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Curs este destinat studentilor de anul I, specializarea navigatie partea 2

tehnica mecanica


Structura retelei telefonice
otel nobil Cr Ni 18/10
Uzarea pieselor si procedee de diminuare a acesteia lucrare atestat
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Echipamentul de bord
Evaluare Telecomunicatii

Unit 5.


Objectives: After studying the topic in the course book the learner should be able to: identify pieces of equipment used for anchoring and mooring; label the items studied correctly on a diagram; match the term with the illustration; recognise definitions of ground tackle items.

1. Ground tackle is the term used to include all equipment used for mooring and anchoring ships. Mooring means to tie or make fast a boat or ship to the land or a mooring buoy.

Anchoring means to keep a ship in place at sea by a heavy metal object on the end of a rope. Ground tackle includes the anchors, chains, shackles, and stoppers necessary for these operations.

An anchor is hoisted (raised) and lowered by a windlass.

This is a motor that turns a shaft on which is mounted a wildcat or chain grab, which is the wheel that takes up the chain. This equipment is located in the windlass room. Below the windlass room is the chain locker where the chain is kept. The chain travels below through a hawsepipe.

When a ship is anchored, the chain is held with one to three stoppers consisting of a pelican hook and a turnbuckle in a short length of chain. The stopper helps the chain to hold. A pelican hook is a hinged hook held in place by a ring. The turnbuckle can be set to make the stopper tight or loose.

Among the deck fittings (tools and machinery found on the deck) are capstans and winches. The capstan is a powered item of equipment used for handling mooring lines (ropes and chains) and for other functions requiring strong power. Winches are pulling machines, mainly used to handle cargo which consists of supplies and materials being transported.

2. Vocabulary

Ground tackle = instalatie de ancorare

Mooring = ancorare, legare la cheu, acostare

To make fast = a volta, a lega o nava la cheu, a amara

Mooring buoy = geamandura de legare

Chain = lant de ancora, a lega cu lant

Shackle = cheie de lant (unitate de lungime pentru lantul de ancora); cheie de impreunare/tachelaj

Stopper = stopa; a bloca, a zavori

Windlass = vinci de ancora

Wildcat = barbotin

Chain grab = barbotin

Chain locker = put al lantului de ancora; magazie de lanturi

Windlass room = compartiment al vinciului de ancora

Hawsepipe = manson al narii de ancora

Pelican hook = cirlig cu cioc de papagal

Turnbuckle = intinzator metalic/cu filet

Deck fittings = instalatii/mecanisme de punte

Winch = vinci

Capstan = cabestan

Mooring lines = parime de acostare/legare, legatura

Cargo = marfa

3. Deck fittings

Deck fittings include a number of devices that lines or wires can be belayed (attached or secured) to. Deck fittings are attached to ships' decks and bulkheads, or to piers (landing places), depending on their functions.

Figure 1 shows a cleat. Cleats are found throughout ships on decks and bulkheads, and on piers. On modern ships, they are made of metal, usually steel. Wires and lines used for many purposes are belayed to them.

Figure 2 shows a pair of bitts. These are cylindrical fittings made of iron or steel. Each pair is mounted on a footing (base). The footing is attached to the deck by bolts, or by welding (united metals by heat). The shipboard (on the ship) ends of mooring lines are attached to the bitts.

Figure 1. - Cleat Figure 2. - Bitts

Figures 3, 4, and 5 show a series of chocks. Chocks are heavy fittings with smooth surfaces through which mooring lines are led. Mooring lines are run from bitts on deck through chocks to the pier. There are three types. Figure 3 shows an open chock, which is open at the top. Figure 4 is of a closed chock .It is closed by metal at the top. Figure 5 is a roller chock. Roller chocks contain round cylinders to reduce friction.

Figure 3 - Open chock


Figure 5 - Roller chock


Figure 4 - Closed chock


Figure 6 is of a bollard. This is a strong fitting which is found on piers. This mooring line from the ship is attached to it.

Figure 7 shows a padeye. Padeyes are metal fittings welded to decks and bulkheads. They are used for attachments which will require great strength such as towing (ship pulling)

operations. They are also used with chain stoppers, and cargo blocks and tackles.

A seaman needs to be able to recognise and know the functions of all of these fittings. Much of his work will involve them.


Figure 7. - Padeye


4. Vocabulary

deck fittings = instalatii/mecanisme de punte

to belay = a lua volta (la tachet sau cavila); a amara

pier = mol, dig spargeval

cleat = tachet, pana

bitt = binta, baba de lemn; binta de lant

footing = suport

welding = sudura

shipboard = la bordul navei

chock = ureche de ghidare; nara de parāma; cavalet de barca; sprait ( de fixare a īncarcaturii);tac; pana;coltar scurt de stringher

open chock = ureche de ghidare deschisa

closed chock ī ureche de ghidare īnchisa

roller chock = ureche de ghidare cu turnichet/ somar (la barca)

bollard = baba de cheu, bolard

padeye = placa cu ochi

towing = remorcare

block = macara ( scriprte )

tackle = greement; palanc;tachelaj


In this section we are going to talk about tenses usually referred to as "present" in grammars and reference books, the present simple and the present continuous. These tenses are discussed in their relation to present time. Another form of present tense is the present emphatic and is important to make the distinction between this and the normal form of the present simple.

Present simple full form: I walk; negative form: I do not walk; question form: Do you walk to school?/ Don't you walk to school?; tag question: You walk to school, don't you?/ You don't walk to school, do you?

Meaning and function- this tense is a timeless tense for actions which are always, repeatedly, or generally true, or actions encapsulated in a single instant (with no reference to past or future).

This tense is used to denote truths:

Habitual truth: He smokes forty cigarettes a day.

Eternal truth: Jesus lives/ The Koran says.

Recurrent truth: The sun rises in the east.

Permanent human truth: I like sweets.

General truth: English people drink a lot of tea.

Mathematical and scientific truth: Two and two make four/ Water boils at 100C.

It is used for giving instructions, directions, demonstrations (often with the impersonal you): (You) beat the eggs and then (you) add the flour/ (You) turn to the left and walk straight ahead.

It is used as a narrative device for dramatic effect in certain situations:

In commentaries: He passes the ball to Clark, aims and scores.

In headlines and captions: Putin meets G. Bush

In describing feelings and senses (sudden ones): I feel sick (suddenly)/ I hear bells.

With a future time marker the tense gives a timetable future usually for schedules:

My bus leaves at 3.00 p.m.

It is used after when to form a time clause: When I get home, I'll make tea.

Habitual present tense with adverbs of frequency (always, sometimes, often, never, usually): They never smoke when they are aboard ship/ He always sings when he takes a shower.

In formal speech it is possible to use what we call the "historic present" to describe past events, especially to make the narration seem more immediate and dramatic: ".so then the second man asks the first one why he has a banana in his ear and the first one says."

Present continuous- full form: I'm looking; negative form: I am not looking; question form: Are you looking?/ Aren't you looking?; tag question: You are looking, aren't you?/ Aren't you looking, are you?/ I'm looking, aren't I?

State and dynamic verbs- some verbs rarely take the present continuous form at all: these are verbs that describe a state of affairs beyond the person's immediate active control (If someone is a man, has a car, knows French, hears music, or like apples-there is little he can do to change this at the moment). These verbs are often called state verbs, as distinct from dynamic ones, where the person is actively doing something. Even verbs which are usually state, can take the present continuous, but they mean something different. The most common state verbs are the following:

To be- rarely occurs in the present continuous form except with adjectives of behaviour: You are being silly (suggests a temporary and deliberate action)

To have- I'm having a bath/ a drink (it implies present enjoyment or experience)

Verbs describing involuntary sensations (smell, hear, see)- are usually in the present simple, but they also take the present continuous for particular effect:

I'm seeing him to the station (change of meaning); I'm smelling roses (pretence).

Emotion and wishing verbs (intend, hope, wish, like, dislike) can sometimes occur with the present continuous for a polite and tentative meaning: I am hoping that you will take the part of Hamlet.

Thinking verbs (think, expect) sometimes take the continuous form when thinking is an activity, not a passive state of mind: Be quiet! I am thinking / The police are expecting trouble, but I think he is at home now (think = believe)

Other state verbs (belong to, concern, contain, cost, matter, resemble, keep on) are usually in the present simple, but again there are some exceptions where the continuous form is used, for example to emphasize temporary meaning:

God knows what this meal is costing me! / He is resembling his father more and


Meaning and function:

a)      Temporary action- that began before the time of speaking, is continuous across it, and is not yet complete: I'm walking at this moment.

b)      Temporary habit- not necessarily engaged in at the moment of speech, but temporarily contracted for: I'm watering his plants while he is away.

c)      Regrettable habit (always): I'm always losing my keys (the speaker is constantly in a state of having lost the keys).

d)      Future action- for plans and arrangements: I'm picking her up at 6.00, we're leaving tomorrow.

Present emphatic used to express contradiction, surprise or insistence and rely on stress and intonation for their function. It is created as the ordinary tense, with the addition of stress on the auxiliaries.

Meaning and function

a)      To express reassurement of reaffirmation that action occurs: I do turn off the lights./ He does live here.

b)      To express contradiction: You do break the speed limit./ I do like icecream.

c)      To express enthusiasm, strong feeling: I do hope I can come./ I do love Chopin./ I do want to see that film.

d)      To express enthusiastic reinforcement: I do like your hat.

e)      To express invitation: Do you play chess?/ I do want to see that film.

6. Vocabulary Practice

! In order to be able to do the following tasks, you'll have to revise the information in Unit 5,course book.Pay special attention to the terms relating to the ground tackle and deck fittings.In order to assess your performance turn to the self-test and key to check your answers. Good luck!

What is ground tackle?

What is mooring?

What is anchoring?

Tying a ship to the land or a buoy is known as_____ _______ ______ __________

Keeping a ship in place at aea with a weight and chain is_________________

Another word for tying is to__________ ______ ____ _________

A heavy weight at the end of a chain to keep a ship in place is called an______

A series of metal rings joined together form a _____ _______ ______ ___________

A U-shaped metal ring for connecting tackle is a_____ _______ ______ _________

A short length of rope or chain used for holding a line or chain is a_________-

To raise or lift is to__________ ______ ____ ________________

A motor that pulls in an anchor is a __________ ______ ____ ___

A wheel on the windlass that takes the anchor chain up is the______________

Another word for wildcat is__________ ______ ____ __________

The compartment in which the windlass is located is the__________________

The anchor chain is kept in the__________ ______ ____ _______

The part of a stopper consisting of a hinged hook held in place by a ring is called a__________ ______ ____ _____ _______ ______ __________

The opening through which the anchor chain moves is the________________

The metal device used to make a stopper tight or loose is the______________

Tools and machinery found on the deck are known as____________________

The powered equipment used to handle mooring lines is the_______________

Ropes and chains used to moor a ship are called_____ _______ ______ ________

Pulling machines used to handle cargo are_____ _______ ______ ______________

III.     Answer the following questions:

What are deck fittings?

What does belay mean?

What does shipboard mean?

What is welding?

What is towing?

What devices do deck fittings include?

How would you say that the sailor attached a line to a cleat?

What would you call the end of mooring line that is on a ship?


All equipment used for anchoring or mooring ships.

Tying a ship to the land or mooring buoy.

Keeping a ship in place at sea with a chain and heavy weight called an anchor.

To tie one thing to another.

A large floating device to tie a ship to.

To raise or lift.

A motor used to pull in (hoist) or drop the anchor.

Another word for wildcat.

The compartment in which the windlass is located.

A wheel on the windlass that takes the anchor chain in and out.

The compartment below the windlass room where the anchor chain is kept.

The opening through which the anchor chain goes between the chain locker and the deck.

Tools and machinery found on the deck.

An item of powered equipment used to handle mooring lines.

Ropes and chains used to moor a ship.

Pulling machines mainly used to handle cargo.

