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LIMBA ENGLEZA - THE LANGUAGE OF ECONOMICS

economie




UNIVERSITATEA DE VEST "VASILE GOLDIs" ARAD

FACULTATEA DE STIINTE ECONOMICE







DEPARTAMENTUL ÎNVĂŢĂMÂNT LA DISTANŢĂ







LIMBA ENGLEZĂ

THE LANGUAGE OF ECONOMICS



ANUL: I

SEMESTRUL I si II









I.   &nb 17217w2211r sp;   &nb 17217w2211r sp;   &nb 17217w2211r sp;   &nb 17217w2211r sp;  INTRODUCTION - KEYWORDS .............................. 3


II.   &nb 17217w2211r sp;   &nb 17217w2211r sp;   &nb 17217w2211r sp;   UP AND DOWN .......... ..... ...... .............................10


III.   &nb 17217w2211r sp;   &nb 17217w2211r sp;   ECONOMICS .......... ..... ...... .......... ..... ...... 12


IV.   &nb 17217w2211r sp;   &nb 17217w2211r sp;   MEASURING ECONOMIC ACTIVITY: MAIN INDEXES .......... ..... ...... .......... ..... ...... ........27


V.   &nb 17217w2211r sp;   &nb 17217w2211r sp;   &nb 17217w2211r sp;  SENTENCES .................28















THE LANGUAGE OF ECONOMICS -

LIMBAJUL ECONOMIC





I Introducere - Keywords


Acest capitol prezinta vocabularul general precum si definitiile indicator-cheie absolute necesari accesului la informatia economica. El constituie o prima initiere si totodata baza pe care se vor acumula cunostintele mai complexe oferite pe parcursul celor doua semestre ale anului I.


Keywords - Cuvinte - Cheie



Achizite acquisition, purchase

Acord agreement

Actionar shareholder, stockholder

Actiune(bursiera) share, (US)stock

A administra(a conduce a gestiona) to manage, (un cont) to handle

Administrator(conducator) manager

Administratie (conducere) management

Afaceri business trade

Afacere(contract) deal

Agricol agricultural, farm, farming

Agricultor farmer

Alocatie allowance, subsidy

(cu) amanuntul retail ( a vinde cu amanuntul) to retail, to sell

by retail

(vanzator) cu amanuntul retailer

angajat 1.(statut) employee 2.(calificare)clerk

angros wholesale

angrosist wholesaler

antreprenor employer 2.(sens economic general )

entrepreneur, (pentru lucrari etc.) contractor

articol article, item

asigurare 1.(activitate) insurance 2. (societate) insurance company

B

balanta balance

banca 1.(institutie) bank 2.(activitate) banking

bani money, (metal) silver

bani marunti, maruntis small change

beneficiu profit

Atentie benefit= 1)avantaj

2) alocare alocatie subventie bloc (commercial) bloc


buget budget

bun, bunuri good

Atentie, good nu se foloseste la singular decat in sens macro-economic : un mijloc de productie a capital good. In sensul de marfa ,el nu se foloseste decat la plural (goods) , o marfa a commodity

Bursa stock-exchange,executive(piata bursiera)

Stock-market

C

Capital,capitaluri capital

Cadre, personal de conducere executive

Atentie: cuvantul englez capital folosit cu acest sens nu are pl:

a-si procura fonduri to raise capital

A cadea, a scadea, a se reduce to fall, to drop, to decrease

Cadere(scadre) fall, drop, decrease

Cerere demand (cerere si oferta law of demand and

supply

cheltuiala, cheltuieli spending , expense (pozitie bugetara) expenditure

cifra figure

cifra de afaceri turn over

comerciant shopkeeper, trader

client customer (servicii) client

comert trade

competitiv competitive

competitivitate competitiveness

a concedia(a disponibliliza) to lay-off, to dismiss, to make (workers)

redundant

concediere(economica) redundancy lay-off, laying-off

concentare concentration

concurent competitor

concurenta competition

concurential competitive


Conjunctura = atentie in lb engleza nu exista o traducere unica a acestui termen, folositi the economy sau expresii ca (present) economic trends, the (present) economic situation,the (present) state of the economy, the business outlook ,the economic situation.


