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Illustrative Situations

/. Study these example situations:

Torn 1 looking for his key. He can't find it. He has lost his key

When we use the Present Perfect there is a connection with

the present:

I've lost the key. (=1 haven't got it now.)

Jim has gone to Canada. (=He is in Canada or on his way

there )

Oh, dear! I've forgotten her name. (= I can't remember it now.)

Have you washed the dishes? (-Are they clean now?)

The train hasn't arrived yet. (=The train isn't at the sta-


The train has already arrived. ( = The train is at the station.)

//. Listen to the texts and answer the questions:

1 Mr Collins gave his secretary some letters to type an hour ago. He is going home soon and he wants to sign the letters before he leaves. He has just picked up the phone and asked his secretary this question:

"Have you done those letters yet?"

Questions: When did Mr Collins give his secretary the letters? Why does he want to sign them now? What has he just done? What is his question?

2 Arthur's secretary has just stopped another secretary in the


"Have you seen Mr Tigers?" she wants to know

"Yes, I have I saw him only a moment ago He's just gone down that corridor " She might catch him if she hurries.

Questions: What has Arthur's secretary just done? What does she want to know? Has the other secretary seen Arthur? What has he just done?

3. The police are asking the ticket collector about a man they

think might be on the London tram.

"Have you seen this man?"

"No, I haven't. I mean, I don't think so."

"Has the London train left yet?"

"No, it hasn't."

Questions: Why are the police asking the ticket collector about the man in the photograph? What are their questions? What are the collector's answers?

///. Listen and imitate. Role-play the conversations.

- So you are back from town

Yes, and I've brought you a book from the library

That's very nice of you.

- Aunt has promised to take me to the theatre.

Will she be able to afford it, do you think?

I hope so.

- Will Jane come to the dance tonight, do you think?

- I don't think so.

Why not?

Because she hasn't come home yet.

- It's Mrs Baker's birthday tomorrow.

- I know.

Have you written to her yet?

No, I haven't, but I'm going to.

- Has Tom got married?

Yes, he has.

When did he get married?

Last month.

- Has Jane learnt to drive?

No, she hasn't.

When is she going to learn?

Next month, I think.

- I am worried about Paul. He's failed his exam again.

- I say, he must be either unlucky or ill.

He is neither unlucky nor ill. He is simply lazy

You may be right.

8. - Have you thanked David for all his wonderful help?

No, I haven't.

Why haven't you?

I'm sorry, but I've been unable to get in touch with him.

9. - Have you written to Ann?

No, I haven't.

Why haven't you?

- I'm sorry, but I've been awfully busy.

10. - Jim is going to become a professional footballer.

Is he really?

Yes, he is, though he has never played in the school team.

How extraordinary!

11. - What's the matter?

I've just fallen off my bicycle.

Poor boy!

12. - Mike Hanson has joined a jungle expedition.

What for?

To shoot a film about animals

That's very brave of him.

13. - I've found this pen Is it yours?

No, it isn't mine I think it's Kate's.

I don't think so, she has a green one.

But she has more than one pen

14. - Have you ever been to Scotland?

- I've only been there once, but I've often been to Wales.

- I've never been to Wales. Is it pleasant there?

Oh, very pleasant, but it frequently rains in summer.

15. - You've missed a lot of English classes lately

Yes, I'm afraid so.

- I hope you'll come to class on Tuesday.

I'm afraid not. I'll be going to Moscow on Tuesday.

16. - I don't see my dictionary on the table. Who has taken it?

- It's me. I have put it on the shelf

17. - Have you ever been to St. Petersburg?

Yes, I've been there several times.

As for me I've never been there.

Really? You should see it. It's one of the most beautiful cities I've ever seen.

18. - Have you read many books this year?

- I wouldn't say that. Just a couple.

Which book has interested you most?

- "Hotel" by A Hailey.

19. - I'm afraid I have caught cold. I am not feeling well.

Have you called the doctor?

Yes, Mother has just phoned him.

20. - I see Peter hasn't returned yet, eh?

No, he hasn't.

Why is he so long?

- I think he has gone to the movies.

21. - What's the time?

Sorry, I've left my watch at home.

22. - You know the city well You have been here before, haven't


Yes, I have.

23. "Henry!" "Yes, dear?"

"I'm going up to bed now. Don't forget to do your little jobs." "No, dear."

Henry turned off the television and went into the kitchen. He fed the cat, washed up several dishes, dried them and put them away. Then he put the cat out, locked all the doors and turned out all the lights. When he got to the bedroom, his wife was sitting up in bed reading a book and eating choco­lates.

"Well dear, have you done all your little jobs?" "I think so, my love." "Have you fed the cat?" "Yes, dear."

"Have you put him out?" "Yes, dear."

"Have you washed up the dishes?" "Yes, dear."

"Have you put them all away?" "Yes, dear."

"Have you turned out all the lights?" "Yes, dear."

"Have you locked the front door?" "Yes, dear."

"Then you can come to bed." "Thank you, dear."

After a little while they heard a gate banging downstairs. "Henry." . "Yes, dear."

"I'm afraid you've forgotten to shut the garden gate." "Oh dear! ..."


/. Listen and imitate:

1. Look! Dick has bought a record. 2. Pat hasn't given me the book yet. 3. I've just come from a very important meeting. 4. He has not thought about university yet. 5. They have received a lot of letters. 6. He has forgotten her name. 7. John is hungry because he hasn't had any breakfast. 8. We have done exercise No 2. 9. I have just spoken to my boyfriend on the phone. 10. She has planned an expensive holiday. 11. I haven't written to my wife yet. 12. My parents have just gone out for the evening. 13. Bill has asked me for some money. 14. Helen has brought the mail. 15. Our team has won the game. 16. He has paid a lot of money for his house. 17.

Oh, dear, it's going to rain and I've left my umbrella at home. 18. The course has already begun. 19. I have drunk three cups of coffee. 20. Oh, I've cut my finger. 21. I have not sent a letter to my mother yet. 22. She hasn't seen her parents yet. 23. I have never met him before. 24. Andrew has chosen a good present. 25. I've been to Paris, but I haven't been to London yet. 26. George has taken a lot of books from the library. 27. Victor has told us an interesting story. 28. Mr Robinson has taught us English. 29. He has spent his holidays in the Caucasus. 30. They have sold their car. 31. I have made a lot of mistakes in my test. 32. Roger has lost his ticket. 33. I remember that I have put the magazine on this shelf. 34. Lucy has drawn a nice picture. 35. I have broken my umbrella. 36. Robert has become an engineer. 37. I haven't read the article yet. 38. Have you eaten your steak? 39. Have you heard this opera before? 40. Have the police found the man yet? 41. Has he lent you any money? 42. Has Bill shown you his new car? 43. Have you signed the documents? 44. Have you caught much fish today? 45. Have you ever swum in the Atlantic Ocean?