II. Complete the following sentences by filling in the spaces with appropriate term(s)

ground tackle



make fast






10. windlass


III. Label the following items correctly.

a)      shackle; b) chain; c)turnbuckle; d) pelican hook; e)anchor; f) stopper

IV.   Answer the following questions.

Devices that lines or wires can be attached to.

To attach a line or wire.

On the ship.

Uniting metals by heat,

Pulling another ship.

Deck fittings include cleats, bitts, chocks,bollards, and padeyes.

He belayed it. To the cleat.

Shipboard ends.

V. Identify the following objects.

a) bitts; b) open chock; c)roller chock; d) closed chock e) padeye; f) cleat; g) bollard

8. Grammar Practice: Present Simple and Present Continuous

Exercise I. Complete the sentences. Use am/ is/ are + one of these verbs

building coming cooking playing standing studying swimming

1. Listen! Pat is playing the piano.

2. They.....a new hotel downtown

3 Look! Somebody ..... . in the river.

4. "You.....on my foot". "Oh, I 'm sorry".

5. Hurry up! The bus ......

6."Where are you Sam?" "In the kitchen . I ..... dinner."

7. (on the phone) " Hello. Can I speak to Ann please?" " She ....for an exam right now. Can she call you back later?"

Exercise II. What's happening right now? Write true sentences.

(I/ wash/ my hair). I'm not washing my hair.

(it / snow)

(I / sit / on a chair)

(I / eat)

(it / rain )

(I / do /this exercise).

(I / listen / to the radio)

(the sun / shine)

(I /wear / shoes )

(I / read / a newspaper)

Exercise III Write positive or negative short answers (Yes, I am / No, it isn't, etc.)

1. Are you watching TV? No, I'm not.

2. Are you wearing shoes?

3. Are you wearing a hat?

4. Is it raining?

5. Are you eating something?

6. Are you feeling all right?

7. Is the sun shining?

8. Is your teacher watching you?

Exercise IV. Write the he / she / it form of these verb:

1. read ...reads

2. repair...

3. watch....

4. listen.....

5. love....

6. have....

7. push....

8. do....

9. think....

10. kiss....



Exercise V. Complete the sentences. Use the correct form of these verbs.

boil close cost cost drink go have have like meet open speak teach wash

She's very smart. She speaks four languages.

Steve ..... four cups of coffee a day .

We usually..... Dinner at 7 o' clock.

I ......movies. I often ...... to the movies with friends.

Water ..... at 100 degrees Celsius.

In my home town the banks ...... at 9:00 in the morning.

The City Museum ...... at 5 o ' clock on Saturdays.

Food is expensive. It ....... a lot of money.

Shoes are expensive. They ...... a lot of money.

Sue is a teacher. She .... math to young children.

Your job is very interesting. You .... a lot of people.

Peter ..... his hair every day.

An insect .... six legs.

Exercise VI. Write the opposite. (positive or negative).

1. I understand. I don't understand.

2. She doesn't drive. She drives.

3. They know. They .....

4. He loves her. .....

5. They speak English. .....

6. I don't want it. ......

7. She doesn't want them. .....

8. He lives in Taiwan. ......

Exercise VII. Complete the sentences. All of them are negative. Use don't/ doesn't + one of these verbs.

cost drive go have know play see sell smoke wash wear

1." Have a cigarette". " No, thanks." I don't smoke.

2. They .... newspapers in that store.

3. She has a car, but ...... very often.

4. I like plays, but I the theatre very often.

5.My car is usually dirty because I ...... it very often.

6. It's a cheap hotel. It ...... much to stay there.

7. He likes soccer, but he .... very often.

8. I ....... much about politics.

9. She's married, but she ....... a ring.

10. He lives next door, but we...... him very often.

11. "Can you lend me five dollars?" "Sorry, I ......any money."

Exercise VIII. You are asking somebody questions. Write questions with Do/ Does..?

Example: I work hard . How about you? Do you work hard?

I play tennis. How about Ann? .... Ann ..... ?

I know the answer. How about you? ........ the answer?

I like hot weather. How about you? ..........?

My father drinks coffee. How about your father ? ......?

I exercise every morning. How about you? .........?

I speak English. How about your friends? .......?

I want to be famous. How about you? .......?

Exercise IX. These questions begin with Where/ What/How ..?

1. I wash my hair every day. ( how often/you ?) How often do you wash your hair?

2. I live in Mexico City. (where /you?) Where ........?

3. I watch TV every day. (how often/you?) How ......?

4. I have lunch at home.(where/ you ?) .........?

5. I get up at 7:30.(what time/ you?) ........?

6. I go the movies a lot. (how often/ you?) .....?

7. I go to work by bus. (how/you?) .......?

8. I always have eggs for breakfast. (what/ you?) .........?

Exercise X. Put the verb in the present continuous (I am doing) or simple present (I do)

1. Excuse me, do you speak .... (you/ speak) English?

2. Tom (is taking) .. (take) a shower at the moment.

3. They don't watch .. (not/ watch) television very often.

4. Listen! Somebody ....... (sing).

5. She's tired. She ....... (want) to go home now.

6. How often ..... (you/ read) the newspaper.

7. "Excuse me, but you .... (sit) in my place." Oh, I'm sorry."

8. I'm sorry, I ..... (not/ understand). Please speak more slowly.

9. "Where are you Dan?" " I'm in the living room. I .... (read).

What time ..... (she/ finish) work every day?

You can turn off the radio. I...... (not /listen) to it.

He...... ( not/ usually/ drive) to work.. He usually .... (walk).

Exercise XI. Complete the sentences with the Present Simple (I do) or the Present Continuous (I am doing)`.

1. I leave (leave) home at 7 o' clock every morning.

2. She usually ........ (work) in the sales Department in London, but at the moment she (do) a training course in Bristol.

3.He ...... (try) very hard in every game that he (play).

4. Excuse me. I think you .... (sit) in my seat.

5. .... (you/ listen ) to the radio very often?

6. Don't talk to me now. I ... (write) an important letter.

7. Why ...... (they/ drive) on the left in Britain?

8. It ..... (not/ get) dark at this tome of year until about 10 o' clock.

9. It usually ...... (rain) here a lot, but it ...... (not/ rain) now.

10. A: What are you doing?

B: ..... (bake) a cake. Why......(you/ smile) ?....(I/do) something wrong?

Exercise I. 2.are building swimming 4.are standing coming 6.are cooking studying

Exercise II. 2.It is/it is not snowing 3.I am /I am not sitting 4. I am /I am not eating 5. It is/ it is not raining 6. I am / I am not doing the exercise 7. I am / I am not listening to the radio 8. The sun is/ the sun isn't shining 9. I am / I am not wearing shoes 10.I am / I am not reading a newspaper

Exercise III. 2. Yes, I am / No, I'm not. 3. Yes, I am / No I 'm not. 4. Yes, it is / No it isn't. 5.Yes, I am / No, I'm not. 6. Yes, I am / No I'm not. 7. Yes, it is/ No it isn't. 8. Yes, she is/ No she isn't.

Exercise IV. 2. repair;; 4. listens; 5. loves; 6. has; 7.pushes; 8. does; 9. thinks; 10. kisses; 11. buys; 12. goes.

Exercise V.2. drinks; 3. have; 4. like; 5. go; 6. open; 7. closes; 8. costs; 9. cost. 10. teaches; 11. meet; 12. washes; 13. has.

Exercise VI. 3. they don't know 4. He doesn't love 5. They don't speak English 6. I want it 7. She wants them 8. She doesn't live in Taiwan

Exercise VII. 2. don't sell 3. doesn't drive 4. don't go 5. don't wash 6. doesn't cost 7. doesn't play 8. don't know 9. doesn't wear 10. don't have

Exercise VIII. 2. do you live? 3. often do you watch TV? 4. Where do you have lunch? 5. What time do you get up? 6. How often do you go to the movies? 7. How do you go to work? 8. What do you usually have for breakfast?

Exercise IX. 4. is singing 5. wants 6. do you read 7. are sitting 8. don't understand 9. are reading 10. does she finish not listening 12.He doesn't usually drive

Exercise X. 2. Works; is doing3. 3. tries; plays 4. tries; are sitting 5. Do you listen 6. Am writing 7. Do they drive 8. Doesn't get 9. Rains; is not raining 10. I'm baking; are you smiling; Am I doing

10. Self-Test

I.           Fill in the blanks with appropriate term(s)

.. ... is the term used to include all equipment used for..and..ships.

Mooring means to tie or. . a ship to the land or.. ........

..means to keep a ship in place at sea by a heavy metal object on the end of a rope.

Ground tackle includes the.,..,..., and..necessary for these operations.

An anchor is.. And lowered by a.................

Below the windlass room is the.. ..where the anchor chain is kept.

The chain travels below through a..................

When a ship is anchored, the chain is held with one or three stoppers consisting of a.. ...and a .. in a short length of chain.

. ..include a number of devices that lines or wires can

There are three types of chocks: open chock,..chocks and .chocks.


II.        Answer the following questions.

Where can you find cleats?

What are bitts?

What do we attach to the bitts/

What are chocks?

What is a bollard?

What are padeyes?

What are padeyes used for?

What is welding?

What is footing?

Why do roller chocks contain round cylinders?


III.     Put in am/is/are/do/don't/does/doesn't.

Excuse me, speak English?

"Have some coffee," "No, thank you, I..drink coffee." laughing at me?

"What ..she do?" "She's a dentist."

I...want to go out. It...raining.

" come from?" "From Canada"

How cost to send a letter to Canada.

I can't talk to you right now. I...working.

Bob is a good tennis player, but very often.


IV.      Put the verb in the present continuous (I am doing) or simple present (I do)

Excuse me, do you speak.......(you /speak) English? taking.......(take) a shower at the moment.

They.don't watch..........(not/ watch) television very often.

Listen! Somebody........(sing).

She's tired. She.........(want) to go home now.

How often...........(you/read) the newspaper?


1. Ground tackle; mooring; anchoring

2. make fast; mooring buoy

3. anchoring

4. anchors; chains; shackles, and stoppers

5. hoisted; windlass

6. chain locker

7. hawsepipe

8. pelican hook; turnbuckle

9. belayed

10. closed; roller


1. Throughout ships on decks and bulkheads and on piers.

2. They are cylindrical fittings made of iron or steel

3. The shipboard ends of mooring lines are attached to the bitts.

4. Chocks are heavy fittings with smooth surfaces through which mooring lines are led.

5. This is a strong fitting which is found on piers.

6. Padeyes are metal fittings welded to decks and bulkheads.

7. Padeyes are used for attachments which will require great strength such as towing operations.

8. United metals by heat.

9. Base.

10. Roller chocks contain round cylinders to reduce friction.


1. do

2. don't

3. are

4. does

5. don't; It's

6. are

7. does

8. am

9. doesn't


4. is singing

5. wants

6. do you read

7. are sitting

8. don't understand

9. am reading

10. does she finish

11. don't listen

12. doesn't usually drive. He usually walks

Unit 6.


Objectives: After studying the topic in the course book the learner should be able to: identify the equipment on the signal bridge and explain the functions of the items identified; discriminate between the signal flags and pennants and their functions within the International Code of Signals

Most of the equipment for signalling short distances is located on or near the signal bridge on the superstructure of the ship. Lines called halyards extend from the yardarm. On them are found signal flags. These are flags representing letters of the alphabet, numbers, or complete meanings. If they are not square they are called pennants. They are read from top to bottom. They are bent on (attached) to the halyards and hoisted to the yard.

On or near the signal bridge are signal searchlights. These are hand-operated blinking lights which send code messages.

On the outboard end of the yard are two small lights called yardarm blinkers used for sending messages over short distances. These are operated by a special switch called a key similar to a telegraph key.