Constructie housing, construction

Constituirea unei intreprinderi business formation

(cererea unei intreprinderi)

consum consumption

a consuma to consume

consummator consumer

cont account

contabilitate accounting

contabil taxpayer

cost cost

cota quota


Creanta debt[det]

Atentie: in lb engleza exista un singur cuvant pt creanta (bani care ne sunt datorati) si datorie (bani pe care ii datoram): dept

Credit credit

Creditor creditor

A creste to raise, to rise, to increase, to go up

cresterea growth

criza slump, depression, crises(pl crises)

a cumpara to buy, to purchase

cumparare purchase , buy

comparator buyer, purchaser

D

Datorie debt

Debuseu outlet

Deficit deficit

Deflatie deflation

Deflationist deflationary

Depresie(econmica) depression

Dereglementare

(neitreventia statului ineconomie) deregulation

devize currency

director manager

disponibilizare mass-dismissal

distributie distribution

dividend dividend

drept 1.law 2.(vama etc) duty

E

Echilibru balance

Economic economic

Atentie : economical inseamna economic in sensul de economicos, prin care se poate economisi sau rentabil.

Economie 1. (stiinta) economics

2. (caracteristici economice ale unei tari sau conjunctura economica) (the) economy ; economia romaneasca: the Romanian economy (nu uitati articolul the!); economiile lumii a treia third-world economies

economii saving, savings

a economisi to save

econom (persoana care economiseste) saver, small investor

export export

a exporta to export

exportator exporter

exterior foreign, overseas (GB)


F

a fabrica, a produce to manufacture, to make, to

build   

fabricant, producator manufacturer, maker, builder

a factura to invoice, to bill, to charge

factura invoice, bill

faliment bankruptcy, failure

financiar (adj.) financial

finantare financing, funding

a finanta to finance, to fund

finante finance

finantist financier

fisc (the) tax authorities;

(GB) the Inland Revenue;

(US) the Internal Revenue Services (IRS)

fiscal tax, fiscal

flux flow

fond, fonduri 1.m.sg. fund 2.m.pl. funds,

capital money

formare 1.(de personal) training

2.(a unei societati etc.) formation, forming,

founding, setting up, creation

a furniza to supply

furnizor supplier

a fuziona to merge

fuziune merger

G

a (se) globaliza to globalize (to go global)

globalizare globalization

greva strike

grevist

I

importator importer

import import

a importa to import

a impoza, a impozita to tax

impozare, impozitare taxation

impozite tax, taxes

indice, indicator index, pl. indexes, indices;

indicator

industrializare industrialization

industrializat industrialized

industrie industry

industrial adj. industrial

industrias industrialist, businessman

inflatie inflation

inflationist inflationary

informatica information technology; computing; computer science; data processing

interior (intern) domestic, home

a investi to invest

investitie investment

investitor investor


împrumut loan

a împrumuta (a lua cu împrumut) to borrow

încetinire slow-down

a înfiinta to set up

întreprindere business, firm, enterprise,

concern

L

liber schimb free-trade

lichiditati cash, liquidities

locuinta housing

lucrator worker, (GB) working man

M

marasm slump, doldrums

marfa commodity, product

marfuri goods, commodities, products

masa monetara money supply

materii prime raw materials

a face sa urce, a face sa creasca


g)    a face sa coboare, a face sa scada


DATE GENERALE CU PRIVIRE LA ACTIVITATEA ECONOMICA

Agenti economici economic agents

Agregate economice economic aggregates

Ajustat (corectat) in functie de sezon seasonally adjusted

Ameliorare (imbunatatire) improvement

Anual annual, yearly

Austeritate austerity

Autarhie self-sufficiency

Birocratie red tape, bureaucracy

Bloc comercial trading bloc

Bogatie wealth

Brut gross

Capitalism capitalism

Cadere (scadere) fall, drop

Ciclu cycle

Cifra figure, digit, number

Competitivitate competitiveness

Concurent competitor

Concurenta competition


controlul preturilor price control

costuri salariale labour costs

credit credit

crestere a cereri excess demand

crestere a productivitatii productivity gain

crestere zero zero growth

disponibilizare dismissal

disponibilizare (economica) lay-of, redundancies

deficit deficit

economii savings

economii ale menajelor household savings

econom (persoana care economisteste) saver, investor

emisiune monetara money issuing

excedent surplus

export export

flexibilitate elasticity, flexibility

import import

impozit asupra consumului consumer tax

impozit asupra plusvalorii capital gains tax

impozit asupra venitulu societatilor corporate income tax

sindicat trade union, labour union (US)