//. Agree with the following utterances. Show the connection of these completed past actions with the present in their result. Use the prompts.

e.g. - You have washed the dishes, haven't you? (clean)

Yes, I have. They are clean.

e.g. - Mary hasn't done the room, has she? (untidy)

- No, she hasn't. It's very untidy.

1. You've brought the records, haven't you? (in my bag) 2. You haven't had dinner yet, have you? (hungry) 3. Susan has passed her exams, hasn't she? (on holiday now) 4. Victor has gone away on business, hasn't he? (in Moscow now) 5. You haven't fixed the TVset, have you? (still, out of order) 6. You have typed the article, haven't you? (on the table) 7. You have made dinner, ha­ven't you? (ready) 8. You have worked hard today, haven't you? (tired). 9. Bob hasn't come home yet, has he? (still, at work) 10. Jane has caught cold, hasn't she? (ill)

///. Express your disagreement with the following interroga­tive-negative utterances:

e.g. - You haven't seen Steve today, have you?

- Yes, I have. I've just seen him.

1. You haven't laid the table, have you? 2. He hasn't found his glasses, has he? 3. You haven't written to Paul, have you? 4. The lecture hasn't begun yet, has it? 5. She hasn't sent the parcel, has she? 6. John hasn't come yet, has he? 7. You haven't shut the door, have you? 8. He hasn't paid the bill yet, has he? 9. You

haven't told Dick, have you? 10. You haven't made tea, have you? 11. You haven't done your homework, have you? 12. Kitty hasn't woken up yet, has she? 13. Bill hasn't phoned you, has he? 14. The boss hasn't left yet, has he? 15. The postman hasn't brought the mail yet, has he? 16. You haven't washed my shirt yet, have you? 17. You haven't spoken to the boss yet, have you? 18. You haven't booked the tickets, have you? 19. You haven't read the article yet, have you? 20. You haven't cut the bread yet, have you?

IV. Answer the questions. Do it as in the example: e.g. - Has Simon sent a postcard to his mother?

- Yes, he has sent her a postcard.

1. Have you made a sweater for Peter? 2. Have the boys bought a present for me? 3. Has Roger given any money to you? 4. Have you lent your typewriter to Susan? 5. Have you made a cake for George and his wife? 6. Have you shown your album to Jack? 7. Have you sent a birthday card to Jane's parents? 8. Has Peter written a letter to you and your wife?

V. Say that you have already done what you are asked to do:

e.g. - Don't forget to answer the letters.

- I've already answered them.

1. Don't forget to buy the tickets. 2. Remember to sign the papers. 3. Don't forget to write to Mr Smith. 4. Don't forget to wash the dishes. 5. Remember to dust the bookshelves. 6. Don't forget to fix the sink. 7. Remember to phone Dr Ray. 8. Remember to cook the pudding. 9. Don't forget to post the letter. 10. Don't forget to tell Peter about the match. 11. Remember to pack our things. 12. Remember to clean your shoes. 13. Don't forget to polish the mirrors. 14. Remember to send the parcel. 15. Don't forget to shave.

VI. Say that you can't give your opinion on the subject. Follow the model:

e.g. - What do you think of the exhibition? (visit) - I haven't visited it yet.

1. Do you like the "Minsk" hotel? (stay) 2. How do you like the new Ryasanov's film? (see) 3. Do you find his sister pretty? (meet) 4. What does she think of the opera? (hear). 5. Do you like the book? (read) 6. How do you find Brest? (visit) 7. Does the suit fit you? (try on)

VII. Refuse the offers politely:

e.g. - Would you like something to eat? (have dinner)

- No, thank you. I've just had dinner.

1. Would you like a cigarette? (smoke one) 2. Would you like a cake? (eat one) 3. Would you like an orange? (have one)

4. Would you like a cup of coffee? (drink one) 5. Would you like a bottle of red wine? (buy one) 6. Would you like to taste my biscuits? (taste one)

e.g. - Shall I post the letter?

- No, you needn't, thank you. I've already (just) posted it. 1. Shall I wash the windows? 2. Shall I book a ticket for you?

Shall I buy you some medicine? 4. Shall I type your report?

Shall I translate the article? 6. Shall I phone Helen? 7. Shall I repair the iron? 8. Shall I dust the furniture?

VIII. Answer the questions using the prompts:

e.g. - What has become of your bicycle, Peter? (break)

- Don't you know? I've broken it.

1. Where is Alec? (leave for Rome.) 2. What has become of your umbrella? (lose) 3. Where are the Browns? (go to London)

Why hasn't Mary come? (fall ill) 5. Where is your car? (sell)

Why does Jane look so upset? (fail her finals) 7. I hear your brother is at hospital. What has happened to him? (break one's arm)

e.g. - Will Lucy take part in the discussion? (not, return from Glasgow)

- I don't think so. She hasn't returned from Glasgow yet. 1. Will Mike go to the pictures with us? (not, do one's home­work) 2. Will Donald come to the party? (not, pass one's exams) 3. Will Sam Morgan play today? (not, recover) 4. Will the boss be leaving soon? (not, receive all the visitors) 5. Will Mary join us? (not, finish work) 6. Will Peter be leaving for London tonight? (not, buy a ticket)

IX. Complete the situations. Use the verbs given:

e.g. Tom is looking for his key. He can't find it. (lose) He has lost his key.

1. Yesterday Bill was playing football. Now he can't walk and his leg is in plaster, (break) 2. Jane was busy typing some time ago. Now she is free, (finish typing) 3. Mr Brown knows much, (read a lot) 4. Kate is very happy, (do well in all her exams) 5. The girl is crying, (fall down) 6. The students were doing a test at

They are having a break at the moment, (write one's test)

I am very tired, (do a lot of work about the house) 8. Betty is pleased, (swim much today) 9. Harry is proud, (become a student) 10. I don't remember where Steve lives, (forget one's address)

A". Complete the situations. Use "so far":

e.g. - I saw Tom yesterday but I haven't seen him so far today. 1. It rained a lot last week but ... this week. 2. It snowed a lot last winter but ... this winter. 3. We ate a lot yesterday but ... today. 4. I played tennis a lot last year but ... this year. 5. She wor­ked hard last term but ... this term. 6. I watched television yesterday evening but ... this evening. 7. My favourite football team won a lot of matches last season but ... this season.

XL You are writing a letter to a friend and giving news about the people you both know. Use the words given to make sentences and put the verb into the correct form: e.g. Phil/find a new job.

Phil has found a new job.

Dear Chris,

Lots of things have happened since I last wrote to you.

1. Charles/go/Brazil

Jack and Jill/decide to get married

Susan/have a baby

Mike/give up smoking

George/pass his driving test

Mary/become a student

My parents/retire

XII. Complete the answers to these questions. Use the verbs in brackets:

e.g. - Is it a beautiful painting? (see)

- Yes, it's the most beautiful painting I've ever seen.