Another signalling device is the ship's bell. This is mainly used to notify personnel on the ship of the time. Using the bell is an old navy custom. Time is, to this day, expressed in "bells" on a ship. Traditionally time at sea is divided into 4-hour periods called watches. There are six watches.

Midnight -0400


Middle Watch

Morning Watch

Forenoon Watch



Afternoon watch

Evening Watch

First Watch

The evening Watch can be divided into two short watches.

First dog watch 1800-2000 Second Dog Watch

Each watch is in the charge of an officer. The traditional pattern is as follows:





Middle Watch

Afternoon Watch

Second Officer

Third Engineer

Morning Watch

Evening Watch

Chief Officer

Second Engineer

Forenoon Watch

First Watch

Third Officer

Fourth Engineer

Traditionally the passage of time at sea is marked by bells. Bells are struck throughout each watch as follows:

After ½ hour 1 bell After 2 hours 4 bells After 3½ hours 7 bells

After 1 hour 2 bells After 2½ hours 5 bells After 4 hours 8 bells

After 1½ hours 3.bells After 3 hours 6 bells

During the Second Dog Watch the bells strike 1 2 3 8,

1 bell is struck 15 minutes before each watch is due to change.

For safety during peacetime, all ships that go to sea are required by international law to have running lights. These consist of a white masthead light usually on the upper part of the bridge superstructure or on an area forward of the foremast. Abaft and above the masthead light is a white range light located either on the foremast or mainmast. To either side side lights are found. There is a green one on the starboard side, and a red one on the port side.

Often a searchlight used to view nearby objects is found in the signal bridge area. It should not be confused with signalling equipment. It's important for the seaman to become familiar with all of these items.

2. Vocabulary

Signal bridge = punte de semnalizare

Halyard = funga, saula de pavilion

Yardarm = capat de verga

Signal flags = pavilion de semnalizare

Pennant = flamura

To bend on = a fixa, a atasa

Yard = verga

Running lights = lumini de mars/navigatie

Masthead light = lumina de catarg(la navele cu propulsie mecanica)

Foremast = catarg prova, arborele trinchet

Range light = lumina de aliniament, lumina de catarg pupa

Sidelights = lumini distinctive din borduri (rosie sau verde)

Searchlight = proiector cu fascicul dirijat

Mainmast = arbore mare, catarg principal


The present perfect tense is one of the most difficult English tenses to use well or even correctly. The explanations presented here aims to provide the student with a clear guide to when to use, and when not to use this tense, in both the simple and continuous form.

Present perfect simple - is formed with the auxiliary verb have in the corresponding form for the subject of the sentence, followed by the participle of the main verb.

full form: I have walked/ drunk/run/ I haven't walked; question form: Have you walked?/ Haven't you walked?; tag question: You have walked, haven't you? You haven't walked, have you?

Meaning and function- shows the present situation in relation to past action, how the past is relevant to now.

a)      For uncompleted action where both action and results remain/unfinished past/ with a time marker showing past reference:

London has stood beside the Thames for hundreds of years/ My mother has

always played tennis.

b)      For an action which took place in an identified period of time which is not yet over: I've read a book this morning./ I read a book this morning.

c)      For an action which took place in the past, but whose results are still present

(present perfect of result): I've spilt the milk (it is still on the floor).

d)      For an action(single or repeated) which took place in the past, but still relates

to the present: I've studied French.(and remember it).

e)      With the time markers just, yet, already, still, this can also indicate the attitude of the speaker:

I have just washed the floor. (so it's still wet)

He has just left. (so you are too late to speak to him)

Have you painted my fence yet?(questions)

I haven't painted the fence yet.(negatives)

He has already eaten it.(there is none left)

Hasn't the train gone already? (that is surprising)

He still hasn't left.(negatives)

Have you still got that hat? (Amer. English prefers the present simple with still)

Have you ever lived in London? (present perfect of experience)

I have never lived in Paris.(remembered experience)

f)       Future uses- when clauses: I'll come when I have written this letter. (I'll write this letter first and when that is complete, I'll come)

Present perfect continuous - is formed with the auxiliary verb have in the corresponding form for the subject of the sentence, followed by the participle been of the auxiliary verb be, followed by the -ing form of the main verb.

full form: I have been eating/ He has been eating; question form: Have you been eating?/ Haven't you been eating?; tag questions: You have been eating, haven't you?/ You haven't been eating, have you?

Meaning and function- this tense focuses on continuous or repeated activity engaged in before the present, but relevant to it and on the continuous duration of that action. The action is seen as temporary and may or may not have completed at the time of speaking.

a)      used as an explanation for the present situation or the appearance of the speaker-caused by the recent and ongoing nature of the activity, which may or may not be completed:

I won't shake hands, I've been baking. (my hands are covered in flour);

I have been repairing the car all morning. (I'm exhausted)

b)      to account for a period of time now finishing-the tense indicates that the

action filled the time:

I didn't iron your shirt, I've been cooking all morning. (excuse for failure)

c) it is used to draw attention to the repeated or continuous nature of an action or

habit resulting in present expertise or knowledge:

I have been learning French for 10 years /I have been living here since1970.

d) it is used for new, temporary habits, which have become constant or


He has been seeing a lot of her lately

e) it is often used in talking about health to describe new and developing


I have been getting/having headaches

f) with verbs of wishing/hoping-the tense is a polite device, suggesting that the

wish or thought was constantly in the speaker's mind:

I have been looking forward to meeting you.

g)      with mean/intend, the tense shows a recognition that the speaker has failed in

his duty:

I have been meaning to visit you.

Important - it is important to remember that non-continuous verbs cannot be used in any continuous tenses. To express the idea of present perfect continuous with these exception verbs, you must use present perfect.

Examples: Tom has been having his car for two years. Not correct

Comparison between the present perfect simple and the present perfect continuous:

The present perfect simple: He has painted the room. (we are interested in the result of the action, not in the action itself)

The present perfect continuous: He has been painting the room.(we are interested in the action, it does not matter whether something has been finished or not).

We use the simple to ask or say how much, how many or how many times:

How many pages of that book have you read?/ Mary has written 10 letters today./

They have played tennis three times this week

We use the continuous to ask or say how long (for an activity still happening):

How long have you been reading that book?/ Mary has been writing letters all day./

They have been playing tennis since two o'clock.

We can use for and since with both present perfect simple and continuous: He has talked about her for years/ He's been talking about her for years./I've played volleyball since 9 o'clock/ I've been playing volleyball since 9 o'clock.6.7.

4. Vocabulary Practice

! Please revise Unit 6 in your course book and then do the following tasks. To evaluate your performance, turn to the self-test and answer key at the end of this unit. You will be awarded one point for each correct answer. If you score below 30 points you'll have to go back to Unit 6 and revise the vocabulary or grammar problems you have failed in your test If your score is above 30 points you may pass on to the next Unit. Good luck!

I.           Answer the following questions.

Where is most of the equipment for signalling short distances located?

What are the lines extending from the yardarm called?

What are the square flags called which are used to send messages?

What are the flags that are not square?

What's another word for bend on?

What are the signal lights located on the signal bridge called?

What are the signal lights located on the end of the yard called

What are the switches used to operate yardarm blinkers?

What is the signalling device used to sound out the time?

What is the general term for safety lights found around the signal bridge?

What is the running light called which is usually found on the upper part of the bridge superstructure?

What running light is found above and abaft the masthead light?

What are the red and green lights found on the starboard and port sides called?

What is a searchlight?

a.__________ ______ ____ __________ ______ ____ _____

b.__________ ______ ____ __________ ______ ____ _____

c.__________ ______ ____ __________ ______ ____ _____

d.__________ ______ ____ __________ ______ ____ _____

e.__________ ______ ____ __________ ______ ____ _____

f.__________ ______ ____ __________ ______ ____ _____

g.__________ ______ ____ __________ ______ ____ _____

III. Complete the following sentences with the appropriate term(s

1. Most of the equipment for signalling short distances is located on the___ ___

2.Lines called _____ extend from the yardarm.

3. Signal flags represent____,____,or_________

4.On or near the signal bridge are ________ _____________

5.On the outboard end of the yard are two small lights called______ _________

6._____ ______is mainly used to notify personnel on the ship of the time.

7.All ships that go to sea are required by international law to have____ _______

8. Running lights consist of a white____ ____ usually on the upper part of the bridge superstructure.

9.Abaft and above the masthead light is a white ____ ____ located either on the foremast or mainmast.

10. There is a green light on the starboard side, and a red one on the port side. They are called__________ ______ ____ ________________


a)      yardarm blinker lights-used for sending messages over short distances

b)      signal halyards-lines which extend from the yardarm. On them are found signal flags

c)      signal searchlight-These are hand-operated blinking lights which send code messages'

d)      ship's bell-another signalling device used to notify personnel on the ship of the time.

e)      searchlight-used to view nearby objects at night.It shouldn't be confused with signalling equipment,

f)       green sidelight-is placed on the starboard side and must be exhibited at night whether the vessel is underway or at anchor.

g)      Masthead light-it's a white light on the upper part of the bridge superstructure or on an area forward of the foremast. This light must be exhibited at night.


signal bridge


letters of the alphabet, numbers or complete meanings

signal searchlights

yardarm blinkers

ship's bell

running lights


range light


6. Grammar practice. The present perfect and the present Perfect continuous

Dear Chris,

Lots of things have happened since I last wrote to you.

1.I/ buy/ a new car..I've bought a new car.

2. my father / start/ a new job.....

3. I / give up/ smoking.....

4. Charles and Sarah/ go / to Brazil.....

5. Suzanne/ have/ a baby......

II.Complete the sentences. Use already+ present perfect simple

1. What time is Paul arriving?   He's already arrived.

2. Do Sue and Bill want to see the film? No, they........

3. Don't forget to phone Tom. I...........

4. When is Martin going away? He..........

5. Do you want to read the newspaper? I..........

6. When does Linda start her new job? She ..........

III. You are asking Helen questions beginning Have you ever..?Write questions.

1.(London?)..Have you ever been to London? No, never.

2. (play/ golf?) ..Have you ever played golf? Yes, many times.

3. (Australia?).. Have...... No, never.

4.(lose /your passport?) ........ Yes, once

5. ( fly/ in a helicopter?).......... No, never.

6. (eat/ Chinese food?)......... Yes, a few times.

7. (New York?)........... Yes, twice.

8. (drive / a bus?)......... No, never.

9. (break/ your leg?)..........   Yes, once.

IV. Write sentences about Helen. (Look at her answers in exercise III )

(New York) ....Helen has been to New York twice.


(Chinese food)...........

(drive /a bus)...........

Now write about yourself. How often have you done these things?

(New York) I......

(play /tennis).......

(fly/ in a helicopter).......

(be / late for work or school).......

V. Complete the sentences.

Jill is in hospital. She.has been. in hospital since Monday.

I know Sarah. I .have known.her for a long time.

Linda and Frank are married. They.....married since 1989.

Brian is ill. He.......ill for the last few days.

We live in Scott Road. We....there for ten years.

Catherine works in a bank. a bank for ten years.

Alan has a headache. He .......a headache since he got up this morning.

I'm learning English. I.....English for six months.

VI. Which is right?

1. Mark is / has been in Canada since April. has been is right

2. Jane is a good friend of mine. I know / have known her very well.

3. Jane is a good friend of mine. I know / have known her for a long time.

4. "Sorry, I'm late. How long are you/ have you been waiting?"

5. Martin works / has worked in a hotel now. He likes his job very much.

6. Tom is / has been in Spain at the moment. He is / has been there for the last three days.

VII. Read the situations and write sentences with just, already, or yet.

1.After lunch you go to see a friend at her house. She says "Would you like something to eat?"

