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THE SUBJUNCTIVE

Gramatica




THE SUBJUNCTIVE

A. Prezent .

Are aceeasi forma cu infinitivul scurt .

Se foloseste :

- pentru a exprima urari care implica divinitatea ;

e.g. Lord bless you !

Be happy !

Enjoy your lunch !(= Pofta buna!)



Sleep tight !(= Somn usor!)

- in engleza veche (Old English) apare in regula I a lui IF ;

e.g. If she be the one , I'll be happy for you .

If this prove right , you will be punished .

- in engleza americana (American English) este folosit in locul subjonctivului cu "should ".

B. Past

Are aceeasi forma cu past tense-indicativ ( pentru "to be" este forma "were" la toate persoanele ).

Se foloseste :

- in regula a II-a a lui IF ;

- dupa verbul wish , pentru a exprima o dorinta / regret in legatura cu o actiune prezenta .

- dupa constructiile ipotetice , pentru a exprima o ipoteza sau un regret legat de o actiune prezenta ; CONSTRUCTII IPOTETICE (HYPOTHETICAL CONSTRUCTIONS) : as if / as though (= ca si cum , de parca), if only (= ce bine ar fi daca , ce bine era daca .), it's high time , would rather (= as prefera , as vrea ) , had better (= mai bine , mai degraba ) .

e.g. I wish they helped me with the translation .

She speaks as if she didn't know me .

He knows it's high time we left .

I would rather he washed the car .

ATENTIE ! : * would rather este urmat de infinitiv scurt daca face referire la

actiunile aceluiasi subiect .

e.g. I would rather go now than stay till the end .

They would rather take the exam this year .

* had better este urmat intotdeauna de infinitiv scurt , pentru ca se

refera doar la actiunile aceluiasi subiect .

e.g. You had better keep quiet .

She'd better forgive him for his mistakes .

EXCEPTIE !

Daca dorinta sau ipoteza se refera la o actiune viitoare , despre care vorbitorul stie ca nu se va realiza niciodata , se foloseste "would"+ infinitiv scurt.

e.g. I wish they wouldn't smoke so much .

They wish she wouldn't marry a foreigner .

If only he wouldn't eat so much garlic .

C. Past Perfect

Are aceeasi forma cu past perfect-indicativ .

Se foloseste :

- in regula a III -a a lui IF .

- dupa verbul "wish" sau constructiile ipotetice , pentru a face referire la o actiune trecuta , care nu s-a realizat conform asteptarilor , dar nu se mai poate modifica .

e.g. We wish they had told her the truth .

Nobody wishes she had been present .

Good Gracious , you look as if you had seen a ghost .

If only I hadn't forgotten my keys .



She would rather you hadn't refused her .

ATENTIE ! * dupa had better si would rather ( cand se refera la acelasi subiect )

folosim infinitiv perfect pentru a face referire la trecut .

e.g. You had better have waited outside .

They would rather have given up that job .

D. Subjonctivul cu "Should"

Este cerut de "that" si compusii lui that: so that , in order that , in case (that) , for fear (that)(+ verb afirmativ) , lest (=so that not + verb afirmativ).

"That" poate introduce diverse tipuri de subordonate : subiective , predicative , atributive , completive directe .

e.g. : It is possible that she should be late for the party .(subiectiva)

Being there on time means that we should get up very early .(predicativa)

The idea that he should leave me was driving me crazy .(atributiva)

He suggested that we should take a taxi .

Compusii lui that pot introduce doar subordonate de scop (Purpose Clauses)

e.g. She left early so that she should catch the last train .

He invited Bob in case father should need someone to talk to .

They stopped talking for fear he should hear them .

He left in a hurry lest the neighbour should catch him .

OBS. In anumite situatii , pentru a implica o nuanta modala , in locul lui should putem folosi :

can - could ( capacitate fizica sau intelectuala);

will - would ( vointa);

may - might ( posibilitate ).

e.g.: He refused the job for fear he might find a better one .

I spoke to Jack in case he would come .

She turned down the light so that he could sleep .

ATENTIE Orice constructie cu subjonctiv cu should poate fi inlocuita cu un infinitiv sau gerund .

e.g. : He suggested that we should come the next day .

He suggested our coming the next day .

Leaving now means that we should get there rather early .

Leaving now means getting there rather early .

They were invited so that they should deliver a speech .

They were invited to deliver a speech .





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