1. Is she an interesting person? (meet) 2. Is it a long book? (read) 3. Is it a good opera? (hear) 4. Is the article difficult? (translate) 5. Is the film funny? (see) 6. Is Uncle Jack a kind man? (know) 7. Is it an exciting trip? (have) 8. Is the record expensive? (buy) 9. Is Mary a tall girl? (meet) 10. Is the test hard? (do)

XIII. Ask and answer questions using the words given:

e.g. you/book the tickets

Have you booked the tickets?

No, I haven't but I'm going to.

1. Mary/type the article; 2. they/discuss the project; 3. you/eat at the new Italian restaurant; 4. you/pack the suitcase; 5. Peter/see the film; 6. you/begin the experiment; 7. you/tell Mary about the picnic; 8. Nancy/translate the text; 9. the Wests/sell their house; 10. David/do his homework; 11. Jack/buy a car; 12. you/have dinner; 13. she/speak to the rector; 14. you/hear "Aida"; 15. Dick/

read the article; 16. you/phone Lucy; 17. you/choose a present for Bill; 18. you/send for the doctor; 19. Harry/get married, e.g. Peter/get up/have breakfast

Has Peter got up yet?

Yes, he has. He is having breakfast now.

1. Tom/do one's exercises/play chess; 2. Jill/check the tests/ watch TV; 3. Lucy/have dinner/wash up; 4. Mary/clean the flat/type; 5. Jane/write the letters/dust the carpet; 6. you/cook supper/lay the table, e.g. John/get up/sleep

Has John got up yet?

No, he hasn't. He's still sleeping.

1. Emma/cook dinner/make soup; 2. you/give the book back to Mike/read; 3. Dick/leave for the airport/pack one's suitcase; 4. Kate/find one's gloves/look for them; 5. Miss Green/finish typing/type; 6. the boys/return home/play football, e.g. you/Warsaw

Have you ever been to Warsaw?

Yes, I've been there several times, (twice, once) (No, I have never been there)

1. you/London; 2. your wife/Brest; 3. your husband/Paris; 4. you/India; 5. your sister/Georgia; 6. your brother/Siberia; 7. you/China; 8. your boss/France; 9. you/Kiev; 10. you/Glasgow; 11. you/Yalta, e.g. you/hear from George/recently

Have you heard from George recently?

Yes, I have. (No, I haven't)

1. you/read much/lately; 2. you/eat anything/today; 3. you/ha­ve a holiday/this year; 4. you/see/any good films/lately; 5. you/play tennis/recently; 6. you/see/Tom/in the past few days; 7. you/work hard/this week; 8. you/often/go out/lately; 9. you/ swim/much/recently; 10. you/be abroad/this year.

XIV. Respond to the following suggestions:

e.g. - Let's book the tickets tomorrow.

- Haven't you booked them yet?

- No, I haven't.

1. Let's invite Helen to the party. 2. Let's write a letter to Uncle Jack. 3. Let's make supper. 4. Let's hear "Carmen". 5. Let's see this film. 6. Let's send her a telegram. 7. Let's wash the win­dows. 8. Let's visit the art exhibition.

XV. Express surprise in response to the following utterances:

e.g. - Jack has failed his exam.

- Has he?

e.g. - Robert hasn't come.

- Hasn't he?

1. They have already finished the test. 2. We haven't invited the Blacks. 3. I have never heard this song before. 4. Mary has enjoyed the performance. 5. The Wests have sold their house. 6. Roger has won the race. 7. My parents have never been abroad. 8. Dick hasn't helped me. 9. Jane has decided to become an actress. 10. Mr Smith has already left. 11. John hasn't fixed the sink.

XVI. Express solidarity:

e.g. - I have already read this book. And you?

- So have I.

e.g. - Kate hasn't come yet. And Betsy?

- Neither has Betsy.

1. David has caught a lot of fish. And Jack? 2. Mary has enjoyed the film. And Lucy? 3. I haven't heard from Steve yet. And you? 4. Ann has never been to Spain. And Bill? 5. I have already had dinner. And you? 6. Victor has already written his test. And Bob? 7. Nina hasn't left yet. And Helen? 8. John has come. And Peter?

XVII. Ask and answer questions as shown in the example:

e.g. Jack is driving a car but he's very nervous and not sure what to do. You ask: Is this the first time you've driven a car? John: Yes, I've never driven a car before.

Roger is playing tennis. He is not very good and doesn't know the rules. You ask: ... Roger: ...

Sue is riding a horse. She doesn't feel very confident and comfortable. You ask: ... Sue: ...

Maria is in England. She's just arrived and it's very new for her. You ask: ... Maria: ...

Lucy is making a cake. But she is not sure it will be a good cake. You ask: ... Lucy:

Mrs Smith is on board a plane flying to Canada. She feels very nervous about it. You ask: ... Mrs Smith: ...

XVIII. Ask and answer questions. Use the words given.

e.g. you/invite/the Baxters/the Hunts

You've invited the Baxters, haven't you?

Yes, I have but I haven't invited the Hunts.

1. you/phone/Helen/Alice; 2. Dick/bring/the map/the com­pass; 3. you/be/London/Liverpool; 4. you/tell/Emma/Tom; 5. Mi­ke/send/the letter/the parcel; 6. you/see/the art-gallery/the space


XIX. Respond to the following phrases:

e.g. - I am going to visit Paul.

- So you haven't visited him yet, have you? 1. I am going to send her a telegram. 2. Jane is going to change her flat. 3. I am going to visit Helen. 4. I am going to hear "Carmen". 5. Bill is going to buy a car. 6. I am going to write to Lucy.

XX. Answer the questions:

1. Have you seen any interesting films lately? 2. What new places have you visited this year? 3. How many cigarettes have you smoked today? 4. How much money have you spent this week? 5. How many holidays have you spent at the seaside over the past six years? 6. Have you read much this month? 7. How many questions have you answered so far?

XXI. Learn the dialogues and make substitutions:

A: Be careful! B: Why!

A: I've just painted the door.

B: It's all right ... I haven't touched it.

A: Haven't you? What's that on your arm?

Prompts: shelf/hand; desk/leg; chair/shoulder; wall/elbow

A: I'm bored.

B: Well, do something! A: What, for example? B: Wash your hair. A: I've already washed it. B: Brush your shoes! A: I've already brushed them. B: Why don't you clean your room? A: I've already cleaned it. B: Well, ... perfect your English! A: Hmm ...

Prompts: finish your homework; iron your clothes; telephone your friend; study your English

XXII. Complete the following phrases. Use the Present Per­fect:

e.g. She must work hard.

She has failed her exam, (or: She has missed a lot of classes.)

1. We are free now. 2. Why don't you read the article? 3. Don't

forget to phone Tom. 4. Shall I send him some money? 5. Open the

door, please. 6. Where are the cups? 7. You must book a ticket in

advance. 8. What about going to a pub? 9. Do your homework.

