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Cele cinci principii ale utilizarii spatiului asa cum reies din tratatele ONU

Stiinte politice

Cele cinci principii ale utilizarii spatiului asa cum reies din tratatele ONU

A. Declaration of Legal Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space

Exploration and use of outer space should be for the benefit of all mankind.

Outer space and any bodies in it are free for all and not subject to national appropriation.

All activities should be peaceful.

States bear international responsibility for national activities in space.

States shall cooperate with each other in space.

States retain control of their objects launched into space, and are liable for any damage such

objects might cause.

Astronauts shall be regarded as envoys of mankind.

All possible assistance shall be rendered them in any emergency or accidental situation.

B.     Principles Governing the Use by States of Artificial Satellites for International Direct Television Broadcasting

Access to direct broadcast technology should be available to all states.

States should respect the rights and sensitivities of other states (including copyright) in such


C.     Principles Relating to Remote Sensing of the Earth from Outer Space

Remote sensing activities to be carried out for the benefit of all states, and be used to protect

the environment.

Space capable states should make opportunities available to developing states for

participation in this area.

Data of any sense state should be made 22422d310w available to them.

D.    Principles Relevant to the Use of Nuclear Power Sources in Outer Space

In such operations individuals, populations and the biosphere should be protected against

radiological hazards.

There should be no significant contamination of outer space with radioactive material.

Safety assessments shall be made available, and notifications made of nuclear powered

vehicle re-entries into the Earth's atmosphere.

E.     Declaration on International Cooperation in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space for the Benefit and in the Interest of All States, taking into Particular Account the Needs of Developing Countries.

Encouragement of international cooperation in space operations with an onus on space capable states to assist and encourage developing states.

Organizatii internationale implicate in studiul si realizarea reglementarilor legale si politicilor din domeniul spatial ( selectiv )

COPUOS United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space Comitetul privind Utilizarea în Scopuri Pasnice a Spatiului Extraterestru al ONU

The Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space was set up by the General Assembly in 1959 ( resolution 1472 (XIV)) to review the scope of international cooperation in peaceful uses of outer space, to devise programmes in this field to be undertaken under United Nations auspices, to encourage continued research and the dissemination of information on outer space matters, and to study legal problems arising from the exploration of outer space.

The Committee has two standing Subcommittees of the whole:

The Committee and its two Subcommittees meet annually to consider questions put before them by the General Assembly, reports submitted to them and issues raised by the Member States. The Committee and the Subcommittees, working on the basis of consensus, make recommendations to the General Assembly.

Unele dintre subiectele de interes ale COPOUS sunt :

reglementarea statutului spatiului extraterestru pentu uz civil prin

harmonize states’ practices and

improve the quality and timeliness of information exchange on satellites and other craft which are launched

identificarea riscurilor provenite din exploatarea spatiului si propunerea de masuri/legislatie pentru prevenire/combatere

utilizarea tehnologiei spatiale in rezolvarea unor probleme de interes civil ( eg. managementul dezasterelor )

diseminarea informatiei de interes in domeniul spatial

incurajarea actiunilor educative in domeniul de interes

România este reprezentata prin   Ministerul de Externe si Agentia Spatiala Romana.

European Space Agency ( ESA ) - Agentia Spatiala Europeana

The European Space Agency (ESA), established in 1974, is an intergovernmental organisation dedicated to the exploration of space, currently with 17 member states. Headquartered in Paris, ESA has a staff of close to 2,000 with an annual budget of about €2.9 billion in 2007.

ESA's main spaceport is the Guiana Space Centre in Kourou, a site made available by France. It is close to the equator hence commercially important orbits are easier to access. ESA became the market leader in commercial space launches in the 1990s. In recent years, ESA has also established itself as a major player in space exploration.