You say: No, thank you. ..I've just had lunch..(have lunch)

2. Joe goes out. Five minutes later, the phone rings and the caller says" Can I speak to Joe?"

You say: I'm afraid ..........(go out)

3. You are eating in a restaurant. The waiter thinks you have finished and starts to take your plate away. You say :Wait a minute!......(not /finish)

4. You are going to a restaurant this evening. You phone to reserve a table. Later your friend says "Shall I phone to reserve a table"? You say: No,

5.You know that a friend of yours is looking for a job. Perhaps she has been successful. Ask her: You say:......? (find)

6. Ann went to the bank, but a few minutes ago she returned. Somebody asks "Is Ann still at the bank?" You say: No, ......(come back).

VIII .Put in been or gone .

Jim is on holiday. He's gone to Italy.

Hello. I've just the shops. I've bought lots of things.

Alice isn't here at the moment. She's the shop to get a newspaper.

Tom has......out. He'll be back in about an hour.

"Are you going to the bank?" "No, I've already the bank.

IX. Complete these sentences using today/ this year/ this term etc

I saw Tom yesterday but .... I haven't seen him today.

I read a newspaper yesterday but

Last year the company made a profit but this year....... .

Tracy worked hard at school last term but......... .

It snowed a lot last winter but .......... .

Our football team won a lot of games last season but we......

X. Read the situations and write sentences as shown in the examples.

1.Jack is driving a car but he's very nervous and not sure what to do .

You ask: : ..Have you driven a car before?

He says :... No, this is the first time I've driven a car.

2.Len is playing tennis. He's not very good and he doesn't know the rules.

You ask: Have.......................

He says: No, this is the first ..................

3.Sue is riding a horse. She doesn't look very confident and comfortable.

You ask:.........................

She says:..........................

4.Maria is in London. She has just arrived and it's very new for her.

You ask:..................

She says:................

XI .You are asking somebody questions about things he or she has done. Make questions for the words in brackets.

1.(ever/ ride /horse).. Have you ever ridden a horse?

2. (ever/ be / California)....

3.(ever / run / marathon )...

4.( ever / speak / famous person?).......

5.( always / live / in this town ?)............

6. ( most beautiful place / ever / visit ?) What........

XII. Write a sentence with the present perfect continuous and for to describe each situation. Use these verbs: camp, play, read, swim, talk, travel, work.

1.The video began two hours ago, and it hasn't finished yet. It's been playing for two hours.

2. James went into the water ten minutes ago. He doesn't want to come out yet............

3. Alice rang Peter half an hour ago, and they're still on the phone.....

4.Robert picked up a book an hour ago. He hasn't put it down yet............

5.Ed and Jennifer started their journey around the world three months ago. They've gone about halfway now...............

6.Sue got to the office early this morning. Ten hours later she's still there.......

1.Tom started reading a book two hours ago. He is still reading it and now he is on page 53.

( read/ for two hours ).. He has been reading for two hours.

(read / 53 pages so far )

2. Linda is from Australia. She is travelling round Europe at the moment. She began her tour three months ago.

(travel / for three months ) She......

( visit / six countries so far ).......

3.Jimmy is a tennis player. He began playing tennis when he was ten years old. This year he is national champion again - for the fourth time.

( win / the national championship four times )..........

( play / tennis since he was ten )

4.When they left college, Mary and Sue started making films together. They still make films.

( make / ten films since they left college ). They.........

( make / films since they left college )

XVI. Put the verb into the more suitable form, present perfect simple( I have done ) or continuous ( I have been doing )

1.Where have you been? ..Have you been playing...( you / play) tennis?

2. Look!. Somebody.......{break ) that window.

3.You look tired. .......( you / work ) hard ?

4."........( you / ever / work ) in a factory?" " No, never "

5." Jane is away on holiday." " Oh, is she ? Where ..... ( she / go ) ?

6.My brother is an actor. He.......( appear ) in several films.

7."Sorry I'm late."" That's all right. I........( not / wait ) long".

8."Is it still raining?" " No, it .......( stop )"

9.I....(lose ) my address book. ......( you / see ) it anywhere?

10.I........(read) the book you lent me but I ......(not / finish ) it yet.

11.I ......( read ) the book you lent me , so you can have it back now.

XVII. For each situation, ask a question using the words in brackets.

1.You have a friend who is learning Arabic.You ask: (how long / learn / Arabic?). How long have you been learning Arabic?

2.You have just arrived to meet a friend. She is waiting for you. You ask : ( how long / wait ?)

3.You see somebody fishing by the river. You ask: ( how many fish / catch ?)

4.Some friends of yours are having a party next week. You ask: ( how many people / invite ?)

5.A friend of yours is a teacher. You ask: ( how long / teach ?)

6.You meet somebody who is a writer. You ask : ( how many books / write ?) , ( how long / write books ?)

7.A friend of yours is saving money to go on holiday. You ask: ( how long / save ?)

XVIII.Use the words given to complete the sentences. Put the verbs in the present perfect simple or continuous.

1.John's terribly upset. .He's broken . ( he / break ) off his engagement to Megan. Apparently .she's been seeing.( she / see ) someone else while ..he's been .(he / be ) in Africa.

2.Can you translate this note from Stockholm? I understood Swedish when I was a child, but ..( I / forget ) it all.

3.What's that dent in the side of the car?......( you / have ) an accident?

4. I'm sorry, John's not here; ....(he / go ) the dentist....( he / have ) trouble with a tooth.

5.This cassette recorder is broken. ...( you/ play about ) with it?

6.Your Italian is very good ( you / study ) it long?

7.Do you mind if I clear the table? ....( you / have ) enough to it ?

I'm not surprised.....( he / fail ) that exam.


I. Rewrite each of the following sentences without changing the meaning, beginning in the way shown. You may need to use the present perfect or the simple past.

1.We haven't been to a concert for over a year.

The last time ..we went to a concert was over a year ago.

2.Your birthday party was the last time I really enjoyed myself.


3.It's nearly twenty years since my father saw his brother.

My father....................

4.James went to Scotland last Friday and is still there.

James has...................

5.When did you last ride a bike?

How long is it ..............?

6.The last time I went swimming was when we were in Spain.

I haven't ......................

7.You haven't tidied this room for weeks.

It's ......................

II Are the underlined parts of these sentences right or wrong? Correct the ones that are wrong.

1. Do you know about Sue? She's given up her job.RIGHT

2. The Chinese have invented printing.WRONG: The Chinese invented..

3. How many plays has Shakespeare written?.

4. Have you read any of Shakespeare's plays?

5. Aristotle has been a Greek philosopher.

6. Ow! I've cut my finger. It's bleeding.

7. My grandparents have got married in London.

8. Where have you been born?

9. Mary isn't at home. She's gone shopping.

10.Albert Einstein has been the scientist who has developed the theory of relativity.

8. The Present Perfect Simple and Continuous -Answer Key

2. has started

3 .have given up

4 have gone


2. have already seen it

3. have already phoned

4. He has already gone

5. I have already read it

6. She has already started


3. Have you ever been to Australia?

4. Have you ever lost.

5. Have you ever flown..

6. Have you ever eaten..

7. Have you ever been to.

8. Have you ever driven.

9. Have you ever broken.


2. Helen has never been to Australia

3. Helen has eaten Chinese food a few times

4. Helen has never driven a bus

5.I have /I have never been to New York.

6.I have / I have never played tennis.

7.I have / I have never flown in a helicopter.

8.I have / have never been late for work or school.


3. have been

4. has been ill

5.has been living

6.has been working

7.has had

8.have been living


2. know

3. have known

4.have you been waiting; has been


2. he has just gone out

3. I have not finished yet

4. I have already done it

5.Have you found a job yet?

6.She has just come back


2. been

3. gone

4. gone



2. haven't read one

3. it hasn't made a profit / it has made a loss

4. she hasn't worked very hard this term hasn't snowed much

6.haven't won many / any games this season


2. Have you ever played tennis before?

No, this is the first time I've played tennis

3. Have you ever ridden a horse before?

No, this is the first time I've ridden a horse.

4.Have you ever visited London before.

No, this is the first time I've visited London.

I. Fill in the blanks with appropriate term(s)

Most of the equipment for signalling short distances is located on or near the..

Lines called...extend from the yardarm.

. ..represent letters of the alphabet, numbers, or complete meanings.

Flags and pennants are... the halyards and hoisted to the yard.

On or near the signal bridge are signal..............

On the outboard end of the yard are two small lights called yardarm..

All ships that go to sea are required by international law to have .. ..

A white ..light is usually placed on the upper part of the bridge superstructure or on an area forward of the foremast.

Above and abaft the masthead light is a white.. ..located either on the foremast or mainmast.

To either side of the ship .. ..are found.


II. Give Romanian equivalents to the following maritime terms.

Signal flags; pennants; signal searchlights; halyards; signal bridge;

yardarm blinkers; running light; masthead light; range lights; side lights 10p

III. Give complete answers to the following questions.


signal bridge


signal flags

bent on

signal searchlights


running lights



side lights


Pavilion de semnalizare; flamura; proiector de semnalizare; funga, saula de pavilion

Punte de semnalizare; eclipsa de catarg,lumina cu licariri; lumina de mars; lumina de catarg;lumina de aliniament, de catarg pupa; lumini distinctive din borduri.


Most of the equipment for signalling is situated/located on the signal bridge.

Signal flags are bent on halyards

Signal searchlights are hand-operated.

The two small lights on the outboard end of the yard are called yardarm blinkers.

To tell the ti me at sea we use the ship's bell.

Running lights must be exhibited according to international laws.

Range lights are placed/located either on the foremast or mainmast.

A searchlight is not a signalling light.It is used to view/ locate nearby objects at night.

The masthead light is white.

The starboard side light is green and the portside light is green.


She has been travelling for three months

She has visited six countries so far.

He has won the national championship four times

He has been playing tennis since he was ten

They have made ten films since they left college

They have been making films since they left college.


How long have you been writing letters?

How long have you been waiting?

How many fish have you caught?

How many people have you invited?

How long have you been teaching?

How many books have you written?

How long have you been writing books?



Objectives: After studying the topic in the course book, the learner should be able to: classify different types of rope according to their nature, characteristics and use; identify the mooring ropes on a diagram.

1. A large number of different types of rope are used on board ship, and it is important for every sailor to know their characteristics so that the right rope can be used for the right job. Ropes can be divided into three basic types: natural fibre rope, which is made from the fibres of different plants; synthetic fibre rope, which is made from materials such as nylon; and wire rope, which is made from strands of steel wire.

First let us look at the different types of natural fibre rope. A well-known rope of this type is Manila. Manila rope is made from the fibres of a plant which grows in the Philippine Islands of the Pacific. It is strong and flexible, but rather expensive. It is used for a number of jobs connected with cargo-handling and mooring. Because manila rope is expensive, sisal rope is often used in its place. Sisal comes from a plant which grows in the USA and Russia. It is less strong and less flexible than manila rope, but it is cheaper. It is used for moorings and lashings. Another type of rope is hemp rope .Hemp comes from a plant which grows in Russia, Europe and North America as well as in China and India. It is strong and flexible and does not shrink or swell after contact with water. Because of this it is used on sailing boats. Coir ropes are made from coconut fibres. They are very buoyant and very elastic, but they rot very easily when they are wet. They are sometimes used for mooring and towing lines. The cotton plant grown in the southern part of North America.. Cotton rope is both strong and flexible, but it is very expensive and therefore not used on merchant ships. Because it looks nice, it is often used on yachts and pleasure boats.

Natural fibre ropes have now largely been replaced by synthetic fibre ropes. Synthetic ropes have many advantages. They are strong and elastic and they are resistant to the action of water. Nylon rope is the strongest and the most elastic of all the synthetic fibre ropes. It is used for mooring and handling cargo. Terylene rope has the highest melting point. It melts at a temperature of 260° C. It is also strong and elastic. It is mainly used on yachts. Another type of synthetic fibre ropes is polypropylene rope. It has the lowest melting point of all synthetic fibre ropes and is used for log lines and halyards.

