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Notiuni elementare de gramatica limbii engleze

grammar




Notiuni elementare

de gramatica limbii engleze




OBIECTIVELE DUMNEAVOASTRA

Cand veti termina de studiat acest volum veti putea sa:

Formulati pluralul substantivelor sis a detectati genul cuvintelor.

Folositi correct principalele timpuri verbale.

Explicati de ce engleza pe care o vorbiti va fi cu atat mai interesanta cu cat veti putea folosi mai multe cuvinte descriptive.

SELECTION 1

METODE DE STUDIU

STUDIEREA CURSULUI

Studiul

Acesta este primul din cele trei volume de studiu “Prime Share International” care ofera o introducere facila in folosirea limbii engleze , pentru cei fara prea multe cunostinte in domeniu. Este de asemenea un excellent curs de recapitulare pentru cei care au terminat scoala cu multi ani in urma si care au uitat multe din cunostintele accumulate.

Veti vedea ca in aceste volume preliminare , in majoritatea exemplelor date sunt folosite numai cuvinte simple. Gramatica este de asemenea explicate intr-un mod simplu , fara a va solicita sa invatati prea multio termini de specialitate

Dup ace veti fi studiat cu atentie aceste trei volume, lucrand fiecare set de verificari, pe masura ce ajungeti la ele in timplul studierii cursului, veti fi invatat sufficient pentru a va exprima correct si clar in limba engleza.

Fiecare mapa de curs contine un numar de 10 texte, care constituie o parte importanta a studiului dumneavoastra. Fiecare test trebuie rezolvat integral in scris si trimis spre corectare indrumatorului personal. In acest fel, va verificati pas cu pas cunostintele accumulate.

In aproape fiecare casa se afla un dictionar englez – roman si orice student care nu are acasa unul poate face rost. Tineti dictionarul langa dumneavoastra in timp ce studiati sau cititi.

CITIRE, ASCULTARE, SCRIERE

Citirea

Folositi-ve si timpul liber pentru a citi, nu numai perioadele de studio. In timp ce cititi, invatati cuvintele noi si modul in care ele se inlantuir in fraze. Astfel, capacitatea dumneavoastra de a intelege engleza creste. Este foarte important sa citit: cititi articole din ziare si reviste – chiar si reclame, desi acestea nu sunt totdeauna un ghid de incredere pentru o engleza mai buna.

Ascultarea

Faceti din ascultarea limbii engleze, ori de cate ori e posibil, o parte a studiului dumneavoastra. Daca ascultati la radio sau la televizor, veti invata mai multe cuvinte, cum sa le legati intre ele si cum sa le pronuntati corect. A asculta si a sta de vorba cu alte persoane este un alt exercitiu, dar aici exista in cele mai multe tari o dificultate, intrucat nu toti oamenii pronunta la fel, diferentele depinzand in primul rand de zona de origine a persoanelor in cauza. Dumneavoastra trebuie sa invatati sa scrieti sis a vorbiti engleza standard, adica acea forma a englezei care nu prezinta variatii regionale. Nu exista in engleza standard cuvinte sau structuri gramaticale care san u fie folosite in tarile unde se vorbeste engleza ca limba nativa. Cand vorbim 212h79c familiar, folosim probabil cuvinte specifice zonei in care traim; dar dumneavoastra trebuie sa invatati sa scrieti si sa vorbiti engleza standard. De asemenea, oamenii fac greseli in vorbirea englezei; trebuie sa invatati sa depistati aceste greseli, astfel incat san u le repetati. In sfarsit, engleza vorbita sic ea scrisa nu sunt absolut identice; putem vorbi mai liber, mai familiar decat scriem.

Scrierea

Citind, ascultand si vorbind puteti invata nu numai cuvinte, ci si cum sa le folositi in fraze, dar este chiar mai important sa exersati folosind aceste cuvinte pentru a va exprima propriile idei. Incercati sa folositi cuvintele noi pe care le auziti sau le cititi si curand va veti da seama ca puteti sa va scrieti propriile ganduri.