societate (comerciala)    company, firm, corporation (US)

societate mixta joint venture

sucursala branch

sef, patron, director, boss, owner, manager, employer

angajator

somaj unemployment

somer unemployed

uzina factory, plant


4. PRODUCTS, MARKETS AND FINANCE PRODUSE, PIEŢE sI FINANŢE

actiune share, stock (US)

angrosist wholesaler

aparate casnice household appliances, white goods

articol item, article

banca bank

bunuri goods

bunuri de folosinta    durable goods, durables

îndelungata

bunuri de marfuri commodity exchange, commodity market

bursa de valori stock exchange, stock market

capital, capitaluri capital

casa de economii savings bank

client (servicii) client

client customer

client permanent patron

clientela clientele

comerciant shopkeeper, tradesman, dealer, merchant

comerciant cu amanuntul    retail dealer, retailer

comert commerce, trade

comert en detail retail trade

(cu amanuntul)

comert en gros wholesale trade

conducator, director, manager

manager

consumator consumer

creanta debt

creditor creditor

cumparare purchase

cumparator purchaser, buyer

datorie debt

debitor debtor

devize currency

distribuitor distributor

distributie distribution

distributie în masa mass retail, mass distribution

exportator exporter

fabricant manufacturer

febra cumparaturilor     spending spree

finantist financier

fiscalitate, sistem fiscal taxation, tax system

importator importer

intermediar middleman, intermediary

investitie investment

investitor investor

împrumut loan

îndatorare debt, indebtness

marfa commodity

marfuri, bunuri goods, merchandise, wares

marfuri de larg consum mass consumption goods

marfuri de prima necessitate    staple goods, staples

marfuri de uz casnic household goods

mijloace de productie capital goods

obligatiune bond, debenture

oportunitate (pe o piata) niche

piata market

piete financiare financial markets

plasament (investitie investment

mobiliara)

politica fiscala    fiscal policy, taxation policy

politica vamala    tariff policy

producator producer, manufacturer

productia interna    domestic output, national production

nationala

productie output, production

productie în vrac in bulk production, output

produs (industrial) product

produs agricol produce

produs de lux luxury goods

produs finit finished product

produs semi-finit semi-finished product

produse alimentare produce, foodstuffs

produse lactate dairy produce

produse perisabile perishable goods, perishables

protectia consumatorilor    consumerism

rata de schimb exchange rate

rata dobânzii interest rate

renta revenue

reprezentant representative, agent

servicii services

subcontractare subcontracting

subcontractor subcontractor



taxa vamala customs duty

titlu (de valoare) security

troc barter

unitate de productie production unit

valoare (bursiera) security

vama customs

vânzator, -oare, salesman, -woman; seller

agent de vânzare

vânzare sale


5. MAIN VERBS VERBELE PRINCIPALE

a cadea to drop

a câstiga (bani) to make, to earn

a cheltui to spend

a comercializa to market

a concedia to dismiss

a conduce to run, to operate, to lead, to manage

a consuma to consume

a creste to increase, to rise, to grow

a creste (puternic) to surge, to skyrocket

a cuceri (o piata)    to grab, to seize, to corner

a cumpara to buy, to purchase

a da faliment to go bankrupt

a dezvolta to develop, to expand

a disponibiliza to lay off, to make redundant

(din ratiuni economice)

a economisi to save, to spare

a exploata (o to operate

întreprindere)

a exporta to export

a fabrica to manufacture

a face afaceri cu to do business with

a face o afacere cu to make a deal with

a gestiona (a administra)    to manage, to handle

a importa to import

a investi to invest

a încheia (un contract, to sign, to close, to clinch

o afacere)

a înfiinta to set up

a lansa to launch

a se mari to increase, to rise

a muta to relocate

a opri inflatia, somajul to curb, to stern the tide of, to check

a patrunde (pe o piata etc.)    to penetrate, to break into, to tap

a produce to produce

a realiza un profit to make a profit

a reduce to reduce, to cut, to lower

a reduce (puternic) to slash

a reforma to reform

a relansa to spur, to boost, to revive, to prime

a scadea to decrease, to fall

a scadea, a se prabusi    to plummet, to collapse

(preturi)

a stapâni, a controla to control

(costurile, cheltuielile)