Wire rope is made of steel. It is usually galvanized to stop it from rusting. It is very strong and elastic, but not as flexible as other types of rope. Large wire ropes are very heavy. Wire rope has many uses on board ship, particularly for standing rigging, mooring lines and cargo-handling.

2. Mooring Ropes

A ship is made fast to the quayside by mooring line. The standard mooring lines are shown below. They consist of a headline, a breastline and a backspring forward, a stern line, a breastline, and a backspring aft. Any of these lines may be doubled. Each line has a large eye spliced in the end. The eye is placed over a bollard on the quayside. If there is another line already on the bollard, the eye of the second line should be taken up through the eye of the first line before placing it over the bollard. This makes it possible for either line to be let go first.

Identify the mooring ropes described above in the diagram below:

3. Vocabulary

ropes = parime

lines =parime

cargo-handling =manipularea marfii

mooring =acostare, amarare, legare

lashing =amarare (a marfii)

hemp rope =parima din cinepa

to shrink-shrank-shrunk =a intra la apa

to swell = a se umfla

coir ropes = parime din nuca de cocos

buoyant = plutitor, flotabil, care pluteste

to rot = a putrezi

towing lines = parime de remorcaj

merchant ships = nave comerciale

melting point = punct de topire

mainly = in special

log lines = saula de loch(cu gradatii speciale)

halyards = funga, saula de pavilion

to rust = a rugini

wire ropes = parime metalice

standing rigging = manevre fixe

headline = parima prova

breastline = traversa

backspring forwrds = spring prova

stern line = parima pupa

backspring aft = spring pupa

spliced = matisat (despre parime)

bollard = baba

quayside = cheu

5. Vocabulary Practice

! In order to do the following tasks successfully, you'll have to revise unit 7 in your course book. To evaluate your performance, turn to the self-test and answer key at the end of this unit. You'll be awarded one point for each correct answer. If you score under 30 points you'll have to go back to unit 7 and revise the vocabulary and/or grammar problems you have failed. If you score above 30 points you may pass on to the next unit. Good luck!



Strong and flexible but rather expensive

cargo-handling and mooring


Less strong and less flexible but cheaper

Moorings and lashings


Strong, flexible, does not shrink or swell after contact with water

On sailing boats


Buoyant, very elastic, but rot easily when they are wet

Mooring and towing lines


Strong, flexiblebut very expensive

On yachts and pleasure boats



The strongest and the most elastic

Mooring and handling cargo


Strong,elastic,the highest melting point

Mainly on yachts


The lowest melting point

Log lines and halyards



Strong, elastic, is usually galvanized to stop it from rusting

Standing rigging, mooring lines and cargo-handling


A amara; a acosta; a se lega; cheu; parīme de amarare; parīma prova;

Parīma pupa; traversa; spring prova; spring pupa; babą; a mola


T; 2.T; 3. F; 4.F; 5 T; 6.T; 7.F; 8.F; 9.T; 10.F.


So that the right rope can be used for the right job.

Manila rope is strong and flexible and it is used for mooring and cargo-handling.

Because it's cheaper.

Because it is strong, flexible and does not shrink or swell after contact with water.

They rot easi;y when they are wet.

Cotton rope is used for pleasure boats because it is strong, flexible, and looks very nice.

Because synthetic ropes are strong, elastic and resistant to the action of water.

The former has the highest melting point and the latter has the lowest melting point.

Wire ropes are galvanized to prevent rusting.

Wire ropes are used particularly for standing rigging, mooring lines and for cargo-handling.

7. Grammar Practice: Past Tense and Past tense Continuous

Exercise I Put in was/ were or wasn't/ weren't

We weren't happy with the hotel. Our room was very small and it wasn't very clean. work last week because he..ill. He's better now.

Yesterday..a public holiday so the shops..closed.

"..Sue and Bill at the party?" "Sue..there but Bill....."

"Where are my keys?" "I don't know. They.on the table but they're not there now." home last night.

Exercise II. Put the words in the correct order to form questions.

difficult/ your/ exam/ was?

last week/ Ann and Chris/ were/ where?

our new camera/ how much/ was?

angry/ you/ yesterday/ why/ were?

nice/ the weather/ last week/ was?

Exercise III. Write the past simple of these words.












Exercise IV. Read about Lisa's journey to Madrid. Put the verbs in the correct form.

Last Tuesday Lisa (1) (fly) flew from London to Madrid. She (2) (get)..up at six o'clock in the morning and (3) (have) a cup of coffee. At 6.30 she (4) (leave) home and (5) (drive) to the airport. When she (6) (arrive), she (7) (park) the car and then (8) (go) to the airport café where she (9) (have) breakfast. Then she (10) (go) through passport control and (11) (wait) for her flight. The plane (12) (depart) on time and (13) (arrive) in Madrid Finally she (14) (take) a taxi from the airport to her hotel in the centre of Madrid.

Exercise V. Put the verb in the correct form-positive, negative or question.

We went to the cinema but the film wasn't very good. We didn't enjoy it. (enjoy)

Tim...some new clothes yesterday-two shirts, a jacket and a pullover. (buy)

"...yesterday?" "No, it was a nice day." (rain)

The party wasn't very good, so we...long. (stay)

It was very warm in the room,, so I....a window. (open)

"Did you go to the bank this morning?" "No, I..time." (have)

"I cut my hand this morning." "How...that?" (do)

Exercise VI. Where were these people at 3 o'clock yesterday afternoon/ And what were they doing? Use the cues below and write two sentences.

Ann/ home/ watch TV........Ann was at home. She was watching TV

Carol and Jack/ the cinema/ watch a film.

Tom/ his car/ drive.

Catherine/ the station/ wait for a train.

Mr. and Mrs. Hall/ the park/ walking.

Exercise VII. Put the verb into the past continuous or past simple

  1. A: What were you doing (you/ do) when the phone rang (ring)?

B: I was watching (watch) television.

2. A: Was Jane busy when you went to see her?

B: Yes, she....(study)

  1. A: What time..(the post/ arrive) this morning?

A: Was Margaret at work today?

B: No, she..(not/ go) to work. She was ill

A: How fast...(you/ drive) when the police...(stop) you?

B: I don't know exactly but I....(not/ drive) very fast.

A: ...(your team/win) the football match yesterday?

B: No, the weather was very bad, so we...(not play)

7. A: How...(you/ break ) the window/

B: We...(play) football. I...(kick) the ball and it...(hit) the window.

8. A: ...(you/ see)Jenny last night?

B: Yes, she.(wear) a very nice jacket.

9. A: What...(you/ do) at 2 o'clock this morning?

B: I was asleep.

A: I..(lose) my key last night.

B: How...(you/ get) into your room?

A: I..(climb) in through a window.

Exercise VIII. Choose the correct form of the verbs.

Thomas Edison (1) started/ was starting work on the railway when he was twelve, selling newspapers and snacks. There were long periods with nothing for him to do so he (2) build/ was building himself a little laboratory in the luggage van where he could carry out experiments when he (3) didn't/ wasn't selling things to passengers. Another way that he (4) occupied/ was occupying himself was by reading. He joined a library and (5) read was reading every single book in it. One day, when he (6) waited/ was waiting at a station he (7) noticed/ was noticing a small boy who (8) played/ was playing by the track, unaware that a train (9) approached/ was approaching. Edison (10) ran/ was running out and (110 grabbed/ was grabbing the child just in time. The child's father was so grateful that he (12) offered/ was offering to teach Edison to be a telegraph operator. Edison accepted the offer and soon he (13) had/ was having regular lessons. After a year, he was good enough to get a job in the telegraph office. He continued to read and experiment, whenever he (14) had/ was having time. At twenty-one he (15) left/ was leaving the telegraph office to devote all his time to being an inventor. He (16) went/ was going on to invent the electric light bulb, the phonograph and the movie camera.

Exercise IX. Complete the description of the life of a musician, using the verbs given. Use either the past simple or the past continuous.

Colin Boyle was born in 1973 near Dublin, Ireland. In 1983 he became seriously ill. While he (1) was recovering (recover) his uncle (2) gave (give) him an old violin. He enjoyed playing and practised at school every day after lessons. One day in 1987, John Leaf, the manager of several successful musicians, (3),,,,,,,,,(have) a meeting with the headmaster when he (4)..(hear) Colin practising. He immediately (5)...(contact) Colin's teacher and (6)...(invite) Colin to appear in one of the concerts he (7)..(organize) that year. Colin, however, (8)...(refuse) Leaf's invitation, because just then he(9)..(prepare) for some important school exams. Colin (10)...(pass) his exams and (11)..(go) to college to study engineering. At college he (12)...(meet) Kim O'Malley, who (13)..(study) chemistry. Kim was also a keen amateur musician. Being students, they rarely (140...(have0 much money and they usually (15)...(work) as waiters at weekends. One evening in April 1992, while Colin and Kim (16)..(serve) customers, the manager (17).(announce) that there would be no live music in the restaurant that night as regular band could not come. Colin and Kim (180..(persuade) him to let them play to the customers. Everyone (19)..(be0 amazed to hear how good they (20)..(be).Six months later they (21)...(decide0 to leave college because they (22)..(earn) so much money as musicians. Their success has continued ever since.

Exercise X. Choose the correct form of the verbs.

ADAM: Hello, Mike. What (1) are you doing/ do you do in this part of London?

MIKE: Well, actually, (2) I'm looking/ I look at flats around here.

ADAM: Flats? (3) Are you wanting/ Do you want to move?

MIKE:   Yes, in fact, believe it or not, Mandy and I (4) are getting/ get married.

ADAM: That's great! Congratulations. When (5) were you deciding/ did you decide?

MIKE: Only last week. It was while we (6) were staying/ stayed with her family in Scotland. Now (7) we try/ we're trying to find a suitable flat.

ADAM: It'll be great to have you as neighbours. I hope you manage to buy one soon.

MIKE; Oh we (8) aren't looking/ don't look for one to buy. We (9) aren't having/ don't have enough money yet. (10) We're wanting/ We want to find somewhere to rent.

ADAM: Yes, of course. That's what we (11) did/ were doing at first. Actually, in the end, my brother (12) was lending/ lent us some money. That's hoe we (13) were managing/ managed to buy ours.

MIKE: Really? Perhaps I'll talk to my family before (14) we choose/ we're choosing a flat.

ADAM: That's not a bad idea. My family (15) gave/ were giving us quite a lot of helpful advice. Now, what about a coffee? There's a good place just round the corner.

MIKE: Oh, yes, I (16) looked/ was looking for somewhere to sit down when I bumped into you. Let's go.

8. The Past tense Simple and Continuous Answer Key

Exercise I. Put in was/ were or wasn't/ weren't

2. wasn't.was 3.was...were 4. Were.was.wasn't 5. were 6. weren't.were

Exercise II. Put the words in the correct order to form questions

Was your exam difficult?

3. Where were Ann and Chris last week?

4. How much was your new camera?

5. Why were you angry yesterday?

6. Was the weather nice last week?

Exercise III. Write the past simple of these verbs

2. saw 3. played 4. paid 5. visited 6. bought 7. went 8. thought 9. copied 10. knew 11. put 12 spoke

Exercise IV. Read about Lisa's journey to Madrid. Put the verbs in the correct form.

2. got 3.had 4. left 5. drove 6. arrived 7. parked 8. went 9. had 10 went 11 waited 12 departed 13. arrived 14. Took

Exercise V. Put the verb in the correct form-positive, negative or question.

2. bought 3. did it rain 4. didn't stay 5. opened 6. didn't 7. did you do

Exercise VI.

2. Carol and Jack were at the cinema. They were watching a film.

3. Tom was in his car. He was driving

4. Catherine was at the station. She was waiting for a train.

5. Mr. and Mrs. Hall were in the park. They were walking.

Exercise VII.

2. was studying 3. did the post arrive.came..was having 4. didn't go 5. were you driving.stopped.wasn't driving 6. did your team win.didn't play 7. did you break the window.were playing.kicked.hit 8. Did you see.was wearing 9. were you doing

10 lost.did you get.climbed.