Dictionare

Ar fi inutil sa invatati cum se scrie sau cum suna un cuvant, daca nu stiti si ce inseamna: in aceasta consta ajutorul dictionarului. Trebuie sa fiti pregatiti pentru o munca grea si constanta, dar asigurati-va ca stiti intelesul fiecarui cuvand nou si in acest fel veti putea sa-l folositi correct.

SECTION 2

CUVINTELE

SINGULARUL SI PLURALUL

Ce sunt cuvintele?

Cuvantul este reprezentat de un sunet sau un grup de sunete

Prin care toti membri unui grup inteleg acelas lucru. Limba reprezinta totalitatea cuvintelor.

Cand scriem, folosim litere pentru a nota sunetele cuvintelor. Fiecare sunet existent intr-o mlimba poate fi reprezentat de o anumita litera sau de un grup de litere. Scrierea sa dezvoltat probabil intr-un mod similar limbii vorbite. La inceput, se pare ca oameni comunicau unul cu altul prin desene. In timp desenele au ajuns sa reprezinte lucruri associate cuvintelor, mai de graba decat obiectul propriuzis. Astfel un soare desenat putea insemna caldura sau lumina. Prin repetitie, desenele s-ar fi simplificat din ce in ce mai mult, ajungand in cele din urma sa arate ca literele alfabetului scris. Tot asa, aceste simboluri ar fi ajuns sa reprezinte sunete independente( probabil sunetele initiale ale obiectelor) sin u obiecte sau idei.

UNU SAU MAI MULTE DE UNU?

Deseori dorim sa vorbim sau sa scriem despre mai mult de o p[ersoana sau un lucru, sic el mai simplu mod de a face acest lucru este sa adaugam litere, ca in exemplele urmatoare:

Singular

A dog

The dog

One dog

Un caine

Cainele

Un caine,numeral

Plural

Two dogs

Some dogs

Several dogs

Doi caini

Niste caini

Mai multi caini

Termenii singular si plural sunt destul de expliciti :

Singular inseamna numai unul, in vreme ce plural inseamna mai mult de unul.

Exemplu :

Bed (pat)

beds

House (casa)

Houses

Picture (tablou)

Pictures

Building (constructie)

Buildings

Boat (barca)

Boats

River (rau)

Rivers

Tree (copac)

Trees

Plant (planta)

Plants

Flower (floare)

Flowers

Girl (fata)

Girls

Boy (baiat)

Boys

Ship (vapor)

Ships

Ball (minge)

Balls

Ocean (ocean)

Oceans

Mountain (munte)

Mountains

Forest (padure)

Forests

Lion (leu)

Lions

Bird (pasare)

Birds

Room (camera)

Rooms

Exista cateva moduri de a forma pluralul cuvintelor. Acestea vor fi explicate in cele ce urmeaza.

Unit 1

Plurals :

Solve the following exercises but do not send theam to Another Life Services.

1. Write down the singular form of these words:

Geese

Feets

Mice

Sheeps

2. Write down the plural of the following words :

Street

Bus

Woman

Tooth

Nouns ending in “o”

Volcano volcanoes

Tomato tomatoes

Most words ending in “o” add “es” for plural; but when there is a vowel before the “o” just add “s”.

Radio  radios

Studio studios

And also :

Photo photos

Piano pianos

Nous ending in “ss”, “sh”, “ch”, “x” form their plural by adding an “es”

Class classes

Church churches

Brush brushes

Box boxes

THE GENDER OF NOUNS :

Masculine Feminine Common

Male female both sexes

Actor

Actress

Child, baby

Boy

Girl

Spouse

Husband

Wife

king

Queen

Monarch

Lion

Lioness

Person

Man

Women

Master

Mistress

Steward

stewardees

The ending “ess” is one of the ways of forming the feminine of a masculine word :

1. Write down the feminine of the follwing words :

Prince

Dog

Baron

2. Write down the masculine of the following words :

Lady

Women

Cow

NOW , LATER OR LAST WEEK ?