ESA science missions are based at ESTEC in Noordwijk, Netherlands, Earth Observation missions at ESRIN in Frascati, Italy, ESA Mission Control (ESOC) is in Darmstadt, Germany, and the European Astronaut Centre (EAC), that trains astronauts for future missions is situated in Cologne, Germany

ESA comprises the national space organisations and other entities of seventeen countries that participate to varying degrees in the mandatory (23% of total expenditures or €667 million in 2005) and optional space programs (72% of total expenditures or €2138 million in 2005):

Many countries are likely to join ESA in the coming years, especially the countries who were part of the EU enlargement in 2004 (on 12.6.2007 negotiations concerning full membership for the Czech Republic started). In addition, ESA entered into important partnership agreements with non-member countries: Hungary (5.11.2003), the Czech Republic (24.11.2003), Romania (17.2.2006) and Poland (27.4.2006) signed the agreement to become a European Cooperating State (ECS) which enables them to develop a five-year Plan for European Cooperating State (PECS), that is aimed at preparing the states for full membership. Their firms can bid for and receive contracts to work on programmes. The countries can participate in almost all programmes, except for the Basic Technology Research Programme. The membership fees are much lower than with full membership.

  • Estonia signed Cooperation Agreement with ESA on 26 June 2007 which is first step before signing ECS and full membership.
  • Slovenia showed an interest in joining, either as full member or European Cooperating State, and hosting of the Galileo Supervisory Authority
  • Since January 1, , Canada has had the special status of a Cooperating State within ESA. By virtue of this accord, the Canadian Space Agency takes part in ESA's deliberative bodies and decision-making and also in ESA's programmes and activities. Canadian firms can bid for and receive contracts to work on programmes. The accord has a provision ensuring a fair industrial return to Canada.
  • ESA has entered into a major joint venture with Russia
  • Since China started to invest more money into space activities, the Chinese Space Agency has sought international partnerships. ESA is, beside the Russian Space Agency, one of its most important partners. Recently the two space agencies cooperated in the development of the Double Star Mission.

The budget of ESA was announced as €2.977 billion for 2005 (a ten percent increase on 2004) and for 2006 is estimated at €2.904 billion. In 2005, the three largest contributors, together funding two thirds of ESA's budget, are France (29.3%), Germany (22.7%) and Italy (14.2%).

ESA nu este parte componenta a structurilor UE; doar unele state UE sunt membre ESA. Cele doua entitati colaboreaza pe baza unui acord cadru de cooperare semnat in anul 2003. Au fost stabilite ca domenii comune de interes: zborul cu echipaj uman in spatiul cosmic, utilizarea si dezvoltarea de vectori de transport spatiali, dezvoltarea de tehnologii de varf, programele de observare a Terrei, comunicatiile.

UE acorda o importanta deosebita utilizarii spatiului de catre statele membre, una din dovezi fiind prezenta unui articol care creaza bazele legale pentru realizarea unei politici europene comune.

EU Policies that could be supported by use of space assets:

• Development of Knowledge Society

• Economic growth and social development of the EU; ensure the competitiveness of

European industry (Lisbon strategy)

• Wider Europe Policy of the EU (Eastern and Southern Neighbourhood)

• Sustainable Development of the Earth

• Support for developing countries (digital divide, environment, security and management of natural resources)

• Common Foreign and Security Policy

Article III - 254 “Space” reglementeaza:

European Space Policy

European Space Programme

Relationship with ESA

Art. III - 254

1. To promote scientific and technical progress, industrial competitiveness and the implementation of its policies, the Union shall draw up a European space policy. To this end, it may promote joint initiatives, support research and technological development and coordinate the efforts needed for the exploration and exploitation of space

2. To contribute to attaining the objectives referred to in paragraph 1, European laws or framework laws shall establish the necessary measures, which may take the form of a European space programme.

3. The Union shall establish any appropriate relations with the European Space Agency.

European Space Programme – Possible content

A. Space-based applications at the service of the European Society

A.1. Communications

A.2. Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) Infrastructure Data management

A.3. Positioning Navigation and timing (Galileo)

A.4. Security

B. Strengthening Space foundations

B.1. Technology

In support of pre-defined applications (GMES, GALILEO, SATCOM, Security)

Technology transfer

B.2. Guaranteed and independent access to space

Infrastructure support and specific R&D for future launchers

C. Enhancing scientific knowledge

C.1. Space exploration

Microgravity (ISS, …)

Future missions

C.2. Space science

Basic research and access to research infrastructures

Archiving and distribution of data

D. Strengthening the implementation of the European Space Policy

D.1. International co-operation

D.2. Vocations and outreach

D.3. Legal environment

NATO RTO Space Science and Technology Advisory Group (SSTAG) from Research and Technology Agency ( RTA )- Grupul Consultativ pentru Stiinta si Tehnologie în domeniul Spatial din cadrul Agentiei pentru Cercetare si Tehnologie

Formed in 1998 by the merger of the Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development (AGARD) and the Defence Research Group (DRG), the RTO is the primary NATO organisation for defence science and technology. The RTO reports to both the Conference of National Armaments Directors (CNAD) and the Military Committee (MC); it has both a governing board and technical panels; and it integrates the research and technical missions of its predecessors.

