WHOLE

Urmat de substantiv numarabil la singular.

Ex: I like the whole book.

Pt perioade de timp se poate folosi si "whole" si "all"

Ex: I'm home all the morning/ the whole morning. (whole este cotat ca fiind mai puternic)

THE OTHER

Urmat de substantiv numarabil la singular sau plural.

Ex: The other child/children can swim.

Expresia "The other day" = some days ago, cere obligatoriu trecutul.

Ex: I was there the other day. (Am fost acolo acum cateva zile)

OTHER

Urmat de substantiv numarabil la plural.

Ex: Give me other examples.

Daca e precedat de "no" poate fi urmat si de numarabil la singular.

Ex: No other man is as good as you are.

ANOTHER

+ substantiv la singular (different, in addition)

Ex: Would you like another drink? = vrei inca unul (suplimentar) sau un altul (diferit)?

BOTH

+ substantiv numarabil la plural (pt. doi)

Ex:  I like both kids -> acordul in plural

Both are intelligent.

SEVERAL

Mai multi intr-un numar nedefinit.

+ substantiv numarabil la plural.

Ex: We spent several days there.

MOST = majoritatea

+ substantiv numarabil la plural sau nenumarabil.

Ex: Most books/information can be read easily.

ENOUGH

Daca e urmat de substantiv nenumarabil sau numarabil la plural are pozitie mobila.

Ex: I have enough money/money enough to be happy.

Daca e urmat de substantiv numarabil la singular se aseaza dupa el.

Ex: He is man enough to understand me.











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