TODAY, TOMORROW, YESTERDAY

“I” and the action

Tense

Aspect

Present

Past

Future

SIMPLE

I eat

I eat yesterday

I shall eat

tomorrow

CONTINUOUS

I am eating

I was eating

I shall be

eating

PERFECT

I have eaten

I had eaten

I shall have

eaten

PERFECT +

CONTINUOUS

I have been

Eating

I had been

Eating

I shall have been

eating

Note that each Tense has four aspects,that last one being a combination of the previous two.The Continuous suggests a preogressive kind of action, the Perfect – an action covering an interval of time, as opposed to a moment ( as it is with the Simple Aspect ).

Regular verbs from the Past by adding –ed at the end, but there are also verbs wich have two forms for the past : these are called irregular verbs ( see Appendix 2 in the Preliminary Course )

Exemple:

“He, She, It” and the Action

PRESENT PAST FUTURE

He eats

He eat

He will eat

He is eating

He was eating

He will be eating

She eats

She eat

She will eat

REMEMBER

For the 3rd person singular, add “s” at the end of the verb!

The Present Tense of the Verb “ to like”

AFFIRMATIVE

SINGULAR

PLURAL

I like   we like

You like  you like

He  they like

She likes

It

Verbs ending in “s”, “ss” ,”ch”, “sh”, “z”, “o”, add “es” for the the 3rd person singular:

To cross- he crosses

To buzz-it buzzes

To push-she pushes

To do-he does

To go-she goes

See also Appendix 3.

The Present of the Verb TO HAVE

AFFIRMATIVE 1

AFIRMATIVE 2

INTERROGATIVE

I have

I’ve

Have I?

You have

You;ve 

Have you?

He has

She has

It has

He’s

She’s

It’s

Has he?

Has she?

Has it?

We have

We’ve

Have we?

You have

You’ve

Have you?



They have

They’ve

Have they

NEGATIVE 1

NEGATIVE 2

NEGATIVE 3

INTEROGARTIVE 1

NEGATIVE

I have not

I’ve not

I’haven’t

Have I not?

Haven’t I?

You have not

You’ve not

You haven’t?

Have you not?

Haven’t you?

He has not

She has not

It has not

He’s not

She’s not

It’s not

He hasn’t?

She hasn’t?

It hasn’t?

He

Has she not?

it

He

Haven’t she?

It

We have not

We’ve not

We haven’t?

Have we not?

Haven’t we?

You have not

You’ve you haven’t

You haven’t

Have you not?

Haven’t you?

They have not

They’not

They haven’t?

Have they not?

Haven’t they?

Affirmative:

I have=I’ve

Present Tense of the Verb TO SEE

AFFIRMATIVE

INTERROGATIVE

NEGATIVE 1

NEGATIVE  2

INTERROGATIVE

NEGATIVE

I see

Do I see?

I do not see

I don’t see?

Do I not see?

Don’t I see?

You see

do you see?

You do not see?

You don’t see?

Do you not see?

Don’t you see?

He see

She sees

It see

Does he see?

Does she see?

Does It see?

He does not see

She does not see

It does not see

He doesn’t see?

She doesn’t see?

It doesn’t see?

Doesn’t He see?

Doesn’t she see?

Doesn’t It see?

We see

Do we see?

We do not see

We don’t see?

Do we not see?

Don’t we see?

you see

Do you see?

You do not see

You don’t see?

Do you not see?

Don’t you see?

They see

Do they see?

They do not see

They don’t see?

Do they not see?

Don’t they see?

Present Tense of the Verb TO READ

AFFIRMATIVE

INTERROGATIVE

NEGATIVE 1

NEGATIVE 2

INTERROGATIVE

NEGATIVE

I read

Do I read?

I do not read

I don’t read?

Do I not read?

Don’t I read?

You read

Do you read?

You do not read

You don’t read?

Do you not read?

Don’t you read?

He reads

She reads

It reads

Does he read?

Does she read

Does it read?

He does not read

She does not read

It does not read

He doesn’t read?

She doesn’t read?

It doesn’t read?

Doesn’t he read?