The RTO promotes and conducts co-operative research and information exchange, develops and maintains a long-term NATO research and technology strategy, and provides advice to all elements of NATO on research and technology issues. In pursuit of this mission, the RTO operates at three levels – the Research and Technology Board, Technical Panels , and Technical Teams – and is supported in its efforts by an executive agency, the Research and Technology Agency.

The Research and Technology Board (RTB) constitutes the highest authority in RTO. It is the policy body tasked by the North Atlantic Council through the CNAD and MC to serve as the single integrating body within NATO for the direction and/or co-ordination of defence research and technology. Its membership comprises up to three leading personalities in defence research and technology from each NATO Nation . The members are chosen by the Nations and may be from government, academia or industry. Typically, Board members are senior science and technology executives at the deputy under-secretary, deputy assistant secretary or deputy administrator level.

Technology Panels and Group – The total spectrum of R&T activities is addressed by six Technical Panels covering a wide spectrum of scientific research activities , and a Group specialising in modelling and simulation : and a Committee dedicated to supporting the information management needs of the organisation:

Applied Vehicle Technology Panel (AVT)

Human Factors and Medicine Panel (HFM)

Information Systems Technology Panel (IST)

System Analysis and Studies Panel (SAS)

Systems Concepts and Integration Panel (SCI)

Sensors and Electronics Technology Panel (SET)

NATO Modelling and Simulation Group (NMSG)

Information Management Committee (IMC)

In cadrul RTA a fost realizat un Grup Consultativ pentru Stiinta si Tehnologie în domeniul Spatial (SSTAG);

Agentia Spatiala Romana reprezinta Romania in acdrul acestui organism.

Romania a fost si gazda primei reuniuni a specialistilor SSTAG in septembrie 2006.


The main objective of the European Centre for Space Law (ECSL) is to build up and spread, within Europe and elsewhere, an understanding of the legal framework relevant to space activities. ECSL does this by fostering the exchange of information among interested stakeholders and by helping to improve and promote the teaching of space law. Its aim is to provide updated information on Europe’s contribution to space activities beyond Europe, and therefore to enhance the European position in the field of space law practice, teaching and publications. Another objective of ECSL is to promote outside Europe, European space activities and to contribute to build a unique position for Europe in the field of space law practice, teaching and publications


The International Institute of Space Law (IISL) was founded by the International Astronautical Federation in 1960. The IISL replaced the Permanent Committee on Space Law which the IAF had created in 1958.

The IISL presently has individual and institutional elected members from over 40 countries who are distinguished for their contributions to space law development. While a component of the IAF, the IISL is authorized to function autonomously in accordance with its Statutes.
The purposes and objectives of the Institute include the cooperation with appropriate international organizations and national institutions in the field of space law, the carrying out of tasks for fostering the development of space law and studies of legal and social science aspects of the exploration and use of outer space and the holding of meetings, colloquia and competitions on juridical and social science aspects of space activities.

As the IAF is an officially recognized observer at sessions of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and its Scientific & Technical and Legal Subcommittee, members of the IISL are entitled to designated be IAF observers to those sessions.


OLIA provide executive leadership, directions and coordination to all comunications and relationships, both legislative and nonlegislative, between NASA and the United States Congress as well as state and local governaments.


ITU is the leading United Nations agency for information and communication technologies. As the global focal point for governments and the private sector, ITU's role in helping the world communicate spans 3 core sectors: radiocommunication, standardization and development. ITU also organizes TELECOM events and was the lead organizing agency of the World Summit on the Information Society.