10. What has happened to Paul? 11. Let's invite Mary. 12. I'm not hungry. 13. Victor won't come. 14. Switch off the light in the kitchen. 15. Ann is upset. 16. Shall I wash the dishes? 17. Will you please fix the sink? 18. What has become of your bicycle? 19. Kate looks happy. 20. Will Steve join us? 21. Did you enjoy the book? 22. Is Peter a clever man? 23. Do you like his new car? 24. You must teach him to swim. 25. I can't afford a rest at the seaside this year. 26. I'm going to post the letter on my way home. 27. Would you like a cup of tea? 28. I don't know your friend Smith. 29. What is the film about? 30. What about a game of chess? 31. He knows France very well. 32. Why don't you buy this typewri­ter?

XXIII. Make up dialogues using the prompts: e.g. A: I've just been to the new Chinese restaurant.

B: Oh! Have you? I've just been to an Indian restaurant. Prompts: a new French car/a German car; a book by John Wyndham/a book by Nevil Shute; a new job in London/a new job in Bristol; lunch in the new canteen/lunch in the cafe round the corner; the film at the Odeon/the film at the Plaza; a concert on Radio 2/a play on Radio 3.


/. Listen to the conversations. Ask and answer questions. Role-play the conversations.

Paul: Can you lend me $ 50?

Bill: Sorry, I can't ... I haven't been to the bank today.

Paul: Oh dear ... I haven't been either, and I need some money. It's too late now... it's four o'clock.

Bill: Why don't you ask Peter?

Paul: Oh, has he been to the bank?

Bill: Yes, he has He always goes on Mondays.

Questions: How much money does Paul need? Why can't Bill lend him $ 50? Has Paul been to the bank today? What does Bill advise Paul to do? 2. David: Have you travelled a lot, Nora?

Nora: Yes, I've been to 47 different countries.

David: Really! Have you been to China?

Nora: Yes, I've visited China twice.

David: What about India?

Nora: I've never been to India.

Questions: Has Nora travelled much? How many countries has she visited? Has she been to China? She has been to India too,

hasn't she? What countries have you visited? Have you ever been to Madrid? Have you seen Paris?

Father: Your mother has told me that you've given up your job.

You don't want to work any more. What are your plans?

John: Yes, that's right. I've decided to drive a camping bus across Europe and the Middle East to India. It's so­mething I've always wanted to do. I've saved enough money and I'm going to do it.

Father: I've talked to your mother and she's very unhappy about what you're doing. Please think again.

John: I've thought about it carefully and it's my decision. Questions: What has John done? What are his plans? Are John's parents happy that he has given up his job?

Jill: Hello, Steve. I'm home. It's rather cold in here.

Steve: I've turned the heating on. It's getting warm now. I've been very busy, so I'm not cold. I've washed all the windows. I've cleaned the flat and I've answered four letters. I've also cleared a lot of papers off my desk, so it looks nice and tidy now. I feel exhausted. Jill: And have you washed the dishes? Steve: I've already washed and dried the dishes. And I've

just made a pot of tea. Come and have a cup. Jill: Wonderful! Have you painted the kitchen door? Steve: No, I haven't started with the door yet. Jill: You've worked really hard, Steve. Congratulations! Oh, Steve... I've invited Pam and Jeff for dinner. They are coming tonight and ... Have you cooked dinner? Steve: No, I haven't. Jill: Oh, good! Your curries are so good, they are better than


Questions: Why does Steve feel exhausted? What housework has he done? What hasn't he done yet? Who is coming to see the Baxters tonight?

Situation: You've just come home from work. You ask your daughter whether she has done the work you told her to do when you were leaving the house.

Elmer Colt is from Kansas. He's on a 14- day tour of Europe. The tour started in London. At the moment he's in Prague. It's the eighth day of the tour. He's already been to seven countries and stayed in the capital cities. He's never been to Europe before, and he's already seen a lot of new places. He's done a lot of interesting things ... and the tour hasn't finished yet.

Mrs Colt: ... Elmer? ... Is that you?

Elmer: Yes, Momma.

Mrs Colt: Where are you now, Elmer?

Elmer: I've just arrived in Prague, Momma.

Mrs Colt: You haven't sent me any postcards yet.

Elmer: Yes, I have ... I've sent one from every city.

Mrs Colt: Have you been to Paris yet, Elmer?

Elmer: Yes, I have.

Mrs Colt: Have you been to Vienna yet?

Elmer: No, I haven't. We are going to Vienna tomorrow.

Mrs Colt: Elmer! Are you still there?

Elmer: Yes, Momma.

Mrs Colt: How many countries have you seen now, Elmer?

Elmer: Well, this is the eighth day, so I've already seen eight


Mrs Colt: Have you spent much money, Elmer? Elmer: Yes, Momma. I've bought a lot of souvenirs ... and I want to buy some more. Can you send me a thousand dollars?

Mrs Colt: All right, Elmer. Mrs Colt: Elmer, are you listening to me? Elmer: Yes, Momma.

Mrs Colt: Have you taken many photographs, Elmer? Elmer: Yes, Momma, I've taken a lot. I've used three rolls

of film.

Mrs Colt: Have you met any nice girls yet, Elmer? Elmer: Oh, yes, Momma... there's a girl from Texas on the

tour. We've done everything together. Mrs Colt: Elmer! Elmer! Are you still there, Elmer?

Questions: Where is Elmer Colt from? What is he doing at the moment? How many countries has he visited so far? Where is he phoning his mother from? Has he sent his mother any postcards? What does Elmer ask his mother to do? Has Elmer taken any photographs? Has Elmer met any nice girls? Where is his girl­friend from?

Situation: Imagine you are on a tour of Europe. It's the tenth day of your tour and you are phoning your friend from Paris.

Self check

/. Use the proper tense forms.

1. At last I (do) my homework. I can go for a walk now. 2. The delegation already (arrive) but we (not, speak) with its members yet. 3. Last month I (read) two interesting books but I (not, read) anything so far this month. 4. "You (make) any spelling mistakes in your test?" - "No, I (not, make) any mista­kes." 5. "Where is Jane?" "She (go) to the shops. She'll be back soon." 6. "You ever (be) to the USA?" "Yes, I (be) to New York

several times." 7. I (play) a lot of tennis since the summer (begin). 8. We (not, see) John this morning but we (see) him a couple of days ago. 9. Harry is ill. He (have) an accident. He (break) his leg. 10. "You (finish) typing?" "Not yet. In fact I just (begin)." 11. "How many records you (bring)?" "Five". 12. "You ever (find) anything valuable?" "No, I... ." 13. "Mr West (sell) his house yet?" "Yes, he ... . He (sell) it last week." "He (move) to his new house yet?" "No, not yet."

//. Translate into English:


Illustrative Situations

/. Study these example situations. Learn them.

We use the Present Perfect (have done) to give new informa­tion or to announce a recent happening. But if we continue to talk about it we normally use the Past Simple (did):

- Oh! I've burnt myself!