Doesn’t she read?

Doesn’t it read?

We read

Do we read?

We do not read

We don’t read?

Do we not read?

Don’t we read?

You read

Do you read?

You do not read

You don’t read?

Do you not read?

Don’t you read?

They read

Do they read?

They do not read

They don’t read?

Do they not read?

Don’t they read?

Unit 2

DESCRIPTIVE WORD

What kind of? Person or thing?

The way we speak would be very boring without using various descriptive word to help us express ( and explain ) the colour, shape and size . the feautures of the things we speak about.

Here you have some adjectives. Look in the dictionary for their meaning and write it down in the coumms bellow.

COLOUR

Red

Green

Yellow

Blue

Orange

White

Black

Purple

Pink

Brown

SHAPE

Square

Oval

Round

Triangular

Straight

Flat

Curved

CHARACTERISTICS

Excellent

Pleasant

Delicious

Beautiful

Nice

Kind Generous

Friendly

Helpful

Happy

CHARACTERISTICS

Unpleasant

Awful

Ugly

Mean

Miserable

Nasty

SIZE

Big

Enormous

High

Large

Medium

Small

Tiny

Gigantic

Huge

Little

Long

Minute

Tall

Vast

Try to find other words that express shape, characteristics ( good or bad ), kind and size and add them to the ones given here. As you have probably noticed, there are people using a word or a couple of word very often. Try to avoid this and learn as many descriptive word as you can, rather than saying: “ a nice evening , some nice people, a nice soup, nice books, nice movies, an enjoyable holiday”.

EXERCISE:

Answer the following questions but do not send them to ANOTHER LIFE SERVICES. Use a dictionary to identify the following word. You are given the first two letters of the word, the number of letters of the whole word and its meaning.

ci 8 letters shaped like a circle

ch………………….. 8 letters bright and lively

be…………………. 9 letters lovely to look at

de…………………. 9 letters tasting very pleasant

ex…………………. 8 letters stirring stimulating

en………………… .. 9 letters which gives pleasure or joy

ex……………….. .. 9 letters very good indeed

me………………….. 6 letters neither large nor small

mi…………………… 6 letters very small indeed

mi……………………. 9 letters very sad and depressed

WORD TO SHOW QUANTITY

“How much” and “How many”?

Fiind in the dictionary the meaning of the words:

About

Any

Few

Little

Much

Many

None

Several

Some

Compare

Womens

Oil

Many

Objects

BUT

Much

Water

Cups of coffee

coffee

Unit 3

The Future Tense-Simple Future

The Simple Future of the Verb “TO WATCH”



AFFIRMATIVE 1

AFFIRMATIVE 2

TRADUCERE

I shall watch

I’ll watch

Voi privi

You will watch

You’ll watch

Vei privi

He will watch

She will watch

It will watch

He’ll watch

She’ll watch

It’ll watch

Va privi

We shall watch

We’ll watch

Vom privi

You will watch

You’ll watch

Veti privi

They will watch

They’ll watch

Vor privi

NEGATIVE 1

NEGATIVE 2

I shall not watch

I shan’t watch

You will not watch

You won’t watch

He will not watch

She will not watch

It will not watch

He won’t watch

She won’t watch

It won’t watch

We shall not watch

We won’t watch

You will not watch

You won’t watch

They will not watch

They won’t watch

INTERROGATIVE

INTERROGATIVE

NEGATIVE 1

INTERROGATIVE

NEGATIVE 2

Shall I watch

Shall I not watch?

Shan’t I watch?

Will you watch

Will you not watch?

Won’t you watch?

Will he watch

Will she watch

Will it watch

Will he not watch?

Will she not watch?

Will it not watch?

Won’t he watch?

Won’t she watch?
won’t il watch?

Shall we watch

Shall we not watch?

Won’t we watch?

Will you watch

Will you not watch?

Won’t you watch?

Will they watch

Will they not watch?

Won’t they watch?

UNIT 4

The Present Perfect Tense

The Present Perfect of the Verb “TO PLAY”

AFFIRMATIVE 1

AFFIRMATIVE 2

INTERROGATIVE

I have played

I’ve played

Have I played?