a subcontracta to subcontract, to contract out

a sustine to sustain

a trata cu, a se to deal with

confrunta cu

a vinde to sell


6. A COUNTRY'S NATIONAL ECONOMY ECONOMIA NAŢIONALĂ A UNEI ŢĂRI

sectorul primar primary sector

sectorul secundar secondary sector

sectorul tertiar tertiary sector


1. AGRICULTURA FARMING

a) productia agricola agricultural production

bere beer

cacao cocoa

cafea coffee

cartof potato

ceai tea

cereale cereals

citrice citrus

grâu wheat (US), corn (GB)

oleaginoase oilseeds

orez rice

porumb maize (GB), corn (US)

tutun tobacco

vita-de-vie vine

zahar sugar

b ) zootehnia (cresterea cattle-raising, cattle-breeding, cattle

animalelor) rearing

bovine cattle

ovine the ovine race

pasari poultry

porcine swine, pigs

c ) piscicultura (pescuitul) fishing industry (the)

flota comerciala merchant fleet

piscicultura aqua farming

port pescaresc fishing harbor

d ) industria forestiera forest industry (the)

padure, lemn wood


2. INDUSTRIA ENERGETICA POWER INDUSTRY (THE)

carbune (huila, lignit) coal (coal, beown coal)

energia nucleara the nuclear energy, nuclear power

gaze naturale natural gas

hidroelectricitate hydroelectricity

petrol oil (US), petroleum (GB)

surse de energie alternativa solara, alternative sources of energy (sun,

eoliana etc.) wind, etc.)


3.METALURGIA GREA HEAVY METALLURGICAL

INDUSTRY (THE)

(siderurgie, minerale) ( iron and steel industry, ore)

aluminiu aluminum (US), aluminium

bauxita bauxite

cobalt cobalt

crom chromium

cupru copper

fier iron

fosfati phosphates

mangan manganese

nichel nickel

otel steel

plumb lead

staniu tin

zinc zinc


4. INDUSTRIA MINIERA MINING INDUSTRY (THE)

argint silver

aur gold

diamante diamond


5. INDUSTRIA TEXTILA TEXTILE INDUSTRY (THE)

bumbac cotton

fibre artificiale artificial fibres

fibre sintetice synthetic fibres

in linen

iuta jute

lana wool

matase silk


6. ALTE RAMURI DE PRODUCTIE OTHER PRODUCTIONS

ciment cement

cauciuc rubber

mase plastice plastics


7. INDUSTRIILE PRELUCRATOARE PROCESSING INDUSTRIES

industria aeronautica si aerospace industry (the)

spatiala

industria aparatelor de cale rail, railway, railroad industry (the)

industria automobilelor car industry (the)

industria navala shipbuilding (the)


8.TRANSPORTURI TRANSPORT, TRANSPORTATION

transportul aerian air transport(ation)

transportul feroviar rail transport(ation)

transportul maritim sea transport(ation)

transportul rutier road transport(ation)

transportul terestru ground transport(ation)


9. DIVERSE    MISCELLANEOUS

alimentatie food diet

analfabetism iliteracy

timp liber leisure

sanatate health

scolarizare schooling

rata dotarii equipment rate

turism tourism


7.INDUSTRIES AND SECTORS INDUSTRII SI SECTOARE

industria agro-alimentara agro-business (the)

industria alimentara food industry (the)

industia chimica chemical industry (the)

industria de armament arms industry (the)

industria de constructii building industry,building trade

(the)

industria de telecomunicatii telecommunications industry (the)

industiile de varf leading industries (the)

industria farmaceutica pharmaceutical industry (the)

industria grea/usoara heavy/light industry (the)

industria informatica computer industry (the)

industria petrochimica petrochemical industry (the)

industria producatoare clothing industry (the)

de confectii

industria produselor de lux luxury goods industry (the)

industria spectacolului show business, entertainment

industry (the)

industria de inalta tehnologie high tech industry (the)


8.MISCELLANEOUS DIVERSE

audiovizualul audio-visual industry (the)

averea imobiliara real estate

editurile publishing industry (the)

industria producatoare de imbracaminte (productie in serie) ready-to-wear industry (the)

locuinte housing

mass-media media(the)

robotica robotics

sectorul asigurarilor insurance industry(the)

sectorul bancar banking industry(the)

telematica telematics


9. Vocabular suplimentar Additional vocabulary

baraj dam

bazin field

centrala (energetica) power plant

companie aeriana airline company

extractie de minereuri mining

foraj drilling, boring

furnal blast furnace

linie de montaj assembly line

masina-unealta machine tool

mina mine

otelarie steel mill

piese de schimb spare parts

rafinarie refinery

ssantier naval shipyard

transportator, caraus carrier, haulier

zacamint deposit










IV. Measuring economic activity : main indexes - Evaluarea activitatii economice: principalii indicatori



Gross National Product (GNP) Produsul national brut (PNB)

The total final value of goods and services produced in a national economy over one year.