How did you do that?

- I touched a hot dish.

- I've bought a very good raincoat.

Where did you buy it?

In one of the small shops in Regent Street.

How much did it cost?

- £ 50.

Do not use the Present Perfect when you are talking about a fi­nished time in the past (for example: yesterday, two years ago, in 1979, when I was a child, etc.):

Tom lost his key yesterday. I translated the article on Friday. I last saw him in 1985.

Use the Simple Past to ask WHEN something happened: What time (when) did he arrive?

Compare: I've smoked 20 cigarettes today, (it is still today) I smoked 20 cigarettes yesterday, (the event is past)

Julia has just come to work. She is late again. She is asking one of the typists about her boss. He often comes in late, too. "Has the boss come yet?"

"Yes, he has. He's in the office now." "When did he come?"

"He came very early. He noticed you weren't here." Questions: What has Julia just done? Has her boss come yet? What did he notice? Did he come early or late?

4. __ Have you ever studied a language before?

- Yes, I have.

Oh, which one did you study?

I studied French at school.

- Have you ever been to a wedding?

Yes, I have.

Whose wedding was it?

It was my brother's.

- Have you ever eaten at the Royal Hotel?

- Yes, I have.

When did you eat there?

Mary and I ate there two months ago.

- Have you ever broken a bone?

Yes, I have.

What did you break?

I broke my leg.

8. - Have you ever had flue?

Yes, I have.

When did you have it?

I had it last winter.

9. - Have you seen any films lately?

Yes, I've "The White Canyon". -- When did you see it?

Last week,

10. - Have you sold your car?

Yes, I have.

Why did you sell it?

I'd like to buy a Jaguar.


/. Respond to the following using the Present Perfett and the Simple Past:

e.g. - Why don't you buy this dictionary? (yesterday)

- I've already bought it. I bought it yesterday.

1. Why don't you send her a telegram? (this morning) 2. Will you make tea, please? (a few minutes ago) 3. Do your homework, (before supper) 4. You should read the book, (in summer) 5. Put the towel into the suitcase, (some minutes ago) 6. Why don't you speak to the boss? (the day before yesterday) 7. What about seeing "Oliver"? (on Tuesday) 8. You should build a garage, (last year) 9. Why don't you phone Peter? (in the afternoon) 10. Tell Dick about the expedition, (last Friday) 11. Why don't you invite the Browns? (yesterday) 12. You must repair the TV set. (yester­day morning) 13. You should book the tickets in advance, (last Saturday) 14. Give her your typewriter for a few days, (yester­day)

//. Say "when":

e.g. Henry has fallen ill. He fell ill on Tuesday.

1. They have begun the experiment. 2. I've found my ticket. 3. He has finished the work. 4. They have rung him up. 5. I have written the letter. 6. He has passed his exam. 7. She has paid for the furniture. 8. They have bought a boat. 9. They have seen the mu­seum. 10. The porter has already brought our suitcases. 11. I've lost my umbrella again. 12. They have changed their flat. 13. She has broken her watch. !4. They have got married. 15. I've already had dinner. 16. The delegation has already arrived. 17. The train has left. 18. Victor has gone to Moscow on business. 19. I've already swum in the sea today. 20. Kitty has already woken tip. 2i I have sold my garage. 22. I have told Jack about the picnfc.

///. Answer the questions using the prompts:

e.g. - Has he seen Ann? (yesterday)

- Yes, he saw her yesterday.

1. Have you sold your car? (last month) 2. Have you spoken to Jack? (on Friday morning) 3. Have you written to Mary? (the day before yesterday) 4. Have you thrown the letter away? (some minutes ago) 5. Have you burnt the documents? (three nours ago) 6. Have you found your keys? (this morning) 7. Has your husband ever forgotten your birthday? (last year) 8. Have you rung Tom* (yesterday afternoon) 9. Has Jack ever been to Italy? (in 1990) 10. Have you heard the news? (yesterday) 11. Has she begun

work yet? (at 10 o'clock) 12. Have you eaten the cake? (in the morning)

IV. Ask your friend whether he has done certain things and when he did them. Use the prompts:

e.g. buy a house

Have you bought a house?

Yes, I have.

When did you buy it?

Two months ago.

1. pay the bill 2. send for the doctor 3. see "Gone with the Wind" 4. book a ticket 5. read "War and Peace" 6. have dinner 7. re­ceive the documents 8. type the papers 9. do one's homework 10. rest in the Crimea 11. hear "Aida" 12. choose a present 13. write the test paper 14. sell one's tent

V. Study the model conversations. Then, make conversations of your own on the same model. Ask WHEN and other questions like that:

Patricia Riley is an Irish girl. She is trying to get a job as a shorthand-typist. At interviews people ask her questions like the­se:

"Have you ever done this sort of work before?"

"Where did you work last?" "How long did you work there?"

- Have you ever been to Paris?

Yes, 1 have.

When were you there?

Last spring.

What did you think of it?

It was very beautiful.

Richard never believes what the critics say about a film He always asks his friends instead. He wants to know if the new Fellini film is any good He is talking to a friend now. His first

question is:

"Have you seen the new Fellini film?"

The answer is: "Yes, I have."

Richard then asks different questions like: When did you see it? Where did you see it? Was it good?


1. You never believe what travel brochures say. You want to know about Moscow. Perhaps your friends know. What do you ask your friends first Ask WHEN? Ask: very cold? any other tourists? the ballet? by train or plane?

2. You want to go to a language school in Bournemouth, England. You want to know about the town, the weather, etc. You have a friend who has travelled a lot. Ask questions with these words.

a) ever/Bournemouth d) How long/there

b) When e) a lot of English?

c) weather like? f) prices very high?

Arthur Docker has a different car every year. He has a Rolls Royce this year. Ask questions with these words.

a) ever/a Mercedes d) fast

b) When e) expensive

c) a good car f) How long

VI. Answer the questions:

1. Have you ever been to Kiev? When were you there? Did you go there on business or for pleasure? How long did you stay there? 2. Have you ever travelled by sea? When was it? Did you enjoy your voyage? Have you ever travelled by air? When did you last travel by air? Did you feel airsick? 3. Have you seen your friend this month? When did you see him (her)? Did you spend much time together? 4. When did you go to the cinema last? Was the film interesting? Have you seen many films this month? Have you been to the theatre this week? 5. Have you ever learned French? What language did you learn at school? Did you study German at the Institute? 6. When did you come to work today? You were on time, weren't you? Have you ever been late for work? When was it?


/. Listen to the conversation and ask questions with these words:

a) Ken/cinema? e) What/think of the film?

b) What/see? f) George/Paris?

c) George/Paris in the Spring? g) Ken/Paris?

d) When? h) the weather? George: Hullo, Ken.

Ken: Hullo, George. George: Have you just been to the cinema? Ken: Yes, I have. George: What's on? Ken: "Paris in the Spring".