Exercise VIII.

2. built 3. wasn't selling 4. occupied 5. read 6. was waiting 7. notice 8. was playing

9. was approaching 10 ran 11 grabbed 12 offered 13 was having 14 had 15 left 16 went

Exercise IX.

3. was having 4. heard 5. contacted 6. invited 7. was organizing/organized 8. refused 9 was preparing 10. passed 11. went 12 met 13. was studying 14. had 15. worked 16 were serving 17. announced 18. persuaded 19. was 20. were 21 decided 22. were earning/ earned

Exercise X.

3. Do you want 4. are getting 5. did you decide 6. were staying 7. we're trying 8. aren't looking 9. don't have 10.We want 11. did 12. lent 13. managed 14. we choose 15. gave 16 was looking

Complete the following sentences with appropriate terms:

..rope is made from the fibres of a plant which grows in the Philippines.

Manila rope is used for a number of jobs connected with cargo-handling and.

Because manila rope is expensive, ...rope is used in its place.

..comes from a plant which grows in Russia, Europe and North America as well as China and India.

Sisal ropes are used for mooring and....................

Coir ropes are very ..and elastic.

Coir ropes are used for mooring and . ...

Terylene rope has the highest...point

Polypropylene rope is used for log lines and..................

Wire ropes are usually galvanised to prevent them from............


II.        Translate into English.

O nava se leaga la cheu cu ajutorul parīmelor de amarare. Ele constau dintr-o parīma prova, o traversa, un spring prova, o parīma pupa,o traversa si un spring pupa.Oricare din aceste parīme poate sa fie dublata. Fiecare parīma la capat un ochi matisat. Ochiul se trece peste o baba de pe cheu.


III.     Give Romanian equivalents to the following maritime terms.

Ropes; cargo-handling; mooring; lashing; hemp rope;to shrink; to swell;log lines;standing rigging; backspring aft


IV.      Put the verbs into the correct form, past simple or past continuous.

Jane was waiting (wait) for me when I arrived (arrive).

"What ....(you/do) this time yesterday?" "I was asleep."

"......(you/go)out last night?" "No, I was too tired."

"Was Carol at the party last night?" "Yes, she..(wear) a really nice dress."

How fast..(you/drive) when the accident...(happen)?

John...(take) a photograph of me while I...(not/look).

We were in a very difficult position. We..(not/know) what to do.

I haven't seen Alan for ages. When I last..(see) him, he...(try) to find a job in London.


V.         Use the words given to make sentences. Do not change the order of the words. Use only the past simple or past continuous.

Cathy/phone/the post office/when the parcel/ arrive

Cathy phoned the post office when the parcel arrived.

2. when Don/arrive/we/have/coffee

When Don arrived we were having coffee.

while he/walk/ in the mountains/ Henry/ see/ a bear

the students/ play/ a game/ when the professor/arrive

Felix/ phone/ the fire brigade/ when the cooker/ catch/ fire

when the starter/ fire/ his pistol/ the race/ begin

I/ walk/ home/ when it/ start/ to rain

when Margaret/ open/ the door/ the phone/ ring

Cora/ read/ a letter/ when Jimmy/ phone/ her

Andy/ come/ out of the restaurant/ when he/ see/ Jenny

Charlie/ cross the street/ when he/ see Mary

She/ leave/ the house/ when the phone/ start/ to ring.









towing lines





A ship is made fast to the quayside by mooring lines. They consist of a headline, a breastline and a backspring forward, a stern line, a nreastline, and a backspring aft. Any of these lines can be doubled. Each line has a large eye spliced in the end. The eye is placed over a bollard on the quayside.


Parīme; manipularea marfii; acostare, amarare, legare; amarare ( a marfii); parīma de cīnepa; to shrink; to swell; log lines; standing rigging


While he was walking in the mountains, Henry saw a bear.

The students were playing a game when the professor arrived.

Felix phoned the fire brigade when the cooker caught fire.

When the starter fired his pistol, the race began.

I was walking home when it started to rain.

When Margaret opened the door, the phone was ringing.

Cora was reading a letter when Jimmy phoned her.

Andy came out of the restaurant when he saw Jenny.

Charlie was crossing the street when he saw Mary.

She was leaving the house when the telephone started to ring.



The Traditional Organization of a Ship's Crew

Objectives: After studying the topic in the course book the learners should be able to: enumerate the crew members of a traditional cargo vessel; formulate correctly the functions of the crew members; use correctly the patterns expressing the functions of a person as well as of an object.

1. The man in charge of a ship is the Master. He is responsible for the ship, her cargo and the safety of the crew. He must be well qualified and an experienced navigator. Although his correct title is the Master, he is addressed as "Captain". The Master is the person who is in absolute charge of the vessel. His duties and responsibilities are many, varied and extensive. He is the owner's personal representative, and bears the ultimate responsibility for the safe navigation of his vessel and for the efficient loading, stowage and discharge of cargo. Furthermore, he has the power to act as lawyer, a doctor and even to bury people. The Master may arrest members of the crew or passengers, if they constitute a nuisance during the voyage. In certain circumstances, particularly if the person is dangerous to other members of the ship, the master may place the individual under restraint. In the event of any mutiny, any act of the master is regarded as one entirely of self-defence, and he has the power to call on persons on board to render assistance. Similarly, if the ship is imperilled in any way, the Master may call upon all persons on board to give assistance. To hold the position of a Master, especially on a large passenger liner, is the culmination of years of sea experience. The Master is required to hold a Master's Certificate, which is obtained by examination, and issued by the Department of Transport. Furthermore, in common with the deck officers from which department he is promoted, he must be thoroughly competent in navigation matters including the use of such navigational aids as the gyrocompass, radar, direction finder, echo-sounding device, and position-fixing device.

2. The traditional organisation of a ship's crew.

is under the control of the Chief Steward, or Catering Officer, who is responsible for catering and galley, for galley stores and for the ship's linen. He is assisted by cooks, bakers and assistant stewards. In deep sea passenger ships and those engaged in multi -purpose passenger tonnage in the short sea trades, this is a very large and important department. As such it is usually in charge of the Purser. Many passenger vessels are now manned as floating hotels.

2.4. The Radio Department often consists of only one man: the Radio officer. On ships where continuous radio watches are kept there may be three radio officers: a Chief, Second and Third. Statutory provisions stipulate under SOLAS 1974 that all cargo vessels of 300 tons gross and upwards must be fitted with a radio station. For keels laid before February 1995 the radio station should be either a radio telephone station ( only applicable for ships of 300 to 1599 gross tonnage), a radio telegraph station or a Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) for operation in specific sea areas. For keels laid after 31 January 1995 a GMDSS must be fitted. The radio officer requirements are contained in the Merchant Shipping (Radio Installations) Regulations 1992.This outlines the need for a valid certificate of competency. Overall the role of the radio officer has changed significantly following the emergence of GMDSS.

The Deck Department.

The running of this department is the responsibility of the First Mate who supervises the handling of the cargo and is responsible for the upkeeping of the ship and her equipment, excluding the engine room and auxiliary power gear. In addition, he also acts as a semi-chief of staff to the Master. He is assisted by two, three or more mates on larger vessels. The Deck Department is responsible for navigating the ship safely and economically from port to port. The Second Officer is responsible to the Master for keeping the ship on course and for looking after all the equipment used for navigation. It is also the job of the Deck Department to see that the cargo is stowed properly in the holds and kept in good condition during the voyage. The stowage of cargo is the responsibility of the Chief Officer. He is helped by the Second and Third Officers. In addition, when the ship is not fully loaded, the First Mate must see that the holds are cleaned and prepared for their next cargo. In a tanker the cargo tanks are washed out during ballast passages and freed of gas. At sea, much of the Deck Department's time is spent maintaining the ship and her equipment in good condition. This means constant cleaning, painting and repair work. This is done by ratings under the supervision of the Boatswain (Bosun). A programme of maintenance for each day is worked out by the Chief Officer. He also looks after the general day-to-day running of the department and deals with any problems. The Third Officer is in charge of the life-saving equipment. The different appliances must be complete and in good working order. The Boatswain and the Carpenter are directly responsible to the Chief Officer. The Bosun sees that his orders and those of other deck officers are carried out by the crew. He is a man with a lot of knowledge and practical experience in seamanship. The Carpenter is usually a qualified shipwright. He no longer works only with wood as his name suggests. His most important regular job is to sound the tanks and bilges in order to check the depths of liquid in them. He also operates the windlass, when the anchors are being raised or lowered. The Deck Department is also responsible for keeping watches. An officer is always on watch on the bridge. He is the Master's representative and answers to him for the safety of the ship during his watch. In ships where a Chief Mate and a First Mate are carried, the First Mate is the watch keeping officer.


4.1. A person's function, or what he/she does, can be expressed in terms of his/her responsibility.

Study these examples:

The Master is responsible for the safety of the ship.

The safety of the ship is the responsibility of the Master.

The Master is responsible to the company for the safety of the ship.

Read the text on the deck department again and underline the patterns which are used to express function. There are five examples. Can you find them? When you find them try to state the kind of pattern (1,2,or 3) used.

The function of a thing, or what it is used for, can be expressed in a number of ways:

By using the phrase: The function to..

e.g. The function of a crane is to lift heavy objects.

By using the verb to use+for-ing

e.g. A crane is used for lifting heavy objects.

By using a verb expressing the function.

e.g. A crane lifts heavy objects.

By using a prepositional phrase introduced by with.

e.g. We lift heavy objects with a crane.

How would you express the function of a thermometer by using the patterns above?

e.g. The function of a thermometer is to measure time.

Now it's your turn to use the other three patterns.


Captain/master = comandant de nava comerciala/pasager

Stowage = stivuire (a marfii)

Nuisance = comportare necuvincioasa ; fapta condamnabila

To place under restraint = a pune sub interdictie

Mutiny   = rascoala, razvratire

To be imperilled= a pune in pericol

Thoroughly competent = foarte competent

Direction finder = radiogoniometru

Boatswain (bosun)= nostrom/sef de echipaj

Carpenter = maistru lemnar

Shipwright = lemnar constructor naval, marangoz

To sound the tanks = a sonda, a masura adīncimea

Bilge = santina

Watchkeeping = serviciu de cart

Ordinary seaman = marinar stagiar/necalificat

Able seaman = marinar brevetat

Efficient deck hand = marinar brevetat

Storekeeper = magazioner

Donkeyman = mecanic de auxiliare

Greaser = gresor

Fireman = fochist

Catering Department = compartiment bucatarie-deservire

Purser = administrator (pasagere)

Lookout = veghe

The Past Perfect Simple is formed with the past form auxiliary verb to have (had) + the past participle of the main verb. The meaning of this tense is "past-in-the-past", the point of reference is in the past and the event takes place before this point in the past. It is primarily used to describe one event following another in the past; the earlier action has the past perfect, the later action has the simple past. The past perfect covers an area of meaning equivalent to both the past and perfect, being capable of referring to both indefinite and definite time.

Sentences with a past perfect often contain words like: after, before, when, as soon as to indicate succession:

e.g. They elected him President, after his party had nominated him.

Past perfect simple- full form: I had walked/run; negative: I hadn't walked/run; question: Had you walked/run?; tag question: You had walked, hadn't you?/ You hadn't walk, had you?

Meaning and function:

a)      used for actions previous to and affecting a nominated time in the past:

By one o'clock he had cooked lunch.(it was prepared but not eaten)

b)      used to express sequence and relationship of past actions with a time marker:

It was Thursday before I had read it/ After she had done the washing, she had a cup of tea.

c)      to show the sequence and relationship of past actions with no time marker in

the past perfect clause: He had got dressed before the post arrived.

d)      to show causal relationship between past actions (because, although):

I ran home because/since/as I had missed the train

e)      used as a narrative device to give background:

It had been a good year for Martin.(setting for a story in the past simple)

f)       conversation marker with verbs of thinking, hoping-a request suggestion now

abandoned: I had wondered if you could give me a lift.(I realize you can't)

g)      in reported speech and after if when direct speech is in present perfect:

"Have you seen her?, I wondered./ I wondered if you had seen her.