You have played

You’ve played

Have you played?

He has played

She has played

It has played

He’s played

She’s played

It’s played

Has he played?

Has she played?

Has it played?

We have played

We’ve played

Have we played?

You have played

You’ve played

Have you played?

They have played

They’ve played

Have they played?

NEGATIVE 1

NEGATIVE 2

I have not played

I’ve not played

You have not played

You’ve played

He has not played

She has not played

It has not played

He’s not played

She’s not played

It’s not played

We have not played

We’ve not played

You have not played

You’ve not played

They have not played

They’ve not played

INTERROGATIVE

NEGATIVE

INTERROGATIVE

NEGATIVE

Have I not played?

Haven’t I played?

Have you not played?

Haven’t you played?

Has he not played?

Has she not played?

Has it not played?

Hans’t he played?

Hans’t she played?

Hans’t it played?

Have we not played?

Haven’t we played?

Have you not played?

Haven’t you played?

Have they not played?

Haven’t they played?

The Present Perfect of the Verb “ TO DO”

AFFIRMATIVE 1

AFFIRMATIVE 2

INTERROGATIVE

I have done

I’ve done

Have I done?

You have done

You’ve done

Have you done?

He has done

She has done

It has done

He’s done

She’s done

It’s done

Has he done?

Has she done?

Has it done?

We have done

We’ve done

Have we done?

You have done

You’ve done

Have you done?

They have done

They’ve done

Have they done?

NEGATIVE 1

NEGATIVE 2

I have not done

I’ve not done

You have not done

You’ve not done

He has not done

She has not done

It has not done

He’s not done

She’s not done

It’s not done

We have not done

We’ve not done

You have note done

You’ve not done

They have not done

They’ve not done

INTERROGATIVE

NEGATIVE

INTERROGATIVE

NEGATIVE

Have I not done?

Haven’t I done?

Have you not done?

Haven’t you done?

Has he not done?

Has she not done?

Has it not done?

Hasn’t he done?

Hasn’t she done?

Hasn’t it done?

Have we not done?

Haven’t we done?

Have you not done?

Haven’t you done?

Have they not done?

Haven’t they done?

UNIT 5 

THE SIMPLE PRESENT CONTINUOUS AND

THE SIMPLE PAST CONTINOUS

The Present Continous of the verb “TO SMILE”

Affirmative 1

Affirmative 2

Interrogative

I am smiling

I’msmiling

Am I smiling?

You are smiling

You’re smiling

Are you smiling?



He is smiling

She is smiling

He’s smiling

She’s smiling

Is he smiling?

Is he smiling?

We are smiling

We’re smiling

Are we smiling?

You are smiling

You’re smiling

Are you smiling?

They are smiling

Ther’re smiling

Are they smiling?

NEGATIVE 1

NEGATIVE 2

I am not smiling

I’m not smiling

You are not smiling

You’re not smiling

He is not smiling

She is not smiling

It is not smiling

He’s not smiling

She’s not smiling

It’s not smiling

We are not smiling

We’re not smiling

You are not smiling

You’re not smiling

They are not smiling

They’re not smiling

INTERROGATIVE

NEGATIVE

INTERROGATIVE

NEGATIVE

Am I not smiling?

Aren’t I smiling?

Are you not smiling?

Aren’t you smiling?

Is he not smiling?

Is she not smiling?

Is it not smiling?

Isn’t he smiling?

Isn’t she smiling?

Isn’t it smiling?

Are we not smiling?

Aren’t we smiling?

Are you not smiling?

Aren’t you smiling?

Are they not smiling?

Aren’t they smiling?

Simple Past Continous of the Verb “TO SMILE”

AFFIRMATIVE

I was smiling

You were smiling

He was smiling

She was smiling

It was smiling

We were smiling

You were smiling

They were smiling

INTERROGATIVE

Was I smiling?

Were you smiling?

Was he smiling?

Was she smiling?

Was it smiling?

Were we smiling?