Article 2 of the ITU Constitution states that the International Telecommunication Union is an intergovernmental organization in which Member States and Sector Members, having well-defined rights and obligations, and having due regard to the principle of universality and the desirability of universal participation, shall cooperate for the fulfilment of the purposes of the Union, as set out in its Constitution.

ITU is based in Geneva, Switzerland, and its membership includes 191 Member States and more than 700 Sector Members and Associates.


In 1951, McGill University established the Institute of Air & Space Law (IASL) to provide graduate legal education for students from around the world. In the ensuing half century, IASL has educated some 800 students from 120 countries. Today, our graduates hold some of the highest positions in international organizations, governmental air transport ministries, airlines, and law firms around the world.

The Mission Statement:

Educate the next generation of air and space lawyers to serve the needs of the air and space community worldwide.

Offer our students the best graduate education in air and space law available anywhere in the world.

Publish interdisciplinary research valuable to governmental and multinational institutions, the airline and aerospace industries, and the legal profession.

Serve the professional educational needs of the aviation and space law bar. Create a thriving intellectual environment and professional global network for our faculty, our students, our graduates, and experts in the field.

Organizatii internationale cu rol de cooperare in sectorul spatial

ARABSAT - Organizatia Araba pentru Comunicatii Spatiale

INTELSAT - Organizatia Internationala de Telecomunicatii prin Satelit

INTERSPUTNIK - Sistemul si Organizatia Internationala de Comunicatii Spatiale

INMARSAT - Organizatia Internationala pentru Sateliti Maritimi

EUMETSAT - Organizatia Europeana pentru Exploatarea Satelitilor Meteorologici

EUTELSAT - Organizatia Europeana de Telecomunicatii prin Satelit

Capabilitatile Romaniei in domeniul spatial. ROSA

Agentia Spatiala Româna (ASR) a fost înfiintata în 1991 si reorganizata prin Hotarare a Guvernului în 1995 ca institutie publica finantata integral extrabugetar în sistemul Ministerului Cercetarii si Tehnologiei (în prezent Ministerul Educatiei si Cercetarii); ASR este coordonatorul la nivel national al activitatilor din domeniul spatial.

Misiunea principala a Agentiei Spatiale Romane este promovarea si coordonarea dezvoltarii în domeniu si reprezentarea Guvernului în programele de cooperare internationala. Agentia este autorizata sa înfiinteze centre de cercetare si dezvoltare orientate în functie de obiectivele Programului Spatial National. Agentia desfasoara propriile proiecte de cercetare stiintifica si dezvoltare.

Atributele ROSA la nivel international:

Agentia Spatiala Româna reprezinta Guvernul României în cadrul urmatoarelor organisme internationale:

  • ONU-COPUOS - mandat Ministerul Afacerilor Externe (1994-p)
  • European Space Agency (ESA) – prin Legea 40/1993 si legea 1/2007. ( 1992 – p ). Statut de European Cooperating State.
  • Consultant for the EU Space Council / European Space Policy
  • INSPIRE - mandat Ministerul Educatiei si Cercetarii ( 2005 – p )
  • Comisia Europeana (CE) – Programul Cadru 7 de Cercetare – Dezvoltare – Comitetele de Program pentru Securitate, Transport (Aeronautica si Galileo)
  • Comisia Europeana (CE) – Programul Cadru 6 de Cercetare – Dezvoltare - Comitetele de Program pentru Spatiu ( 2001- 2006 )
  • CE – Autoritatea Supervizoare a GNSS (GSA), Consiliul Consultativ al GMES (GAC)
  • COSPAR – ICSU – Secretariat national ( 1994 – p )
  • GEO – reprezentant principal
  • Comitetul Stiintific „Stiinta pentru Pace si Securitate” al NATO ( 2004 – p )
  • Grupul Consultativ pentru Stiinta si Tehnologie Spatiala al RTO-NATO (SSTAG) ( 2005 – p )

Colaborarea cu alte agentiii spatiale: NASA (USA), CNES ( Agentia Spatiala Franceza ), ROSKOSMOS (Rusia) – negocieri, Ungaria, Bulgaria, Azerbaijan... – acorduri bilaterale, Italia (ASI) si Germania (DLR) – proiecte

