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Classification of the Major Topics of Physics Researches (recognized by Physics Nobel prizes between 1901 and 2005)


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Classification of the Major Topics of Physics Researches (recognized by Physics Nobel prizes between 1901 and 2005) according to their

Specific Experimental or Theoretical Main Results (the year of Nobel Prize awarding is indicated finally)

Nr.

PHYSICS FIELD

Experimental Studies

Theoretical Studies

New Devices

New Methods

Major Findings

of Experim. Studies & Tests

New Phenomena

New Physical Objects or States

Theoretical Models

Deductive Theoretical Studies

1

Thermodynamics

Illuminating Au-tomatic Regula-tor 14214l115o s & Gas Accu-mulators (1912)

Van der Waals model of real gases (1910)

Thermodynamic theory of thermal radiation (1911)

2

Electromagnetism

&Electromagnetic Waves (radiation & propagation)

Wireless telegraphy (Radio), 1909

Michelson-Morley experiments (test of "ether" hypothesis),1907

X-rays (Röntgen, 1901)

Heat Radiation laws: Wien,1911;

Energy Quanta: Planck, 1918

Influence of magnetism on the radiation pheno-mena, etc. 1902

3

Optics, Microscopy & Diffractometry

Michelson inter-ferometer, 1907; phase contrast microscope, 1953

Color Photogra-phy, 1908; Holo-graphy,1971; Electron & scan-ning tunneling microscopy, 1986

Diffraction of: a) X-rays, 1914; b) electrons/crystals1937; c) neu-trons, 1994

Bragg-Bragg law of X-rays diffraction, 1915; Quantum theory of optical coherence, 2005

4

Spectroscopy

X-rays

Spectroscope,

W.H. Bragg, 1915

Laser-based precision spectro-scopy, 2005

Spectral methods:

X-rays, 1924; her-tzian waves,1966; laser & e-, 1981; ionic traps,1989; neutrons, 1994

Characteristic X-rays spectral lines of elements, 1917; Fine structure of H spectrum, 1955

Effects:

Zeeman, 1902; Stark, 1919;

Raman, 1930

5

Atomic and Molecular Physics

Ammonia (NH3) maser, Townes, 1964

Procedure of gas densities determi-nation, 1904; atoms cooling by means of laser radiations, 1997

Cathodic radiation

study, 1905;

Experiments of:

Franck-Hertz, 1925;

Jean Perrin, 1926

Compton effect, 1927

X-rays (Röntgen, 1901); Bose-Einstein conden-sation in dilute gases, 2001

Bohr's atomic model, 1922

Theory of  the Brownian motion (not mentioned explicitly in the Nobel prize award):

Einstein, 1921

6

Theoretical Physics

(relativity, gravita-tion, quantum phys.)

Energy Quanta, Planck, 1918;

Wave nature of electrons (of any particles, generally):

de Broglie, 1924

Relativity & Gravity theories: 1921 Quantum theory: Heisenberg, 1932

Schrödinger, Dirac, 1933; Pauli, 1945; Born, 1954; Quantum electrodynamics,1965

Table 2 (following)

Nr.

PHYSICS FIELD

Experimental Studies

Theoretical Studies

New Devices

New Methods

Major Findings

of Experim. Studies & Tests

New Phenomena

New Physical Objects or States

Theoretical Models

Deductive Theoretical Studies

7

Condensed Matter Physics

Transistor, 1956;

Tunnel Diode: Esaki, 1973

Semiconductor hetero-structures & Integrated circuits, 2000

Neutron Diffraction Methods, 1994

Special Alloys, 1920; High pressure phenomena, 1946; Tunneling in Superconductors: Giaever, 1973

Effects:

Mössbauer, 1961;

Quantum Hall effect, 1985;

Fractional quantum Hall effect, 1998

Liquid Helium & Superconductivity (SC) 1913; Antiferro- & ferrimagnetism, 1970; Liq. Helium superfluidity, 1978; High tem-peratures SC,1987

Of the photoelectric effect, Einstein, 1921;  of the thermionic emission, 1928;   of Liquid Crystals and Polymers, 1991;  of superconductors and superfluids, 2003

Liquid Helium: 1962;

BCS Theory, 1972;

Josephson's effect theory, 1973;

Magnetic & Disorder-ed Systems, 1977;

Critical Phenomena theory: Wilson, 1982

8

Radioactivity and Nuclear Physics

Wilson's cloud chamber, 1927;

Automated cloud chamber, 1948

NMR, 1944;

High accuracy nuclear magne-tic measure-ments, 1952;  Coincidence method, 1954

Main radioactive substances properties:

P. & M. Curie, 1903

Radioactivity: Becquerel, 1903;

Nuclear reactions with slow neu-trons:Fermi,1938;

Cherenkov effect,

1958

Nuclear Shell Structure: Goeppert-Meyer & Jenkins, 1963;

Combined Nuclear Structure: Bohr-Mottelson, 1975

Exclusion principle

and β decay theory: Pauli, 1945;

Atomic nucleus theory and fundamental symmetry principles:

Wigner, 1963

9

Elementary Particles and Fundamental Interactions

Cyclotrone, 1939;

Nuclear plates, Powell, 1950;

Bubble chamber, 1960 & 1968;

Multiwire propor-tional chamber, Charpak, 1992

For e, h mea-surement, 1923;

p+ and e- magnetic momentum,

1943 and 1955;

For the study of quarks, 1990

Discovery of electron by means of the study of electrical conduc-tion in gases, 1906

Interactions of p

and nuclei, 1951;

Violations of the P (1957) and CP

(1980) symmetry

Discoveries of:

n,Chadwick 1935;

e+,Anderson 1936

π, Powell, 1950;

p-, Chamberlain 1959;  J/ψ, Richter-Ting,1976

W, Z, 1984;

 (1988),

τ, ,  (1995)

Structure of nucleons, Hofstadter, 1961;

Classification and interactions of elementary particles, Gell-Mann, 1969;

 Weak and electro-magnetic interactions unification, 1979;

Quantum structure of electroweak interac-tions, Hooft-V. 1999

Theoretical prediction of mesons, Yukawa, 1949;

Discovery of the asymptotic freedom of the strong interaction, Gross, Politzer, Wilczek, 2004

10

Plasma Physics

Ionosphere, Appleton, 1947

Applications of mag-neto-hydrodynamics theory, Alfvén, 1970

11

Astrophysics and Cosmology

Radio-telescope, 1974

Discovery of cosmic X-rays sources & detection of cosmic neutrinos, 2002

Pulsars, 1974; bi-nary pulsars, 1993

Cosmic back-ground radiation,

1978


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