George: Oh, I've already seen it. I saw it on a B.B.C. television programme last year. It's an old film, but It's very good. Ken: Paris is a beautiful city. George: I have never been there. Have you ever been there, Ken?

Ken: Yes, I have. I was there in April.

George: Paris in the spring, eh?

Ken: It was spring but the weather was awful. It. rained all

the time. George: Just like dear old London!

//. Role-play the conversation.

III. Situation: You suggest to your friend going to the movies, but he has already seen the film you suggest. You ask him some questions about the film.

IV. Listen to the conversation, ask and answer questions, role-play the conversation.

Peggy: Hullo, John. Come in.

Tom: Hullo, John. We're having lunch. Do you want to have

lunch with us? John:  No thank you, Tom. I've already had lunch. I had lunch

at half past twelve. Peggy: Have a cup of coffee then. John: I've already had a cup, thank you. I had one after my

lunch. Tom: Let's go into the living-room, Peggy. We can have our

coffee there. PeggY: Excuse the mess, John. This room's very untidy. We're

packing our suitcases. We're going to leave tomorrow.

Tom and I are going to have a holiday. John:  Aren't you lucky!

Tom: When are you going to have a holiday, John? John: I don't know. I've already had my holiday this year. PeggY: Where did you go? John: I stayed at home!

V. Situation: Your friend is in Minsk on business. He's staying at the Minsk hotel. You are free today and can take him sightseeing. But it turns out that your friend has already seen most of the sights you wanted to show him.

VI. Listen to the conversation, learn it and make conversations of your own on the same model:

One of Deborah's friends is asking her about all the holidays she has had and all the places she has been to. "Have you ever been to Rome?" "Yes, I have. I was there in 1989." "Have you ever been to Mexico City or to Rio?" "Yes, I've been to all those places."

"Oh? When were you in Mexico City ... and when were you in Rio?"

Self check

/. Put the verb into the correct form:

1. You (hear) about Bob? He (break) his leg.-Really? How that (happen)? 2. I just (return) from Yalta.- You (go) there alone? - Together with my son.- How long you (stay) there? - Three weeks. 3. Your hair looks different. You (have) a haircut? - Yes.- You (cut) it yourself? - No, Ann (cut) it for me. 4. Look! Somebody (spill) milk on the carpet.- Well, it (not, be) me.- I wonder who it (be) then. 5. You (see) the film on television last night? 6. My bicycle isn't here any more. Somebody (take) it.

I (not, eat) anything yesterday because I (not, feel) hungry.

8. Why Jim (not, want) to play tennis last Friday? - He (be) busy on Friday.

9. Brian: Hello, Susan. Is Alan here? Susan: No, I'm afraid he (go) out. Brian: What a pity! When exactly he (go) out? Susan: About ten minutes ago.

10. Peter Atkins is talking to one of his girl-friends. "You (see) that film yet?"

"Yes, I .... I (see) it last week." "What you (think) of it?" "I (not, like) it very much."

11. Harry: I (go) to a new Indian restaurant last night with Mary. Steve: To that new place in Marchmount Street?

Harry: Yes. You ever (be) there?

Steve: No, but Barbara already (be) there. She (love) it. She

says she never (eat) such delicious Indian food.

What you (order)? Harry: I (have) a prawn curry and Mary (try) a Tandori

chicken. They (be) both fantastic.

12. Mikis: I never (be) to Cambridge.

Paul: Oh, I (go) there last summer. I (do) a language course


Mikis: You ever (be) to Oxford? Paul: No, but a friend of mine (stay) there for a month two

years ago. He (enjoy) it very much.

//. Translate into English:

5. - Ты заказала билеты?

- Нет еще.

- Почему ты не сделала этого вчера?

- Я совершенно забыла об этом.

6. - Вы когда-либо бывали в Большом театре?

- Что вы смотрели?

«Лебединое озеро».



Dear Mario,

I was very glad to have a letter from you and to know that you and your wife are keeping well and busy. I'm glad too that you are both coming to England again this summer.

You say you want a different kind of holiday this year. Perhaps when you were here last year, I took you to see too many historic buildings and places. You saw most of the places that tourists usually see. So this year you want a rest from sightseeing. You don't want to come as tourists. You want the kind of holiday that middle-class English people usually have, not too expensive, of course. You want to meet English people who are on holiday and to have plenty of chances to make friends with them.

I don't like crowds when I'm on holiday. I remember that when I was a small boy we - my brothers and sisters and I - always tried to get away from other people. We always had our holidays on the coast. Sea and sunshine, that's what we looked forward to every summer. We always went to a small fishing village on the Devon coast. And if, when we got to the place where we usually bathed, there were other people there, we stopped and said, "Oh, we can't bathe here today! Somebody's got here before us!" Today people seem to like crowds. You say you wish to meet and make friends with as many people as possible, so I won't suggest a quiet fishing village.

Hotels at the large seaside towns on the south coast are expen­sive. You say you want to come here in July or August. Those are the two months when hotel rates are highest.

You'd soon make friends at a hotel, but if you want to meet lots of English people, you might like to go to a holiday camp. That

doesn't mean sleeping and eating in tents. Holiday camps in Eng­land are permanent buildings with every modern convenience and comfort. There are wooden cabins with good beds, electric light, running hot and cold water. There are large buildings - a dining-hall, a large hall for dancing (and good dance bands), a cinema, a theatre, a bar, a cafe, rooms for games such as billiards. In fact there is, in the camp, everything you want. The camp usually has its own swimming-pool and tennis courts.

There are usually lots of children in holiday camps. There are nurses to look after small children, so that the parents can be free to amuse themselves. That's one reason why holiday camps are popular with married couples who have very young children. They not only get a holiday from work, but also a holiday from the children.

Here's another suggestion - a walking holiday. Walking holi­days are much cheaper than the kind of holidays I've been telling you about. You know something about the Youth Hostels Associa­tion, I'm sure. It's international. There are hostels all over England now where you can get a bed and a cheap meal. Members of the association can even take their own food to the hostels and cook it in the kitchen. They have to help by sweeping and cleaning the rooms, or washing up after meals. But that's not a hardship, is it? A walking holiday depends for enjoyment upon the weather, of course. I can't promise you good weather!

Thank you for your very kind invitation 1o visit you and stay with you. I'm sorry I can't accept it this year; we've already made our plans. But next year, perhaps, if it's convenient to you then.

Please write and let me know if there's anything else you'd like to know. I'm always glad to help you

My wife joins me in best wishes to you both.

Yours sincerely, John Grant


/. Listen to the text "Summer Holidays in England" and answer the questions'

Where are Mario and his wife going to spend their holidays? Where did they spend their holidays last year? What kind of holi­days did they have? What kind of holiday would they like this year? What is John's idea of a good holidav? What are holiday camps in England like? Why are they convenient for the people with children? What services does the Youth Hostels Association provide?