Membra/reprezentanta nationala in organizatii internationale: COSPAR, IAF, IAA, EURISY, ACARE, EREA, ASD, EDA, etc., acorduri bilaterale cu organizatii de cercetare

Atributele ROSA la nivel national

  • activeaza în subordinea Ministerului Educatiei si Cercetarii (1995);
  • raporteaza Sub-comisiei Parlamentare pentru Spatiu (2007);
  • prezideaza Grupul Inter-ministerial pentru Cercetarea în Domeniul Securitatii (2004) si Grupul de experti INSPIRE;
  • Coopereaza cu institutii ale Statului Roman ( Ministerul Afacerilor Externe, Ministerul Apararii, Ministerul Internelor si Reformei Administrative, Ministerul Comunicatiilor si Tehnologiei Informatiilor, Ministerul Agriculturii si Dezvoltarii Rurale, Ministerul Mediului si Dezvoltarii Durabile, Servicii de Informatii )
  • Membra a Consiliului National pentru Situatii de Urgenta (2000);
  • Autoritatea Nationala pentru certificarea GRID a infrastructurilor informatice (2006);
  • Autoritate contractanta pentru programele nationale pentru spatiu, aeronautica si securitate (1995-2006);
  • Este autorizata sa înfiinteze centre de cercetare-dezvoltare orientate spre
  • obiective specifice ale programului national de CDT.

La nivel national, ROSA colaboreaza cu urmatoarele institutii stiintifice:

Institutul de Stiinte Spatiale

  • Institutul National de Cercetari Aerospatiale 'Elie Carafoli'
  • Institutul Astronomic
  • Institutul de Geodinamica
  • Laboratorul de Cercetari Gravitationale
  • Centrul National pentru Telecomunicatii si Informatii Spatiale, Universitatea Politehnica Bucuresti
  • Institutul de Fiziologie Normala si Patologica
  • Facultatea de Inginerie Aerospatiala, Universitatea Politehnica Bucuresti
  • Institutul National de Meteorologie si Hidrologie
  • Centrul Român pentru Utilizarea Teledetectiei în agricultura
  • Institutul de Optoelectronica - Departamentul de Teledetectie
  • Institutul de Fluide Complexe
  • Laboratorul de Fluide Magnetice
  • Laboratorul de Teledetectie
  • Institutul National pentru Cercetarea si Dezvoltarea Microtehnologiilor
  • Institutul National de Biotehnologii - Centrul UNESCO pentru Biodinamica

Proiecte principale in curs de dezvoltare:

GOLIAT misiune nanosatelitara si dezvoltari în domeniul zborului în formatie

including networked environment ( mediul in retea ? )+ PLURIBUS and FORMUAV (2007)

RO-SAR, SEOKIMS–Procesare avansata a informatiei: data mining, data fusion, automated algorithms, KM technology

GEOINT – Centru pentru Informatii Geospatiale ( Intelligence )

LUCIUS Realizarea unei retele nationale si a unui sistem informational unificat pentru managementul informatiilor despre acoperirea si utilizarea terenului in sprijinul dezvoltarii aplicatiilor GMES ( program CALIST ) + EU FP7 Geoland2

INSPAM - Infrastructuri de date spatiale pentru aplicatii de protectia mediului ( Program CNMP – INFOSOC)

SPIM - Centru pentru monitorizarea dezastrelor prin tehnologie spatiala + EU FP7 RISK 2

MARKS, ACCCIN – Sistem pentru managementul informatiilor pentru activitati legate de mediul spatial

BANG – aplicatii GNSS / Galileo

LPIS – RO – Controlul calitatii si managementul informatiilor pentru Sistemul de Informatii privind Lotizarea terenurilor

LOCOMAX - Proiectul isi propune sa cerceteze si sa realizeze aplicatii orientate spre imbunatatirea sistemelor portabile de navigatie prin satelit, securitate, transmiterea informatiilor din toate sursele impreuna cu referinta geografica.

START - colectarea, sortarea, prezentarea si diseminarea informatiilor disponibile legate de potentialul tarilor ACC ( Tarile Candidate ) sau NMS ( Noile State Membre ) in domeniul aeronauticii si spatiului reprezinta scopul principal al proiectului de fata.