The Growth Rate (rata de crestere) of an economy is the increase in its GNP from one year to another.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) produsul intern brut (PIB)

The index measures the value of goods and services produced on the national territory over a year.

Balance of trade, trade balance balanta comerciala

The difference over a period of time (generally a year) between the value of a country's imports and exports of merchandise. The balance is said to be favourable (US favorable) when it shows a surplus of exports, in which case it shows a deficit. An unfavourable balance is referred to as a trade gap.

Balance of payments balanta de plati

A system for the recording of a country's total transactions with the rest of the world during a given period of time (usually a year).

Consumer Price Index (CPI) indicele preturilor (bunurilor) de consum.

A measure of change in consumers prices, determined by a monthly survey.

Also known as Cost-of-Living Index.

Household consumption consumul casnic (al menajelor);

Industrial consumption indicele productiei industriale;

A monthly statistics on the total output of factories and mines.

Unemployment figures (US Jobless Rate) numarul soemerilor/rata somajului.

The proportion of the labour (US labor) force that is without paid work.

Exchange rate rata de schimb.

The prices at which a country's currency can be converted into another's.

Other indexes and yardsticks alti indicatori si instrumente de masura;

Consumer demand nivelul consumului, cererea consumatorilor;

Purchasing power puterea de cumparare;

Standard of living nivelul de trai;

Population growth cresterea demografica;

Birth rate rata natalitatii;

Death rate rata mortalitatii;

Life expectancy/expectation speranta de viata.








V. SENTENCES


  1. The economy's performance in the last few months has not been encouraging.
  2. Sluggishness has persisted throughout the year, and most estimates have had to be revised downwards.
  3. The immediate outlook is gloomy.
  4. There is a widespread concern over a deepening of the business slowdown.
  5. Business is at a standstill.
  6. A devaluation would give exporters a competitive edge.
  7. The aftermath/ outcome of a devaluation is often a rise in the production costs, prices and wages.
  8. We are headed for a slump.
  9. The situation is compounded of inflation and social unrest.
  10. Stagflation is rampant.
  11. There are disturbing reports of mounting chaos and widespread lay-offs.
  12. Unemployment has been inching up all year.
  13. Beleaguered industrialists are casting about for means of coping with the rash of wildcat strikers.
  14. The rising tide of inflation will have to be stemmed.
  15. Unions should be discouraged from speeding up the wage-price spiral.
  16. If consumer demands levels off or falls, employers will eventually have no alternative than to cut their payrolls.
  17. The government is now contemplating a wage-freeze.
  18. Additional measures will have to be taken to reduce inflationary/upward pressures on costs and prices.
  19. According to the forecasts of experts, household consumption should go up in the next quarter.
  20. Expectations of an early rebound in the economy have been disappointed.
  21. Many economists feel that artificially stimulated demand is preferable to slack economy.
  22. There is no alternative but to spur the lagging economy.
  23. Some amount of pump-priming will be needed if the country is to be set on its feet again.
  24. The country now seems on its way to recovery.
  25. A powerful surge of buying has been developing.
  26. (The) consumers have gone on a spending spree.
  27. The revival spreads although the country is still plagued by inflation.

32. The question is: how to retain prosperity curbing/checking inflation.

33. Seasonally adjusted unemployment figures tend to suggest that business start-ups have not been so/as numerous as expected.

34. Businessmen have been loath to use the credit already available.

35. With interest rates falling, hot money will flow to other areas/regions.

36. Confidence cannot be restored overnight.

37. The business slowdown is causing serious concern in government circles.

38. The Gross National Product (GNP) has increased (by) 5.25%.

39. The Xmas (i.e. Christmas - n.red.) buying spree should not be mistaken for a genuine recovery.

40. Production is down 4.5% on last year














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