//. Read the text and analyse the language peculiarities o/ the text. Do some exercises in the next section to remember them.

Special Difficulties

/. Report the following suggestions: e.g. A: (Paul): Shall we start on Friday? B: Paul suggests starting on Friday.

1. Shall we play tennis? 2. Let's rebuild the garage. 3. Shall we hitch-hike? 4. Why not drink the local wine? 5. Let's go for a walk. 6. Let's take the dogs out. 7. Why don't we bring guitars and make our own music? 8. Let's climb the mountain. 9. Why don't we cook over an open f ire? 10. Shall we eat in restaurants? 11. Let's carry the boxes upstairs. 12. Let's go on a motor-tour. 13. Shall we sleep in Youth Hostels? 14. Let's spend the day on the beach.

15. Shall we find out about pop festivals? 16. Let's pick apples. 17. Shall we move the piano? 18. Let's swim across the river.

//. Make up dialogues using the verb "suggest" + gerund:

e.g. - Why didn't you go to his flat?

- Well, Ann suggested going to his flat but I didn't think

it was necessary. Why didn't you ...

1. record this coversation 2. look at his passport 3. consult a lawyer 4. discuss it with me 5. wait a few weeks 6. check his figures

read the small print 8. find out about his previous work 9. make some enquiries about him 10. take his photograph 11. follow him home 12. borrow a tent 13. see the manager 15. tell your parents

16. phone Bill

///. Respond to the following using the verb "offer":

e.g. A: Peter paid [or me. -

B: He offered to pay for me too, but I refused.


1. painted my door 2. waited for me 3. lent me $5 4. found me a job 5. got me a seat 6. showed me the way 7. washed my car

8. helped me 9. carried my luggage 10. saw me off 11. met my train 12. tuned my guitar 13. drove me home 14. looked after my dog 15. typed my essay 16. dug my garden 17 repaired my washing machine 18. fixed my TV

IV. Fill in the gaps. Use either "suggest" or "offer": 1. I ... him an interesting book to read 2. He ... a visit to the theatre. 3. We ... her our help. 4. Mike ... to carry my suitcase but I said it wasn't heavy 5. He ... discussing the matter at our next

meeting. 6. Did he ... any money? 7. What shall we do on the weekend? - Well, what do you ...? 8. I was very busy and Mary ... to buy a ticket for me.

V. Fill in the gaps. Use the nouns "suggestion" or "offer":

1. Did you accept his ... of help? 2. Have you any ... to make? 3. Your ... seems interesting to me. 4. He offered me some money. I was surprised at his ... . 5. I like your ... but I'm not sure whether I'll be able to join you.

VI. Make up short dialogues as shown in the example:

e.g. A: When you get home you'll be able to ski, won't you? B: Yes, I'm looking forward to skiing.

When you get home you'll be able to ..., won't you?

1. swim in the sea 2. skate 3. ride your horse again 4. meet your friends 5. speak your own language again 6. fish in the river 7. have a good holiday 8. sunbathe 9. get a good job 10. continue your university course 11. start your training 12. go out without an umbrella 13. open a language school 14. write a book about your experiences

e.g. A: He wanted to go but I said "No". B: But why didn't you let him go?

He wanted to ... but I said "No".

1. stop 2. help 3. pay 4. hitch-hike 5. tell the truth 6. leave early 7. drive home 8. bring his passport 9. decide for himself

10. sail round the island 11. join the club e.g. A: He bullies his sisters.

B: But why do you let him bully his sisters.

He ...

1. kicks his brother 2. shouts at his sisters 3. fights with the neighbours' children 4. answers back 5. disobeys me 6. breaks the furniture 7. misses school every Monday 8. watches TV all Satur­day 9. plays his stereo till 2 a.m. 10. stays in bed all Sunday

11. talks with his mouth full 12. rides his bicycle along the pave­ments 13. uses awful language

VII. Make up sentences using the prompts: e.g. he/rich

He seems to be rich.

1. she/know him 2. he/have plenty of money 3. she/like children 4. he/ afraid of smth 5. she/dislike him 6 he/interested in art 7. you/tired 8. she/surprised 9. she/energetic

VIII. Translate into English (self check):

Text Exercises

/. Ask questions about a) holiday camps in England; b) the Youth Hostels Association.

//. Speak on a) the way John Grant prefers to spend his holi­days; b) holiday camps and their conveniences; c) a walking ho­liday.

///. When did you last have your holiday? Where and how did you spend it? What kind of holiday do you prefer?

Conversation Practice Holiday Plans

Mary: Have you had your holiday for this year, Jane? Jane; Not yet. I'm taking it at the end of September. Mary: Where are you going? Have you made up your mind? Jane: Not really. I thought of going to Spain again, but I've already been there twice and I'd like to try somewhere new. Mary: My brother's just gone to Mexico for two weeks. I had a card from him yesterday and he seems to be having a good time. Why don't you go there? Jane: That's . for you well-off people, but I couldn't possibly

afford it. I'm much too hard up at the moment. Mary: The air-fare is quite expensive, I admit, but you needn't

spend a lot when you get there.

Jane: I've already spent a lot of money this year. My flat was done up last month, so I haven't got much to spare for expensive holidays abroad. Mary: Oh, I see.

Jane: Perhaps I'll just go to Scotland or Ireland in the end. I've heard they are both very beautiful, and I haven't been to either of them. Mary: We went to Ireland two years ago to pay Jill and her

husband a visit. They're in Dublin now. Jane: Oh, yes, so they are!

Mary: If you decide on Ireland you can call in on them. Jill would willingly put you up for a few days, I'm sure.

Jane: That's a good idea! I haven't seen Jill for more than three years now and I'd like to know how she's getting on.

/. Listen to the conversation "Holiday Plans" and answer the questions:

When is Jane taking her holiday? Has she made her plans yet? Why can't she afford going abroad this year? Where might she spend her holiday this year? What makes Ireland a possible choice?

//. Read the conversation and analyse its language peculiari­ties.

III. Give a brief account of the conversation.

IV. Find in the text appropriate phrases for the following:

V. Ask questions on the conversation.

VI. Role-play the conversation.

VII. Situation: Your friend and you are making plans for the coming holidays.

After the Holidays

Peter: It's nice to see you, Helen. How are you?

Helen: Good morning, Peter. Hope you are well. Haven't seen

you for ages. Where have you been all this time? Peter: I've just arrived from Brighton. I spent my holidays at

the seaside. Have you ever been there?

Helen: Yes, I was there last year. It's a nice place, isn't it? I hope

you enjoyed yourself greatly.

Peter: Oh, yes. I had a very nice time. The weather was fine. I swam much, lay in the sun and made a lot of friends. Helen: Did you go to Brighton alone? Peter: No, together with my cousin Dick. You remember him,

don't you?