ADAM – utilizarea datelor spatiale in cadrul realizarii de harti si modele utile in agronomie.

SPACE 21–Politica spatiala + EU FP6 AirTn, DonQ+EU FP7 SEREN

Romanian Space Programme Goals (2001-2006)

Contribute to the national and global scientific development by participation to international space missions and development ofnew projects

Improve the national and regional security by means of peaceful space applications

Contribute to the infrastructure of the information society

Develop new space technologies, space spin-offs and commercial space applications

Human resources building to meet the space science and technology development for the 21st Century

  • Give a model of capacity building and support the national effort to continental and international integration

Romanian Security Research Programme Establishment

  • Inter-ministerial Group for Security Research GIMS (2004) [Ministry of Education and Research, Ministry of Defense, Ministry of Interior, Ministry of Economy and Commerce, Romanian Intelligence Services, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Romanian Space Agency ]
  • National R&D Programme SECURITY (2004-2006) [ Included by Govt. Decision 2080/ Nov. 2004 in the National Research, Development and Innovation Plan ]
  • Goals:

Research, technology and systems for security and defence

Development of national capacity building and support for cooperation between research, industry and users

Support for the integration in EU, NATO, WEO, other programs andorganizations relevant for security and defence

Prepare the national actors for the participation in the FP7 security research areas

Increasing awareness and the new security culture among citizensand decision makers

Proiecte viitoare ale ROSA

Project title


ESA Mission

Principal Investigator

Energy Conversion and Transfer in the Solar Wind – Magnetosphere – Ionosphere System


Institute for Space Sciences

Scientific exploitation of the Planck-LFI data

Planck- LFI_SED


Institute for Space Sciences

Growth and survival of coloured fungi in space



Institute for Space Sciences, Institute of Biology

Kinetic and Experimental investigation of the Earth's and Venus's plasma layers



Institute for Space Sciences

Romanian GRID middleware repository for Space Science Applications



Institute for Space Sciences

Romanian participation to the CoRoT mission



Astronomical Institute of Romanian Academy

Improving relative positions of reference stars around ICRF radio-sources.



Astronomical Institute of Romanian Academy

Romanian contributions to the Sun-Heliosphere Studies



Astronomical Institute of Romanian Academy

Romanian Centered Knowledge Earth Observation


Living Planet

ROSA RC, Univ. Politehnica Bucharest, ASRC

On Demand Grid Services for Higher Education and Training in Earth Observation


Earth Observation

Western Univ. Timisoara, ROSA-RC, CSA-INCAS,

LEOWorks-Image processing/GIS software for educational purposes




Next . . .


On-board technology

Romanian Space Policy

Defined presently by:

The Research and Technology Development Strategy –approved by the Government in 2007

Agreement with ESA and European Cooperating State Charter (Law no. 1/2007)

European Space Policy and EU Treaty establishing the EU DraptSpaeProgramme

Participation to the RTD Framework Programmes6 and 7 of the EU –AEROSPACE, SPACE and SECURITY

General legal instruments and directions of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UN-COPUOS)

  • User and industry directed applications and services: agriculture, environment, disaster management, meteorology, security and defence, satcom, GNSS, emerging space industry

Romania is continuing to support its space development at the national level and together with the international space community

As an ESA co-operating State and future Member, and an European Union Member State, Romania is participating to the common European space research and development activities

Romania is also developing it's own National Space Programme:

Keeping the substance objectives lead by the National RTD Plan

Further developing its national space infrastructure and human resources to reach the European average level,

Investment in its own areas of core competencies.

  • In the field of research and technology, Space and Security are an unique programmewhich included also Aeronautics

International cooperation

  • Participation to European Space Agency space missions and projects with a view to full ESA membership 2010;
  • Participating to the ESA European technology Master Plan
  • Keeping in harmony the contribution to FP7 of the EU
  • Developing further involvement within European and NATO Agencies(EDA, EUSC, RTO)
  • Wide bi-lateral cooperation (NASA, CNES, DLR, third countries)
  • Further develop global initiatives (SPIDER, NEO . . )

Organizational frame

Developing institutional stability in balancing the coordination/ representation / RTD / operational functions of ROSA and the Romanian space–related activities

  • ROSA –RC and Space specific Infrastructure development.

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