! Difference between the past tense and the past perfect tense: the past tense is usually used for one activity in the past. If there are two activities in the past (one happened before the other), the past perfect is used for the oldest activity:

e.g. I phoned him yesterday/ I had phoned him yesterday before I left the office.

The Past Perfect Continuous Tense is formed from the past perfect of the auxiliary verb to be (had been) + the present participle of the main verb (-ing form). The values of this tense are the same as for the present perfect continuous, with the difference that the time of reference is not the time of speech, but some point in the past, as in the case of the simple past perfect.

For example, imagine that you meet Ram at 11 am. Ram says to you:

"I'm angry. I have been waiting for two hours." Later you tell your friends: " Ram was angry. He had been waiting for two hours."

Past perfect continuous- full form: I had been eating; negative: I hadn't been eating; question: Had you been eating?; tag question: You had been eating, hadn't you?/ You hadn't been eating, had you?

Meaning and function

a)      Relative to another past time and used with a real or implied time marker. The action took place in the time leading up to the identified moment, and was temporary or expected to be temporary.

To explain the action of the main verb:

He could understand the film because he had been studying French at school

To convey the ongoing, continuous nature of an action, which led up to the past moment in time:

He had been cleaning the car for over an hour before he realized it was the wrong one.

To convey an action which was ongoing but over when interrupted by the main verb, but whose results were still evident at that moment:

When he came I had been baking

In reported speech , when the direct speech uses the present perfect continuous: He said he had been thinking about it.

b)      With verbs of thinking/feeling-introduces an idea now abandoned- it suggests

that the idea was repeatedly in the mind:

I had been meaning to visit her.( I thought many times about it, but now it's

too late)

Important: If you do not include a duration such as "for five minutes", "for two

weeks" or "since Friday", many English speakers choose to use the Past Continuous tense instead the Past Perfect Continuous. There is also a difference in meaning. Compare the examples below:

I was reading when my roommate returned. (the reading will be interrupted)

I had been reading for an hour when my roommate returned. (the reading stopped just before my roommate returned)

Past perfect or past perfect continuous?

- When we state how often something had happened we use the past perfect tense rather than the past perfect continuous:

He had rung at least five times before they arrived.

7. Vocabulary Practice

! In order to be able to do the following tasks successfully, you should revise unit 7 in your course book. To evaluate your performance, turn to the self-test and answer key at the end of this unit. You will be awarded one point for each correct answer. If your score is under 30 points, you'll have to turn back to Unit 8 and revise the vocabulary and/or grammar problems you failed to give a correct answer .If you score over 30 points you don't have to go back to Unit 8. again. Good luck!

I .Read the carefully the text on the traditional organisation of a ship's crew in your course book and use the information to expand the diagram below. Your diagram should show how each department is made up. If personnel exist only on some ships, put their names in brackets ( ).

II. Answer the following questions.

Who is in charge of a ship?

What are the four departments that are still customary found in ships of reasonable size?

What is the structure of each of the four departments?

What are the responsibilities of the deck department?

Who is running the deck department?

What are the responsibilities of the Chief Officer, Second Officer and Third Officer?

Who sees that the orders are carried out by the crew?

Who sounds the tanks and bilges?

What are the grades of the deck ratings?

In ships where a Chief Mate as well as a First mate are carried, who is the watch keeping officer?

III. Link the following (do not change their order), using whichever pattern is appropriate.To do this task correctly you should turn to unit 8, section 3 in your course book.

Chief Officer-Master-the Deck Department.

Third Officer-the life-saving equipment.

The sounding of tanks and bilges-Carpenter.

Radio Officer-radio communications.

Chief Steward-Master-the Catering Department.

The preparation of food-Ship's Cook.

Chief Engineer-the efficient running of his department.

The loading and unloading of oil-Pumpman.

IV. Rewrite the following sentences in the three alternative ways.

The function of a thermometer is to measure temperature.

A fire extinguisher is used for putting out fires.

A windlass raises and lowers the anchors.

We measure time with a chronometer.

8. Vocabulary Practice-Answer Key


II. Answer the following questions(suggested answers)

The Master

The deck department, engine department, catering department and radio department.

Officers, petty officers and ratings.

The responsibilities of the deck department are:navigation, loading, stowing and unloading the cargo; deck maintenance and watchkeeping.

The Chief Officer/Mate

The Chief Officer is responsible for the general day-to-day running of the deck department. The Second Officer is responsible to the Master for keeping the ship on course and for looking after all the equipment used for navigation.The third Officer is in charge of the life-saving equipment.

The boatswain

The carpenter.

AB(able seaman), EDH(efficient deck hand), OS(ordinary seaman)

The First Mate.

IV. Rewrite the following sentences in the three alternative ways.

(a)    A thermometer is used for measuring temperature.

A thermometer measures temperature.

We measure temperature with a thermometer.

(b)    A fire extinguisher puts out fires.

We put out fires with a fire extinguisher.

The function of a fire extinguisher is to put out fires.

(c)    We raise and lower the anchors with a windlass.

The function of a windlass is to raise and lower the anchors.

A windlass is used for raising and lowering the anchors.

(d)    The function of a chronometer is to measure time.

A chronometer is used for measuring time.

A chronometer measures time.

I. Underline all the 3rd forms of the verb in the following passage

The old man looked at the broken tree. There was sadness in his eyes. There had been a very bad storm during the night. The wind had almost blown the tree down. Branches lay around, the white wood like open wounds without the blood. He thought back to the day when he had planted it.......many years ago. The tree had grown taller year by year until it had reached almost as high as the roof. He remembered the day his son had climbed up and hidden in the branches - and wouldn't come down. He remembered how the war had come and taken his wife and son from him. The house had burnt down. But the tree had survived. It had reminded him of all those other things. Until last night. What could an old man do now?

Now write the words you have underlined.

II. Complete these situations. Number 1 is done for you.

1. I was nervous as I sat in the car waiting for my driving instructor. (drive)

I had never driven before.

2. I was terrified as we waited for the plane. (fly)

3. My knees were knocking as I stood up at the wedding. (give a speech)

4. When I reached the top of the ski lift, I wanted to die. (ski)

5. As I changed into my tennis things, I wished I'd never agreed to be Martin's partner. (play tennis)


She knew how to bake a cake because.

(b) she had learned at school.

(c) she had read about it in a book.

Use as and because as links where necessary.

  1. He gave his horse a lump of sugar.
  2. She asked me to repeat my name.
  3. We asked her to sing the song again.
  4. They called the boy Moses.
  5. Father tipped the waiter very well.
  6. The man was out of breath.
  7. I sent my watch to the watchmaker's.
  8. Our visitor was very tired.
  9. It was very cold outside in the garden.
  10. We gave the patient first aid.
  11. We didn't meet yesterday after all.
  12. I couldn't eat the food at lunchtime.
  13. Peter didn't know the answer to the question.
  14. John looked very smart at his sister's wedding.
  15. The tramp had a three days' beard.
  16. The president arrived half an hour late.
  17. We called a doctor.
  18. Peter wasn't very happy when we met him.
  19. The Colonel had great experience of men.
  20. The children were late for school.

IV Supply the Simple Past for the effect, consequence, result or interest and the Past Perfect for the previous cause.

  1. They (spend) all their money and (not know) where to find any more.
  2. We (finish) our work so we (sit) down to talk.
  3. The sky (be) black for some time before the rain (begin) to fall.
  4. I (give) you the work to do again because you(do)it badly.
  5. When I (thank) my hostess I (leave) the house and (go) home.
  6. Yesterday my wife (tell) me about a beautiful hat she (see) a few days earlier.
  7. Dr. Brown (just return) so they (give) him the message.
  8. One of his patients (break) his leg and (need) a doctor at once.
  9. The doctor (hope) for a quiet night. He (feel) disappointed.
  10. After the children (go) to bed the house (be) very quiet.
  11. They always (live) in a small village and (not understand) the city people.
  12. I (can't) read because I (forget) to fetch my glasses.
  13. Peter (have) dinner in town that evening as his wife (go) to visit her mother.
  14. We (never be) in Athens before so we (want) to see the sights.
  15. The child (lose) his money so he (cannot buy) sweets.

V. Supply the Simple Past to show cause and immediate effect or the Past Perfect to show previous cause. The Simple past expresses the later consequence.

  1. He (press) the switch and the engine (start).
  2. Peter (forget) to fill up with petrol so his car (stop) just outside the garage.
  3. We (not eat) much for breakfast so we (feel) hungry at lunchtime.
  4. John (not arrive) by seven thirty, so Mary (go) to the cinema alone.
  5. Mr. Smith (misunderstand) the question because he (not hear) it well.
  6. Professor Smith (heat) a metal bar and it (expand).
  7. His firm (give) him a better position last year because he (earn) it.
  8. As we (miss) the express from London we (travel) on a slow train.
  9. Our host (introduce) me to Mrs. Brown whom I (not meet) before.
  10. Peter (sunbathe) too long and (get) blisters on his back.
  11. Mary (not be) abroad before so everything (seem) strange to her.
  12. .he (refuse) to see me because I (not write) for an appointment?
  13. She (not go) out in the rain because she (not have) an umbrella.
  14. . he (become) angry when you (accuse) him for stealing?
  15. As we (not have) notice of the general's arrival, naturally we (not expect) him.
  16. Something heavy (strike) me on the head and (knock) me out.
  17. .she (find out) for herself or . someone (tell) her?
  18. We (wake up) late because the alarm clock (not ring).
  19. The policeman (put) up his hand and the traffic (stop).
  20. Susan's dinner (go) cold so Alan (warm) it up for her.

VI. Transate into English using one of the following tenses: Past Simple; Past Continuous; Past Perfect Simple and Past Perfect Continuous

1. Vāntul se mai domolise iar luna stralucea deasupra marii linistite.

2. Telefonul suna, īn timp ce domnisoara Marple se īmbraca.

3. O auzi cum ofteaza īn timp ce el citea.

4. Ultima data l-am vazut acum zece ani.

5. Ca elev era un baiat timid si sārguincios.

6. Deschise sertarul, scoase un plic vechi si se aseza īn fotoliu, examināndu-l atent.

7. Īn zilele acelea venea sa ma vada īn mod regulat si de fiecare data īmi aducea un mic dar.

8. Mereu ma suna noaptea tārziu.

9. Cānd predam la scoala aceea, ma lua īn fiecare dimineata cu masina.

10. Ce s-a īntāmplt dupa ce a plecat?

11. De trei ani locuia īn satul acela mic de lānga granita.

12. Īl asteptam de o ora, cānd telefonul suna si o voce ciudata īmi spuse ca Richard a avut un accident.

13. Primise florile cu o ora īn urma, dar era īnca foarte emotionata.

14. Ce facuse oare īn tot acest timp?

15. Despre ce vorbeau cānd i-ai īntālnit

10. Answer Key: Past Perfect Simple and Continuous

I. 1 been 2 blown 3 planted 4 grown 5 reached 6 climbed 7 hidden 8 come 9 taken 10 burnt 11 survived 12 reminded


1. I had never driven before.

2. I had never flown before.

3. I had never given a speech before.

4. I had never skied before.

5. I hadn't played tennis before.

6. I had never sung in public before.

III. A variety of previous causes may be produced for each item e.g.

1. because it had jumped so well/ because it had a fright/ as it had always liked sugar

2. because she hadn't heard it well/ because I hadn't spoken clearly/ because she had never heard such a name before/as she had forgotten to write it down.