Helen: Sure. Has he finished school yet? Peter: Yes, he is a student at Oxford University. And how are

you getting on? I haven't heard from you lately. Helen: I'm quite all right, thank you. Come and see me some day,

will you?

Peter: I'd be delighted. Good-bye. Helen: See you soon. Bye.

/. Listen to the conversation and answer the following ques­tions:

Where did Peter spend his holidays? Did he have a good time in Brighton? Was he there alone? How is Helen getting on?

//. Read the conversation and analyse its language peculiari­ties.

III. Give a brief account of the conversation.

IV. Find in the text appropriate phrases for the following:

. * V. Give synonymous expressions from the text:

I'm glad to see you. How are you keeping? Certainly. I'd love to. How about coming to see me one of these days? I'm fine, thank you. I hope you had a good time.

VI. Act out the conversation.

VII. Situation: You meet a friend of yours. He says he has just returned from Moscow. It was his first trip there. He's full of impressions.


Ann Goes to Italy

Ann is a student at London University. She studies Italian. Last summer she flew to Italy. She toured Italy by coach. She saw a lot of interesting places. She ate spaghetti in Rome, drank coffee in Venice and took a lot of photographs. The sun shone every day. She lay in the sun and swam a lot. She stayed in Italy for a month. She wrote postcards to all her friends and rela­tives. She met a lot of interesting people in Italy. She bought a lot of Italian pop records and brought them back to England.

/. Listen to the text "Ann Goes to Italy". Ask and answer questions on the text.

II. Tell about Ann's trip to Italy.

III. Situation: Your friend has just come back from his holiday. You are asking him about it.

Prompts: where/spend? how long/stay there? go alone? how/ travel? the weather/fine? where/meals? what/do in the evenings? meet any interesting people? buy anything? have a good time? when/come back?

IV. Tell about a holiday you enjoyed.

I Thought It was a Shark

Last year my friend Robert went to a small seaside town for a week's holiday. Robert usually takes his holiday in June but last year he took it in August.

He didn't take many clothes with him - only a few shirts, a pair of shorts and his swimming-costume. He went from London to the sea town by train and the journey took three hours. Robert likes travelling by train.

He stayed at a small hotel near the beach. Every morning before breakfast he ran down to the sea and had a quick swim. Sometimes he took a boat and went fishing for the day.

Once he jumped into the water when a big crab bit him. He jumped up and shouted for help. People ran from the beach into the water to help him. They thought he was dead. The hotel - keeper ran down to the beach too. He thought someone was drowning.

In a very short time there were about fifty or sixty people. They were standing round Robert. They all wanted to know what

was going on. Robert became red in the face. He thought a shark was going to eat him. But it was only a crab.

/. Listen to the text, ask and answer questions on the text.

II. Tell about Robert's holiday last year.

Reading Holidays

People have more money and more leasure nowadays and even young people can afford to go abroad. Many travel agents offer cheap cut-price tickets for flights to all parts of the world, so the youngsters can avoid the crowded, well-known places and get to less famous areas which are off the beaten track. Instead of using public transport and hotels they can travel by hitch-hiking and stay at youth hostels. But most people prefer some kind of package holiday at a popular holiday resort, which means that everything is arranged for you and the price you pay includes transport, food and accomodation. Try to avoid taking your holiday during the busy peak tourist season. It's more crow­ded and expensive. If possible go in the quieter off-peak period.

Self check

/. Use the proper tense' forms. A. Mr Brown: I say what you and you sister (be going) to

do for your holiday this year?

Mr Robinson: Well, I (not, know), I'd like to take my sister abroad, but then she can't leave her children. What you (do)?

Mr Brown: We (go) to the sea. Mr Robinson: Where you (go) as a rule? Mr Brown: We (try) many seaside places on the east and south coasts; on the whole, I think we (prefer) the south.

Mr Robinson: You (take) rooms or (stay) at a hotel? Mr Brown: This year we (take) a furnished house. Why

don't you join us? It (be) great fun.

Mr Robinson: I think it (be) a good idea. I (talk) it over

with my sister and see what she (think) about it.

B. Postcards always (spoil) my holidays. Last summer I (go)

to Italy. I (visit) museums and (sit) in public gardens.

A friendly waiter (teach) me a few words of Italian. Then he

(lend) me a book. I (read) a few lines but I (not, understand)

a word. Every day I (think) about postcards. My holidays (pass) very quickly, but I (not, send) any postcards to my friends. On the last day I (make) a big decision. 1 (get) up early and (buy) thirty-seven cards. I (spend) the whole day in my room but I (not, write) a single card.

//. Translate into English:

- Привет, Андрей! Рад тебя видеть.

Здравствуй, Виктор! Не видел тебя целую вечность Где ты

- Видишь ли, я только что вернулся из Англии. Ты когда-либо

- К сожалению, нет. Но я собираюсь поехать туда в сле­дующем году. Ты доволен своей поездкой?

Конечно. Лондон один из красивейших городов, которые я когда-либо видел. Я пробыл там две недели и прекрасно провел время. Приходи ко мне на днях. Я покажу тебе свои фотографии.

- Хорошо. До скорой встречи.


/. Talking points:

1. What is your idea of a good holiday?

2 Speak in favour or against spending a holiday in a quiet fishing village.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of going on a

guided tour?

What do you think of a walking holiday? Do you find it


Why do you think tourism is becoming more and more po­pular?

People talk about some places as being "typical tourist spots". What do you think they mean by the phrase?

Do you like to spend your holidays at the seaside? Which do you prefer: the Baltic resorts or the Black Sea resorts? Why?

8. Discuss some ways of spending a holiday. //. Role play:

1. A family are discussing where they will go for their summer holidays. Even though their tastes are very different they want to go on holiday together and see if there's a way of reconciling the different ideas they have about what holidays should be. 2.Your friend and you have just returned from your summer holidays. At the moment you are sharing your impressions.


Write a postcard home to a friend. Say where you are and what you are doing Say something about your plans for the next days and when you are arriving back home. Ask your friend to meet you at the station. Do it Hke this:

Dear Paul!

We are really enjoying London. We are staying at the Georgian Hotel and we like it very much. We're going to stay in London till next Friday. Then we're going to Brighton. (I'll send you a card from there). London is a very beautiful city. We're enjoying the museums, the parks, the shops and the theatres. Yesterday morning we went to Harridge's. It's a wonderful department store. I bought a pair of shoes and Jim bought two shirts. Yester­day afternoon we went to the British Museum. There's an exhibition of old books there at the moment In the evening we went to the National Theatre and saw "Macbeth". We had very good seats and enjoyed the performance. This morning we visited some friends in Haling. We went there by underground - it's a very fast service. At the moment we're back at the hotel and we're so tired!

Yours sincerely, Roger

//. Describe the most memorable holiday you've ever had.

///. Write about your plans for the coming holiday.

IV. Write about a holiday you spent at the seaside.

V. Describe your sightseeing in a town of special historical interest.

VI. Write about different ways of spending a holiday.

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