Were you smiling?

Were they smiling?

NEGATIVE 1

NEGATIVE 2

I was not smiling

I wasn’t smiling

You not were smiling

You weren’t smiling

He was not smiling

She was not smiling

It was not smiling

He wasn’t smiling

She wasn’t smiling

It wasn’t smiling

We were not smiling

We weren’t smiling

You were not smiling

You weren’t smiling

They were not smiling

They weren’t smiling

INTERROGATIVE

NEGATIVE

INTERROGATIVE

NEGATIVE

Was I not smiling?

Wasn’t I smiling?

Were you not smiling?

Weren’t you smiling?

Was he not smiling?

Was she not smiling?

Was it not smiling?

Wasn’t he smiling?

Wasn’t she smiling?

Wasn’t it smiling?

Were we not smiling?

Weren’t we smiling?

Were you not smiling?

Weren’t you smiling?

Were they not smiling?

Weren’t they smiling?

Unit 6

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINOUSLY

Present Perfect Continuous of the Verb “TO PLAY”

AFFIRMATIVE 1

AFFIRMATIVE 2

INTERROGATIVE

I have been playing

I’ve have been playing

Have I been playing?

You have been playing

You’re have been playing

Have you been playing?

He has been playing

She has been playing

It has been playing

He’s have been playing

She’s have been playing

It’s have been playing

Has he been playing?

Has she been playing?

Has it been playing?

We have been playing

We’re have been playing

Have we been playing?

You have been playing

You’re have been playing

Have you been playing?

They have been playing

They’re have been playing

Have they been playing?

NEGATIVE 1

NEGATIVE 1

I have not  been playing

I’ve not been playing

You have not  been playing

You’ve not been playing

He has not been playing

She has not been playing

It has not been playing

He’s not been playing

She’s not been playing

It’s not been playing

We have not been playing

We’ve not been playing

You have not been playing

You’ve not been playing

They have not been playing

They’ve not been playing

INTERROGATIVE

NEGATIVE

INTERROGATIVE

NEGATIVE

Have I not been playing?

Haven’t I been playing?

Have you not been playing?

Haven’t you been playing?

Has he not been playing?

Has she not been playing?

Has it not been playing?

Hans’t he been playing?

Hans’t she been playing?

Hans’t it been playing?

Have we not been playing?

Haven’t we been playing?

Have you not been playing?

Haven’t you been playing?

Have they not been playing?

Haven’t they been playing?

APPENDIX 1

Aspectele verbului in limba engleza

Verbele in limba engleza pot avea patru aspecte: simplu ( Simple ), progresiv ( Continous ), pefect ( Perfect ) si perfect progresiv ( Perfect Continous ). Fiecare dintre aceste aspecte poate aparea la oricare dintre cele trei timpuri: present ( Present ), trecut ( Past ) si viitor ( Future ).

Aspectele progresiv si perfect le corespunde cate un “ verb auxiliar” ( cu care se formeaza ), care preia timpul si persoana verbului de conjugat ; aspectul progresiv perfect se formeaza prin combinarea celor doua auxiliare .

Astfel:

“ Continous Tense” se formeaza cu auxiliarul “ to be” :

“ to be” + infinitivul verbului de conjugat + “ing”

( la timpul si persoana verbului conjugat )

“Perfect Tense” se formeaza cu auxiliarul “to have” :
” to have” ( la timpul si persoana verbului de conjugat ) + forma a 3 a verbului conjugat

“ Perfect Continous Tense” se formeaza cu ambele auziliare.” to be” si “to have”:

To have + been + infinitivul de conjugat + “ing”.

APPENDIX 2

Transformarea timpurilor verbale in trecerea de la vorbire directa la cea indirecta

DIRECT SPEECH

INDIRECT SPEECH

Present Continuous

Past Continuous

Present Simple

Past Simple

Present Perfect

Past Perfect

Past Perfect

No change

Past Simple

Past Perfect

Past Continuous

No change

Shall/will

Would

Can

No change

Must

Could

Could

No change

Ought to

No change

May

Might










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