1. had spent....did not know

2. had finished.....sat

3. had been....began

4. gave.....had gone

5. had thanked....left....went

6. told....had seen

7. had just returned....gave

8. had broken......needed

9. had hoped....felt

10. had gone....was

11. had always lived....did not undersatnd

12. could not....had forgotten

13. had....had gone

14. had never been....wanted

15. had lost....could not buy


1. pressed....started

2. had forgotten....stopped

3. had not eaten....felt

4. had no arrived....went

5. misunderstood....had not heard

6. heated....expanded

7. gave.....had earned

8. had missed....travelled

9. introduced.....had not met


11. had not seen....seemed

12. Did he refused.....had not written

13. did he go.....did not have

14. Did he become .....accused

15. had no had......did not expect

16. struck.....knocked

17. Did she find out....did someone tell /had someone tpld.

18. woke up.....had not rung

19. put.....stopped

20. had gone out....warmed.


1. The wind had fallen and the moon was shining over the quiet sea.

2. The phone rang when Miss Marple was dressing.

3. He heard her sigh as he was reading for her.

4. She last saw him ten years ago.

5. As a pupil he was a timid hard-working boy.

6. He pulled the drawer open, took out an old envelope and sat down in the armcahir inspecting it closely.

7. In those days he came to see me regularly and every time he brought me a small present.

8. He was always ringing me up late at night.

9. When I taught at that school he gave me a lift every morning.

10. What happened after he had left?

11. He had been living/had lived for three years in that small village near the border.

12. I had been waiting for him for an hour when the phone rang and a strange voice told me that Richard had had an accident.

13. She had got the flowers an hour before but she was still very excited.

14. Whatever had he been doing all that time?

15. What were they talking about when you met them?



The man in charge of a ship is the.....

The master is the....personal .representative.

The master bears the ultimate responsibility for the safe navigation of his vessel, efficient loading, ... and discharge of the cargo.

The master has the power to act as a..., a doctor, and even to bury people.

If a person is dangerous to other members of the ship, the master may place the individual under...

If the ship is any way, the Master may call upon all persons on board to give assistance.

The master is required to hold a.. ...which is obtained by examination.

The Master must be..competent in navigation matters including navigating techniques and instruments.

The traditional organisation of a ship's crew consists of four departments:...,Engine, Catering, and Radio.

Each department is made up of a varied number of officers, petty officers and ratings.


II. Select the officers, petty officers and ratings listed below and place them under the appropriate heading hierarchically:

Third Officer; Second Engineer; Ship's Cook; Boatswain; Storekeeper; Third Engineer; Electrical officer; Second Steward; Carpenter; Fourth Engineer; Donkeyman; Second Officer; AB; Storekeeper; Firemen; Second Radio Officer; Greasers; Fourth Engineer; OS; Purser; EDH.

Deck Department

Engine Department

Catering Department

Radio Department

Chief Officer

Chief Engineer

Chief Steward

Chief Radio Officer









Master's Certificate



Petty officers


Deck Department

Engine Department

Catering Department

Radio Department

Chief Officer

Chief Engineer

Chief Steward

Chief Radio Officer

Second officer

Second Engineer

Second radio Officer

Third Officer

Third Engineer

Third Radio Officer

Fourth Engineer

Electrical Officer



Second steward



The purser


AB(able seaman)


EDH(efficient deck hand)


OS(ordinary seaman)


1.The Chief Officer is responsible to the Master for the running of the Deck Department.

2. The Third Officer is responsible for the life-saving appliances.

3. The Boatswain is directly responsible to the Chief Officer. He sees that his orders and those of other deck officers are carried out by the crew.

4. The sounding of tanks and bilges is the responsibility of the Carpenter

5. Deck ratings are responsible for deck operations.

6. The Second Officer is responsible to the Master for keeping the ship on course and for looking after all the equipment used for navigation.


arise arose arisen a se ridica

awake   awoke awoken a (se) trezi

be   was/were been a fi

bear   bore borne a purta

beat   beat beaten a bate

become   became become a deveni

begin   began begun a īncepe

bend bent bent a (se) īndoi

bet   bet bet a paria

bid   bid bid a ruga, a adresa (o invitatie)

bade bidden a porunci

bind   bound bound a lega

bite bit bitten a musca

bleed   bled bled a sāngera

bless blest blest a binecuvānta

blow blew blown a sufla; a bate

break   broke broken a (se) sparge; a (se) defecta

breed   bred bred a creste, a educa

bring brought brought a aduce

broadcast broadcast broadcast a emite (radio, TV)

build built built a construi

burn   burnt burnt a arde

burst burst burst a izbucni; a navali; a crapa

buy bought bought a cumpara

cast   cast cast a arunca

catch   caught caught a prinde

choose   chose chosen a alege

cling clung clung a se agata

come   came come a veni

cost   cost cost a costa

creep   crept crept a se tārī; a se furisa

cut   cut cut a taia

deal   dealt dealt a trata; a se ocupa de

dig   dug dug a sapa

dive   dove (Am.) dived a (se) scufunda, a plonja

do   did done a face

draw drew drawn a trage, a desena

dream   dreamt dreamt a visa

drink drank drunk a bea

drive drove driven a conduce, a sofa

dwell   dwelt dwelt a locui

eat   ate eaten a mānca

fall   fell fallen a cadea

feed   fed fed a hrani, a alimenta

feel felt felt a (se) simti

fight   fought fought a (se) lupta

find found found a gasi

flee fled fled a fugi

fling   flung flung a arunca; a lansa

fly   flew flown a zbura

forbid   forbade forbidden a interzice

forecast forecast forecast a prevedea

foresee   foresaw foreseen a prezice

forget   forgot forgotten a uita

forgive   forgave forgiven a ierta

freeze   froze frozen a īngheta

get   got got (gotten Am.) a primi; a obtine; a ajunge

give   gave given a da

go   went gone a merge

grind ground ground a macina, a slefui

grow grew grown a creste, a cultiva

hang hung hung a atārna

have had had a avea

hear   heard heard a auzi

hide   hid hidden a (se) ascunde

hit   hit hit a lovi

hold   held held a tine

hurt   hurt hurt a lovi; a rani; a durea

keep kept kept a tine; a pastra

kneel knelt knelt a īngenunchea

knit knit knit a tricota

know   knew known a sti, a cunoaste

lay   laid laid a pune, a aseza

lead   led led a conduce (oameni)

lean   leant leant a (se) apleca, a (se) sprijini

leap   leapt leapt a sari

learn learnt learnt a īnvata

leave   left left a pleca, a lasa

lend   lent lent a da cu īmprumut

let   let let a lasa, a permite

lie   lay lain a sta īntins; a se afla

light   lit lit a aprinde

lose   lost lost a pierde

make   made made a face

mean   meant meant a īnsemna

meet met met a (se) īntālni

mislead   misled misled a induce īn eroare

mistake   mistook mistaken a confunda

mow mowed mown a cosi

overcome overcame overcome a depasi

pay paid paid a plati

put   put put a pune

read   read read a citi

rend   rent rent a rupe, a sfāsia

rid   rid rid a se descotorosi de

ride rode ridden a calari; a merge cu.

ring rang rung a suna

rise rose risen a rasari, a se ridica

run ran run a fugi

saw   sawed sawn a taia cu ferastraul

say said said a spune

see saw seen a vedea

seek sought sought a cauta

sell sold sold a vinde

send sent sent a trimite

set   set set a potrivi; a monta; a fixa

sew   sewed sown a coase

shake   shook shaken a scutura; a tremura

shear   sheared shorn a tunde oi

shed shed shed a varsa (lacrimi, sānge)

shine shone shone a straluci

shoe shod shod a potcovi

shoot   shot shot a trage, a īmpusca; a filma

show   showed shown a arata

shrink   shrank shrunk a intra la apa, a se strānge

shut   shut shut a īnchide

sing   sang sung a cānta

sink   sank sunk a (se) scufunda

sit   sat sat a sta jos

slay   slew slain a ucide

sleep slept slept a dormi

slide   slid slid a aluneca

sling   slung slung a arunca

slit   slit slit a despica

smell smelt smelt a mirosi

sow   sowed sown a semana

speak   spoke spoken a vorbi

speed   sped sped a accelera

spell   spelt spelt a ortografia

spend   spent spent a cheltui, a petrece timp

spill spilt spilt a varsa

spin   span/spun spun a se īnvārti īn jurul axei

spit spat spat a scuipa

spit spit (Am.)

split   split split a despica

spoil   spoilt spoilt a strica, a rasfata

spread   spread spread a (se) raspāndi

spring   sprang sprung a izvorī; a (ra)sari

stand   stood stood a sta īn picioare

steal stole stolen a fura

stick stuck stuck a (se) lipi; a īnfige

sting stung stung a īntepa

stink stank/stunk stunk a mirosi urāt

stride   strode stridden a merge cu pasi mari

strike   struck struck a lovi

string   strung strung a īnsira

strive   strove striven a se stradui; a nazui

swear   swore sworn a jura; a īnjura

sweep   swept swept a matura

swell swelled swollen a se umfla

swim   swam swum a īnota

swing   swung swung a (se) legana

take   took taken a lua

teach   taught taught a īnvata (pe cineva)

tear   tore torn a rupe, a sfāsia

tell   told told a spune (cuiva), a povesti

think thought thought a (se) gāndi; a crede

throw   threw thrown a arunca

thrust   thrust thrust a īnfige

tread trod trodden/trod a calca, a pasi

undergo underwent undergone a suferi (schimbari)

understand understood understood a īntelege

undertake undertook undertaken a īntreprinde

wake   woke woken a (se) trezi

wear wore worn a purta

weave   wove woven a tese

wed   wed wed a se cununa

weep   wept wept a plānge

wet wet wet a (se) uda

win won won a cāstiga

wind wound wound a rasuci; a serpui

withdraw withdrew withdrawn a (se) retrage

wring   wrung wrung a stoarce; a rasuci

write wrote written a scrie


ALEXANDER, L.G. Longman English Grammar, `Longman Group UK Limited, 1994. ISBN 0-582-55892-1

BANTAS, ANDREI. Essential English - Limba engleza in liste si tabele, Editura TEORA, Bucuresti, 1992. ISBN 973-601-032-5

*** Collins Cobuild English Grammar, London, HarperCollins Publishers, 1994. ISBN 0-00-375025-6

COE, NORMAN, Grammar Spectrum 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 English Rules and Practice,

EASTWOOD, John. Oxford Guide to English Grammar, Oxford University Press, 1994. ISBN 0-19-431-351-4

*** Encyclopaedia Britannica, Oxford University Press, 2001

ENGLISH FOR NAUTICAL STUDENTS - Note de curs, Constanta, Institutul de Marina "Mircea cel Batran", 1992.

HARDIE, G. RONALD, English Grammar, London, Harper Collins Publishers, 2002. ISBN 0-00-710135-X

HEATON,J.B.; TURTON, N.D. Dictionary of Common Errors, Longman Group UK Limited, 1993. ISBN 0-582-96410-5

LEECH, GEOFFREY, An A-Z of English Grammar and Usage, Hong Kong, 1991. ISBN 0-17-556292-X

NAVY TERMINOLOGY-SEAMANSHIP, Defense Language Institute English Language Center, Lackland Air Force base, Texas, 1983.

OXLADE, C., All About Ships-Amazing Maritime Facts, London, Southwater, 2000. ISBN 1-84215-015-4

ROZAKIS, L., E., Grammar and Style, New York, Alpha Books, 1997.

ISBN 0-02-861956-0

SWAN, MICHAEL, Practical English Language, Oxford University Press, 1994. ISBN 0-19-431185-6

TAGGART, ROBERT, Ship Design and Construction, Oxford University Press, 1980

THOMSON, A.J.; MARTINET, A.V., A Practical English Grammar, Oxford University Press, 1995. ISBN 0-19-431348-4

THORNBURY, SCOTT, Natural Grammar, Oxford University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-19-438624-4

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